WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultivated grasses poaceae

  1. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... family, Poaceae (Gramineae). Kinds of seed: Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, fescues... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED...

  2. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  3. A 250 plastome phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae): topological support under different data partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sean V.; Wysocki, William P.; Clark, Lynn G.

    2018-01-01

    The systematics of grasses has advanced through applications of plastome phylogenomics, although studies have been largely limited to subfamilies or other subgroups of Poaceae. Here we present a plastome phylogenomic analysis of 250 complete plastomes (179 genera) sampled from 44 of the 52 tribes of Poaceae. Plastome sequences were determined from high throughput sequencing libraries and the assemblies represent over 28.7 Mbases of sequence data. Phylogenetic signal was characterized in 14 partitions, including (1) complete plastomes; (2) protein coding regions; (3) noncoding regions; and (4) three loci commonly used in single and multi-gene studies of grasses. Each of the four main partitions was further refined, alternatively including or excluding positively selected codons and also the gaps introduced by the alignment. All 76 protein coding plastome loci were found to be predominantly under purifying selection, but specific codons were found to be under positive selection in 65 loci. The loci that have been widely used in multi-gene phylogenetic studies had among the highest proportions of positively selected codons, suggesting caution in the interpretation of these earlier results. Plastome phylogenomic analyses confirmed the backbone topology for Poaceae with maximum bootstrap support (BP). Among the 14 analyses, 82 clades out of 309 resolved were maximally supported in all trees. Analyses of newly sequenced plastomes were in agreement with current classifications. Five of seven partitions in which alignment gaps were removed retrieved Panicoideae as sister to the remaining PACMAD subfamilies. Alternative topologies were recovered in trees from partitions that included alignment gaps. This suggests that ambiguities in aligning these uncertain regions might introduce a false signal. Resolution of these and other critical branch points in the phylogeny of Poaceae will help to better understand the selective forces that drove the radiation of the BOP and PACMAD

  4. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  5. Additions to the grasses (Poaceae of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chorghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of grasses viz., Dimeria orissae, Iseilema holei and Spodiopogon rhizophorus are being reported for the first time as new distributional records to Telangana from the Kawal Tiger Reserve. Detailed description and illustrations are provided here.

  6. Diversification of C(4) grasses (Poaceae) does not coincide with their ecological dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony; Bond, William J

    2014-02-01

    The radiation of a lineage and its rise to ecological dominance are distinct phenomena and driven by different processes. For example, paleoecological data has been used to show that the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation did not coincide with their rise to dominance. Using a phylogenetic approach, we here explored the evolution of C4 grasses and evaluated whether the diversification of this group and its rise to ecological dominance in the late Miocene were decoupled. We assembled a matrix including 675 grass species of the PACMAD clade and 2784 characters (ITS and ndhF) to run a molecular dating analysis using three fossils as reference calibrations. We coded species as C3 vs. C4 and reconstructed ancestral states under maximum likelihood. We used the program BiSSE to test whether rates of diversification are correlated with photosynthetic pathway and whether the radiation of C4 lineages preceded or coincided with their rise to ecological dominance from ∼10 Ma. C4 grass lineages first originated around 35 Ma at the time of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Accelerated diversification of C4 lineages did not coincide with their rise to ecological dominance. C4-dominated grasslands have expanded only since the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The initial diversification of their biotic elements can be tracked back as far as the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We suggest that shifts in taxonomic diversification and ecological dominance were stimulated by different factors, as in the case of the early angiosperms in the Cretaceous.

  7. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9.B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  8. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9. B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for a Bioenergy Grass, Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Fei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the biomass C4 grass, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and proved to be suitable markers for population genetic studies and germplasm management of this species. Methods and Results: Twenty-three polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from an enriched genomic library of M. sacchariflorus. The polymorphism was assessed in 50 individuals from two populations in China. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to 18, with a mean of 8.13. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 and from 0.198 to 0.898, respectively. Conclusions: These new markers will be useful for further investigation of genetic diversity and population genetic structure as well as molecular breeding of Miscanthus species.

  10. Seed vs. microsite limitation for seedling emergence in the perennial grass Stipa tenacissima L. (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fayos, Patricio; Gasque, María

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the relative influence of seed and microsite availability in the seedling emergence of Stipa tenacissima, a perennial grass inhabiting semi-arid Mediterranean steppes. A correlative approximation was used to establish 21 (10 × 10 m) plots along a climatic gradient in the Northern limit of the geographic distribution in East Spain. Seed production, seed removal by ants, ant nest density, and the relative cover of S. tenacissima, other perennial plants and bare ground, as explanatory variables, were measured in each plot. Multiple linear regression with forward stepwise selection procedure was used to analyze the relationships between seedling emergence and the explanatory variables. There was large variation between and within plots of all the studied variables, but cover of perennial plants was the only explanatory variable included in the regression model when all the plots were used for the analysis. We suggest that this result was the consequence that high annual precipitation on the Northernmost plots had on the cover of perennial plants and it is consistent with the experimental evidence that shadowing by perennial plants negatively affects germination and performance of the S. tenacissima seedlings. Once the Northernmost plots were removed from the model of regression then seed production, seed removal by ants and ant nest density significantly affected seedling emergence. We concluded that microsite quality, defined in relation to the shadowing capacity of perennial species, was more influential than seed and microsite availability at the Northern limit of the geographic distribution of S. tenacissima.

  11. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  12. Potential of copper-tolerant grasses to implement phytostabilisation strategies on polluted soils in South D. R. Congo : Poaceae candidates for phytostabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sylvain; Le Stradic, Soizig; Collignon, Julien; Séleck, Maxime; Malaisse, François; Ngoy Shutcha, Mylor; Faucon, Michel-Pierre; Mahy, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    Phytostabilisation (i.e. using plants to immobilise contaminants) represents a well-known technology to hamper heavy metal spread across landscapes. Southeastern D.R. Congo, Microchloa altera, a tolerant grass from the copper hills, was recently identified as a candidate species to stabilise copper in the soil. More than 50 grasses compose this flora, which may be studied to implement phytostabilisation strategies. However, little is known about their phenology, tolerance, reproductive strategy or demography. The present study aims to characterize the Poaceae that may be used in phytostabilisation purposes based on the following criteria: their ecological distribution, seed production at two times, abundance, soil coverage and the germination percentage of their seeds. We selected seven perennial Poaceae that occur on the copper hills. Their ecological distributions (i.e. species response curves) have been modelled along copper or cobalt gradients with generalised additive models using logic link based on 172 presence-absence samples on three sites. For other variables, a total of 69 quadrats (1 m(2)) were randomly placed across three sites and habitats. For each species, we compared the number of inflorescence-bearing stems (IBS) by plot, the percentage of cover, the number of seeds by IBS and the estimated number of seeds by plot between sites and habitat. Three species (Andropogon schirensis, Eragrostis racemosa and Loudetia simplex) were very interesting for phytostabilisation programs. They produced a large quantity of seeds and had the highest percentage of cover. However, A. schirensis and L. simplex presented significant variations in the number of seeds and the percentage of cover according to site.

  13. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne Stephen L.; Nagy Istvan; Pfeifer Matthisas; Armstead Ian; Swain Suresh; Studer Bruno; Mayer Klaus; Campbell Jacqueline D.; Czaban Adrian; Hentrup Stephan; Paniz Frank; Bendixen Christian; Hedegaard Jakob; Caccamo Mario; Asp Torben

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat barley oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28 455 gene models and we utilized macro co linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley and synteny within the grass family to ...

  14. Influence of storage and pre-sowing treatment of southern sweet-grass seeds on their germination and initial growth of seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./ Roem. et Schult., Poaceae is a perennial tuft-grass occurring in North-Eastern part of Europe. Its leaves are collected from wild growing plants as an aromatic raw material used in alcohol industry. Due to overharvest, attempts to introduce the plant into cultivation have been undertaken.

  15. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  16. EFFECTS OF CULTIVATED BRACHIARIA GRASSES ON SOIL AGGREGATION AND STABILITY IN THE SEMI-ARID TROPICS OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias M. Gichangi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil aggregation is a key short term indicators of soil quality attributed to changes in land management. A study was conducted to investigate changes in the size distribution and stability of soil aggregates in a structurally unstable sandy loam soil following cultivation of Brachiaria grass in semi-arid region of Kenya. Brachiaria grass cultivars included Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. brizantha cvs Marandu, MG4, Piata and Xaraes, B. humidicola cv. Llanero and B. hybrid cv. Mulato II which were compared with two locally cultivated forage grasses (Chloris gayana cv. KAT R3 and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Kakamega 1 and a bare plot (negative check. The grass treatments were evaluated with fertilisers application (40 kg P applied at sowing and 50 kg N ha−1 in each wet season and with no fertiliser applications. Aggregate size fractions were isolated using the wet sieving method. Aggregation based on the proportion of small macro-aggregates (250–2000 μm increased in soils cultivated with all grass types compared to the control and was greatest in soils under B. hybrid cv. Mulato II. Aggregate stability in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD differed among the grasses and was highest in soils under cv. Mulato II and cv. Marandu with MWD of 4.49 and 4.31 mm, respectively. Changes in small macro-aggregates fraction was positively correlated with particulate organic matter (POM (r=0.9104, P= 0.001, microbial biomass carbon (MBC (r=0.5474, P= 0.01, soil organic carbon (SOC (r=0.3654, P= 0.05 and root biomass (r=0.4977, P= 0.01. This indicated that the binding agents were important in the aggregation of soils cultivated with Brachiaria grasses.

  17. Production and chemical composition of grasses and legumes cultivated in pure form, mixed or in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.

  18. Nitrate leaching in maize after cultivation of differently managed grass-clover leys on coarse sand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    When grass-clover leys have been ploughed nitrate leaching may increase. However, management of leys before or after ploughing may affect the leaching risk. We examined the effect of cultivating a six year ley, which the last two years had been treated differently (grazing only; spring cut follow...

  19. The effect of exotic grass Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D.Webster (Poaceae in the reduction of species richness and change of floristic composition of natural regeneration in the Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO V. FERREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The introduction of exotic species is considered as one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. The National Forest of Carajás is one of the largest mineral provinces in the world. Mining activities caused changes of the natural habitats, leaving degraded areas after the mineral exploitation. One of the mining areas within FLONA Carajás was used for the extraction of gold. In the process of exploitation, a huge depression was formed by the removal of soil which was mounded up nearby. To prevent soil erosion of these mounds, an exotic grass, Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D.Webster (Poaceae was planted. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of this non-native grass on species richness and species composition of the natural regeneration in the degraded areas. Four areas were compared, two with and two without presence of U. decumbens. In each area, twenty four 1m²/plots were established. Species richness of the regeneration areas and population sizes were significantly lower in the plots where the exotic grass was present. Our study shows that U. decumbens had a negative effect on species richness and population density, and its presence changed the species composition and distribution of life forms of the natural regeneration.

  20. Chemotaxonomy as a tool for interpreting the cryptic diversity of Poaceae pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julier, A.C.M.; Jardine, P.E.; Coe, A.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Lomax, B.H.; Fraser, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    The uniform morphology of different species of Poaceae (grass) pollen means that identification to below family level using light microscopy is extremely challenging. Poor taxonomic resolution reduces recoverable information from the grass pollen record, for example, species diversity and

  1. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAIMI NAPIS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryops is were collected from 17 locations of rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states and Indonesia (six provinces and were grown in pots each containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were arranged using completely randomized design (CRD with five replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA was performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotype s of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emer gence date, heading time, and growth duration were also evaluated. The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah, Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier th an other ecotypes. Six groups were classi fied based on the cluster analysis of Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component indicated that group six was found to be highly variable compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed to be highly variable. Results demonstr ated that morphological variation among ecotypes of barnyard grass showing differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.

  3. Agronomic performance of tifton 85 (cynodon spp) grass cultivated in constructed wetlands used in milk processing wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Odilon Gomes Pereira; Sérgio Silva Abrahão; Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2008-01-01

    The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp) grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs) and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs) of milk processing wastewater (ARL), in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length) filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in...

  4. Effects of livestock exclusion on density, survival and biomass of the perennial sagebrush grass Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae) from a temperate fluvial wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Andrea L.; Nanni, Analía S.; Krug, Pamela; Astrada, Elizabeth; Vicari, Ricardo; Quintana, Rubén D.

    2018-01-01

    In Argentina, the intensification of soybean production has displaced a substantial proportion of cattle ranching to fluvial wetlands such as those in the Delta of the Paraná River. Cattle grazing affects structure and dynamics of native forage plants but there is little information on this impact in populations from fluvial wetlands. This study addresses the effect of cattle ranching on density, survival, mean life-span and aerial biomass of Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae), an important forage species in the region. The study was carried out monthly for one year in permanents plots subject to continuous grazing and plots excluded from grazing in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River. In plots excluded from grazing, tillers showed significantly higher population density and survival, and a two-fold increase in mean life-span, while continuous grazing decreased survival of cohorts. The largest contribution to tiller density in ungrazed and grazed populations was made by spring and summer cohorts, respectively. Total and green biomass were significantly higher in the ungrazed population, with highest differences in late spring-early summer. Cattle grazing affected the relationship between tiller density and green biomass suggesting that cattle prefer sprouts because they are more palatable and nutritious than older tissue.

  5. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  6. Application of coal fly ash, cow dung and grass cuttings mix in cultivation of few vegetables of Solanaceae family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, K.; Kalpana, S. [Government College, Kota (India). PG Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-15

    Addition of coal fly ash (CFA), a by-product of Thermal Power Plants, with soil alters its physical and chemical properties. Few pot and field experiments were conducted to study the impact of bio modified CFA in cultivation of selected varieties of tomato and brinjal/egg plant fruit and physicochemical studies have been carried out for different composts obtained by successive replacement of CFA for soil/earth in constituents of original or reference compost. Cow dung and grass cuttings were used as organic manure. CFA obtained from Kota Super Thermal Power Plant was used. Increase in rate of growth and improvement in quality of product was observed with the increase in percentage of CFA.

  7. Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defalco, Lesley A.; Bryla, David R.; Smith-Longozo, Vickie; Nowak, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abundance of invasive plants is often attributed to their ability ot outcompete native species. We compared resource acquisition and allocation of the invasive annual grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens with that of two native Mojave Desert annuals, Vulpia octoflora and Descurainia pinnata, in a glasshouse experiment. Each species was grown in monoculture at two densities and two levels of N availability to compare how these annuals capture resources and to understand their relative sensitivities to environmental change. During >4 mo of growth, Bromus used water more rapidly and had greater biomass and N content than the natives, partly because of its greater root-surface area and its exploitation of deep soils. Bromus also had greater N uptake, net assimilation and transpiration rates, and canopy area than Vulpia. Resource use by Bromuswas less sensitive to changes in N availability or density than were the natives. The two native species in this study produced numerous small seeds that tended to remain dormant, thus ensuring escape of offspring from unfavorable germination conditions; Bromus produced fewer but larger seeds that readily germinated. Collectively, these traits give Bromus the potential to rapidly establish in diverse habitats of the Mojave Desert, thereby gaining an advantage over coexisting native species.

  8. Agronomic performance of tifton 85 (cynodon spp grass cultivated in constructed wetlands used in milk processing wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs of milk processing wastewater (ARL, in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in average flow of 60 L.day-1, hydraulic time residence of 4.8 days and TCOs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1.day-1 of DBO. The tifton 85 grass adapted well to SACs, presenting good rooting, high yield and capacity of nutrients (N, P and K and sodium removal of the ARL, whose values were, respectively, between 216 - 544, 24 - 61, 115 - 204 and 4.3 – 10.9 kg.ha-1.

  9. Biomass yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass under different harvest and fertilizer regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Karki, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a suitable energy crop for cultivation in northern peatlands. However, the atmospheric impact of RCG cultivation as influenced by harvest frequency and fertilization is not clear. Here, we compared the biomass yield and greenhouse gas (GHG...... systems. The TC systems could not improve the GHG balance during cultivation (271, 663 and 210 g CO2e-C m−2 emissions from the OC, TC-F and TC-U systems, respectively), but in a broader GHG life cycle perspective, the increased biomass yield by TC-F could replace more fossil fuel and offset at least some...

  10. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWLs), i.e. 0, −10 and −20 cm below the soil surface in a controlled semi-field facility. Emissions of CO2 (ecosystem respiration, ER), CH4 and N2O from mesocosms with RCG....... However, this difference was due to decreased soil respiration at the rising GWL as the plant-derived CO2 flux was similar at all three GWLs. For methane, 70–95% of the total emission was due to presence of RCG, with the highest contribution at −20 cm GWL. In contrast, cultivation of RCG decreased N2O...... and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of 1 year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively...

  11. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Espenberg

    Full Text Available This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions, and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67-39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01-1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20-60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40-60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20-60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe.

  12. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67-39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01-1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20-60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40-60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20-60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, T.P.

    2013-10-01

    Cultivated peatlands are significant sources of CO{sub 2} as the drainage and subsequent agricultural practices such as tillage and fertilization enhances the decomposition of soil organic carbon. However, use of the peatlands for perennial energy crop production could help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions as annual ploughing is avoided in perennial cropping systems and fertilizer requirements is also lower compared to annual arable crops. However, crop managements such as fertilization and harvesting of those energy crops are also important in respect to total GHG balance. Moreover, economical viability of energy crop production in peatland need to be considered which requires studies on best management practices to produce high biomass and energy per hectare of land with as little input of resources as possible. In the first study, annual net ecosystem balance of CO{sub 2} from a riparian fen peatland used for annual arable crop and perennial energy crop cultivation was compared. Fluxes of CO{sub 2} were measured with closed chambered methods which were later partitioned into light depended gross photosynthesis (GP) and light independent ecosystem respiration (R{sub E}). The annual flux of CO{sub 2} was estimated by modelling GP and R{sub E} separately and extrapolating the obtained parameters in relation to environmental and biomass measurements. Model performances of commonly used GP and R{sub E} models were enhanced by introducing ratio vegetation index (RVI) as proxy for active leaf area index. Both GP and R{sub E} showed strong seasonal pattern as expected. An expected higher annual GP was observed in the RCG cultivation system which was favored by a longer growth period, but R{sub E} was also higher which was mainly contributed by higher plant respiration. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} was close to zero for both cropping systems and thus no apparent advantage of the energy cropping system was observed during crop cultivation. Another

  14. A consensus map in cultivated hexaploid oat reveals conserved grass synteny with substantial sub-genome rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa, 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family with a very large genome (~13 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs: seven from each of two similar ancestral diploids (A and D) and seven from a more diverged ancestral diploid (C). Physical rearrangements among ancestral oat...

  15. Measurement and modelling of CO2 flux from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass and spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops has been suggested as a promising option for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from arable organic soils (Histosols). Here, we report the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes of CO2 as measured with a dynamic closed chamber method at a drained fen...... peatland grown with reed canary grass (RCG) and spring barley (SB) in a plot experiment (n = 3 for each cropping system). The CO2flux was partitioned into gross photosynthesis (GP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). For the data analysis, simple yet useful GP and RE models were developed which introduce plot......-scale ratio vegetation index as an active vegetation proxy. The GP model captures the effect of temperature and vegetation status, and the RE model estimates the proportion of foliar biomass dependent respiration (Rfb) in the total RE. Annual RE was 1887 ± 7 (mean ± standard error, n = 3) and 1288 ± 19 g CO2...

  16. Poaceae vs. Abiotic Stress: Focus on Drought and Salt Stress, Recent Insights and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Landi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum, rice (Oryza sativa, maize (Zea mays, and barley (Hordeum vulgare. These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance. During the green revolution (1940–1960, cereal breeding was very successful in developing high-yield crops varieties; however, these cultivars were maximized for highest yield under optimal conditions, and did not present suitable traits for tolerance under unfavorable conditions. The improvement of crop abiotic stress tolerance requires a deep knowledge of the phenomena underlying tolerance, to devise novel approaches and decipher the key components of agricultural production systems. Approaches to improve food production combining both enhanced water use efficiency (WUE and acceptable yields are critical to create a sustainable agriculture in the future. This paper analyzes the latest results on abiotic stress tolerance in Poaceae. In particular, the focus will be directed toward various aspects of water deprivation and salinity response efficiency in Poaceae. Aspects related to cell wall metabolism will be covered, given the importance of the plant cell wall in sensing environmental constraints and in mediating a response; the role of silicon (Si, an important element for monocots' normal growth and development, will also be discussed, since it activates a broad-spectrum response to different exogenous stresses. Perspectives valorizing studies on landraces conclude the survey, as they help identify key traits for breeding purposes.

  17. Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *For correspondence. E-mail: mspagliarini@uem.br. Agriculture (CIAT, Cali, Colombia), in 1984–1985. ..... Griseb. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Genet. Res. Crop. Evol. 53, 7–. 10. Stebbins G. L. 1985 Polyploidy, hybridization and the invasion of new habitats. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 72, 824–832. Utsunomiya K. S. ...

  18. Climatic risk zoning for corn and palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv: Marandu cultivated in integrated crop-livestock systems in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Menezes Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic risk zoning allows the identification of areas of low risk of reduced crop productivity due to climatic events. In Brazil, losses to agriculture due to climate are mainly caused by drought. The objective of this research was to determine areas of low climatic risk for corn and palisade grass cultivated in integrated crop-livestock systems in Sao Paulo state. Corn varieties characterized by a 120-day growing cycle and soil with three different water holding capacities (sandy, medium and clayey soils were considered. A daily water balance model was used to simulate planting dates between September and December. The water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI was calculated for critical phenological phases of both cultures (germination, emergence and tillering of palisade grass and flowering and grain filling of corn. The WRSI values, calculated for a minimum frequency of 80%, were located spatially using the SPRING v. 5.1 geographic information system and the most favorable periods for sowing in different areas were determined. The results showed that there are areas of low climatic risk for cultivation of corn and palisade grass in integrated crop-livestock production systems in Sao Paulo state. Although climatic risk in these areas also depends on soil type, the most favorable period for planting is between October and November.

  19. Phaeosphaeria deschampsii (Ascomycota): A new parasite species of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae) described to Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzke, Jair; Pereira, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the description of Phaeosphaeria deschampsii, which was found in plant communities from Half Moon Island, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica, in February 2014. Many patches of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae), the only indigenous Poaceae specie in Antarctic, were found dead, parasitized by a fungi pathogen. Based on the shape of its perithecia, with oblique neck, erumpent in the grass tissues, ascospore form and septation, the specie was identified as new to science.

  20. Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V; Strömberg, C A E; Leaché, A D; Samant, B; Patnaik, R; Tang, L; Mohabey, D M; Ge, S; Sahni, A

    2011-09-20

    Rice and its relatives are a focal point in agricultural and evolutionary science, but a paucity of fossils has obscured their deep-time history. Previously described cuticles with silica bodies (phytoliths) from the Late Cretaceous period (67-65 Ma) of India indicate that, by the latest Cretaceous, the grass family (Poaceae) consisted of members of the modern subclades PACMAD (Panicoideae-Aristidoideae-Chloridoideae-Micrairoideae-Arundinoideae-Danthonioideae) and BEP (Bambusoideae-Ehrhartoideae-Pooideae), including a taxon with proposed affinities to Ehrhartoideae. Here we describe additional fossils and show that, based on phylogenetic analyses that combine molecular genetic data and epidermal and phytolith features across Poaceae, these can be assigned to the rice tribe, Oryzeae, of grass subfamily Ehrhartoideae. The new Oryzeae fossils suggest substantial diversification within Ehrhartoideae by the Late Cretaceous, pushing back the time of origin of Poaceae as a whole. These results, therefore, necessitate a re-evaluation of current models for grass evolution and palaeobiogeography.

  1. Group 13 allergens as environmental and immunological markers for grass pollen allergy: studies by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Monika; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2005-04-01

    Polygalacturonases were recently identified as important grass pollen allergens and designated group 13 allergens. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of group 13 grass pollen allergens in different grass species, their release and ultrastructural location in dry and hydrated grass pollen. Nitrocellulose-blotted allergen extracts from 12 wild and cultivated grass genera were probed with a rabbit antiserum raised against purified recombinant timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 13. The release kinetics of Phl p 13 from timothy grass pollen hydrated for 0.5 min to 3 h were analyzed by immunoblotting. Phl p 13 was localized in dry and hydrated grass pollen grains by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Group 13 allergens were detected in all 12 wild and cultivated grass genera representing the major subfamilies of the Poaceae. Ultrastructurally, the allergen was located in the wall and in the cytoplasm of timothy grass pollen grains. In the cytoplasm, Phl p 13 was associated with polysaccharide particles and as yet undescribed stacks of microtubule-like structures. After hydration in rain water, pollen grains expel cytoplasmic particles of respirable size containing Phl p 13, which becomes detectable in aqueous supernatants already after 0.5 min. Group 13 allergens represent one set of marker allergens which specifically occur in pollen of the major grass subfamilies and are rapidly released in association with respirable particles after pollen hydration. They may be considered as environmental markers for grass pollen exposure and group 13-specific IgE antibodies as immunological markers for genuine grass pollen sensitization. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Implications of the plastid genome sequence of typha (typhaceae, poales) for understanding genome evolution in poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisinger, Mary M; Chumley, Timothy W; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2010-02-01

    Plastid genomes of the grasses (Poaceae) are unusual in their organization and rates of sequence evolution. There has been a recent surge in the availability of grass plastid genome sequences, but a comprehensive comparative analysis of genome evolution has not been performed that includes any related families in the Poales. We report on the plastid genome of Typha latifolia, the first non-grass Poales sequenced to date, and we present comparisons of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. Our results confirm that grass plastid genomes exhibit acceleration in both genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions. Poaceae have multiple structural rearrangements, including three inversions, three genes losses (accD, ycf1, ycf2), intron losses in two genes (clpP, rpoC1), and expansion of the inverted repeat (IR) into both large and small single-copy regions. These rearrangements are restricted to the Poaceae, and IR expansion into the small single-copy region correlates with the phylogeny of the family. Comparisons of 73 protein-coding genes for 47 angiosperms including nine Poaceae genera confirm that the branch leading to Poaceae has significantly accelerated rates of change relative to other monocots and angiosperms. Furthermore, rates of sequence evolution within grasses are lower, indicating a deceleration during diversification of the family. Overall there is a strong correlation between accelerated rates of genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions in Poaceae, a phenomenon that has been noted recently throughout angiosperms. The cause of the correlation is unknown, but faulty DNA repair has been suggested in other systems including bacterial and animal mitochondrial genomes.

  3. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  4. Cross-species amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR loci in 23 species within the Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Holm, Preben Bach; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR markers was studied in 23 grass species representing seven tribes from three subfamilies of Poaceae. Twelve of the SSR markers are published for the first time. Between 2% and 96% of the SSR markers could be amplified within a given species. A subset of eight...

  5. Number of Microorganisms in the Soil Cultivated with Legume-Grass Mixtures Supplied with Phytohormones and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek SOSNOWSKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study concerned the number of microorganisms colonizing the humus layer and under plough soil from the cultivation of perennial ryegrass mixtures with red clover, which were fed by biostimulant based on the phytohormones  and different doses of nitrogen. Nitrogen was applied at four levels-control (no nitrogen, 50, 100 and 150 kg N∙ha-1, biostimulant in two combinations - with and without preparation. Soil material to assess the size of individual groups of microorganisms was collected from each experimental plot in autumn 2010 from the humus (0-20 cm and under plough layers (20-40 cm. The analysis of soil samples for a total number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Microbiology IUNG-PIB in Pulawy. Results of studies have shown that more colonies of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were colonized the humus horizon. Biostimulant application in this cultivation led to a decrease of the total number of colonies of the all soil microorganisms groups but improved the ratio of bacteria to fungi. Increasing doses of mineral nitrogen by the limiting of the bacteria number and intensive development of soil fungi, helped to narrow the B/F ratio.

  6. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  7. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The

  9. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  10. Choices of action and its influence on farmers' attitudes regarding willow and reed canary grass cultivation; Betydelsen av olika handlingsalternativ foer oekat intresse hos lantbrukare att odla salix och roerflen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Aasa; Paulrud, Susanne; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-02-15

    The contribution of energy crops from the agricultural sector is an example of a resource that has a potential to increase substantially in the near future. However, one problem is the lack of interest in cultivating energy crops within the agricultural Several studies have shown that there are a number of reasons for farmers not becoming involved in energy crops. Besides biological aspects, market potential and profitability the farmers are also affected by the available resources on the farm, the effect of the crops on the surroundings, work load, liquidity and the perceived risks. The overall aim with the present study is to increase the knowledge about how to change farmers' attitudes regarding energy crop cultivation, i.e. making them more interested. This study also shows that there is a large fraction of farmers that generally believe they have no or little knowledge of energy crops, such as willow, reed canary grass and hemp. The fraction of farmers considering there is a larger probability of future cultivation of these crops with increased knowledge is also quite large. Energy crop cultivation does not suit everybody. Generally, growing willow and reed canary grass is an alternative for farmers having another business besides agricultural business. Characteristics for these farms are working hours <1500 hours and that the machines are partly owned

  11. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Stephen L; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias; Armstead, Ian; Swain, Suresh; Studer, Bruno; Mayer, Klaus; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Czaban, Adrian; Hentrup, Stephan; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Hedegaard, Jakob; Caccamo, Mario; Asp, Torben

    2015-11-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat, barley, oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub-family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28,455 gene models, and we utilized macro-co-linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley, and synteny within the grass family, to establish a synteny-based linear gene order. The gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism enables the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the sequence assembly to characterize transcriptional changes in the stigma during pollination with both compatible and incompatible pollen. Characterization of the pollen transcriptome identified homologs to pollen allergens from a range of species, many of which were expressed to very high levels in mature pollen grains, and are potentially involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism. The genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future breeding efforts based on genomic prediction, and will accelerate the development of new varieties for more productive grasslands. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb...

  13. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  14. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the substantial area covered by grasslands in Madagascar (65%), the taxonomy of the grasses (Poaceae), which represent the main plant component of these vegetation types, is still understudied. Inventories and detailed specimen identification work from 1 2 localities in the Itremo Massif Protected Area allowed us ...

  15. Helictotrichon devesae, a new endemic grass species from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Zarco, Carlos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Helictotrichon devesae Romero Zarco (Aveneae; Poaceae, a new grass species is described and its anatomical and morphological characters are compared in relation to other species in the genus.Se describe Helictotrichon devesae Romero Zarco (Aveneae; Poaceae, una nueva especie de gramínea y se comparan sus caracteres anatómicos y morfológicos con los de otras especies del género

  16. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Prażak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp.), its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour,...

  17. IDENTIFIKASI TUMBUHAN SUKU POACEAE SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN MATAKULIAH KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Yanuarita Wulandari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae known as plants used as food ingredients in Indonesian. One area thas has high level diversity of plants Poaceae is Tahura R. Soerjo. Morphological characterization Poaceae in that region are still rare. The Goal for this research are to identify Poaceae tribes, and make photography Poaceae data that can be used as a supplement on Diversity of Plants course. This study included descriptive exploratory study with free cruising method. The species Poaceae has identified are Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflor. Suku Poaceae dikenal sebagai tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu daerah yang memiliki tingkat keanekaragaman tumbuhan Poaceae adalah di Tahura R. Soerjo. Karakterisasi morfologi terkait suku Poaceae di daerah tersebut masih sedikit. Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk identifikasi suku Poaceae, membuat data fotografi suku Poaceae sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai suplemen keanekaragaman tumbuhan. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif eksploratif dengan metode jelajah bebas. Sebelas spesies suku Poaceae yang telah teridentifikasi, yaitu Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflora.

  18. Comparative transcriptomics of three Poaceae species reveals patterns of gene expression evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; Gowda, Malali; Moghe, Gaurav; Lin, Haining; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Shiu, Shin-Han; Jiang, Ning; Robin Buell, C

    2012-08-01

    The Poaceae family, also known as the grasses, includes agronomically important cereal crops such as rice, maize, sorghum, and wheat. Previous comparative studies have shown that much of the gene content is shared among the grasses; however, functional conservation of orthologous genes has yet to be explored. To gain an understanding of the genome-wide patterns of evolution of gene expression across reproductive tissues, we employed a sequence-based approach to compare analogous transcriptomes in species representing three Poaceae subgroups including the Pooideae (Brachypodium distachyon), the Panicoideae (sorghum), and the Ehrhartoideae (rice). Our transcriptome analyses reveal that only a fraction of orthologous genes exhibit conserved expression patterns. A high proportion of conserved orthologs include genes that are upregulated in physiologically similar tissues such as leaves, anther, pistil, and embryo, while orthologs that are highly expressed in seeds show the most diverged expression patterns. More generally, we show that evolution of gene expression profiles and coding sequences in the grasses may be linked. Genes that are highly and broadly expressed tend to be conserved at the coding sequence level while genes with narrow expression patterns show accelerated rates of sequence evolution. We further show that orthologs in syntenic genomic blocks are more likely to share correlated expression patterns compared with non-syntenic orthologs. These findings are important for agricultural improvement because sequence information is transferred from model species, such as Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum to crop plants without sequenced genomes. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, J. Jed; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    An invasive variety of Phragmites australis (Poaceae, common reed), the M haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into North American salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, smooth cordgrass). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. derived from S. alterniflora have spread into brackish P. australis marshes. In both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for wildlife, and it is important to understand the physiological processes that lead to these species replacements. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. This study illustrates how ecophysiological differences can shift the competitive advantage from one species to another along a stress gradient. Phragmites australis is spreading into North American coastal marshes that are experiencing reduced salinities, while Spartina spp. are spreading into northern European brackish marshes that are experiencing increased salinities as land use patterns change on the two continents.

  20. Plants remember past weather: a study for atmospheric pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Poaceae and Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    After extreme dry (wet) summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease (increase) substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The 11-year (1997-2007) data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia (ragweed), Poaceae (grasses) and Populus (poplar), as well as daily values of four climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation). Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia, but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements. However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity (especially water sensitivity) of the herbaceous taxa ( Ambrosia and Poaceae) can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production.

  1. Níveis de silicato de cálcio e magnésio na produção das gramídeas Marandu e Tanzânia cultivadas em um Neossolo Quartzarênico Level of calcium and magnesium silicate in the yield of Marandu grass and Tanzania grass cultivated in one Quartzsandy Neosoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augustus Fortes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da correção da acidez do solo, por meio da aplicação de níveis de silicato de Ca e Mg, na produção das gramíneas Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 cultivadas em solo Neossolo Quartzarênico ortic. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 com quatro repetições, sendo duas forrageiras e cinco níveis de saturação por bases (V% original, 40, 60, 80 e 100%. Cada unidade experimental correspondeu a um vaso sem furos, com capacidade para 4,0 dm³ de solo, totalizando 40 vasos. Foram avaliadas as produções de MS por corte (PMS e total (PTMS, a altura e o número de perfilhos. Não houve variação entre as gramíneas em altura de perfilhos. O Tanzânia foi superior ao Marandu em PMS e número de perfilhos. Houve aumento linear na PMS, PTMS e altura de perfilhos. Conclui-se que ambas as gramíneas responderam de forma positiva à elevação dos níveis de V%, em PMS, até 54,8%. O Tanzânia produziu mais MS em relação ao Marandu.This study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Soil Science Department at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the soil correction acidity, by the application of Ca and Mg silicate levels, in the production of grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 cultivated in Quartzsandy Neosoil ortic. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates, being two forages and five levels of base saturation (BS%; (original BS, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. Each experimental unit corresponded to a pot with a capacity of 4.0 dm³ of soil, totalizing 40 pots. The dry matter yield (DMY for cut and total (TDMY, height and number of tillers were evaluated. There were

  2. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju on banana stalk and Bahia grass based substrates Cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju em substratos a base de grama batatais e engaço de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana stalks and Bahia grass were utilized as basic starting materials for the production of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. Banana stalks were combined with other waste or supplement products (wheat bran, coast-cross hay, bean straw and cotton textile mill to obtain different nitrogen concentrations. Since Bahia grass is relatively rich in protein, it was combined with other substrates (banana stalk, coast-cross hay and bean straw to maintain a substrate nitrogen concentration of about 1.5%. Banana stalks and Bahia grass were both more efficient in the production of the mushroom P. sajor-caju when utilized without the addition of other substrates, with biological efficiencies of 74.4% and 74.12%, respectively. When combined with other substrates or grasses, there was a drop in biological efficiency, independent of the concentration of nitrogen. Furthermore, the addition of protein-rich waste to banana stalks resulted in a decrease or absence of fructification, which indicates that high concentrations of nitrogen in the cultivation substrate may hinder the cultivation of this mushroom. On the other hand, results reveal that the ideal concentration of nitrogen may depend on other physicochemical factors and these factors may determine the success in cultivating P. sajor-caju. Therefore, we conclude that P. sajor-caju may be cultivated on banana stalk and Bahia grass as pure substrates, not being necessary their supplementation or combine them with another substrates.O engaço de bananeira e a grama batatais foram utilizados como matérias-primas básicas para a produção do substrato de cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. O engaço de bananeira foi combinado com outros resíduos (farelo de trigo, capim "Coast-cross", palha de feijão e resíduo de lixadeira de algodão, com o objetivo de se obter substratos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. Como a grama batatais é relativamente rica em proteína, a mesma foi combinada com

  3. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  4. Relative suitability of crested wheatgrass and other perennial grass hosts for the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J D; Brewer, M J; Burd, J D

    2000-04-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), reproduces parthenogenetically in North America and must survive year-round on host plants, including in late summer when small grains are not in cultivation. During this time, cool-season perennial wheatgrasses (Poaceae: Triticeae) contribute substantially to aphid survival, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) particularly. In greenhouse studies, the number of aphids per plant was measured after four infestation periods on unvernalized and vernalized wheatgrasses. Before placement on these test plant species, aphids were reared either on winter wheat or on the grass host species on which aphid progeny were counted. On vernalized plants, aphids reared on wheat resulted in more aphids per test plant than when the aphids were reared on wheatgrasses, but on unvernalized plants the number of aphids per test plant did not differ significantly regardless of rearing host. Aphids on crested wheatgrass were similar in number to the other grasses when plants were unvernalized. However, when plants were vernalized, crested wheatgrass supported significantly more aphids than some of the other hosts. Aphid numbers increased on all test species as infestation period lengthened, and plant growth was largely unaffected by aphid feeding. These results suggest if sufficient moisture is available during summer when small grains are not in cultivation, all host species observed are capable of sustaining aphids. Crested wheatgrass is an abundant and important host of the Russian wheat aphid in its northern range of the western United States, but other less prevalent wheatgrasses also may contribute to aphid survival during late summer when small grains are not in cultivation.

  5. Plantio direto de alface adubada com cama de aviário sobre coberturas vivas de grama e amendoim forrageiro Lettuce cultivated directly in poultry manure beds using grass and perennial peanut as living mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade agronômica do plantio direto de alface cv. Vera foi avaliada sobre coberturas vivas perenes de gramínea e leguminosa em sistema de manejo orgânico. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas sub-divididas. Os tratamentos nas parcelas constaram de plantio em sistema de preparo convencional do solo (controle, plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro. Os tratamentos nas subparcelas constaram de adubação com doses de cama de aviário aplicada em cobertura (0; 7; 14 e 28 t ha-1, parceladas em três épocas. Observou-se que a produção de cabeça de alface não foi influenciada pelo modo de plantio e nem pela espécie de cobertura viva sobre a qual foi realizado o plantio direto. Modelo quadrático mostrou-se adequado para descrever a variação observada dos valores de produção de cabeça de alface em relação a doses. O rendimento máximo estimado pelo modelo de regressão para a massa fresca média de alface foi de 348 g planta-1 para a dose de 23 t ha-1 de cama de aviário. O plantio direto de alface sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e amendoim forrageiro acarretou desempenho semelhante ao desta hortaliça, em sistema de preparo convencional do solo, com nível máximo de produtividade de 55,99 t ha-1 de massa fresca estimado pelo modelo de regressão.The agronomic viability of no-tillage system for lettuce was evaluated, using grass and legume as cover crop under organic management. A randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement was used. Plot treatments were conventional soil tillage (control, bahia grass and perennial peanut cultivated for living cover crops on no-tillage system. Split-plot treatments were doses of poultry manure (0; 7; 14 and 28 t ha-1 in three application periods. Lettuce cv. Vera yield was not affected by tillage system neither by cover crop. The quadratic model was the most

  6. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  7. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  8. Sinopsis de Aristida (Poaceae para Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Lezama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de Aristida para Uruguay, incluyendo una clave a nivel de especie. Se cita por primera vez para Uruguay Aristida flaccida Trin. & Rupr. a partir de material recolectado en pastizales de la zona de sierras del noroeste del departamento de Treinta y Tres.; esta especie es descripta e ilustrada.Synopsis of Aristida (Poaceae for Uruguay. A synopsis of Aristida for Uruguay is presented, including a key to its species. Aristida flaccida Trin. & Rupr. is reported for the first time for the flora of Uruguay from material collected in hilly grasslands in the northwestern of Treinta y Tres department; this species is described and illustrated.

  9. Controlling docks by stubble cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Siegrist, Franziska; Weidmann, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stubble cultivation cuts the dock roots below growth points. The vegetative plant parts are then cut off from the water and nutrient supply, and regrowth is inhibited. Practical recommendation • Summer dock treatment is especially worthwhile in dry summers with catch crop cultivation and after early maturing crops (winter barley, whole-crop silage) or with an early tillage of grass-clover. • After grass-clover lay or cereal harvest, undercut the dock plants at a depth of 12-15 cm...

  10. Kangaroo grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Aamir Saleem1, Sarwat N. Mirza1, Irshad Ahmad Khan1* and Jennifer Franklin2. 1Department of Forestry and Range Management, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University .... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo grass grows under a wide range of conditions, it has a wide ...

  11. Polycross populations of the native grass Festuca roemeri as pre-varietal germplasm: their derivation, release, increase, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris; Barbara L. Wilson; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning

    2008-01-01

    Results of a recent common-garden study provide evidence needed to delineate appropriate seed transfer zones for the native grass Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae). That information has been used to develop pre-variety germplasm releases to provide ecologically and genetically appropriate seeds for habitat restoration, erosion...

  12. Episodic evolution and adaptation of chloroplast genomes in ancestral grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojian Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the chloroplast genomes of the grass family, Poaceae, have undergone an elevated evolutionary rate compared to most other angiosperms, yet the details of this phenomenon have remained obscure. To know how the rate change occurred during evolution, estimation of the time-scale with reliable calibrations is needed. The recent finding of 65 Ma grass phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites places the diversification of the grasses to the Cretaceous period, and provides a reliable calibration in studying the tempo and mode of grass chloroplast evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using chloroplast genome data from angiosperms and by taking account of new paleontological evidence, we now show that episodic rate acceleration both in terms of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions occurred in the common ancestral branch of the core Poaceae (a group formed by rice, wheat, maize, and their allies accompanied by adaptive evolution in several chloroplast proteins, while the rate reverted to the slow rate typical of most monocot species in the terminal branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding of episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses accompanied by adaptive molecular evolution has a profound bearing on the evolution of grasses, which form a highly successful group of plants. The widely used model for estimating divergence times was based on the assumption of correlated rates between ancestral and descendant lineages. However, the assumption is proved to be inadequate in approximating the episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses, and the assumption of independent rates is more appropriate. This finding has implications for studies of molecular evolutionary rates and time-scale of evolution in other groups of organisms.

  13. Spatio-temporal flowering patterns in Mediterranean Poaceae. A community study in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrino, J.; García-Castaño, J. L.; Domínguez-Vilches, E.; Galán, C.

    2017-10-01

    This study focused on phenological timing and spatial patterns in 30 Poaceae species flowering in spring in different types of plant cover (scrub, riverbank and pasture). Grass community composition was studied, and the influence of species and plant cover on the start date and duration of flowering was assessed from March to June in both 2014 and 2015. Twenty-nine sampling sites were selected for phenological monitoring using the BBCH scale. Data were subjected to GLMM analyses. Binary discriminant analysis revealed differences in grass community composition as a function of plant cover type; scrub cover comprised a considerably larger number of species than those in riverbank and pasture. Moreover, more species diversity was observed in 2014 than in 2015 with a drier and stressed pre-flowering period. Differences on phenology were also recorded between plant cover types and study years. Species in pasture and riverbank flowered before (113.4 days; 116.1 days) than species in scrub (120.9 days), being these species with shorter flowering length because they are more exposed to the characteristic of the Mediterranean region during the summer. In general, flowering onset occurred later in 2014 (118.2 days) than in 2015 (115.8 days), probably attributable to precipitation occurring during March. On the other hand, spatial autocorrelation within some cover types has been observed, showing spatial patterns exist at a smaller scale. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of grass phenology in different environments.

  14. Influência da taxa de carga orgânica no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos cultivados com forrageiras Influence of organic loading rate on the performance of constructed wetlands cultivated with grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da taxa de carga orgânica (TCO no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento subsuperficial. Cada SAC foi constituído por um tanque de 0,40 x 0,73 x 3,00 m. A água residuária de laticínios (ARL foi aplicada com vazão de 60 L.d-1. O tratamento testemunha foi constituído por um SAC sem vegetação, ao qual foi aplicada uma TCO de 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Nos SACs cultivados com capim-elefante e com capim-tifton 85, foram aplicadas TCOs de 66, 130, 190, 320 e 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Os SACs se mostraram eficientes na remoção de DBO, DQO, SST, ST e nitrogênio. TCOs entre 250 e 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO proporcionaram maiores eficiências na remoção da carga orgânica e acima de 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 na de sólidos da água residuária. A presença de plantas nos SACs mostrou-se importante na remoção de N, K e Na da ARL.The present paper was carried out to study the influence of organic loading rate (OLR on the performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands systems (CWs. Each CW was composed of a sealed tank of 0.40 x 0.73 x 3.00 m. The dairy industry wastewater was applied with flow rate of 60 L.d-1. In the control system, consisting of CW without vegetation, 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD was applied. In vegetated CWs (cultivated with elephant grass and tifton 85 bermudagrass, OLRs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD were applied . The CW systems were efficient in the removal of BOD, COD, TSS, TS and nitrogen. OLRs between 250 and 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD provide greater efficiencies in organic loading removal and above 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 in the solids removal from wastewater. The presence of the plants in the CWs showed to be important in the removal of N, K and Na of wastewater.

  15. In silico characterization of boron transporter (BOR1 protein sequences in Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is essential for the plant growth and development, and its primary function is connected with formation of the cell wall. Moreover, boron toxicity is a shared problem in semiarid and arid regions. In this study, boron transporter protein (BOR1 sequences from some Poaceae species (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, Oryza sativa subsp. indica, Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of BOR1 proteins were basic character and had generally aliphatic amino acids. Analysis of the domains showed that transmembrane domains were identified constantly and three motifs were detected with 50 amino acids length. Also, the motif SPNPWEPGSYDHWTVAKDMFNVPPAYIFGAFIPATMVAGLYYFDHSVASQ was found most frequently with 25 repeats. The phylogenetic tree showed divergence into two main clusters. B. distachyon species were clustered separately. Finally, this study contributes to the new BOR1 protein characterization in grasses and create scientific base for in silico analysis in future.

  16. Meiotic behavior of a nonaploid accession endorses x = 6 for Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, K R; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2009-12-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae), originally from Africa, is an economically important pasture plant in tropical South America. An accession of B. humidicola (H038) collected from the wild African savanna (Mbeya, Tanzania) showed irregular microsporogenesis. This meiotic behavior was consistent with an allopolyploid origin. Multivalent chromosome association at diakinesis gave tri- to octavalents, associated with two nucleoli in some cells. Six non-congregated univalents in metaphase I and anaphase I, along with previous lines of evidence for x = 6 in B. humidicola, confirm H038 as a nonaploid accession, 2n = 9x = 54. Asynchrony in the genome during microsporogenesis also corroborated this assumption. Its putative origin could be a cross between two related species with different rhythms in meiosis. The meiotic behavior of this accession reinforces the hypothesis of the existence of a new basic chromosome number (x = 6) for Brachiaria. The use of this accession in the breeding of this important forage grass for the tropics is discussed.

  17. Palynological studies in tribe Chlorideae (Poaceae) from salt range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    , 2011. Pollen morphology of five species belonging to three genera of tribe Chlorideae (Poaceae) was examined by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy. The studies showed that pollen in all species were ...

  18. Forma de crecimiento en Leptochloa Chloridiformis (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel G. Perreta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Perreta, M. G., Tivano, J. C. & Vegetti, A. C. 2000. Forma de crecimiento en Leptochloachloridiformis (Poaceae. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 219-226.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la forma de crecimiento de Leptochloa chloridiformis (Hack.Parodi. En esta especie perenne la ramificación ocurre principalmente a través de yemas axilarespresentes en la zona de innovación. Este sistema de ramificación genera una planta cespitosa, en la cual lasconexiones entre unidades estructurales son rizomas cortos. Dependiendo de su posición estas conexio-nes muestran diferentes tendencias en relación a la desarticulación estructural. En algunas plantas seobservó ramificación en la zona de entrenudos largos posiblemente debido a cambios ambientalesrelacionados con las distintas estaciones

  19. High-throughput sequencing of six bamboo chloroplast genomes: phylogenetic implications for temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction of woody bamboos makes them an interesting but taxonomically difficult group. Phylogenetic analyses based on large DNA fragments could only provide a moderate resolution of woody bamboo relationships, although a robust phylogenetic tree is needed to elucidate their evolutionary history. Phylogenomics is an alternative choice for resolving difficult phylogenies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the complete nucleotide sequences of six woody bamboo chloroplast (cp genomes using Illumina sequencing. These genomes are similar to those of other grasses and rather conservative in evolution. We constructed a phylogeny of Poaceae from 24 complete cp genomes including 21 grass species. Within the BEP clade, we found strong support for a sister relationship between Bambusoideae and Pooideae. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, all six nodes within Bambusoideae were supported with ≥0.95 posterior probability from Bayesian inference and 5/6 nodes resolved with 100% bootstrap support in maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. We found that repeats in the cp genome could provide phylogenetic information, while caution is needed when using indels in phylogenetic analyses based on few selected genes. We also identified relatively rapidly evolving cp genome regions that have the potential to be used for further phylogenetic study in Bambusoideae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cp genome of Bambusoideae evolved slowly, and phylogenomics based on whole cp genome could be used to resolve major relationships within the subfamily. The difficulty in resolving the diversification among

  20. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-05-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  1. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

  2. Variation of reproduction in some species of the tribe Aveneae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of reproduction were studied in a series of inter- and intraspecific units in the genus Avena. The range of variation of the mating system is from autogamy to allogamy. The first system is expressed in cultivated types, while the second is observed in wild and weedy ones. In a wild oat of putative hybrid origin or being a mutation, the development of pollen grains deviates from that noted in grasses as normal.

  3. Previous cultivation of palisade grass and soil correctives: influence on growth and yield of soybean cultivated under various soil compaction levels Cultivo prévio de braquiarão e corretivos de solo: influência sobre o crescimento e produção da soja cultivada sob vários níveis de compactação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Silva Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction directly interferes on crop yield. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of previous cultivation with palisade grass [Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich. R. Webster cv. Marandu] and the use of soil correctives on the growth and yield of soybeans (Glycine max L. cultivated under various soil compaction levels, in greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots (columns of 0.2 m diameter PVC tubes, composed of two rings: the lower ring, 0.4 m in height, received the soil (dystrophic Red Latosol, clayey texture without corrective and a density of 1.0 Mg m-3; and the upper ring, 0,2 m in height, received the treatments of soil correctives and density. The experimental design was fully randomized in a 4 x 6 x 2 factorial outline, being four soil density levels (1.0; 1.20; 1.40 and 1.60 Mg m-3, six soil correctives (without corrective, lime, calcium silicate, gypsum, lime + gypsum and calcium silicate + gypsum and two cultivation systems of the soybean (with and without previous cultivation of palisade grass. Starting from 1.2 Mg m-3 of soil density the soybean growth and yield were decreased. The use of soil correctives and previous soil cultivation with palisade grass decreased the harmful effects of the soil compaction on the soybean growth and yield. For the treatments that received previous cultivation with palisade grass, the soybean growth and yield were higher with application of lime + gypsum and calcium silicate + gypsum.A compactação do solo interfere diretamente sobre a produção das culturas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do cultivo prévio do braquiarão e o uso de corretivos do solo sobre o crescimento e produção da soja cultivada sob solo com vários níveis de compactação, em condições de casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos (colunas de tubos de PVC de 0,2 m de diâmetro, compostos por dois anéis: o anel inferior, de 0,4 m de altura

  4. Nature of ergastic substances in some Poaceae seeds | Idu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of 48 species of Poaceae were examined for the presence of alkaloid, protein, fats and oil, inulin, starch and tannins. All taxa investigated indicated the presence of starch, fats and oils and protein and were devoid of tannins and inulin. Only 12 seed samples indicated the presence of alkaloids. The Positively ...

  5. Produção de seis gramíneas manejadas por corte sob efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e estações anuais Yield of six grasses cultivated under cut management and effect of different irrigation depths and annual seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Brasileiro de Alencar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade e o teor de matéria seca de gramíneas manejadas por corte sob efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e estações do ano. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema de parcelas sub-subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas seis gramíneas (Xaraés, Mombaça, Tanzânia, Pioneiro, Marandu e Estrela, nas subparcelas seis lâminas de irrigação (0, 18, 45, 77, 100 e 120% da referência e nas sub-subparcelas as estações (outono/inverno e primavera/verão no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. Para diferenciar a aplicação das lâminas de irrigação, utilizou-se o sistema por aspersão em linha. A produtividade e o teor de matéria seca foram obtidos por meio do material seco em estufa ventilada a 60ºC, por 72 h. Observou-se efeito das gramíneas, estações anuais e lâminas de irrigação nas duas características avaliadas. Na estação outono/inverno as gramíneas não diferiram e na primavera/verão a gramínea Pioneiro apresentou maior produtividade de matéria seca. Independente da estação, essa mesma gramínea apresentou o menor teor de matéria seca. A estação primavera/verão proporcionou maior produtividade e não afetou o teor de matéria seca. As lâminas de irrigação aumentaram a produtividade das gramíneas na estação outono/inverno e não afetaram ou diminuíram na estação primavera/verão. Esse mesmo fator reduziu o teor de matéria seca.This study was aimed at evaluating the yield and dry matter content of grasses cultivated under cut management and different annual seasons and irrigation depths. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized arrangement, with two replications, in a split-split plot design. Six grasses (Xaraes, Mombaça, Tanzania, Pioneiro, Marandu, and Estrela constituted the plots, six irrigation depths (0%, 18%, 45%, 77%, 100%, and 120% of the control constituted the split-plots and two seasons (autumn/winter and spring/summer the

  6. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  7. Unraveling the evolutionary dynamics of ancient and recent polypoidization events in Avena (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Lin, Lei; Zhou, Xiangying; Peterson, Paul M; Wen, Jun

    2017-02-03

    Understanding the diversification of polyploid crops in the circum-Mediterranean region is a challenging issue in evolutionary biology. Sequence data of three nuclear genes and three plastid DNA fragments from 109 accessions of Avena L. (Poaceae) and the outgroups were used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The evolution of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) and its close relatives was inferred to have involved ancient allotetraploidy and subsequent recent allohexaploidy events. The crown ages of two infrageneric lineages (Avena sect. Ventricosa Baum ex Romero-Zarco and Avena sect. Avena) were estimated to be in the early to middle Miocene, and the A. sativa lineages were dated to the late Miocene to Pliocene. These periods coincided with the mild seasonal climatic contrasts and the Mediterranean climate established in the Mediterranean Basin. Our results suggest that polyploidy, lineage divergence, and complex reticulate evolution have occurred in Avena, exemplifying the long-term persistence of tetraploids and the multiple origins of hexaploids related to paleoclimatic oscillations during the Miocene-Pliocene interval in the circum-Mediterranean region. This newly-resolved infrageneric phylogenetic framework represents a major step forward in understanding the origin of the cultivated oat.

  8. Unraveling the evolutionary dynamics of ancient and recent polypoidization events in Avena (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Lin, Lei; Zhou, Xiangying; Peterson, Paul M.; Wen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the diversification of polyploid crops in the circum-Mediterranean region is a challenging issue in evolutionary biology. Sequence data of three nuclear genes and three plastid DNA fragments from 109 accessions of Avena L. (Poaceae) and the outgroups were used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The evolution of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) and its close relatives was inferred to have involved ancient allotetraploidy and subsequent recent allohexaploidy events. The crown ages of two infrageneric lineages (Avena sect. Ventricosa Baum ex Romero-Zarco and Avena sect. Avena) were estimated to be in the early to middle Miocene, and the A. sativa lineages were dated to the late Miocene to Pliocene. These periods coincided with the mild seasonal climatic contrasts and the Mediterranean climate established in the Mediterranean Basin. Our results suggest that polyploidy, lineage divergence, and complex reticulate evolution have occurred in Avena, exemplifying the long-term persistence of tetraploids and the multiple origins of hexaploids related to paleoclimatic oscillations during the Miocene-Pliocene interval in the circum-Mediterranean region. This newly-resolved infrageneric phylogenetic framework represents a major step forward in understanding the origin of the cultivated oat. PMID:28157193

  9. A biosystematic study of Pentameris (Arundineae, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Barker

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A biosystematic study of the endemic southwestern Cape grass genus Pentameris Beauv. is presented. Results of studies on the macro- and micromorphology, leaf blade anatomy and cytology are discussed and illustrated. The results of a cladistic study indicate that the genus is monophyletic, united by the synapomorphies of ovary and fruit characters. The conservation status of the taxa in the genus is assessed, and conservation status codes allocated. A key to the taxa in the genus is presented, and each species is described. Five new species,  Pentameris glacialis N.P. Barker, P. hirtiglumis N.P. Barker, P. oreophila N.P. Barker,  P. swartbergensis N.P. Barker and  P. uniflora N.P. Barker, and one new subspecies,  P. longiglumis (Nees Stapf subsp. gymnocolea N.P. Barker, are described and illustrated.

  10. Control Effect of Sudan Grass on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in Cucumber and Lettuce Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Hwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cucumber and lettuce was evaluated with green manure crop species in greenhouse. Nematicidal effect of sudan grass cultivation in cucumber greenhouse was comparable to that of chemical treatment with fosthiazate GR, showing the high activity of 88.6%. Sudan grass cultivation in lettuce greenhouse significantly reduced the number of M. incognita in soil, showing 93.5% of nematiidal activity. In addition, since growth of sudan grass was superior to other green manure crop species, it is considered that cultivation of sudan grass is proper to control M. incognita in greenhouse.

  11. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp., its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour, syrup, sugar, ethanol, vegetable oil, starch, wax, paints, and animal fodder (the grain and entire plant. Sorghum straw is used to produce fibres, paper, and building materials. Sorghum has high energy value and can be an excellent source of renewable energy. It is easy to cultivate, with low soil and nutrient requirements. Due to its content of allelopathic compounds, it inhibits weed growth and has a phytosanitary effect. It is also resistant to disease and pests. It is a short-day plant, and in Polish climate conditions, it does not form sufficiently mature seeds, but produces a very high yield of green matter that can be used for fodder. Cultivation of sorghum during periodic water shortages may be an alternative solution for obtaining fodder when maize cultivation is unreliable.

  12. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental......Compared with annual grain and seed crops, the production of perennial crops reduces losses of nutrients, the need for pesticides, and supports soil carbon build-up. This may help implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD); the Nitrates Directive; and support the new EU greenhouse gas...... production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  13. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  14. Poaceae in the natural diet of the snail Helix aspersa Müller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, L; Desbuquois, C; Le Lannic, J; Charrier, M

    2001-11-01

    The natural diet of Helix aspersa was studied in two populations by analysing faeces. Picris echioides, Carduus tenuifloris, Urtica dioica, Galium molugo (Dicotyledons) and Poaceae (Monocotyledons) were the principal resources of the studied populations. The species of Poaceae ingested by Helix aspersa in July were determined by analysing the phytoliths present in the faeces. Festuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata and Bromus hordeaceus seemed to be attractive for the snails whereas Elytrigia repens was rejected. These results were convergent with the ingestion rates of Poaceae in the laboratory but assimilation efficiencies did not explain these choices. Poaceae with the highest energetic values were not preferred to others. The texture, the mineral and organic contents of the Poaceae may be responsible for the snails feeding choices. The importance of Poaceae for this species is discussed.

  15. Acúmulo de macronutrientes na soja influenciado pelo cultivo prévio do capim-marandu, correção e compactação do solo Macronutrient accumulation in the soybean influenced by prior cultivation of Marandu grass and soil remediation and compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Silva Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do cultivo prévio do capim-Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, da aplicação de corretivos e da compactação do solo no acúmulo de macronutrientes pela soja cultivada em sucessão. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 6 x 2, com três repetições. Os fatores de estudo foram quatro densidades do solo: 1,0; 1,20; 1,40 e 1,60 Mg m-3; seis tratamentos de correção: 1 controle, sem correção; 2 calcário; 3 silicato de cálcio; 4 gesso; 5 calcário + gesso; 6 silicato de cálcio + gesso; além de dois sistemas de cultivo: com e sem cultivo prévio do capim-Marandu. As unidades experimentais foram compostas por vasos de tubos de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro, compostos por dois anéis: o anel inferior, de 40 cm de altura, recebeu o solo sob condições naturais e densidade de 1,0 Mg m-3; o anel superior, com 20 cm de altura representando 6,28 dm³, recebeu os tratamentos de densidades, correção e gesso como descrito adiante. Em cada um foram conduzidas três plantas de soja (cv. Conquista até o final do ciclo, quando o acúmulo de macronutrientes pela cultura foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que o cultivo prévio do capim-Marandu e o uso de corretivos amenizaram os efeitos negativos da compactação do solo sobre a nutrição da soja. A utilização de corretivos do solo contribuiu para o aumento no acúmulo de macronutrientes na parte aérea da soja, porém o incremento na compactação diminuiu o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A compactação do solo persistiu parcialmente mediante o cultivo prévio com o capim marandu.The present work was developed with the objective of evaluating the effect of the prior cultivation of marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, conditioning applications and soil compaction on macronutrient accumulation in soybeans grown under successive cultivation. The experimental design

  16. Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

  17. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  18. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.

  19. Morphological development of Paspalum paniculatum L. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fávero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the morphological development of Paspalum paniculatum. Individual plants were cultivated in pots and evaluated at seven ages: 31, 58, 93, 123, 134, 144 and 176 days of growth from the emergence. The species showed medium height (50cm, clonal growth, with aerial stems of culm-type, semi-erect, and underground stems of rhizome-type, with reproductive tillers over 100cm in length. The shoot dry matter (DM at flowering stage was composed by equivalent quantities of culms (C and leaves (L, in a L:C relationship of 1.5. After 176 days’ growth, the plants had accumulated 23.5g of DM, consisting of roots (29.06% and rhizomes (15.91%, totaling 44.97% of the DM in the underground part, leaves (21.89%, culms (26.32% and inflorescences (6.83%. The expressive formation of DM in the underground part suggests resistance to grazing and adverse climatic conditions, in addition to a possible aptitude for revegetation of areas subject to erosion.

  20. Updated taxonomic descriptions, iconography, and habitat preferences of Brachypodium distachyon, B. stacei, and B. hybridum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalán, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an updated morphological revision of the three annual species of the genus Brachypodium (Poaceae: B. distachyon, B. tacei, and B. hybridum, which were recently segregated as independent species from the single-species complex B. distachyon s.l. These three species have been proposed as a model system for grass polyploid speciation, and their genomes have been sequenced. However, despite the increasing number of genomic and population-genetic studies conducted for each of these species, no taxonomic updating has been done on them since their original descriptions. B. stacei, the rarest species of the complex, has a protologue based only on the study of specimens from its type locality in Torrent (Formentera, Spain. In this study we update the taxonomic descriptions of the three species using morphoanatomical data from specimens collected throughout their respective native circum-Mediterranean distributions as well as in other localities where they are non-autochthonous. We also provide icons for each species and information about their habitat preferences and geographic distributions.Presentamos una revisión morfológica actualizada de las tres especies anuales del género Brachypodium (Poaceae, B. distachyon, B. stacei y B. ybridum. Estas dos últimas han sido recientemente segregadas como especies independientes dentro del complejo B. distachyon s.l. Las tres especies han sido propuestas como grupo modelo de especiación poliploide en gramíneas y sus genomas han sido secuenciados. Sin embargo, pese al incremento de estudios genómicos y genético-poblacionales desarrollados en poblaciones de estas especies, no se ha llevado a cabo todavía ninguna actualización taxonómica para las mismas desde que se describieron. El protólogo de B. stacei, la especie más rara del complejo, está basado únicamente en el estudio de especímenes de su localidad clásica en Torrent (Formentera, España. En este estudio actualizamos las

  1. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  2. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  3. Poaceae Pollen From Southern Brazil: Distinguishing Grasslands (Campos From Forests by Analyzing a Diverse Range of Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nunes Radaeski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this study was to distinguish grasslands from forests in southern Brazil by analyzing Poaceae pollen grains. Through light microscopy analysis, we measured the size of the pollen grain, pore, and annulus from 68 species of Rio Grande do Sul. Measurements were recorded of 10 forest species and 58 grassland species, representing all tribes of the Poaceae in Rio Grande do Sul. We measured the polar, equatorial, pore, and annulus diameter. Results of statistical tests showed that arboreous forest species have larger pollen grain sizes than grassland and herbaceous forest species, and in particular there are strongly significant differences between arboreous and grassland species. Discriminant analysis identified three distinct groups representing each vegetation type. Through the pollen measurements we established three pollen types: larger grains (>46 µm, from the Bambuseae pollen type, medium-sized grains (46–22µm, from herbaceous pollen type, and small grains (<22 µm, from grassland pollen type. The results of our compiled Poaceae pollen dataset may be applied to the fossil pollen of Quaternary sediments.

  4. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of arable land...... in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  5. Starch Biosynthesis in the Developing Endosperms of Grasses and Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Tetlow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The starch-rich endosperms of the Poaceae, which includes wild grasses and their domesticated descendents the cereals, have provided humankind and their livestock with the bulk of their daily calories since the dawn of civilization up to the present day. There are currently unprecedented pressures on global food supplies, largely resulting from population growth, loss of agricultural land that is linked to increased urbanization, and climate change. Since cereal yields essentially underpin world food and feed supply, it is critical that we understand the biological factors contributing to crop yields. In particular, it is important to understand the biochemical pathway that is involved in starch biosynthesis, since this pathway is the major yield determinant in the seeds of six out of the top seven crops grown worldwide. This review outlines the critical stages of growth and development of the endosperm tissue in the Poaceae, including discussion of carbon provision to the growing sink tissue. The main body of the review presents a current view of our understanding of storage starch biosynthesis, which occurs inside the amyloplasts of developing endosperms.

  6. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bacteria from forest soils. Figure 1E also shows seasonal shifts in abundance of rhizospheric bacterial communities of the two grasses, adding yet another layer of complexity. Similar trends were evident from fungal and faunal OTUs identified in these grass rhizospheres, where many OTUs had no significant match.

  7. Regeneration and propagation of reed grass for large-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전서범

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... wastewater using wetlands and aquatic macrophytes is in the limelight as an ... treatment. Especially, reed grass is one of the most important and abundant species among the aquatic macrophytes used for wastewater purification, and it has been applied ... cultivated without fertilizer, irrigation or pesticides.

  8. Ovule, fruit and seed development in species of Poaceae (Poales)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Adriana Tiemi; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda Maria; Scatena, Vera Lucia

    2009-01-01

    O desenvolvimento de óvulo, fruto e semente de Olyra humilis Nees e Sucrea monophylla Soderstr. (Bambusoideae), Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae), Chloris elata Desv. e Eragrostis solida Nees (Chloridoideae) foram estudados visando à caracterização embriológica dessas subfamílias de Poaceae. As espécies apresentam óvulo bitegumentado, micrópila formada pelo tegumento interno, megagametófito tipo Polygonum, endosperma nuclear e amiláceo, embrião later...

  9. Micofilas, endófitos fúngicos y alcaloides en poblaciones de Melica stuckertii (Poaceae del Centro de Argentina Mycophyllas, fungal endophytes and alkaloids in populations of Melica stuckertii (Poaceae from central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Benavente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los vástagos de Poaceae pueden establecer con Ascomycetes (Balansieae asociaciones simbióticas endofíticas denominadas micofilas. Las gramíneas no pueden sintetizar alcaloides en ausencia del endófito fúngico. Melica stuckertii Hack. es una Poaceae nativa de amplia distribución en el país. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar tres poblaciones de M. stuckertii de San Luis (Argentina, considerando: la presencia y frecuencia de endófitos, la producción de alcaloides en la asociación y el simbionte fúngico. A partir de cariopsis se obtuvieron plántulas axénicas de las que se aisló el simbionte fúngico en medio sólido, siendo cultivado para su determinación taxonómica. Además, las plántulas axénicas se utilizaron para la determinación de alcaloides in planta y el aislamiento de endófito en medio líquido para la posterior detección de alcaloides in fungus. También se examinó la producción de alcaloides «en plantas a campo». Melica stuckertii resultó asociada formando micofilas con una frecuencia de colonización del 100 % en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Las colonias obtenidas fueron blancoalgodonosas y de crecimiento lento, y el endófito aislado se determinó como Neotyphodium sp. Los alcaloides fueron detectados sólo en la simbiosis (plántulas axénicas y plantas a campo; así, su biosíntesis en M. stuckertii podría ser sinérgica.Poaceae stems are usually associated with Ascomycetes (Balansieae forming symbiotic associations named mycophyllas. Grasses can not produce alkaloids by itself instead they have to be associated to fungal symbiont to yield them. Melica stuckertii is a native and widespread grass. The aims of this work were to study three M. stuckertii population from San Luis province (Argentina taking into account frequency of colonization and alkaloids production. Fungal endophytes were isolated from axenic plantlets obtained from cariopses, and then they were cultured in solid potatoe glucose

  10. Biomass of elephant grass and leucaena for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena in Paraná state, Brazil, for the generation of renewable energy. Two field studies were conducted in the municipality of Ibiporã (23° S, 51° 01?W. In the first study, the dry matter accumulation curves were calculated, with sampling at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days after cultivation. The second study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with split plots. The total aboveground biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena was estimated in the main plot. Cutting times of 60 and 120 days after cultivation were evaluated in the subplots. The productivity of dry matter (kg.ha-1 was estimated using the biomass data. In addition, the potential production of energy from the burning of elephant grass biomass, and the potential production of total aboveground biomass and energy of elephant grass (in Paraná was estimated using an agrometeorological model. Elephant grass can be potentially used as an alternative energy source. Leucaena has slow initial growth, and it must therefore be evaluated over a longer period in order to determine its potential. Simulation analyses of the capability of power generation, conducted based on the annual dry matter production, revealed that elephant grass could be an important source of renewable energy in the state of Paraná.

  11. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  12. Relation between Poaceae pollen concentrations and meteorological factors during 2000–2010 in Timisoara, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ianovici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of Poaceae pollen seasons from 2000–2010 in Timisoara, Romania. Airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations was high. An increasing trend in the annual totals was observed. The longest pollen season was recorded in the year 2000. The period in which the Poaceae pollen count exceeded the threshold value of 30 grains/m3 lasted from 9 to 46 days. The present study analyzed the dynamics of pollen seasons in relation to meteorological factors. On the basis of Spearman’s correlation test, the strongest positive correlation was found between the Poaceae pollen counts and temperature; and sunshine hours. Daily average relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and precipitation had a negative effect. A multiple regression analysis was applied to determine how much of the total variance in Poaceae pollen counts can be explained by meteorological parameters. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.245 to 0.460. Our data illustrate the contrasting effects of temperature, wind, relative humidity and rainfall on the concentration of pollen in the air. The optimum conditions for Poaceae pollen release occur during late spring and early summer. The Poaceae pollen remains one of the major aeroallergens in Timisoara area.

  13. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  14. Germination Responses of Several Poaceae Members towards Differential Storage Durations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishna R PANCHAL; Neeta R PANDYA; Susy ALBERT; Dhara J GANDHI

    2011-01-01

    .... To observe different patterns of grass emergence (dormancy/germination) in the warm tropical grasslands of India, time span of a seed from the seedling stage to a mature plant becomes very crucial for the community development...

  15. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  16. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb......) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9......, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified....

  17. δ13C values of grass species collected in the northern Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Troughton, John H; Card, Kay A

    1976-06-01

    δ13C values were measured for 45 Poaceae species collected in the northern Sahara desert, at the foot of the Saharan Atlas. The results indicate a clear relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and phytogeographical distribution of the grasses. Mediterranean species predominantly had δ13C values indicating the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. By contrast, nearly all species belonging to the Saharo-Arabian and /or Sudanian group showed a C4 like carbon isotope composition. Leaf material of two species, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima, had δ13C values in the region of-20‰, i.e. intermediate between the mean δ13C values of C3 and C4 plants. However, additional speciments of both these grasses obtained from a different source (herbarium of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) yielded a C3 like carbon isotope composition.

  18. CATÁLOGO DE LA FAMILIA POACEAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giraldo-Cañas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un inventario de las especies de Poaceae de Colombia junto con un análisis de la diversidad específica de esta familia según las regiones naturales colombianas, los gradientes de altitud y de precipitaciones, y la distribución sistemática. Se realizaron 96 expediciones de campo a las diez grandes regiones naturales de Colombia (Amazonia, Andes, Caribe, Chocó Biogeográfico, Guayana, islas caribeñas, Orinoquia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, valle del río Cauca y valle del río Magdalena con un muestreo total de alrededor de 5800 ejemplares. Además, se consultaron colecciones de los herbarios CAUP, COAH, COL, CUVC, CHOCO, HFAB, HUA, HUQ, JAUM, MEDEL, MEXU, MO, NY, PSO, RSA, SI, UDBC, UIS, US, VALLE y VEN, y se realizó una investigación bibliográfica exhaustiva. Las Poaceae están representadas en Colombia por 840 especies y 173 géneros. Se reconocieron 74 especies y un género (Agrostopoa endémicos. Por otra parte, se documentaron 83 especies introducidas-naturalizadas y 50 introducidas-cultivadas. Los géneros más ricos en especies son Paspalum (89 especies, Panicum (42, Festuca (36, Eragrostis (29, Calamagrostis (25, Chusquea (25, Digitaria (24, Axonopus (21, Setaria (20, Cenchrus (18, Poa (17, Muhlenbergia (16, Andropogon (15, Aristida (15, Agrostis (14, Lasiacis (12, Urochloa (12, Pariana (11, Sporobolus (11, Arthrostylidium (10, Cortaderia (10, Nassella (10, Neurolepis (10 y Schizachyrium (10. Durante el desarrollo de esta investigación, se descubrieron 10 nuevos registros para la flora colombiana. La regiones Andina, Orinocense, Caribe y Guayanesa son las más ricas en especies, con 583, 233, 186 y 179 especies, respectivamente. La Región Andina presenta el mayor número de especies endémicas (57 especies. Los gradientes altitudinales más diversos corresponden a los de las tierras bajas (por debajo de 1200 m s.m.. Al igual que en otras áreas tropicales, en Colombia las subfamilias de Poaceae muestran una

  19. Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation and vegetation change during the mid-late Holocene at the Jiangli site, Suzhou, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Hongen; Ding, Jinlong; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 μm) supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.

  20. Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation and vegetation change during the mid-late holocene at the Jiangli site, Suzhou, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Hongen; Ding, Jinlong; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 µm) supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.

  1. Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation and vegetation change during the mid-late Holocene at the Jiangli site, Suzhou, East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Qiu

    Full Text Available Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 μm supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.

  2. Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation and vegetation change during the mid-late holocene at the Jiangli site, Suzhou, East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Qiu

    Full Text Available Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 µm supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.

  3. Quantifiable differences between phytolith assemblages detected at species level: analysis of the leaves of nine Poa species (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Lisztes-Szabó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic value of phytolith assemblages and their degree of variability within different species of the same genus is still an undervalued issue in the botanical range of phytolith studies. However the understanding of grass phytolith variance and its implications to plant systematics is doubtless. In the present study phytoliths of the lateral shoots (leaves of nine, globally distributed Poa species (Pooideae – Poaceae are described. Phytoliths were recovered from Poa specimens by the dry ashing technique. Altogether 6223 disarticulated phytoliths were counted (approximately 500–700 phytoliths per species in 54 plant samples, which cover six shoots of nine species. Not only the relative frequency of each morphotype was calculated, but measurements were conducted to determine the biogenic silica content of Poa lateral shoots. A phytolith reference collection for the nine selected species of a worldwide importance was also compiled. The description of the most significant phytolith morphotypes and their taxonomic relationships are given here. Results suggest that the biogenic silica content of the Poa lateral shoots was determined to be relatively high within all nine species. Phytolith assemblage data was subjected to multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., CA and PCA in order to find differences and similarities among the nine Poa species. Results show that the two closely related Poa of the P. pratensis species group, namely the P. pratensis and P. angustifolia, only slightly differ from the other Poa species if we consider their rondel-trapeziform short cells (SC phytolith frequencies.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Poaceae (Poales) Post-seminal development of Poaceae species (Poales)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Tiemi Nakamura; Vera Lucia Scatena

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de um padrão do desenvolvimento pós-seminal em Poaceae. Para tanto, foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae); Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae); Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae). Procurou-se também comparar as estruturas da plântula de Poaceae com as demais monocotiledôneas. As espécies estudadas são plantas perenes, rizomatosas, cespitosas ...

  5. Comparative analysis grass carpets sizes and plugs for zoysiagrass cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo De Sousa Raats

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The zoysiagrass is currently the most used in Brazil for the formation of lawns, mainly due to their aesthetic characteristics and hardness. Planting is usually done using carpets with 1.25 x 0.40 m, covering all the area. But in some situations, aiming to reduce costs, may be suggested planting plugs or carpets with spaces of each others. This work aimed to evaluate the lawn formation using different formats of carpets and plugs in various planting distances. Thus, the land in a ground level were prepared and planted with zoysiagrass carpets with dimensions of 0.20 x 0.25, 0.40 x 0.25, 0.05 and 0.10 x 1.25 x 1.25 m spacing 0.10, 0.20 or 0.40 m. beyond the use of plugs at spaced 0.20 and 0.40 m. Every 30 days there were performed measurements of the area and observed the percentage of occupancy with zoysiagrass. The analysis results indicated that plaques formats that approximate to a square, 0.40 x 0.20 x 0.25 m, with high width / length, and spacing of 0.10 m, have an occupancy rate of the larger area, 75.89% and 62.07% respectively compared with carpets with rectangular shapes, and also higher than the planting of plugs. The use of 0,40 x 0,25 m plaques, spaced of 0,10 m, allowed an economy of 36,5% in the initial costs.

  6. Disponibilidade de fósforo pelos extratores de Mehlich 1 e Resina em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, álico cultivado com três gramíneras forrageiras Availability of phosphorus by the Mehlich 1 and Resin methods in a Red Yellow Latosol cultivated with three grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de A. Corrêa

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um estudo comparando os extratores de Mehlich 1 e Resina na avaliação do P disponível em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, álico cultivado com as gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Stapf. cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum Jacq. Foram utilizados dados de dois ensaios de adubação fosfatada, um realizado em vasos em casa de vegetação e o outro no campo. Correlações entre o P extraído através de cada extrator com a produção relativa de matéria seca, o P extraído peía planta e o teor de P na planta, permitiram determinar o extrator de P mais eficiente. Os resultados mostraram que os dois extratores foram eficientes e similares na avaliação do P disponível para as três gramíneas forrageiras, sendo que o método da Resina apresentou maior capacidade de extração do P aplicado.This study was undertaken to compare the Mehlich 1 and Resin methods in the evaluation of available P in a Red Yellow Latossol, cultivated with Brachiaría decumbens Stapf., Brachiaría brízantha (Hochst. Stapf cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum Jacq. Data of two experiments of P fertilization were utilized, one carried out in the greenhouse and the other in the field. Correlations between the amount of P extracted by each extrator with the relative production of dry matter and of the amount of P extracted by the plant and the level of P in the plant, were used to determine the efficiency of the extractors. The results showed that both extractors were efficient and similar for the evaluation of the P availability of the three grasses, but the resin method had a greater extraction capacity of the P applied.

  7. The role of grass volatiles on oviposition site selection by Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hill, Sharon R; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-02-07

    The reproductive success and population dynamics, of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes is strongly influenced by the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Mosquitoes select oviposition sites at different spatial scales, starting with selecting a habitat in which to search. This study utilizes the association of larval abundance in the field with natural breeding habitats, dominated by various types of wild grasses, as a proxy for oviposition site selection by gravid mosquitoes. Moreover, the role of olfactory cues emanating from these habitats in the attraction and oviposition stimulation of females was analysed. The density of Anopheles larvae in breeding sites associated with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Echinochloa stagnina, Typha latifolia and Cyperus papyrus, was sampled and the larvae identified to species level. Headspace volatile extracts of the grasses were collected and used to assess behavioural attraction and oviposition stimulation of gravid Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes in wind tunnel and two-choice oviposition assays, respectively. The ability of the mosquitoes to differentiate among the grass volatile extracts was tested in multi-choice tent assays. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were the most abundant species found in the various grass-associated habitats. The larval densities described a hierarchical distribution, with Poaceae (Echinochloa pyramidalis and Echinochloa stagnina)-associated habitat sites demonstrating higher densities than that of Typha-associated sites, and where larvae were absent from Cyperus-associated sites. This hierarchy was maintained by gravid An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii mosquitoes in attraction, oviposition and multi-choice assays to grass volatile extracts. The demonstrated hierarchical preference of gravid An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis for grass volatiles indicates that vegetation cues associated with larval habitats are instrumental in the oviposition site choice of the malaria mosquitoes

  8. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  9. (IITA) Improved Spear Grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    ensure food security and combat poverty (Chikoye, Avav, Ellis-Jones, Kormawa,. Udensi, Tarawali and Nielson, 2005). One of such chronic weeds that has been a menace to sustainable food production in the forest/savanna transition zone of. Nigeria is Imperata cylindrinca (spear grass) (Avav and Okereke, 1999). It is a.

  10. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Metagenomics at Grass Roots. Sudeshna ... benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies.

  11. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  12. Ecological Genetics of Vernalization Response in Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MEYER, SUSAN E.; NELSON, DAVID L.; CARLSON, STEPHANIE L.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an exotic annual grass that is dominant over large areas of former shrubland in western North America. To flower in time for seed production in early summer, B. tectorum plants generally require vernalization at winter temperatures, either as imbibed seeds or as established seedlings.

  13. Ecological genetics of floret mass variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass, downy brome) is a highly invasive inbreeding annual grass that dominates millions of hectares of former shrubland in interior western North America. Factors contributing to its success include strong genetic regulation of key adaptive traits coupled with high phenotypic plasticity in response to resource availability (Meyer and Allen...

  14. Get Tough, Get Toxic, or Get a Bodyguard: Identifying Candidate Traits Conferring Belowground Resistance to Herbivores in Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-01-01

    Grasses (Poaceae) are the fifth-largest plant family by species and their uses for crops, forage, fiber, and fuel make them the most economically important. In grasslands, which broadly-defined cover 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface outside of Greenland and Antarctica, 40-60% of net primary productivity and 70-98% of invertebrate biomass occurs belowground, providing extensive scope for interactions between roots and rhizosphere invertebrates. Grasses invest 50-70% of fixed carbon into root construction, which suggests roots are high value tissues that should be defended from herbivores, but we know relatively little about such defenses. In this article, we identify candidate grass root defenses, including physical (tough) and chemical (toxic) resistance traits, together with indirect defenses involving recruitment of root herbivores' natural enemies. We draw on relevant literature to establish whether these defenses are present in grasses, and specifically in grass roots, and which herbivores of grasses are affected by these defenses. Physical defenses could include structural macro-molecules such as lignin, cellulose, suberin, and callose in addition to silica and calcium oxalate. Root hairs and rhizosheaths, a structural adaptation unique to grasses, might also play defensive roles. To date, only lignin and silica have been shown to negatively affect root herbivores. In terms of chemical resistance traits, nitrate, oxalic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, amino acids, cyanogenic glycosides, benzoxazinoids, phenolics, and proteinase inhibitors have the potential to negatively affect grass root herbivores. Several good examples demonstrate the existence of indirect defenses in grass roots, including maize, which can recruit entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) via emission of (E)-β-caryophyllene, and similar defenses are likely to be common. In producing this review, we aimed to equip researchers with candidate root defenses for further research.

  15. EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZATION AND SOIL CULTIVATION IN CROP ROTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Candráková, Eva; Richard POSPIŠIL; ONDREJČÍKOVÁ, Zora

    2009-01-01

    The experiment with the crop rotation: winter wheat, pea, corn, spring barley and cow-grass were founded in 2001- 2004. We examined the effect of the preceding crop, the soil cultivation and fertilization on yield of grain of the main product. The methods of soil cultivation: tillage to the depth of 0.25 m, to the depth of 0.15 m and cultivation where we used disk tools to the depth of 0.10 m. In the variants of fertilization had been used fertilization of the artificial fertilizer with the b...

  16. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  17. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  18. Germination Responses of Several Poaceae Members towards Differential Storage Durations

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna R. PANCHAL; Neeta R. PANDYA; Susy ALBERT; Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over biodiversity loss and increasing biological invasion have forced interest on assessment of the effects on native plant species diversity in grassland community. To observe different patterns of grass emergence (dormancy/germination) in the warm tropical grasslands of India, time span of a seed from the seedling stage to a mature plant becomes very crucial for the community development. In the present study seed germination response of six dominant species of the selected study a...

  19. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  20. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  1. Comparative molecular cytogenetic characterization of seven Deschampsia (Poaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V Amosova

    Full Text Available The genus Deschampsia P. Beauv (Poaceae involves a group of widespread polymorphic species. Some of them are highly tolerant to stressful and variable environmental conditions, and D. antarctica is one of the only two vascular plants growing in Antarctic. This species is a source of useful for selection traits and a valuable model for studying an environmental stress tolerance in plants. Genome diversity and comparative chromosomal phylogeny within the genus have not been studied yet as karyotypes of most Deschampsia species are poorly investigated. We firstly conducted a comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis of D. antarctica (Antarctic Peninsula and related species from various localities (D. cespitosa, D. danthonioides, D. elongata, D. flexuosa (= Avenella flexuosa, D. parvula and D. sukatschewii by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S and 5S rDNA, DAPI-banding and sequential rapid in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of D. antarctica, D. cespitosa, and D. flexuosa. Based on patterns of distribution of the examined markers, chromosomes of the studied species were identified. Within these species, common features as well as species peculiarities in their karyotypic structure and chromosomal distribution of molecular cytogenetic markers were characterized. Different chromosomal rearrangements were detected in D. antarctica, D. flexuosa, D. elongata and D. sukatschewii. In karyotypes of D. antarctica, D. cespitosa, D. elongata and D. sukatschewii, 0-3 B chromosomes possessed distinct DAPI-bands were observed. Our findings suggest that the genome evolution of the genus Deschampsia involved polyploidy and also different chromosomal rearrangements. The obtained results will help clarify the relationships within the genus Deschampsia, and can be a basis for the further genetic and biotechnological studies as well as for selection of plants tolerant to extreme habitats.

  2. Stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system in Mesosetum chaseae Luces (Poaceae), a native grass of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Valle, C B

    2013-10-25

    Mesosetum chaseae Luces, known regionally as "grama-do-cerrado", is abundant in the Pantanal region in Brazil and contributes significantly to livestock and environmental conservation. This species is under basic studies at Embrapa Pantanal (Nhecolândia subregion, Pantanal, Corumbá, MS, Brazil). In this study, we present data about stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system for 10 accessions collected in Nhecolândia subregion (Pantanal). Stigma receptivity was optimal, producing innumerous oxygen bubbles upon testing with hydrogen peroxidase. Clarified ovaries analyzed under interference microscopy showed an embryo sac of the Polygonum type, typical of sexual species. The mating system, tested in protected flowers, indicated allogamy. These data are important for subsidizing future breeding programs for this species.

  3. Presence of Multiple Mycotoxins and Other Fungal Metabolites in Native Grasses from a Wetland Ecosystem in Argentina Intended for Grazing Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Nichea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of several fungal metabolites, including mycotoxins in natural grasses (Poaceae intended for grazing cattle. A total number of 72 and 77 different metabolites were detected on 106 and 69 grass samples collected during 2011 and 2014, respectively. A total of 60 metabolites were found across both years. Among the few mycotoxins considered toxic for ruminants, no samples of natural grasses were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, ergot alkaloids, and gliotoxin, among others. However, we were able to detect important metabolites (toxic to ruminants such as type A trichothecenes, mainly T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin (up to 5000 µg/kg each, and zearalenone (up to 2000 µg/kg, all at very high frequencies and levels. Other fungal metabolites that were found to be prevalent were other Fusarium metabolites like beauvericin, equisetin and aurofusarin, metabolites produced by Alternaria spp., sterigmatocystin and its precursors and anthrachinone derivatives. It is important to point out that the profile of common metabolites was shared during both years of sampling, and also that the occurrence of important metabolites is not a sporadic event. Considering that this area of temperate grassland is used for grazing cattle all year long due to the richness in palatable grasses (Poaceae, the present work represents a starting point for further studies on the occurrence of multi-mycotoxins in natural grasses in order to have a complete picture of the extent of cattle exposure. Also, the present study shows that the presence of zeranol in urine of beef cattle may not be a consequence of illegal use of this banned substance, but the product of the natural occurrence of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in natural grasses intended for cattle feeding.

  4. Presence of Multiple Mycotoxins and Other Fungal Metabolites in Native Grasses from a Wetland Ecosystem in Argentina Intended for Grazing Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichea, María J.; Palacios, Sofia A.; Chiacchiera, Stella M.; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Chulze, Sofia N.; Torres, Adriana M.; Ramirez, María L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of several fungal metabolites, including mycotoxins in natural grasses (Poaceae) intended for grazing cattle. A total number of 72 and 77 different metabolites were detected on 106 and 69 grass samples collected during 2011 and 2014, respectively. A total of 60 metabolites were found across both years. Among the few mycotoxins considered toxic for ruminants, no samples of natural grasses were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, ergot alkaloids, and gliotoxin, among others. However, we were able to detect important metabolites (toxic to ruminants) such as type A trichothecenes, mainly T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin (up to 5000 µg/kg each), and zearalenone (up to 2000 µg/kg), all at very high frequencies and levels. Other fungal metabolites that were found to be prevalent were other Fusarium metabolites like beauvericin, equisetin and aurofusarin, metabolites produced by Alternaria spp., sterigmatocystin and its precursors and anthrachinone derivatives. It is important to point out that the profile of common metabolites was shared during both years of sampling, and also that the occurrence of important metabolites is not a sporadic event. Considering that this area of temperate grassland is used for grazing cattle all year long due to the richness in palatable grasses (Poaceae), the present work represents a starting point for further studies on the occurrence of multi-mycotoxins in natural grasses in order to have a complete picture of the extent of cattle exposure. Also, the present study shows that the presence of zeranol in urine of beef cattle may not be a consequence of illegal use of this banned substance, but the product of the natural occurrence of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in natural grasses intended for cattle feeding. PMID:26308052

  5. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  6. Auto-ecology of Guadua aff. paraguayana (Poaceae Autoecologia de Guadua aff. paraguayana Döll (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Galvão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Bamboos are agents of natural remediation, but its outbreak in an already established landscape may
    have an intense repercussion, completely changing the flora of the area. A study to determine the effects of the presence of Guadua aff. paraguayana Döll  (Poaceae found in the last remnants of the riparian forest in the areas of permanent preservation of the Wildlife Refuge of Rio Tibagi - a conservation unit in process of stablishment on the Parana’s second plateau, has been developed. This aggressive and opportunistic woody species develops vigorous tussocks in consequence of its pachymorph rhizome system a form of “short neck”; and gets established only on the higher portions of the degraded flood plain. The tussocks have an average size of 2.79 meters, with 11 stems/ m². The shooting season lasts, on average, four months and occurs between spring and summer. The culms have an average length of 13 m, with an increment of 18 cm/day during the stretch period. The average diameter at breast height is 4.25 cm. The tussocks are formed from only one stem that expands from extremely robust sprouts. When it shoots up over the canopy and receives direct sunlight, it forms a kind of braided branches and leaves capable of hardly increase the shade levels and suppress the established vegetation, changing the local succession patterns.

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.05

    Bambus são agentes de remediação natural, mas sua irrupção numa paisagem já estabelecida pode ter repercussão intensa, alterando completamente a florística da área. Para estabelecer os efeitos da presença de Guadua aff. paraguayana Döll (Poaceae – um dos pouco conhecidos bambus maciços do planeta – sobre os últimos remanescentes da Floresta Ombrófila Mista Aluvial, nas áreas de preservação permanente do Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Rio Tibagi, unidade de conservação em processo de criação no Segundo Planalto Paranaense, est

  7. Dilute ammonium hydroxide pretreatment of reed canary grass and its simultaneous saccharification and fermentation to ethanol using a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canary grass is a temperate perennial grass cultivated widely in the northern hemisphere that has been historically grown for forage. It has been proposed as a candidate bioenergy crop because of its high productivity and its ability to grow on marginal farmlands. The goal of this study was to ...

  8. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having

  11. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristan Djajadi, Demi; Hansen, Aleksander R.; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    and surface content of hemicellulose, lignin, and waxas assessed by ATR-FTIR rather than bulk biomass chemical composition correlated to the recalcitrance of the testedbiomass types. The data provide new insight into how hydrothermal pretreatment severity affects surface propertiesof key Poaceae...

  12. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    -ecological conditions. The present analysis also indicated that grass must be used as a vegetative strip to maintain soil quality in sloppy arable areas (8.5 Mha) of Indian hilly regions. Similarly, due attention should be paid for establishing grasses in 3 Mha of degraded pasture lands and 3.5 Mha of shifting cultivation areas in India to reverse the land degradation.

  13. Interactive effects of plant-available soil silicon and herbivory on competition between two grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Reidinger, Stefan; Hartley, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The herbivore defence system of true grasses (Poaceae) is predominantly based on silicon that is taken up from the soil and deposited in the leaves in the form of abrasive phytoliths. Silicon uptake mechanisms can be both passive and active, with the latter suggesting that there is an energetic cost to silicon uptake. This study assessed the effects of plant-available soil silicon and herbivory on the competitive interactions between the grasses Poa annua, a species that has previously been reported to accumulate only small amounts of silicon, and Lolium perenne, a high silicon accumulator. Methods Plants were grown in mono- and mixed cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plant-available soil silicon levels were manipulated by adding silicon to the soil in the form of sodium silicate. Subsets of mixed culture pots were exposed to above-ground herbivory by desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). Key Results In the absence of herbivory, silicon addition increased biomass of P. annua but decreased biomass of L. perenne. Silicon addition increased foliar silicon concentrations of both grass species >4-fold. Under low soil-silicon availability the herbivores removed more leaf biomass from L. perenne than from P. annua, whereas under high silicon availability the reverse was true. Consequently, herbivory shifted the competitive balance between the two grass species, with the outcome depending on the availability of soil silicon. Conclusions It is concluded that a complex interplay between herbivore abundance, growth–defence trade-offs and the availability of soil silicon in the grasses' local environment affects the outcome of inter-specific competition, and so has the potential to impact on plant community structure. PMID:21868406

  14. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat, barley, oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub...

  15. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna

  16. Desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Poaceae (Poales Post-seminal development of Poaceae species (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tiemi Nakamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de um padrão do desenvolvimento pós-seminal em Poaceae. Para tanto, foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae. Procurou-se também comparar as estruturas da plântula de Poaceae com as demais monocotiledôneas. As espécies estudadas são plantas perenes, rizomatosas, cespitosas e apresentam cariopses de tamanhos diferentes. Apresentam sementes albuminosas; embrião lateral, diferenciado, com raiz endógena (adventícia; cotilédone dividido em hiperfilo (escutelo, bainha reduzida e hipofilo (coleóptilo; coleorriza (raiz primária reduzida e mesocótilo (eixo localizado entre o escutelo e coleóptilo. A presença de epiblasto (folha embrionária foi observada em Olyra humilis, Chloris elata e Eragrostis solida. O desenvolvimento pós-seminal é semelhante nas espécies estudadas e forma um padrão em Poaceae. Primeiramente, observa-se a emissão da coleorriza, que cresce no sentido geotrópico positivo, seguida do coleóptilo e plúmula que crescem em sentido contrário, a partir do desenvolvimento do mesocótilo. As primeiras folhas são semelhantes às folhas definitivas (metafilos das espécies, exceto em Olyra humilis, que são modificadas em catafilos e podem ser interpretadas como caráter basal em Bambusoideae. Raiz primária reduzida (coleorriza e hipofilo modificado em coleóptilo são considerados caracteres derivados em Poaceae, quando comparados com as demais monocotiledôneas.This work has aimed to verify the existence of a pattern of the post-seminal development in Poaceae. Thus, Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae have been studied. Besides, it was compared the structures of

  17. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  18. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  20. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  1. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  2. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  3. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  4. An approach on phytoalexins: function, characterization and biosynthesis in plants of the family Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejanne Lima Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phytoalexins are compounds that have been studied a few years ago, which present mainly antimicrobial activity. The plants of the family Poaceae are the most geographically widespread and stand out for their economic importance, once they are cereals used as staple food. This family stands out for having a variety of phytoalexins, which can be synthesized via the shikimic acid (the phenylpropanoids, or mevalonic acid, being considered terpenoid phytoalexins. The characterization of these compounds with antimicrobial activity is carried out using chromatographic techniques, and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry are the most efficient methods in this process. This research aimed to present an approach of the function, characterization and biosynthesis of phytoalexins in plants of the family Poaceae.

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  6. Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa, (Poaceae), Two New Reports from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq Ahmad; Mansoor Hameed; Khawaja Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa (Poaceae) are reported for the first time in Pakistan. Tetrapogon cenchriformis is characterized by spatheolate inflorescence, oval elliptic seeds and large stomatal complex, while Parapholis strigosa has long anthers and straight spikes. Anthers are larger in P. strigosa than in Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb. These two new reported species showed marked difference from the other species of Parapholis and Tetrapogon treated in flora of Paki...

  7. Diversity of phytopathogenic bacteria of genus Xanthomonas isolated from Poaceae plants in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    EGOROVA M.S.; MAZURIN E.S.; POLITYKO V.A.; IGNATOV A.N.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the published data on a composition of plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas damaging plant of family Poaceae (cereals) in Russia together with our new data obtained from surveys of cereal seeds from different regions of Russia. We assayed the xanthomonads on cereal seeds from different regions and have identified for the first time pathogens similar to species X. hortorum, X. campestris, X. cynarae, X. pisi, and X. gardeneri, which have not been reported yet on the c...

  8. When did C4 Photosynthesis originate: New evidence from δ13C analysis of single grass-pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Pearson, A.; Hu, F.

    2009-12-01

    C4 grasses account for >20% of global primary productivity and dominate tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate grassland ecosystems. Thus it is vital to understand when and why C4 photosynthesis first evolved in the grass family (Poaceae). However, because of limitations of most proxies, the origin of C4 grasses remains ambiguous. Grass pollen is morphologically indistinct below the family level, making pollen analysis a crude instrument for studying C4-grass evolution. Previous studies have investigated the timing of C4 evolution using molecular tools and δ13C records from n-alkanes, ungulate teeth, and paleosols, but they yield disparate results. Molecular clocks suggest that C4 grasses first evolved between 27 and 36 Ma (million years before present), coincident with the Oligocene decline in pCO2 from >1000 to <500 ppm. In contrast, δ13C-based approaches do not detect the presence of C4 grasses until the middle Miocene, indicating that they were previously uncommon or absent on the landscape. To investigate when C4 photosynthesis first appeared in the grass family, we utilized Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis (SPIRAL), a technique that reliably distinguishes C4 from C3 grass pollen via δ13C. We analyzed 837 single grains of grass pollen from eight lacustrine geological samples (~100 grains/sample) from France and Spain spanning the earliest Oligocene to middle Miocene. To distinguish C3/C4 ratios, we used an optimal threshold value of -19.2‰ adjusted for small (~1‰) temporal variations in atmospheric δ13C. Initial results provide unequivocal evidence of C4 grass pollen in all samples (24-57% C4 grass pollen ±9.2% on average) lending further credence to the molecular data, which posits that C4 grasses appeared as early as the Late Eocene, which is a plausible outcome when considering alternate schemes of dating phylogenetic trees. A C4 origin prior to pCO2 reaching its lowest levels of the Cenozoic at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary indicates that

  9. Germination Responses of Several Poaceae Members towards Differential Storage Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R. PANCHAL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over biodiversity loss and increasing biological invasion have forced interest on assessment of the effects on native plant species diversity in grassland community. To observe different patterns of grass emergence (dormancy/germination in the warm tropical grasslands of India, time span of a seed from the seedling stage to a mature plant becomes very crucial for the community development. In the present study seed germination response of six dominant species of the selected study area were tested to record the various effects of dry storage conditions on seed germinability. The species selected were Apluda mutica L., Cenchrus ciliaris L., Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng. Chiov., Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk. Stapf., Heteropogon contortus (L. P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult. and Themeda triandra (R. Br. Stapf. For this purpose, seed collection at mature seed stage, seed processing and dry seed storage were followed by the germination test system. Obtained results are exhibited in the form of different responses such as, species response patterns towards capacity for immediate germination, responses to dormancy, dry storage and temperature fluctuation. The extent of the requirement in breakage of primary dormancy was highly correlated with the timing of seed maturity, precursors of seed dormancy and seed viability. In present screening out of the six studied species Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Dichanthium annulatum showed dependable germination pattern to fluctuating temperature. The correlation between viability and germination suggests that the germination of Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Themeda triandra are linearly dependent on the viability that the seeds of these species have. As these species showed less influence with the relative fluctuating environment, they can be stored for longer period and frequently can be use for community regeneration in pasture development.

  10. Phytoremediation of chlorobenzenes in sewage sludge cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum at different times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anarelly C. Alvarenga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the major limitations of sewage sludge agricultural use is the presence of chlorobenzenes (CBs, which are toxic to the environment. The use of techniques of sewage sludge phytoremediation can be an important alternative for the degradation of these substances in the waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Pennisetum purpureum cultivation time on the reduction of the concentrations of 1,4-CB and 1,3,5-CB in sewage sludge. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a randomized block design. The treatments consisted of five periods of Poaceae cultivation in sewage sludge plots (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days and a control (sludge plots not cultivated. At 150 days, the control, in the layer of 0-20 cm, showed higher concentrations of 1,3,5-CB, compared with the same layer of cultivated sludge. In the cultivated sludge, in the 10-20 cm layer, there was a decrease in the concentrations of 1,4-CB, while in the layer of 20-30 cm, both concentrations decreased. The observed reductions may be the result of mutualistic interactions between decomposer organisms and the roots of P. purpureum, favoring the decomposition process.

  11. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  12. Multigenic phylogeny and analysis of tree incongruences in Triticeae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhaumon Claire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgressive events (e.g., hybridization, gene flow, horizontal gene transfer and incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms are a challenge for phylogenetic analyses since different genes may exhibit conflicting genealogical histories. Grasses of the Triticeae tribe provide a particularly striking example of incongruence among gene trees. Previous phylogenies, mostly inferred with one gene, are in conflict for several taxon positions. Therefore, obtaining a resolved picture of relationships among genera and species of this tribe has been a challenging task. Here, we obtain the most comprehensive molecular dataset to date in Triticeae, including one chloroplastic and 26 nuclear genes. We aim to test whether it is possible to infer phylogenetic relationships in the face of (potentially large-scale introgressive events and/or incomplete lineage sorting; to identify parts of the evolutionary history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner; and to decipher the biological causes of gene-tree conflicts in this tribe. Results We obtain resolved phylogenetic hypotheses using the supermatrix and Bayesian Concordance Factors (BCF approaches despite numerous incongruences among gene trees. These phylogenies suggest the existence of 4-5 major clades within Triticeae, with Psathyrostachys and Hordeum being the deepest genera. In addition, we construct a multigenic network that highlights parts of the Triticeae history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner. Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium and genera of clade V, grouping Secale, Taeniatherum, Triticum and Aegilops, have evolved in a reticulated manner. Their relationships are thus better represented by the multigenic network than by the supermatrix or BCF trees. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that gene-tree incongruences increase with genetic distance and are greater in telomeric than centromeric genes. Together, our results suggest that recombination is the main factor

  13. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Goudinho Viana, Willian; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Feldman, Max; Priest, Henry D; Trontin, Charlotte; Lee, Tak; Jiang, Hui; Baxter, Ivan; Mockler, Todd C; Hochholdinger, Frank; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R

    2016-08-02

    Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity.

  14. Are loline alkaloid levels regulated in grass endophytes by gene expression or substrate availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Blankenship, Jimmy D

    2010-01-01

    Many cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfam. Pooideae) possess seed-borne fungal symbionts, the epichloae, known for their bioprotective properties and especially for production of anti-insect alkaloids such as lolines. Asexual epichloae (Neotyphodium species) are primarily or entirely transmitted vertically, whereas the sexual structures (stromata) of the related Epichloä species give rise to horizontally transmissible spores (ascospores). In certain grass-Neotyphodium species symbiota, levels of lolines are extremely high and apparently limited by availability of precursor amino acids, whereas sexual epichloae generally produce much lower levels. This may reflect the inherent conflict between the vertical and horizontal transmission; although the plant and seeds may be protected by the alkaloids, the sexual cycle depends on anthomyiid flies for cross-fertilization. Given this insect role, we predicted that loline biosynthesis would be down-regulated in the stromata relative to the corresponding asymptomatic tissues (inflorescences) of the same symbiota. This prediction was substantiated, and RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that the loline biosynthesis genes are dramatically upregulated in asymptomatic inflorescences compared to stromata. The fundamental difference between asexual and sexual epichloae in regulation of loline alkaloid levels is in keeping with evolutionary trends for greater host control on metabolism of their vertically transmitted symbionts compared to contagious symbionts. PMID:21051952

  15. Leaf anatomy of emerald grass submitted to quantitative application of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira Marques

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides applied in post-emergence on Zoysia japonica Steud (Poaceae and determine associations with the leaf anatomy of this grass. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were the application of the herbicides bentazon (720 g ha-1, nicosulfuron (50 g ha-1, halosulfuron (112.5 g ha-1, oxadiazon (875 g ha-1 and 2.4-D (698 g ha-1, plus a control treatment without herbicide application. Phytotoxicity was assessed every seven days after application (DAA of the herbicides until the symptoms disappeared. Foliar anatomical analyses of the leaves in the collected grass were conducted until the 35th DAA. The quantitative characters of the keel and wing region of the blade of Z. japonica were assessed, as well as the biometric characters, which were submitted to an analysis of variance F test, and the averages were compared by Tukey’s test at a probability of 5%. The values of the anatomical characters of the foliar blade were tested by cluster analysis. The application of herbicides did not negatively influence the height of the plants but did reduce their dry mass. Toxic symptoms disappeared after 21 DAA, with the only symptoms of injury observed in plants treated with the herbicides oxadiazon and nicosulfuron. In addition, the cluster analysis indicated the formation of a unique discriminatory group. Thus, the results show that the herbicides applied to Z. japonica were selective for the species.

  16. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (lemon grass aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo M. Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL. The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.O capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, é uma importante espécie da família Poaceae com uma comum utilização na medicina popular em vários países. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos do extrato aquoso das folhas de C. citratus em células meristemáticas de Lactuca sativa (alface por meio de estudos citogenéticos, uma vez que estudos desta natureza não existem para extratos aquosos de capim-limão. Para isso, sementes de alface foram tratadas por 72h com diferentes concentrações de extratos aquosos feitos das folhas de capim-limão (5, 10, 20 e 30 mg/mL. O percentual de germinação, desenvolvimento radicular e o comportamento celular foram avaliados e os resultados mostraram que as concentrações mais elevadas dos extratos aquosos reduziram o índice mitótico, o percentual de germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento radicular da alface. Os extratos também induziram aberrações cromossômicas e morte celular nas células das raízes de L. sativa.

  17. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador.

  18. Pervasive survival of expressed mitochondrial rps14 pseudogenes in grasses and their relatives for 80 million years following three functional transfers to the nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many mitochondrial genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, have been frequently transferred as functional entities to the nucleus during plant evolution, often by an RNA-mediated process. A notable case of transfer involves the rps14 gene of three grasses (rice, maize, and wheat, which has been relocated to the intron of the nuclear sdh2 gene and which is expressed and targeted to the mitochondrion via alternative splicing and usage of the sdh2 targeting peptide. Although this transfer occurred at least 50 million years ago, i.e., in a common ancestor of these three grasses, it is striking that expressed, nearly intact pseudogenes of rps14 are retained in the mitochondrial genomes of both rice and wheat. To determine how ancient this transfer is, the extent to which mitochondrial rps14 has been retained and is expressed in grasses, and whether other transfers of rps14 have occurred in grasses and their relatives, we investigated the structure, expression, and phylogeny of mitochondrial and nuclear rps14 genes from 32 additional genera of grasses and from 9 other members of the Poales. Results Filter hybridization experiments showed that rps14 sequences are present in the mitochondrial genomes of all examined Poales except for members of the grass subfamily Panicoideae (to which maize belongs. However, PCR amplification and sequencing revealed that the mitochondrial rps14 genes of all examined grasses (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Joinvilleaceae are pseudogenes, with all those from the Poaceae sharing two 4-NT frameshift deletions and all those from the Cyperaceae sharing a 5-NT insertion (only one member of the Joinvilleaceae was examined. cDNA analysis showed that all mitochondrial pseudogenes examined (from all three families are transcribed, that most are RNA edited, and that surprisingly many of the edits are reverse (U→C edits. Putatively nuclear copies of rps14 were isolated from one to several members of each of these

  19. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  20. Produção de capins cultivados sob pastejo em diferentes lâminas de irrigação e estações anuais Production of pasture grasses cultivated under grazing in different irrigation depths and seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. B. de Alencar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a produtividade de matéria seca de seis gramíneas, sob efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação, em diferentes estações do ano. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas havendo, nas parcelas seis gramíneas (Xaraés, Mombaça, Tanzânia, Pioneiro, Marandu e Estrela, nas subparcelas, seis lâminas de irrigação (0, 18, 45, 77, 100 e 120% da referência e, nas subsubparcelas, as estações (outono/inverno e primavera/verão no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. Para diferenciar a aplicação das lâminas de irrigação, utilizou-se o sistema por aspersão em linha. O efeito proporcionado pelas diferentes gramíneas na produtividade de matéria seca dependeu da lâmina de irrigação e da estação do ano. De forma geral, a estação primavera/verão, em virtude de apresentar maior temperatura, proporcionou também maior produtividade em relação à estação outono/inverno. As lâminas de irrigação foram dependentes da estação para conferir efeito, ensejando maior produtividade apenas na estação outono/inverno. O capim-xaraés possui maior produtividade de matéria seca.This study aimed at evaluating the dry matter yield of six grasses under different irrigation depths and seasons. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two replications, in split-split plots. Six grasses (Xaraes, Mombaça, Tanzania, Pioneiro, Marandu and Estrela constituted the plots, the irrigation depths (0, 18, 45, 77, 100 and 120% of the reference evapotranspiration corresponded to the split-plots, and seasons (autumn/winter and spring/summer the split-split-plots. A line source sprinkler system was used to vary the application of different depths of irrigation. The dry-matter yield of different grasses was dependent on irrigation depth and season. In general, the spring/summer season, because of higher temperatures, resulted in

  1. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ..... sativa L.) pastures. Ph.D Dissertation presented to ... Production curves for the six most important grass species in the western ...

  2. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  3. Making it in a 'saturated' market. How the Spence Center wins women's hearts with grass-roots marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P L

    1997-01-01

    The Spence Centers, full-service, independent clinics for women, depend on grass-roots outreach to cultivate customers and build brand equity. The Centers have garnered national and international press coverage and made enough friends to open a fourth operation.

  4. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    manually or with hydraulic press to produce briquettes for use in stove. However, there is sufficient literature suggesting the use of grass species for animal husbandry. Odia [5] examined the energy potential dried leaves and agricultural residues. As a follow up on the previous research attempts on biomass fuel, this work is ...

  5. Allergenicity and crossreactivity of buffalo grass ( Stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In the subtropical climate of South Africa, grasses of the subfamily Panicoideae are predominant. Bermuda grass has previously been shown to be an important local allergen, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes of Bermuda grass extracts are known to be distinct from those of the Pooid pollen extracts.

  6. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis: a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangyan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6% of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  8. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  9. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  10. Micofilas, endófitos fúngicos y alcaloides en poblaciones de Melica stuckertii (Poaceae) del Centro de Argentina Mycophyllas, fungal endophytes and alkaloids in populations of Melica stuckertii (Poaceae) from central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia A. Benavente; Marcela Kurina-Sanz; Mónica A Lugo

    2008-01-01

    Los vástagos de Poaceae pueden establecer con Ascomycetes (Balansieae) asociaciones simbióticas endofíticas denominadas micofilas. Las gramíneas no pueden sintetizar alcaloides en ausencia del endófito fúngico. Melica stuckertii Hack. es una Poaceae nativa de amplia distribución en el país. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar tres poblaciones de M. stuckertii de San Luis (Argentina), considerando: la presencia y frecuencia de endófitos, la producción de alcaloides en la asociación y el s...

  11. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Torres, Andres F.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops—maize, sugarcane and sorghum—and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses—miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  12. Genetic improvement and diversity in Snake River wheatgrass (Elymus wawawaiensis) (Poaceae: Triticeae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased emphasis to use native plant materials in range revegetation programs in the western US, it is critical to develop native grasses that are competitive with invasive weeds, easy to establish, persistent, and produce high seed yield. One such native grass species with appreciable d...

  13. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR-triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities.

  14. Stages of steppe landscapes formation in Euroasia aspects of Poaceae species evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Avdeyev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the geography of the most important taxons(genus, species) of the Poaceae family within the limits of tropical and boreal flora. To make more precise the taxons origin and their evolution age the data on species cariology have been used. It is for the first time that the use of data on protein (molecular) markers and sulphur content in the seeds of species under study has been substantiated. The analysis of all the above data shows that their combined use is rather...

  15. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  16. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez-Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica. The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α. The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae is presented.

  17. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented.

  18. Genome-wide characterization of the biggest grass, bamboo, based on 10,608 putative full-length cDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chuanrang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the availability of rice and sorghum genome sequences and ongoing efforts to sequence genomes of other cereal and energy crops, the grass family (Poaceae has become a model system for comparative genomics and for better understanding gene and genome evolution that underlies phenotypic and ecological divergence of plants. While the genomic resources have accumulated rapidly for almost all major lineages of grasses, bamboo remains the only large subfamily of Poaceae with little genomic information available in databases, which seriously hampers our ability to take a full advantage of the wealth of grass genomic data for effective comparative studies. Results Here we report the cloning and sequencing of 10,608 putative full length cDNAs (FL-cDNAs primarily from Moso bamboo, Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological and economic values of all bamboos. This represents the third largest FL-cDNA collection to date of all plant species, and provides the first insight into the gene and genome structures of bamboos. We developed a Moso bamboo genomic resource database that so far contained the sequences of 10,608 putative FL-cDNAs and nearly 38,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated in this study. Conclusion Analysis of FL-cDNA sequences show that bamboo diverged from its close relatives such as rice, wheat, and barley through an adaptive radiation. A comparative analysis of the lignin biosynthesis pathway between bamboo and rice suggested that genes encoding caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase may serve as targets for genetic manipulation of lignin content to reduce pollutants generated from bamboo pulping.

  19. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  20. Cultivating the Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen

    1988-01-01

    Although administrators may view grapevines as threats to established leadership, informal communication is necessary to keep an organization functioning smoothly. No one can completely control the grapevine or its accuracy, but astute administrators can learn to cultivate and use informal communication systems wisely. (MLH)

  1. Comparison between Urea and Goat Manure as Sources of Nitrogen for Napier Grass Grown on Terraced Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two nitrogen (N sources on dry matter (DM yield and nutritive value of Napier grass were evaluated. The nitrogen (N fertiliser (at rate of 300 kg N ha?1 year?1 was applied by dividing the terraces of a hill under two treatments: T1 (urea and T2 (goat manure. There were three replicates of each treatment arranged within three blocks in a completely randomised design. Grass was cut at about 60?day interval. In the first to fourth harvests, grass receiving manure had higher plant height than those with urea application. Grass receiving manure had higher DM yield than urea in almost all of the cuttings. In the fourth harvest, grass receiving urea contained higher DM and organic matter (OM than manure. Similar result was found for fifth harvest where urea gave higher crude protein (CP than manure. Irrespective of harvesting frequencies, average DM, OM, CP and neutral detergent fibre contents were not significantly different between grasses fertilised with manure and urea. In conclusion, manure is recommended for economical cultivation of Napier grass on terrace of hill.

  2. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  3. Chemotaxonomic significance of distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of long-chain alkanes and alkan-1-ols in C{sub 4} grass waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommerskirchen, F.; Plader, A. [Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg (Germany). Institute of Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment; Eglinton, G. [Hanse Institute for Advanced Study, Delmenhorst (Germany); Chikaraishii, Yoshito [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka (Japan). Institute for Research on Earth Evolution

    2006-10-15

    Grasses (Poaceae) are distributed across the world in broad latitudinal belts and are an important source of C4 biomass in the geological record of soils as well as lake and marine sediments. We examined long-chain leaf wax components of thirty-five C{sub 4} grasses of the subfamilies Aristidoideae, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae from the southern African grasslands and savannas and three C{sub 3} grasses of the subfamily Pooideae from Peru and Australia and review the relevant botanical, phytogeographic and leaf wax compositional background information. Contents, distribution patterns and molecular stable carbon isotopic compositions of long-chain n-alkanes (n-C{sub 27} to n-C{sub 35}) and n-alkan-1-ols (n-C{sub 22} to n-C{sub 32}) were used to estimate the chemotaxonomic relevance of wax signatures of whole plants, separately for different subfamilies and for members of the three C{sub 4} subtypes (NADP-ME, NAD-ME and PCK). Two grass species were separated into flower heads, leaves and stems and the parts analysed separately. Grass flowers contain remarkable amounts of short-chain n-alkanes, which may have a significant influence on the chemical signature of the whole plant, whereas n-alkanol distribution patterns exhibit no systematics. The stable carbon isotopic composition of both biomarker types in different plant parts is remarkably uniform. Chemotaxonomic differentiation was not possible on a species level based on whole plant samples, but was more successful for averages of subfamily and photosynthetic subtype data. Wax signatures of C{sub 4} grasses are generally distinguishable from those of C{sub 3} species by heavier isotopic values, higher contents of n-C{sub 31} and n-C{sub 33} alkanes and the abundance of the n-C{sub 32} n-alkanol, which is largely absent in C{sub 3} grass waxes. Especially the waxes of the NAD-ME and PCK C{sub 4}-subtype grasses, which thrive in extremely arid tropical and subtropical areas, contain high relative amounts of longer

  4. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers to identify species in the Agrostis complex (Poaceae) and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Zapiola; Richard C. Cronn; Carol A. Mallory-Smith

    2010-01-01

    We needed a reliable way to identify species and confirm potential interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in a landscape-level study of gene flow from transgenic gylphosate-resistant Agrostis stolonifera (Poaceae) to compatible relatives. We developed 12 new polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to aid in identifying species recipient of...

  5. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  6. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  7. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  8. Cultivating Leaders of Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    yaryyeva, Annagul; Sdunzik, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    "Cultivating Leaders of Indiana" was developed to establish connections between the Purdue student body and the Frankfort community. By engaging high school students in workshops that focused on local, national, and global identities, the goal of the project was to encourage students to appreciate their individuality and to motivate them to translate their skills into a global perspective.Moreover, workshops centering on themes such as culture, citizenship, media, and education were designed ...

  9. L-band radar scattering from grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  10. Discovery of natural Miscanthus (Poaceae) triploid plants in sympatric populations of Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Miscanthus sinensis in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Aya; Mizuguti, Aki; Kuwabara, Shotaro; Toma, Yo; Ishigaki, Genki; Miyashita, Tomomi; Yamada, Toshihiko; Matuura, Hiroya; Yamaguchi, Sachi; Rayburn, A Lane; Akashi, Ryo; Stewart, J Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Looming petroleum shortages and projected negative impacts of human-induced climate change may be partly alleviated by the development and use of bioenergy feedstock crops. Miscanthus ×giganteus, a highly productive sterile triploid hybrid grass that was discovered in Japan several decades ago, has considerable potential as an alternative source of energy. Given the risks, however, involved in the reliance upon production of one clone of this hybrid, which is a natural cross between Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Miscanthus sinensis, for lignocellulosic bioenergy production, natural occurrences of triploidy were investigated in sympatric populations of tetraploid M. sacchariflorus and diploid M. sinensis in Japan. Seeds were counted and DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry for plants of M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in several sympatric populations throughout Japan. Chromosomes were also counted for select plants. Based on seed-set data, M. sacchariflorus has significantly lower seed set than M. sinensis in Japan. Putative triploid seeds were found on M. sacchariflorus plants in southern Japan. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of Miscanthus triploid plants in several decades. If found to be sterile and similar in productivity to the commonly cultivated clone of M. ×giganteus, these triploid plants might serve as additional sources of genetic variation for bioenergy production. Seed set data also indicates that other triploid plants might be found in more northern regions of Japan.

  11. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between mature grass plants and grass seedlings have been found to be both facilitative and competitive. To examine the effects of aboveground and belowground competition on seedling biomass and the effects of soil depth on competitive interactions, seedlings of three locally common grass species ...

  12. De novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provides First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Meena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavour, fragrance, cosmetic and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step towards understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases (TPS, pyrophosphatases (PPase, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, aldo-keto reductases (AKR, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD, alcohol acetyltransferases (AAT and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified enzymes in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  13. Agronomic and economic evaluation of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) as means for phytoremediation of diesel polluted soils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Nativ; Tsion, Itai; Shamir, Shiri Zemah; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Shachter, Alona; Haim, Abraham

    2018-01-29

    Soil pollution in Israel, due to diesel contamination, is a major concern, with gas stations, factories and refineries being the main polluters (>60%). Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family, and is recognized world-wide for its potential as a plant with phytoremediation traits to contaminated soils. It is demonstrated here to decrease diesel contamination in field and court-yard trials. Chemical soil analysis indicated up to a 79% decrease (P diesel pollution of contaminated soil planted with Vetiver; and at high soil contamination levels of 10 L/m2, a significant (P diesel and planted with Vetiver, weeds' biomass recovered to non-polluted levels following 8 to 9 months of Vetiver treatment. An economic evaluation conducted based on the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles, utilizing the Net Present Value (NPV) compared phytoremediation to other currently used decontamination procedures. The economic comparison showed that phytoremediation cleanup costs are lower and more beneficial to society at large, primarily from an ecosystem services perspective. Combining the results of the agronomic examination with the economic valuation, this research pointed out that phytoremediation with Vetiver has a non-negligible potential, making it a good solution for cleansing diesel from soils on a state-wide scale in Israel and worthy of further research and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Allelopathic effects of Artemisia frigida on three Poaceae plants seed germination and seedling growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Jian; Xu, Wen-bo; Wang, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of Artemisia frigida leaf and stem and soils beneath A. frigida were used to test their allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of three Poaceae plants (Leymus chinensis, Stipa krylovii, and Cleistogenes squarrosa) on Leymus chinensis grassland. The aqueous extracts of A. frigida leaf and stem decreased the seed germination index of test plants and prolonged their seed germination time, and inhibited the shoot growth of the three plants and the root growth of S. krylovii. The aqueous extracts at concentration > or = 0.075 g x ml(-1) presented a strong inhibition on the root growth of L. chinensis, while those at concentration L. chinense > C. squarrosa, with a higher sensitivity of root growth than shoot growth.

  15. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  16. Phythochemical screening and anticonvulsant activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae) leaf essential oil in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintans-Júnior, L J; Souza, T T; Leite, B S; Lessa, N M N; Bonjardim, L R; Santos, M R V; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Antoniolli, A R

    2008-08-01

    Cymbopogon winterianus (Poaceae) is used for its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. This report aimed to perform phythochemical screening and to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effects of the essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves of C. winterianus in different models of epilepsy. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of geraniol (40.06%), citronellal (27.44%) and citronellol (10.45%) as the main compounds. A behavioral screening demonstrated that EO (100, 200 and 400mg/kg; ip) caused depressant activity on CNS. When administered concurrently, EO (200 and 400mg/kg, ip) significantly reduced the number of animals that exhibited PTZ- and PIC-induced seizures in 50% of the experimental animals (p400mg/kg, ip) significantly increased (p<0.05) the latencies of clonic seizures induced by STR. Our results demonstrated a possible activity anticonvulsant of the EO.

  17. Poaceae: Triticeae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PI499638. Xinjiang, China. 36. PI531752. Estonia. 37. PI531753. Estonia. 38. W614049. Russian Federation. 39. P. strigosa subsp. aegilopoides. PI531754. Xinjiang, China. 40. PI531755. Xinjiang, China. 41. PI565082. Xinjiang, China. 42. PI595164. Xinjiang, China. 43. PI595172. Xinjiang, China. 44. PI636577. Mongolia.

  18. Contribución al conocimiento de la anatomía foliar de las "Aveneae (Poaceae, Pooideae) del centro-oeste de España

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, Josefa

    1990-01-01

    The anatomical characteristics of leaves in 29 taxa of Aveneae (Poaceae) from Spain were studied and their systematic relevance discussed. Se estudia la anatomía foliar de 29 táxones de la tribu A veneae (Poaceae) presentes en la flora española y se discuten algunas peculiaridades de interés en la sistemática del grupo.

  19. Modelling of strategic grass harvest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiessen, M.; Mourik, van S.; Evert, van F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Grass harvest plays a crucial role in milk production. Farmers face the problem of timing the harvest with respect to quality (crude protein content) and quantity (dry matter yield). Literature suggests that harvesting more frequently and thereby keeping the grass short (light harvesting) will

  20. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    gamba grass and bagasse was 0.8 (RK<1) while pineapple leaf and maize stalk have Runkel ratio of 0.9 (RK<1). Peel from maize cob and Bahaman grass have Runkel Ratio of 1. (RK=1). Calculated fibre derivatives indicated that the non wood raw materials were good in pulp and papermaking. Key words: Non-wood fibre, ...

  1. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. RESULTS of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that

  2. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  3. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  4. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  5. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pimentel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding (ndhF, matk and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, trnT-L and trnL-F, in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae.

  6. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae) associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Manuel; Escudero, Marcial; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Minaya, Miguel Ángel; Catalán, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding (ndhF, matk) and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, trnT-L and trnL-F), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae.

  7. Reed canary grass as energy and fiber raw material; Roerflen som energi- och fiberraavara. En system- och ekonomistudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf; Rosenqvist, H.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Burvall, J.; Finell, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this report, a system and economic analysis is reported for cultivation of RCG for energy purpose and as a raw material for the paper industry. The interest in cultivation of Reed Canary Grass (RCG) is growing in Sweden due to the new tax on waste disposal, since sewage sludge could be recycled in RCG cultivation. Increased carbon sinks in soil is another positive factor. Plant selection work in Finland and Sweden have resulted in 20% higher harvests than the feed varieties of RCG. Silty/sandy soils give highest yields. Before investments could be made in paper industry, a production volume of about 100,000 tons/year would have to be reached, demand a cultivation area of about 40,000 ha. The initial market before this level is reached should be the energy sector, specially smaller district heating systems. Processed to pellets, briquettes or powder, RCG can substitute fuel oil.

  8. Copper and zinc fractionation in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely S. A. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals on the biosolid, it is necessary to promote its phytoremediation. It is important to know the total content and chemical forms of these elements in the residue for analyzing its behavior and potential toxicity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fractionation and behavior of Cu and Zn in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design. The treatments, with five replicates, corresponded to Pennisetum purpureum cultivation in biosolid for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting. The total contents of Cu and Zn in the biosolid remained below the critical limits established by the CONAMA Resolution 357, and there was a reduction in these values with Pennisetum purpureum cultivation. Furthermore, the increment in the grass cultivation period caused intense reduction of Zn contents bound to organic matter, but there was an increase in soluble Zn and residual Zn. Additionally, there was an intense reduction in the content of Cu bound to sulfides. Therefore, for biosolid phytoremediation purposes, the grass should be cultivated for 150 days.

  9. Genes and QTLs controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) Wildrye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Grass inflorescence and stem branches show recognizable architectural differences among species. The inflorescence branches of Triticeae cereals and grasses, including wheat, barley, and 400-500 wild species, are usually contracted into a spike formation, with the number of flowering branches (spikelets) per node conserved within species and genera. Perennial Triticeae grasses of genus Leymus are unusual in that the number of spikelets per node varies, inflorescences may have panicle branches, and vegetative stems may form subterranean rhizomes. Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides show discrete differences in inflorescence length, branching architecture, node number, and density; number of spikelets per node and florets per spikelet; culm length and width; and perimeter of rhizomatous spreading. Quantitative trait loci controlling these traits were detected in 2 pseudo-backcross populations derived from the interspecific hybrids using a linkage map with 360 expressed gene sequence markers from Leymus tiller and rhizome branch meristems. Alignments of genes, mutations, and quantitative trait loci controlling similar traits in other grass species were identified using the Brachypodium genome reference sequence. Evidence suggests that loci controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus are conserved among the grasses, are governed by natural selection, and can serve as possible gene targets for improving seed, forage, and grain production.

  10. Leaf silica concentration in Serengeti grasses increases with watering but not clipping: insights from a common garden study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kathleen M; Anderson, T M

    2014-01-01

    Grasses (Poaceae) lack the complex biochemical pathways and structural defenses employed by other plant families; instead they deposit microscopic silica (SiO2) granules in their leaf blades (i.e., phytoliths) as a putative defense strategy. Silica accumulation in grasses has generally been considered an inducible defense; other research suggests silica accumulation occurs by passive diffusion and should therefore be closely coupled with whole plant transpiration. We tested the hypothesis that grasses increase leaf silica concentration in response to artificial defoliation in a common garden study in the Serengeti ecosystem of East Africa. Additionally, a watering treatment tested the alternative hypothesis that leaf silica was largely driven by plant water status. Leaf silica content of two dominant C4 Serengeti grass species, Themeda triandra and Digitaria macroblephara, was quantified after a 10-month clipping × water experiment in which defoliation occurred approximately every 2 months and supplementary water was added every 2 weeks. Themeda had greater silica content than Digitaria, and Themeda also varied in foliar silica content according to collection site. Clipping had no significant effect on leaf silica in either species and watering significantly increased silica content of the dominant tall grass species, Themeda, but not the lawn species, Digitaria. Our data, and those collected as part of a supplementary literature review, suggest that silicon induction responses are contingent upon a combination of plant identity (i.e., species, genotype, life history limitations) and environmental factors (i.e., precipitation, soil nutrients, grazing intensity). Specifically, we propose that an interaction between plant functional type and water balance plays an especially important role in determining silica uptake and accumulation.

  11. Leaf silica concentration in Serengeti grasses increases with watering but not clipping: insights from a common garden study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Quigley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grasses (Poaceae lack the complex biochemical pathways and structural defenses employed by other plant families; instead they deposit microscopic silica (SiO2 granules in their leaf blades (i.e. phytoliths as a putative defense strategy. Silica accumulation in grasses has generally been considered an inducible defense; other research suggests silica accumulation occurs by passive diffusion and should therefore be closely coupled with whole plant transpiration. We tested the hypothesis that grasses increase leaf silica concentration in response to artificial defoliation in a common garden study in the Serengeti ecosystem of East Africa. Additionally, a watering treatment tested the alternative hypothesis that leaf silica was largely driven by plant water status. Leaf silica content of two dominant C4 Serengeti grass species, Themeda triandra and Digitaria macroblephara, was quantified after a 10-month clipping x water experiment in which defoliation occurred approximately every two months and supplementary water was added every two weeks. Themeda had greater silica content than Digitaria, and Themeda also varied in foliar silica content according to collection site. Clipping had no significant effect on leaf silica in either species and watering significantly increased silica content of the dominant tall grass species, Themeda, but not the lawn species, Digitaria. Our data, and those collected as part of a supplementary literature review, suggest that silicon induction responses are contingent upon a combination of plant identity (i.e., species, genotype, life history limitations and environmental factors (i.e., precipitation, soil nutrients, grazing intensity. Specifically, we propose that an interaction between plant functional type and water balance plays an especially important role in determining silica uptake and accumulation.

  12. Fusarium dactylidis sp. nov., a novel nivalenol toxin-producing species sister to F. pseudograminearum isolated from orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) in Oregon and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B trichothecene toxin-producing clade (B clade) of Fusarium includes the etiological agents of Fusarium head blight, crown rot of wheat and barley and stem and ear rot of maize. B clade isolates also have been recovered from several wild and cultivated grasses, including Dactylis glomerata (orch...

  13. Mitochondrial genome sequences from wild and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Mai; Yoshida, Hideya; Terachi, Toru; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-24

    Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of wild and cultivated barley. Two independent circular maps of the 525,599 bp barley mitochondrial genome were constructed by de novo assembly of high-throughput sequencing reads of barley lines H602 and Haruna Nijo, with only three SNPs detected between haplotypes. These mitochondrial genomes contained 33 protein-coding genes, three ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs, 188 new ORFs, six major repeat sequences and several types of transposable elements. Of the barley mitochondrial genome-encoded proteins, NAD6, NAD9 and RPS4 had unique structures among grass species. The mitochondrial genome of barley was similar to those of other grass species in terms of gene content, but the configuration of the genes was highly differentiated from that of other grass species. Mitochondrial genome sequencing is essential for annotating the barley nuclear genome; our mitochondrial sequencing identified a significant number of fragmented mitochondrial sequences in the reported nuclear genome sequences. Little polymorphism was detected in the barley mitochondrial genome sequences, which should be explored further to elucidate the evolution of barley.

  14. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  15. EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF CEREAL - PAPILIONACEOUS MIXTURES IN ORGANIC FARMING CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Agafonova, Ludmila; Jansons, Aldis; Rancāne, Sarmīte

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of cereal-papilionaceous grass crop mixtures allows for more substantial use of soil fertility and higher harvests than in case of homogeneous sowings. In mixed sowings, legume crops do not lodge; photosynthesis and nitrogenous fixation conditions are better; losses of harvest are lower. Our research is directed to examination of interrelations between peas, spring wheat and spring barley, as well as to high harvests, balanced in proteins and amino acids. Experiments were conducte...

  16. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  17. The Cultivated Mind: From Mental Mediation to Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Ingrid E.; Fuhrer, Urs

    1998-01-01

    Examines Simmel's principle of cultivation whereby the cultivated mind is constructed through ongoing transactions of people with their cultural environment, cultural forms currently overlooked. Cultural forms result from externalizations of former person-culture transactions. Argues that development is structured through person-culture…

  18. Gramíneas (Poaceae bambusiformes del Río de Los Amigos, Madre de Dios, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota da a conocer las especies de Poaceae (Gramineae bambusiformes presentes en y alrededor de la concesión para conservación del Rió de Los Amigos en la cuenca del Madre de Dios, sur de la Amazonia peruana. Proporciona claves y material grafico para la identificación de los taxones presentes en la zona.

  19. Mites (Acari associated with bamboo (Bambusa sp., Poaceae in a woody area from northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo J.F. Feres

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports twelve acarine species belonging to eleven genera in five families, associated with Bambusa sp. (Poaceae, in a woody area from São Paulo State, Brazil. Four species of Tetranychidae (Monoceronychus bambusicola, sp.n.. Oligonychus santoantoniensis, sp.n.. Schizotetranychus longirostris, sp.n. and S. paraelymus, sp.n. are regarded as new. The genus Cheletomimus Oudemans, 1904 (Cheyletidae is recorded for the first time to South America.

  20. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  1. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  2. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Shiposha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89% suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary Islands populations while older colonization events are hypothesized to explain the high genetic diversity values found in the Majorcan populations. Our study provides widely applicable information about geographical patterns of genetic variation in B. stacei. Among others, the genetic pattern and the existence of local alleles will need to be adequately reflected in the germplasm collection of B. stacei for efficient genome wide association studies.

  3. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  4. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  5. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  6. An introduction to the grasses of Ethiopia and Eritrea | Phillips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia together with Eritrea has a rich grass flora comprising over 600 species. Grasses typical of each of the vegetation types found in the area are discussed. Grasses from specialised edaphic conditions are considered, and also weed, pasture and lawn grasses. The paper concludes with a section on the importance of ...

  7. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  8. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation

  9. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  10. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  11. The effects of inter-crop cultivation Between rows of citrus crop on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa Ascospores and in the citrus black spot occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Miranda Bellotte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the effect of planting coast-cross grass and forage peanut cv. Amarilis between rows of Natal oranges on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa ascospores and consequent citrus black spot control. Treatments evaluated were: 1- conventional cultivation, free of fungicides; 2- conventional cultivation, using protective fungicides; 3- inter-crop cultivation of coast-cross grass between rows of citrus crops and; 4- inter-cropping cultivation of forage peanut between the rows of citrus crops. Quest Volumetric Spore SystemTM traps were set in order to determine the number of ascospores released. A total of 33 inspections were conducted weekly, from the end of August until early September the following year. A diagrammatic scale was used to determine the severity of the disease as well as the percentage of fruits having a commercial standard. The coast-cross grass was more effective in reducing the number of ascospores produced, whose average statistics were lower than in the conventional treatments, free-fungicides. The inter-crop and conventional cultivation method coupled with fungicide treatment was more effective in reducing the severity of citrus black spot symptoms, and differs statistically from the fungicide-free control method. These methods also resulted in a higher percentage of fruits of a commercial standard, ranging from the 89% through the 91% percentile, and the cultivation, free of fungicides, fell within the 73%.

  12. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  13. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  14. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae affected by environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY, collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15% and Y (22.22%, in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05. The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01. Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  15. Chemical Fingerprinting of the Fragrant Volatiles of Nineteen Indian Cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil compositions of total nineteen cultivars of Cymbopogon Spreng. (Poaceae species viz. C. martinii (Roxb. Wats. var. motia Burk., C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud, C. winterinus Jowitt., C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. and a hybrid of C. khasianus (Hack Stapf. ex Bor and C. pendulus Nees ex Steud. were examined and compared using capillary GC and GC-MS . The analysis led to the identification of 48 constituents forming 90.1% to 99.7% of their total oil compositions with monoterpenoids (78.9% to 97.4% as the most exclusive constituents. The comparative results showed considerable variation in the qualitative and quantitative compositions of essential oils from nineteen different cultivars of the studied Cymbopogon species. On the basis of chemical similarity the cultivars of genus Cymbopogon was divided into five chemical variants/groups within two series viz. Citrati and Rusae. The volatile profile of existing cultivars of Cymbopogon are useful for their commercial utilization as they possess range of essential oils and aroma chemicals used in perfumery, flavour, pharmaceutical and other allied industries. Moreover, the marker constituents in their essential oils may be utilized as an important tool in oil authentication.

  16. Endosperm formation in aposporous Crataegus (Rosaceae, Spiraeoideae, tribe Pyreae): parallels to Ranunculaceae and Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, Nadia; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2007-01-01

    Apomixis in Crataegus is primarily aposporous and requires pollination. The embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. A combination of meiotically unreduced embryo sacs with apparently reduced pollen would violate the usual requirement for a 2 : 1 ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm. We therefore investigated the origin of endosperm in seeds of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids of the sister genera Crataegus and Mespilus. Flow-cytometric DNA measurements from embryo and endosperm in mature seeds were converted to ploidy levels using leaf-tissue information. The diploids had triploid endosperm. In c. 60% of seed from polyploids, one sperm apparently contributes to the endosperm, while 25% or more may involve two sperm. Additional results suggest that trinucleate central cells also occur. Fertilization of meiotically unreduced eggs is indicated. The ratio of maternal to paternal contributions to the endosperm in these apomictic Crataegus is not constrained to 2 : 1. They thus resemble some Sorbus (Pyreae) and very distantly related Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae). It is suggested that Paspalum (Poaceae) may have similarly flexible endosperm ploidy levels.

  17. Ultrasound influence on coleoptile length at Poaceae seedlings as valuable criteria in prebreeding and breeding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratovalieva Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study includes research on the effect of ultrasound on the ability of seed germination and coleoptile development of cereal landraces (fam. Poaceae: oat (Avena sativa L. brodski, rye (Secale cereale L. rakotinska, Triticale svetinikolsko and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. govrlevska. The experiment with ultrasound was carried out at frequency of 30-40 kHz on the thermostatic ultrasonic bath. Seeds were sonicated at a constant temperature (25ºC for 15 min. Ultrasound effect is reflected in the length of the coleoptyl and mesocotyl, although in a good deal is genetically predetermined. Coleoptile length was the longest in Triticale (3.3-5.5 cm and approximately the same lengths are evident in rye (3.0-6.1 cm. Concerning the mesocotyl the longest one (5.525 cm ± 0.697 is recorded at rye, even significantly longer than control of oat and Triticale. Longer coleoptile of sonicated seeds indicates faster seedling development, good water supply and rapid development and emergence of first leaves. Correlation coefficient showed very high (0.821 and high R2 (67,472% dependence among variables both, in length of coleoptiles (as dependent variable and mesocotyl (as independent with low standard error (0.225. With the simple use of ultrasound the germination period could be shorten, water supply more efficient, the sowing periods will be shorten and good yields even under conditions of climate change with increased temperatures could be achieved.

  18. Impact of polyploidy on fertility variation of Mediterranean Arundo L. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardion, Laurent; Verlaque, Régine; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A; Vila, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Failure of seed production in the genus Arundo L. (Poaceae) is often attributed to polyploidy. This study tested the impact of two ploidy levels (2n=12 and 18x) on the fertility of four Mediterranean Arundo. Viable pollen was screened from its production to its germination, and seed occurrence was monitored in admixture or isolated conditions. In addition, insights on restructuration of polyploid genomes were analysed using molecular cytogenetics. Our results show that high ploidy levels do not automatically induce failure of sexual reproduction. The two ploidy levels are able to produce viable pollen and seed set depending on species and cultural conditions. The sterility of A. micrantha (2n=12x) and A. donax (2n=18x) is due to the early failures of gametogenesis steps. For 18x cytotypes of A. donaciformis and A. plinii, seed absence for isolated genotype vs. seed production in admixed culture support their auto-incompatibility. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  20. TARGETED CULTIVATION OF THE ENERGY PLANTS IN CONDITIONS OF THE SLOVAK REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin PRČÍK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the targeted cultivation possibilities of energy plants in Slovakia and to evaluate the appropriateness of targeted cultivation of energy plants Populus and energy grass Miscanthus. In Slovakia, is used the classification system of regions according territorial statistical units - NUTS (NUTS III - 8 regions. The highest potential for the cultivation of energy plants (soil quality group 5-9 is in Prešov (99.95%, Žilina (99.89% and Košice (99.51 region. The research was conducted at the research locality of the energy plants in Kolíňany (Nitra region. We studied four Italian varieties of gray poplar (Populus × canescens (Monviso, Pegaso, AF-2 and Sirio and two genotypes of energy grass Miscanthus (Miscantus × giganteus (Greef et Deuter, 1993 and Miscanthus sinensis (Tatai. Production of Populus varieties after the first growing cycle (2009-2012, exceeding the value of the economic threshold was 67.42 t ha-1 (AF-2 to 87.16 t ha-1 (Monviso. Both genotypes of Miscanthus produce an economically interesting production of dry mass for the 4 year period (2010-2013 (Miscantus × giganteus (Greef et Deuter 88.97 t ha-1 and Miscanthus sinensis (Tatai 77.80 t ha-1 . Cultivation of the energy plants permits to farm on unused land in the regions and produce biomass for energy use at the local level.

  1. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  3. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  4. Effect of some adjuvants application on enhancing sulfosulfuron herbicide performance on Phalaris minor- Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental pollution by pesticides application is a major concern for health. Efficiency of many herbicides can be increased by adding adjuvants to the spray solution. Therefore greenhouse study was conducted during 2014 to determine the efficacy of three adjuvants (Citogate, Castor oil and Canola oil at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 (%v/v with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g a.i\\ha of sulfosulfuron herbicide on littleseed canary grass. Results showed that the adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of sulfosulfuron in decreasing the dry weights of littleseed canary grass. Performance of herbicide was increased with enhancing its concentrations. Measured ED50 and ED90 concentrations of sulfosulfuron in control were 16.74 and 32.22 g a.i\\ha, respectively. Whereas the values for Citogate 0.2 (%v\\v, was 5.86 and 13.34 g a.i\\ha, respectively. The addition of Citogate and Castor oil had the highest and lowest effect on sulfosulfuron efficacy against Littleseed canary grass. In conclusion, the study revealed that Citogate concentrations had powerful effects on herbicide efficacy followed by Canola oil.

  5. Impact of imazamox containing herbicides on the development of resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenhauer, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed-rape was the most common crop in Western Europe where no ALS-inhibitor was used. Due to the introduction of Clearfield winter oilseed-rape varieties the use of ALS-inhibitors also in oilseed-rape is possible. If the broader use of ALS-inhibitors increases the selection pressure on herbicide resistant weeds and increases their occurrence in the crop rotation is the question of this investigation. Therefore, an outdoor container trial (á 350 l, 0.7 m² was performed starting in autumn 2011. A typical crop rotation of winter wheat/oilseed-rape/winter wheat was simulated in the following three years. Three different black-grass biotypes with characterised resistance pattern and 5 different herbicide programs were analysed. The blackgrass biotypes showed different target-site resistance against ACCase- and/or ALS-inhibitor, as well as metabolic resistance. Before and after each treatment the numbers of black-grass plants per container were counted. Also the numbers of heads were counted before harvest. Additionally genetic analysis due to PCRs and pyrosequencing of ten survivors per container and year were performed. Till now results of the winter wheat and oilseed-rape cultivation were obtained. Herbicide efficacy was between 77 and 98% for the treatments during the winter wheat cultivation. The genetic analysis showed nearly similar portion of TSR in the black-grass populations when compared with the initial frequencies. Only one container showed no TSR. The comparison of the herbicide programs sprayed during the oilseed-rape cultivation showed the best results for all black-grass biotypes for the application of: Metazachlor + dimethenamid (BBCH 09/10, imazamox + quinmerac + Dash (BBCH 14 and propyzamide (BBCH 21/22.

  6. Cadmium Phytoremediation Potential of Napiergrass Cultivated in Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ishii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, a C4 tropical species, has been used for forage since it has high dry matter productivity, sustainability over several years in low-altitudinal sites of Kyushu, and little damage from serious pests. Recently, this grass has gained attention due to its potential as a bioethanol feedstock and for phytoremediation. Napiergrass cultivar Wruk Wona was grown as an annual crop in cadmium- (Cd- contaminated soils under two cutting frequencies. Annual dry matter yield was not affected significantly by cutting frequency, but the concentration and uptake of Cd were higher when cut twice rather than only once, due to high Cd content of the herbage from the second cutting. Therefore, the soil Cd concentration was reduced by 4.6% when managed by cutting twice in a single year of Napiergrass cultivation.

  7. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  8. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  9. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  10. Investigation into the effect of molds in grasses on their content of low molecular mass thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Krystofova, Olga; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene; Havlicek, Zdenek; Slama, Petr; Nawrath, Adam

    2012-10-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5). Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05) PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.

  11. Systems study of fuels from grains and grasses. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.; Allen, A.; Athey, R.; McElroy, A.; Davis, M.; Bennett, M.

    1978-02-24

    The program reported on herein consists of a first phase analysis of the potential for significant and economically viable contributions to U.S. energy needs from grasses and grains by the photosynthetic production of biomass. The study does not include other cultivated crops such as sugar cane, sugar beets, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, fruits, etc. The scope of the study encompasses grain crop residues, whole plant biomass from grain crops and nongrain crops on cropland, and whole plant biomass from grasses on pasture, rangeland, and federal range. The basic approach to the study involves first an assessment of current total biomass generation from the various grasses and grains on cropland, pasture, range, and federal range, and aggregating the production by combinations of crop residues and whole plant biomass; second, evaluation of possibilities for introduction of new crops and expanding production to marginal or presently idle land; third, development of proposed reasonable scenarios for actually harvesting biomass from selected combinations of crop residues, forages and hays, and new crops from land now in production, plus additional marginal or underutilized land brought into production; and finally, assessment on national and regional or local scales of the production that might be affected by reasonable scenarios. This latter effort includes analysis of tentative possibilities for reallocating priorities and needs with regard to production of grain for export or for livestock production. The overall program includes a case study analysis of production economics for a representative farm of about 1,000 acres (405 ha) located in Iowa.

  12. Lime and phosphate application as mycorrhizae stimulation to enhance growth and yield of Marandu grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Eduardo Melo Santiago

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pastures are important food sources for Brazilian cattle herds. However, inadequate management of soil fertility has emerged as a major cause of low yield rates and of progressive degradation of these areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate growth, by means of morphogenetic and structural characteristics, and yield of Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu as functions of the application of the mycorrhizae stimulant formononetin, associated with lime and phosphate application. The experimental design was completely randomised with four replications, and the treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of two liming treatments (with and without limestone, two formononetin treatments (with and without application and five P2O5 doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3. Three shoot cuttings were carried out after a first standardisation cutting to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics as well as the dry matter yield of different morphological fractions. Liming and phosphate application at the dose of 141 mg dm-3 P2O5 increased growth and yield of Marandu grass, and these practices are essential for the cultivation of this pasture grass in Yellow Latosol of the Cerrado region of Piauí, Brazil. The application of formononetin increased stem elongation rate, total number of tillers and green stem dry matter, and decreased dead dry matter of Marandu grass, which are effects that contribute to the improvement of pasture quality.

  13. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  14. The influence of the application of grass herbicides on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Economic analysis; Fluazifop-butyl; Merino sheep; Pastures; Propyzamide; Wool production; adg; animal production; dryland; fluzifop-butyl; grass; lucerne; treatments; weeds; yield; production; grasses; herbicides; southern cape; south africa; ruens; stocking rates; medicago sativa; medicago truncatula ...

  15. Distinct physiological responses underlie defoliation tolerance in African lawn and bunch grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T.M.; Kumordzi, B.B.; Fokkema, W.; Valls Fox, H.; Olff, H.

    Premise of research. African grass communities are dominated by two distinct functional types: tall, caespitose bunch grasses and short, spreading lawn grasses. Functional type coexistence has been explained by differences in defoliation tolerance, because lawn grasses occur in intensively grazed

  16. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  17. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available of the interaction Varies in both time and space, allowing a rich array of possible outcomes but no universal predictive model. Simple models of coexistence of trees and grasses, based on separation in rooting depth, are theoretically and experimentally inadequate...

  18. Monitoring grass swards using imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.16-1.45 mm2) and spectral resolution (5-13 nm) was explored for monitoring light interception and biomass of grass swards. Thirty-six Lolium perenne L. mini-swards were studied for a total of eleven consecutive growth periods.

  19. The Prairie Life: The Sea of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that explores the importance of the environment for 19th-century frontier settlers and the conflict between ranchers and small farmers over appropriate land use. Students watch a video movie, "The Sea of Grass"; read selections from "O Pioneers!"; and write a compare/contrast essay. (MJP)

  20. Novel Imaging Spectroscopy for Grass Sward Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Meuleman, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Lokhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to improve grassland management may benefit from the use of new sensing techniques, such as imaging spectroscopy. In order to explore the potential of hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy for rapid and objective characterization of grass swards an experimental prototype has been developed.

  1. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  2. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental ...

  3. Methyl bromide soil fumigation: effect on grass yields | MGW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual herbage yields of grasses grown on sandy soils on Henderson Research Station seldom exceed 10 000 kg/ha dry matter, while on heavy clay soils yields of 18 000 kg/ha are consistently obtained with similar amounts of applied fertilizers. Keywords: methyl bromide|soils|fumigation|grasses|grass ...

  4. Responses of savanna lawn and bunch grasses to water limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Alfons; Zeinstra, Patricia; Veldhuis, Michiel; Fokkema, Rienk; Tielens, Elske; Howison, Ruth; Olff, Han

    The grass layer of African savannas consists of two main vegetation types: grazing lawns, dominated by short, mostly clonally reproducing grasses, and bunch grasslands, dominated by tall bunch grasses. This patchy distribution of vegetation types is mostly created by large herbivores, which

  5. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five (35) grower crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to seven combinations of concentrate, grass and legume in proportions of 50 g:60 g:40 g in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: (1) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and groundnut haulms (RRG), (2) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and sweet potato ...

  6. Invasion of the exotic grasses: Mapping their progression via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric B. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Several exotic annual grass species are invading the Intermountain West. After disturbances including wildfire, these grasses can form dense stands with fine fuels that then shorten fire intervals. Thus invasive annual grasses and wildfire form a positive feedback mechanism that threatens native ecosystems. Chief among these within Nevada are Bromus tectorum...

  7. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for

  8. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  9. Consequences of seed origin and biological invasion for early establishment in restoration of a North American grass species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie E Herget

    Full Text Available Local, wild-collected seeds of native plants are recommended for use in ecological restoration to maintain patterns of adaptive variation. However, some environments are so drastically altered by exotic, invasive weeds that original environmental conditions may no longer exist. Under these circumstances, cultivated varieties selected for improved germination and vigor may have a competitive advantage at highly disturbed sites. This study investigated differences in early establishment and seedling performance between wild and cultivated seed sources of the native grass, Poa secunda, both with and without competition from the invasive exotic grass, Bromus tectorum. We measured seedling survival and above-ground biomass at two experimental sites in western Montana, and found that the source of seeds selected for restoration can influence establishment at the restoration site. Cultivars had an overall advantage when compared with local genotypes, supporting evidence of greater vigor among cultivated varieties of native species. This advantage, however, declined rapidly in the presence of B. tectorum and most accessions were not significantly different for growth and survival in competition plots. Only one cultivar had a consistent advantage despite a strong decline in its performance when competing with invasive plants. As a result, cultivated varieties did not meet expectations for greater establishment and persistence relative to local genotypes in the presence of invasive, exotic species. We recommend the use of representative local or regional wild seed sources in restoration to minimize commercial selection, and a mix of individual accessions (wild, or cultivated when necessary in highly invaded settings to capture vigorous genotypes and increase the odds native plants will establish at restoration sites.

  10. Consequences of seed origin and biological invasion for early establishment in restoration of a North American grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Mollie E; Hufford, Kristina M; Mummey, Daniel L; Shreading, Lauren N

    2015-01-01

    Local, wild-collected seeds of native plants are recommended for use in ecological restoration to maintain patterns of adaptive variation. However, some environments are so drastically altered by exotic, invasive weeds that original environmental conditions may no longer exist. Under these circumstances, cultivated varieties selected for improved germination and vigor may have a competitive advantage at highly disturbed sites. This study investigated differences in early establishment and seedling performance between wild and cultivated seed sources of the native grass, Poa secunda, both with and without competition from the invasive exotic grass, Bromus tectorum. We measured seedling survival and above-ground biomass at two experimental sites in western Montana, and found that the source of seeds selected for restoration can influence establishment at the restoration site. Cultivars had an overall advantage when compared with local genotypes, supporting evidence of greater vigor among cultivated varieties of native species. This advantage, however, declined rapidly in the presence of B. tectorum and most accessions were not significantly different for growth and survival in competition plots. Only one cultivar had a consistent advantage despite a strong decline in its performance when competing with invasive plants. As a result, cultivated varieties did not meet expectations for greater establishment and persistence relative to local genotypes in the presence of invasive, exotic species. We recommend the use of representative local or regional wild seed sources in restoration to minimize commercial selection, and a mix of individual accessions (wild, or cultivated when necessary) in highly invaded settings to capture vigorous genotypes and increase the odds native plants will establish at restoration sites.

  11. Disentangling the effects of feedback structure and climate on Poaceae annual airborne pollen fluctuations and the possible consequences of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de León, David; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Lima, Mauricio; González-Andújar, José L

    2015-10-15

    Pollen allergies are the most common form of respiratory allergic disease in Europe. Most studies have emphasized the role of environmental processes, as the drivers of airborne pollen fluctuations, implicitly considering pollen production as a random walk. This work shows that internal self-regulating processes of the plants (negative feedback) should be included in pollen dynamic systems in order to give a better explanation of the observed pollen temporal patterns. This article proposes a novel methodological approach based on dynamic systems to investigate the interaction between feedback structure of plant populations and climate in shaping long-term airborne Poaceae pollen fluctuations and to quantify the effects of climate change on future airborne pollen concentrations. Long-term historical airborne Poaceae pollen data (30 years) from Cordoba city (Southern Spain) were analyzed. A set of models, combining feedback structure, temperature and actual evapotranspiration effects on airborne Poaceae pollen were built and compared, using a model selection approach. Our results highlight the importance of first-order negative feedback and mean annual maximum temperature in driving airborne Poaceae pollen dynamics. The best model was used to predict the effects of climate change under two standardized scenarios representing contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and CO2 emissions. Our results predict an increase in pollen levels in southern Spain by 2070 ranging from 28.5% to 44.3%. The findings from this study provide a greater understanding of airborne pollen dynamics and how climate change might impact the future evolution of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations and thus the future evolution of related pollen allergies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos. Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and winter the rates were 164, 2.38, 3.26 and 3.89 UA/ha. In summer, the stocking rate of 4.34 UA/ha enabled best combination between weight gain per animal and per area with daily average gains of 0.560kg/animal and 2.99 kg/ha on cameroon grass and of 0.505 kg/animal and 2.79 kg/ha for braquiarão grass. However, in winter, the stocking rate of 3.26 UA/ha was the one which enabled greatest animal yield with daily average gains of 0.670kg/animal and 2.86 kg/ha on cameroon grass and 0.503 kg/animal and 2.10kg/ha on braquiarão grass. The weight gain per animal and per area is influenced by stocking rate. The cameroon grass provides greater weight than grass braquiarão gains, both animal as per area, in both rainy and dry seasons.

  13. Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Effects of reduced metribuzin rate compared to cultivator and hand hoeing on potato weeds in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahab eghbali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, weed scientist have paid more attention towards integrated weed management and application of reduced rate of herbicides to prevent environmental pollution. To examine the effect of reduced metribuzin on potato, a field experiment was conducted on a strip split plots based on complete randomized blocks. Design horizontal factor was two tillage systems (conservation, conventional and vertical factor consisted of 6 weed control treatments (1-full rate herbicide, 2-reduced rate herbicide, 3-hand hoeing, 4-cultivator, 5-combination of 1 and 3, 6- combination of 2 and 4. Results showed that the highest weed number and weed biomass was in cultivator treatment and the lowest grasses was observed in cultivator+ reduced herbicide treatment both in conventional and conservation tillages; in this treatment potato had the highest vegetative growth and performance. Weed biomass of broad leafes and grasses was relatively lowest in reduced herbicide than full rate herbicide. Leaf area, height and branching pattern of potato was negative correlated with weed number and biomass. Generally, integration of cultivator + reduced rate herbicide was most successful practices in weed management of potato production.

  15. Multiple horizontal transfers of nuclear ribosomal genes between phylogenetically distinct grass lineages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Vaclav; Krak, Karol; Kopecky, David; Fehrer, Judith; Safar, Jan; Bartos, Jan; Hobza, Roman; Blavet, Nicolas; Blattner, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2017), s. 1726-1731 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : parasitic plant * hordeum poaceae * transposable elements Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  16. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  17. Development of microsatellite markers for Fargesia denudata (Poaceae), the staple-food bamboo of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Yu, Tao; Lu, Sihai; Tian, Cheng; Li, Junqing; Du, Fang K

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for microsatellite primers to analyze genetic parameters of Fargesia denudata (Poaceae), the staple-food bamboo of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Using next-generation sequencing technology, we obtained a 75-Mb assembled sequence of F. denudata and identified 182 microsatellites. Primer pairs for 70 candidate microsatellite markers were selected and validated in four individuals, and 42 primer pairs generated reliable amplicons. Fourteen of 16 tested markers were found to be polymorphic in 72 individuals from four F. denudata populations. The number of alleles ranged from two to 19 per locus; the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.87, respectively. The transferability of these 16 novel microsatellite markers was validated in five related species. These markers will be useful for examining the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and cloning of F. denudata, the staple-food bamboo of the giant panda, and related bamboo species.

  18. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  19. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-12-06

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990-2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  20. Photo-protective mechanisms in reed canary grass to alleviate photo-inhibition of PSII on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Sun, Yan-Ni; Arfan, Muhammad; Li, Da-Xu; Yan, Jia-Jun; You, Ming-Hong; Bai, Shi-Qie; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Due to its characteristic of high biomass yield potential, there is considerable interest in cultivating Phalaris arundinacea L. cv. 'chuancaoyin No.3' (reed canary grass) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is an abundance of alpine steppe meadow and a potential large market for animal husbandry. In this study, we 1) investigate whether reed canary grass exhibits superior productive capacity to Elymus nutans 'Aba' (E. nutans), ordinary common pasture, during the long warm days of summer at high-altitude; and 2) compare the cold tolerance between reed canary grass and E. nutans, including photosynthesis, photo-inhibition, and photo-protection. The results suggest that reed canary grass exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity compared to E. nutans at latitudes of the cool temperate zone. Meanwhile, cold-induced photo-inhibition and photo-damage at high altitudes in reed canary grass were due to both stomatal and non-stomatal limitation, and the enhancement in photo-respiration, thermal dissipation, and Mehler reaction are important processes to minimize the negative effects of high elevation and a cold environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground flora, small mammal and bird species diversity in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Cardiff University, School of Biosciences, Llysdinam Field Centre, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Wildlife monitoring of two miscanthus and two reed canary-grass fields in Herefordshire, England was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of perennial biomass grass crops on ground flora, small mammals and birds. Quadrats were used to record percentage ground vegetation cover within and around the periphery of each crop. Small mammals were sampled by live trapping using Longworth traps. The common bird census technique was used to monitor populations of birds. Miscanthus fields were richer in weed vegetation than reed canary-grass or arable fields. Bird use of the biomass crop fields varied depending on species. There were considerably more open-ground bird species such as skylarks (Alauda arvensis), lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) and meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis) within miscanthus than within reed canary-grass fields. There was no particular crop-type preference by the small mammal species, but rather a preference for good ground cover and little land disturbance, which was provided by both biomass crops. Ground flora, small mammals and most of the bird species (except open-ground birds) were found more abundantly within field margins and boundaries than in crop fields indicating the importance of retaining field structure when planting biomass crops. The miscanthus work relates entirely to young crops, which may be representative of part of the national crop if large areas are cultivated for rhizomes. The findings from the current project indicate that perennial biomass grass crops can provide substantially improved habitat for many forms of native wildlife, due to the low intensity of the agricultural management system and the untreated headlands. (author)

  2. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  3. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica E; Baruch, Zdravko

    2014-03-01

    Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126) = 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our

  4. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  5. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  6. NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AS INFLUENCED BY LAND USE AND INTENSITY OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kimenju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of land use and intensity of land cultivation on the nematode community structure. The land use types represented in the study sites were natural forest, plantation forest, tea, coffee, napier grass, agroforestry, fallow and annual crop cultivation dominated by maize intercropped with beans. Nematode diversity and abundance decreased with intensity of land cultivation, with the natural forest being regarded as the benchmark. The decrease in nematode diversity was assessed using Shannon, Simpson and species richness indices and was used to reflect the underlying changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of soil environment. The highest maturity indices for free-living and plant parasitic index were recorded in the natural forest and intensively cultivated land under annual crops (maize/beans, respectively. Plant parasitic nematodes were predominant in soils that were under agricultural production while saprofagic nematodes dominated the forested land as exemplified by the ratios of free-living to plant parasitic which were, 5.18 and 0.54 in the natural forest and annual crop production systems respectively. Changes in the nematode community structure, as exhibited by diversity indices, may be a reflection of real differences in the soil characteristics and changes in ecosystem functions.

  7. Biosystematic studies of Elymus repens (L. Gould (Poaceae: patterns of phenotypic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter- and intrapopulational morphological variability of Elymus repens, a cool-season peren-nial grass and a tenacious weed that spreads both by seeds and rhizomes forming a thick and stout net, was examined. Multivariate statistical analysis of 48 initial morphological characters obtained from 44 population samples (1180 specimens collected in different habitats revealed the conspicuous variation within E. repens. Principal Component Analysis revealed three extremes of the morphological gradient that were referred to as three varieties of E. repens: var. repens, var. aristatus and var. subulatus, not correlated with the habitat type or geographi-cal location. Canonical Discriminant Analysis proved the taxonomic usefulness of characters such as awned or awnless glumes and lemmas as well as the shape of glumes for variety di-stinction. Results of morphological analysis, in relation to the low level of genetic variation showed in the previous studies, suggest that the extensive morphological variation of E. re-pens can be caused by its plasticity where different morphological patterns are realized on the same genome basis. Additionally, the open-pollinated system of mating results in new combi-nations of morphological characters of plants that further reproduce vegetatively by rhizomes. The nomenclature, taxonomic descriptions and a key to the three varieties are provided.

  8. Spread of Sporobolus neglectus and S. vaginiflorus (Poaceae in Slovenia and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogan Nejc

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Systematic field sampling revealed that within 50 years since the first records in Slovenia, Sporobolus neglectus and S. vaginiflorus became widespread. They are two superficially similar N American annual grass species with cleistogamous spikelets and similar ecology that are confined to dry ruderal places in their European secondary range, especially along roads. The oldest records of naturalised populations of both species in Europe date back to the 1950s, when both were found for the first time in the Vipava valley (SW Slovenia. They spread slowly in the next decades to NE Italy, N Croatia, and S Austria until recently, when an explosive expansion has been observed along almost all the main roads in lowland and montane Slovenia. In addition to that, one or both of them have recently been recorded scattered in SE Europe (Hungary, Serbia, B&H, Montenegro and W Europe (France, Switzerland. Sporobolus vaginiflorus is herein reported for the first time for Serbia, Herzegovina (in B&H, and Slavonia (in Croatia.

  9. Reducing tillage intensity affects the cumulative emergence dynamics of annual grass weeds in winter cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, A; Melander, B; Jensen, P K

    2017-01-01

    Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The aim...... of this study was to investigate, understand and model the cumulative emergence patterns of A. spica-venti, V. myuros and Poa annua in winter cereals grown in three primary tillage regimes: (i) mouldboard ploughing, (ii) pre-sowing tine cultivation to 8–10 cm soil depth and (iii) direct drilling. Direct...... drilling delayed the cumulative emergence of A. spica-venti and V. myuros (counted together) in contrast with ploughing, while the emergence pattern of P. annua was unaffected by the type of tillage system. The total density of emerged weed seedlings varied between the tillage systems and years...

  10. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  11. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  12. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Aleksandra; Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2017-03-21

    Among herbal plants, most cases of allergic reactions, like seasonal inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis and pollen asthma, are related to the allergens from grass pollen. As the blossoming and pollination of rye is known to start the pollen season of grasses, information about the airborne rye pollen count permits alerting the people allergic to certain allergens contained in rye pollen. An important cause of allergy is also the pollen from wormwood, blossoming in late summer, as its two main allergens produce cross-reactions with many other plant allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of allergic reactions in persons with pollinosis on the basis of the pollen calendar, analysis of concentrations of pollen grains of grass and rye, and comparison of diurnal pattern of airborne pollen grain concentrations at two sites with different degrees of urbanisation (Gudowo in the country and the city of Szczecin) in 2012-2014. The concentration of pollen was measured by the volume method. Length of the pollination season was determined by the method of 98%, assuming that the beginning and the end of the pollen season are the days on which 1% and 99% of the annual sum of pollen appeared. The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country), than in Szczecin city.

  13. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  14. Foxtail millet: a model crop for genetic and genomic studies in bioenergy grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Gupta, Sarika; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses.

  15. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  16. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vate Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 Republic of South Africa lntroduction. Hancock et al. ( 1987) investigated the relationship between the performance of Hereford steers grazing three different pastures (tall fescue, orchardgrass and brome grass) and their subsequent performance in a feedlot. The live mass of these.

  17. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-22

    Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the genes regulating the unique food habit transition and the formation of herbivory, and how they could achieve higher growth rates on plant materials, which have a relatively poor nutritional quality. We showed that grass carp fed with duckweed (modeling fish after food habit transition) had significantly higher relative length of gut than fish before food habit transition or those fed with chironomid larvae (fish without transition). Using transcriptome sequencing, we identified 10,184 differentially expressed genes between grass carp before and after transition in brain, liver and gut. By eliminating genes potentially involved in development (via comparing fish with or without food habit transition), we identified changes in expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, and digestion and metabolism between fish before and after food habit transition. Up-regulation of GHRb, Egfr, Fgf, Fgfbp1, Insra, Irs2, Jak, STAT, PKC, PI3K expression in fish fed with duckweed, consistent with faster gut growth, could promote the food habit transition. Grass carp after food habit transition had increased appetite signal in brain. Altered expressions of Per, Cry, Clock, Bmal2, Pdp, Dec and Fbxl3 might reset circadian phase of fish after food habit transition. Expression of genes involved in digestion and metabolism were significantly different between fish before and after the transition. We suggest that the food habit transition from carnivory

  19. Estudio de Estabilidad de una Loción Facial Actiacné a base de Aceite Esencial de Hierba Luisa Cymbopogon citratus (DC) STAPF, POACEAE.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos Medina, Wilma de las Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The research develops an acne lotion with essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus (DC) STAPF, POACEAE, under guidelines of the national and international law, which allows obtaining a product considered stable and safe. The formulation is established based on a full factorial design with two factors and three levels, taking as variables the ingredients that affect the organoleptic of the lotion, in this case: : emollient to 60, 50, 35%, the surfactant to 15, 10, 5%, and in two runs or...

  20. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  1. Wood and grass ash recycling - an experimental project from the South of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, Sandor; Dezsoe, Gyoengyi; Szabo, Laszlo Gy.; Pal, Robert; Borhidi, Attila [Univ. of Pecs (Hungary). Dept. of Botany; Fischer, Ernoe [Univ. of Pecs (Hungary). Dept. of General Zoology and Neurobiology; Pesti, Miklos; Czeh, Arpad; Takacs, Krisztina [Univ. of Pecs (Hungary). Dept. of General and Environmental Microbiology

    2005-07-01

    Decreasing deposits of fossil fuels as well as global climate change have emphasized the importance of renewable energy sources in the economy and energy production of the world. One of the main sources of renewable energy derives from agriculture as organic waste material or harvested biomass. In spite of the western European countries many economies in the eastern part of Europe have just turned towards these alternative energy sources with almost the entire lack of specified scientific knowledge on the qualitative and quantitative features of different plant species and crop systems being involved in local biomass production and utilisation. Recent biomass studies have started in the South of Hungary where tree and grass species are compared in terms of their biomass production, growing rate, nutrient consumption, resistance to weeds, fungi and insects as well as combustive characters. As a part of the experimental crop system, wood and grass ash are recycled and introduced into the soil as fertilizer. The main chemical features of the ashes are compared and different methods for their utilisation are presented. Since soil types used for cropping have neutral pH and are well saturated by nutrients, the use of ash as amendment can raise the concentration of the macroelements above the optimum level and shift the pH value into a less preferable alkaline range very easily. In order to gain more knowledge about the accumulation of toxic elements (mainly heavy metals) from the ash, dynamics of the meso- and microelements in the soil-plant-ash system were investigated. We also evaluated the toxic effect of the ash on the soil decomposer mesofauna (Eisenia-test) and plant seedlings. As a result, we concluded that the disadvantageous effect of the wood and grass ash depends on the managing methods by which the ash is neutralised as well as the particular tolerances and preferences of the cultivated plants. (In abstract form only)

  2. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  3. Phylogenetic study of Oryzoideae species and related taxa of the Poaceae based on atpB-rbcL and ndhF DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xu; Yuan, Zhengrong; Tong, Xin; Li, Qiushi; Gao, Weiwei; Qin, Minjian; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-05-01

    Oryzoideae (Poaceae) plants have economic and ecological value. However, the phylogenetic position of some plants is not clear, such as Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees. and Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka (syn. Oryza coarctata). Comprehensive molecular phylogenetic studies have been carried out on many genera in the Poaceae. The different DNA sequences, including nuclear and chloroplast sequences, had been extensively employed to determine relationships at both higher and lower taxonomic levels in the Poaceae. Chloroplast DNA ndhF gene and atpB-rbcL spacer were used to construct phylogenetic trees and estimate the divergence time of Oryzoideae, Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, Pooideae and so on. Complete sequences of atpB-rbcL and ndhF were generated for 17 species representing six species of the Oryzoideae and related subfamilies. Nicotiana tabacum L. was the outgroup species. The two DNA datasets were analyzed, using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis methods. The molecular phylogeny revealed that H. aristata (Retz.) Nees was the sister to Chikusichloa aquatica Koidz. Moreover, P. coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka was in the genus Oryza. Furthermore, the result of evolution analysis, which based on the ndhF marker, indicated that the time of origin of Oryzoideae might be 31 million years ago.

  4. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  5. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales Desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen em espécies de Poaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT. Nakamura

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae. The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level.O desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen de Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr. (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae foi estudado visando caracterizar embriologicamente essas espécies de subfamílias consideradas basal, intermediária e derivada, respectivamente. As espécies são similares entre si e entre as demais Poaceae. Apresentam os seguintes caracteres: anteras tetrasporangiadas; desenvolvimento da parede da antera do tipo monocotiledôneo, endotécio com espessamento de parede anelar, tapete secretor; microsporogênese sucessiva; tétrades isobilaterais; grãos de

  6. Biogeography of mutualistic fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich G; Ishak, Heather D; Bruschi, Sofia M; Smith, Chad C; Herman, Jacob J; Solomon, Scott E; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Rabeling, Christian; Scott, Jarrod J; Cooper, Michael; Rodrigues, Andre; Ortiz, Adriana; Brandão, Carlos R F; Lattke, John E; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Rehner, Stephen A; Schultz, Ted R; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Adams, Rachelle M M; Bollazzi, Martin; Clark, Rebecca M; Himler, Anna G; LaPolla, John S; Leal, Inara R; Johnson, Robert A; Roces, Flavio; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Wirth, Rainer; Bacci, Maurício

    2017-12-01

    Leafcutter ants propagate co-evolving fungi for food. The nearly 50 species of leafcutter ants (Atta, Acromyrmex) range from Argentina to the United States, with the greatest species diversity in southern South America. We elucidate the biogeography of fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants using DNA sequence and microsatellite-marker analyses of 474 cultivars collected across the leafcutter range. Fungal cultivars belong to two clades (Clade-A and Clade-B). The dominant and widespread Clade-A cultivars form three genotype clusters, with their relative prevalence corresponding to southern South America, northern South America, Central and North America. Admixture between Clade-A populations supports genetic exchange within a single species, Leucocoprinus gongylophorus. Some leafcutter species that cut grass as fungicultural substrate are specialized to cultivate Clade-B fungi, whereas leafcutters preferring dicot plants appear specialized on Clade-A fungi. Cultivar sharing between sympatric leafcutter species occurs frequently such that cultivars of Atta are not distinct from those of Acromyrmex. Leafcutters specialized on Clade-B fungi occur only in South America. Diversity of Clade-A fungi is greatest in South America, but minimal in Central and North America. Maximum cultivar diversity in South America is predicted by the Kusnezov-Fowler hypothesis that leafcutter ants originated in subtropical South America and only dicot-specialized leafcutter ants migrated out of South America, but the cultivar diversity becomes also compatible with a recently proposed hypothesis of a Central American origin by postulating that leafcutter ants acquired novel cultivars many times from other nonleafcutter fungus-growing ants during their migrations from Central America across South America. We evaluate these biogeographic hypotheses in the light of estimated dates for the origins of leafcutter ants and their cultivars. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Global change effects on Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae) at its high-elevation range margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concilio, Amy L; Loik, Michael E; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Global change is likely to affect invasive species distribution, especially at range margins. In the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA, the invasive annual grass, Bromus tectorum, is patchily distributed and its impacts have been minimal compared with other areas of the Intermountain West. We used a series of in situ field manipulations to determine how B. tectorum might respond to changing climatic conditions and increased nitrogen deposition at the high-elevation edge of its invaded range. Over 3 years, we used snow fences to simulate changes in snowpack, irrigation to simulate increased frequency and magnitude of springtime precipitation, and added nitrogen (N) at three levels (0, 5, and 10 g m(-2) ) to natural patches of B. tectorum growing under the two dominant shrubs, Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata, and in intershrub spaces (INTR). We found that B. tectorum seedling density in April was lower following deeper snowpack possibly due to delayed emergence, yet there was no change in spikelet production or biomass accumulation at the time of harvest. Additional spring rain events increased B. tectorum biomass and spikelet production in INTR plots only. Plants were primarily limited by water in 2009, but colimited by N and water in 2011, possibly due to differences in antecedent moisture conditions at the time of treatments. The threshold at which N had an effect varied with magnitude of water additions. Frequency of rain events was more influential than magnitude in driving B. tectorum growth and fecundity responses. Our results suggest that predicted shifts from snow to rain could facilitate expansion of B. tectorum at high elevation depending on timing of rain events and level of N deposition. We found evidence for P-limitation at this site and an increase in P-availability with N additions, suggesting that stoichiometric relationships may also influence B. tectorum spread. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Consumption and cost of diesel oil on cultivation of Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) irrigated by aspersion canyons under two irrigation handlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaroni, Bruno Henrique Silveira; Turco, Jose Eduardo Pitelli; Coan, Ruchele Marchiori; Gerolineto, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    This work aim to analyse the consumption and cost of diesel oil on cultivation of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) irrigated by aspersion canyon, submitted of to two irrigation handling: T1 - irrigated when the tensiometer reading is equal - 0,5 atmospheres and T2 - irrigated by grass growers methodology. The research was carried on Green-Park Farm, in the city of Pitangueiras, SP. Consumption of diesel oil was measured from a diesel engine, brand MWM, turbined with 6 cylinders, type D-229 for zoysiagrass production. The diesel price was gotten from Petroleum National Agency (ANP), being an average price in Sao Paulo State, in February 2007, converted into the commercial dollar. Economical result was studied, subtracting the selling value of the grass, by the cost of the fuel consumed, for both T1 and T2 treatments. The treatment made by tensiometer showed greater diesel consumption, related to treatment T2, where the handling was made by the grass grower. (author)

  9. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets.

  10. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  11. PENTECOSTAL BODY LOGICS: Cultivating a Modern Sensorium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BRAHINSKY, JOSH

    2012-01-01

      Pentecostals put intensive study into bodies, texts, practices, and their interrelationships so as to effectively cultivate a sensory culture -- sensorium -- and invite authoritative religious experience...

  12. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lack of information on the demography, population dynamics and competitive abilities of southern African grasses was also identified. A table summarizing these studies is presented. Keywords: autecology; competitive ability; demography; grasses; literature; literature survey; pasture; population dynamics; reference list; ...

  13. Response of higveld grass species to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one populations in twenty-two species of highveld grasses were grown in pots of soil fertilized with solutions for comparing ammonium and nitrate nutrition. Cotton, tomato, cereal crops and pasture grasses were included for comparison. Roots and shoots were harvested separately, weighed and analysed for major ...

  14. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  15. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attributed mainly to the differences in mass and condition of the animals at the start of each season and pasture maturation. Keywords: cynodon aethiopicus; grasses; grazing; henderson research station; herbage; herbage yield; nitrogen; pastures; salisbury district; star grass; stocking rate; stocking rates; yield; zimbabwe ...

  16. The grasses of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve: Their habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification is presented of the vegetation of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, based on the habitat preferences of the grass species, and processed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Habitat factors correlated with the grasses include geological formation, altitude, aspect, slope, stoniness, soil depth, soil pH ...

  17. Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken in Kenya's southern savanna rangelands to determine the seasonal effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on aboveground grass biomass, grass species composition, soil organic matter and soil moisture content. The study was conducted during the period June to December 1999 in order to

  18. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  19. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by different environmental ... coniferous tree species as leading natural flora. (Mohammad, 1989). The country is known .... Effect of spacing and broadcast method on germination of Kangaroo grass at Rawalpindi during 2005-06 and 2006-07.

  20. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    period being non-significant, both year and storage period, as main factors, did not present any differences (P. >0.05). The interactions between grass species × year were different for ash, CP, NDF and ADF (P <0.05). (Table 6). Table 2 Chemical composition, silage fermentation quality and NDF utilization of grass silages ...

  1. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  2. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  3. Grass pollen, aeroallergens, and clinical symptoms in Ciudad Real, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo Brito, F; Mur Gimeno, P; Carnés, J; Fernández-Caldas, E; Lara, P; Alonso, A M; García, R; Guerra, F

    2010-01-01

    In allergic individuals, onset of symptoms is related to atmospheric pollen grain counts and aeroallergen concentrations. However, this relationship is not always clear. To analyze the correlation between grass pollen grain and aeroallergen concentrations in Ciudad Real, Spain, during the year 2004 and establish their association with symptoms in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis, or both. Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure: a Burkard spore trap to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. Individual filters were extracted daily in phosphate-buffered serum and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on serum containing high titers of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grasses. The study population comprised 27 grass-allergic patients whose symptoms and medication were recorded daily. Grass pollens were detected between April 28 and July 18. There was a positive correlation between pollen grain counts and symptoms (r = 0.62; P > .001). Grass aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollination period, but also before and after this period. There was also a very significant correlation between aeroallergen levels and symptoms (r = 0.76; P < .0001). The threshold level for grass pollen was 35 grains/m3. Grass-related allergenic activity is present throughout the year, demonstrating the existence of aeroallergens outside the pollen season. Symptoms in allergic patients may be related to airborne particle concentrations. This fact should be taken into account in the clinical follow-up and management of allergic patients.

  4. Effect of Bamboo ( Bambusa valgaris ) and Elephant grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant potential of bamboo and elephant grass leaf extracts were evaluated in cooked and raw broiler meat stored under refrigeration at 3±20C. To a separate 350g of minced broiler meat, 1.5% bamboo leaf extract (BLE) or elephant grass extract (EGE) was added. There was a negative control without additive while a ...

  5. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  6. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  7. Grass species composition, yield and quality under and outside tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year study was conducted in lightly grazed areas of Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the impact of widely spaced trees on understorey grass composition, yield and quality. The study trees were Terminalia sericea and Acacia karroo. Ordination techniques using grass density and biomass as indices ...

  8. Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass ( Andropogon citratus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to determine the effects of lemon grass, Andropogon citratus L. extract on the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of okra was conducted. Phytochemical analyses of the bioactive ingredients in lemon grass were carried out to determine the chemical compounds with nematicidal activities present in lemon ...

  9. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  10. Potentials of agricultural waste and grasses in pulp and papermaking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. Potassium hydroxide from wood ash was used as alkali for pulping. Results from visopan Microscope showed that banana stalk has the highest fibre length of 2.60 mm and Bahaman grass has the least fibre length of 0.85 mm. Runkel Ratio (RK) for ...

  11. Structural traits of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the forage potential of elephant grass, controlling canopy structure during grazing has limited its use in pasture. This study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing frequency and post-grazing height on canopy structural characteristics of elephant grass genotypes. The treatments consisted of the factorial ...

  12. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  13. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  14. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  15. Multiple homoplasious insertions and deletions of a Triticeae (Poaceae DNA transposon: a phylogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason-Gamer Roberta J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stowaway elements are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons categorized as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs. The high MITE copy number in grass genomes suggests an active history of amplification and insertion, but ongoing MITE activity has only rarely been seen, and ongoing Stowaway activity has never been observed. Thus, a phylogenetic perspective on presence vs. absence of elements in an aligned data set can provide valuable historical insights into the dynamics of MITE acquisition and loss. Results A Stowaway-like element resides within the fourth intron of a β-amylase gene in representatives of five genera in the wheat tribe, Triticeae. Its presence vs. absence was examined with reference to the β-amylase gene tree topology, and in light of sequence comparisons of the β-amylase elements to Triticeae Stowaway elements in the Entrez nucleotide database. Among the sequences lacking the element, there are five distinct putative excision footprints (one widespread and four restricted to unrelated lineages and two flanking deletions. The sequences that do contain elements are polyphyletic on the β-amylase tree, and their elements are divergent at the sequence level. The β-amylase elements do not form a monophyletic group relative to other Stowaway elements in Entrez; most are more similar to elements from other loci in other Triticeae genomes than they are to one another. Conclusion Combined, the phylogenetic distribution, sequence variation, and Entrez database comparisons indicate that a Stowaway-like element has undergone multiple deletions from and insertions into the same site in β-amylase intron 4 during the history of the tribe. The elements currently at the site represent multiple, distinct lineages that transcend generic boundaries. While patterns of Stowaway polymorphism across a phylogenetic data set do not allow evolutionary mechanisms to be inferred with certainty, they do provide

  16. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  17. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  18. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  19. Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Teskera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

  20. Selenium supplementation and selenium status of dairy cows fed diets based on grass, grass silage or maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierus, M.; Schwarz, F.J.; Kirchgessner, M.

    2002-01-01

    In three separate trial series (TS) the effect of diet composition on selenium (Se) status of dairy cows were investigated. Diets were formulated based mainly on grass (TS1), grass silage (TS2) or maize silage (TS3) with different levels of Se supplementation. Each TS comprised a total of 30 dairy

  1. Cultivation of Angelica archangelica Linn.: evaluation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addition of manure (leaf litter in particular) and polyhouse cultivation further improved the yield. Economical viability of the cultivation was also observed and presented here. Keywords: Seedlings, economic yield, profit, observations, polyhouse. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences Vol. 2 (4) 2008: pp.

  2. Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Bapedi Traditional Healers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exotics Catharanthus roseus (54.9%) and. Carica papaya (15.6%) was the most cultivated. Threatened (11.6%) and protected (6.9%) species are also present in home-gardens, mostly due to their unavailability in natural areas. Conclusion: This study concludes that the practice of cultivating medicinal plant species in ...

  3. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During these cultivations, increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: ...

  4. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, is used in the folk medicine for hypertension treatment. This work investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular effects in rats of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC. A phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of eight constituents, being geranial the major compound (43.08%. In rats, EOCC (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v. induced transient hypotension and bradycardia that were attenuated by atropine and sodium thiopental, but not by L-NAME or indomethacin. In rings of rat superior mesenteric artery pre-contracted with phenylephrine, EOCC (1 to 3000 µg/mL induced relaxation that was not affected after removal of the endothelium, after TEA or in rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Furthermore, EOCC (1000 µg/mL was not able to induce additional effect on maximal relaxation of nifedipine (10 µM. In conclusions, EOCC induces hypotension, possibly by reduction in vascular resistance caused by inhibition of the Ca2+ influx, and bradycardia probably due to an activation of cardiac muscarinic receptors.

  5. Anatomía ecológica de algunas especies del género Paspalum (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Aliscioni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliscioni, S. S. 2000. Anatomía ecológica de algunas especies del género Paspalum(Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 187-207.El género Paspalum L. presenta un elevado número de especies, con una amplia variabilidadmorfológica y una extensa distribución geográfica. Sus especies crecen en hábitats sumamente diversos,desde ambientes muy húmedos o acuáticos, a lugares secos de suelos arcillosos o arenosos, muchas vecessalinos. Dada la diversidad de ambientes en los que puede hallarse Paspalum, se estudiaron lascaracterísticas anatómico-foliares presentes en el género con la finalidad de interpretar diferentesestrategias adaptativas en distintas especies. Se presenta una descripción general de la anatomía foliar delgénero y se discuten ciertos caracteres anatómicos, interpretando su posible relación con las condicionesdel hábitat

  6. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Phenology of perennial, native grass, belowground axillary buds in the northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Morgan L; Vermeire, Lance T; Ganguli, Amy C; Hendrickson, John R

    2017-06-01

    Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) generated more buds over winter that remained dormant; whereas, C3 species needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata) and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), maintained limited dormant buds throughout winter. Soil temperature was a good predictor for C4 species bud production; whereas, soil moisture was a reliable predictor for C3 buds. Distinct differences existed between C4 species blue grama and C3 species needle-and-thread, whereas C3 species western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) was intermediate, indicating there is likely a species-specific continuum between the C3 and C4 extremes rather than a stark difference. The ability to predict belowground bud development is a novel insight to native perennial grasses. Native grass species' strategies and adaptability regarding belowground bud bank size and bud phenology are important factors optimizing tiller recruitment given the variable growing conditions. Patterns of bud dormancy and development will provide insight to the underlying mechanisms by which management practices and fluctuations in precipitation amount and growing season length can alter mixed-grass prairie plant community dynamics. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steers subjected to stocking rates of 6, 8 and l0 steers/ha gained 45.1 t 2.0,39.2 + 1.8 and 35,8 t 2.4kglsteer on Smuts fin- ger grass and 6l .8 x.2.1, ..... ACOCKS, J.P.H., 1988. Veld Types of South Africa. Memoirs of The. Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 40. 2nd Edition, Pretoria: Dept. Agric. Tech. Services. ADJEI, M.B. ...

  9. A comparison of irrigated grass-clover and nitrogen-fertilized grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pure grass pastures were fertilized with 450 kg N/ha in 1973/74 and 500 kg N/ha in 1974/75 and 1975/76.Grazing started in February 1973 with a policy aimed at producing fatstock for the high-priced Christmas period. Three groups of steers have been slaughtered off the trial. The carrying capacity and productivity of ...

  10. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ile grasst han when grazingS mutsf ingerg rass[ 54.0+ 1.5a nd4 0.0t 1.2k g (P < 0.01),r espectivelyI]t. wasn ot clearw hethert he highers ummer growth-rateo n both pasturesin animalsw intereda t maintenancew asd uet o compensatoryg rowth or to relativelym ore grass/kgl ive weight beinga vailablet o the lighter animals.

  11. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Heather A; Sinasac, Sarah E; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  12. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  13. Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Exchange from a Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on a Mineral Soil Measured with Eddy Covariance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, S.; Shurpali, N.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O) in the atmosphere have been linked to anthropogenic activities. Energy production based on fossil fuels is the main sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Strategies to reduce CO2 emissions include use of bioenergy crops as energy source. To evaluate the real atmospheric value of bioenergy, knowledge on CO2 and N2O balances of ecosystems under bioenergy crop cultivation is needed. Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.) is increasingly being used as a bioenergy crop in the Nordic countries. It grows well in northern Europe as it tolerates flooding, requires short growing season and thrives well under low temperatures. Currently RCG is cultivated on an area of about 19000 ha in Finland and it is the highest yielding grass grown for energy purpose in Finland. The long rotation period (about ten years) of RCG cultivation without tilling favors carbon allocation into soil. First results from RCG cultivations on peat soil show that it is a promising land use option on such soils favoring soil carbon sequestration with low N2O emissions (Hyvönen et al. 2009; Shurpali et al. 2009). In order to devise a sound bioenergy policy based on this grass, studies on soils with variable characteristics under different climatic and hydrological regimes is urgently needed. Micrometeorological eddy covariance technique is suitable to study GHG fluxes at an ecosystem level (Baldocchi 2003). It is useful for continuous, direct and long-term measurements. Eddy covariance technique has been successfully used for measuring CO2 exchange in various ecosystems. The eddy covariance technique has also been used to measure N2O emissions (Denmead 2008). Aims of this study are to quantify the CO2 and N2O exchange of RCG cultivation on a mineral soil employing eddy covariance technique and to identify the key factors controlling the gas exchange. The study site on mineral soil is located in Eastern Finland. RCG was sown in spring

  14. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Change from Cotton to Perennial Bioenergy Grasses on Hydrological Fluxes and Water Quality in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using the APEX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Ale, S.; Rajan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) region, where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in vast acreage, has the potential to grow perennial bioenergy grasses. A change in land use from cotton cropping systems to perennial grasses such as Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. [Poaceae]) can significantly affect regional hydrologic cycle and water quality. Assessing the impacts of this potential land use change on hydrology and water quality enables the environmental assessment of feasibility to grow perennial grasses in this region to meet the U.S. national bioenergy target of 2022. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used in this study to assess the impacts of replacing cotton with switchgrass and Miscanthus on water and nitrogen balances in the upstream subwatershed of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP, which contains 52% cotton land use. The APEX model was initially calibrated against observed streamflow and crop yield data. Since observed data on nitrogen loads in streamflow was not available for this subwatershed, we calibrated the APEX model against the SWAT-simulated nitrogen loads at the outlet of this subwatershed, which were obtained in a parallel study. The calibrated APEX model was used to simulate the impacts of land use change from cotton to Miscanthus and switchgrass on surface and subsurface water and nitrogen balances. Preliminary results revealed that the average (1994-2009) annual surface runoff decreased by 84% and 66% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios compared to the baseline scenarios. Average annual percolation increased by 106% and 57% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios relative to the baseline scenarios. Preliminary results also indicated Miscanthus and switchgrass appeared to be superior to cotton in terms of better water conservation and water quality, and minimum crop management requirements.

  16. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  17. Energy plant cultivation test on peat production areas and the suitability of the bioenergy for different purposes; Energiakasvien viljelykokeilu turvesuoalueilla ja saatavan bioenergian soveltuvuus eri kaeyttoekohteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puuronen, M.; Mikkonen, T. [Vapo Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Reed canary grass plantations have been grown on 39 ha in 1995 as planned. The growths were at the Hirvineva mire in Liminka and the Ahmaneva mire in Vihanti. At the Hirvineva mire the cultivation of reed canary grass will be carried out on the area withdrawn from peat production. The Ahmaneva mire is almost totally peatland dried but not yet prepared for peat production. Utilization of e.g. municipal waste water sludges for fertilizing of the plantations, and steel plant slag and wood waste boiler ashes will be used as liming substances. The first reed canary grass harvest will be harvested in spring 1997, then it is possible to find out the effect of ashes and slag on growth, as well as the effect of different fertilizing levels on harvest at the mires. Ruukki research center has made reed canary grass plantations at the Hirvineva mire in Liminka, there the fertilization levels will be studied. Field biomasses are a newcomer on the Finnish bioenergy markets so the procurement chains will also be developed for Finnish conditions. Procurement chains have first to be designed for prevailing field biomasses such as straw and reed grass. It is naturally reasonable to utilize in the first place the prevailing biomasses. E.g. in Denmark the utilization of field biomass is very common. The experiences gained in other countries have to be applied for Finnish conditions. The effective procurement chain of peat production has to be utilized, and procurement chains will be developed in the project in order to produce biomasses profitably on peat production fields. Possible field biomasses in Finland are straw, reed grass and reed canary grass

  18. Effect of level of lactic acid bacteria inoculant from fermented grass extract on fermentation quality of king grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Antaribaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling is a method of preserving moist forage based on natural fermentation where lactic acid bacteria (LAB ferment water soluble carbohydrate into organic acids mainly lactic acid under anaerobic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides ensiled with addition of LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG. Four treatment were (G0 king grass without additive; (G1 king grass with 2% (v/w of LBFG; (G2 king grass with 3% (v/w of LBFG; (G3 king grass with 4% (v/w of LBFG. Ensiling was conducted in bottle silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (27.0 ± 0.20C for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in silage G1, G2 and G3 were relatively higher than that in silage G0. The pH value, butyric acid, total VFA and NH3-N concentrations decreased linearly with increasing level of LBFG addition, while lactic acid concentration increased linearly with LBFG addition. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w of LBFG resulting a better fermentation quality of king grass silage than 2% and 4% (v/w of LBFG.

  19. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  20. Drought impact on the germination of selected energy grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek KOPECKÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a sufficient amount of phytomass for the needs of eco-energetics, there are monocultural grasslands established on the arable land. In the context of the changing climate and more frequent periods of drought, it is important to look for grass species and varieties that are able to withstand these stress conditions. Influence of droughtness on germination of four selected energy grass species is decribed in paper. The investigated species were tall meadow oat (Arrhenatherum elatius L. - the Median variety, orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L. - the Padania variety, tall wheatgrass (Elymus elongatus - the Szarvasi-1 variety and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. - the Chrastava variety. Although the species differed in the germinability (p 0.05

  1. Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schmach) combined with or without leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit) as influenced by starch or formic acid addition.

  2. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  3. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio....../ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor......-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject...

  4. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  5. The Effects of Aclonifen Treatment Times on the Critical Concentration Values in The Leaves of Blackgrass [Alopecurus Myosuroides Huds. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Kıvılcım Kılınç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different treatments times of aclonifen, which is used as pre- and post-emergence herbicide in the control of blackgrass [Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (Poaceae] on the critical concentration values resulting in 100% success. The plants of A. myosuroides were grown on pots under greenhouse conditions. In the study, to determine the herbicide contraction on the plant tissues accurately, 14C-aclonifen was added to the aclonifen suspension concentrate (SC Challenge 600 and suggested dose (270 g e.m. da-1 was treated. The trials were initiated in march and april of 2011 and the treatments were applied the first (pre-emergence, 20th (early post-emergence and 40th (later post-emergence days. 10-day after each treatment, the symptoms were evaluated; and, the fresh and dry weights of the leaves were recovered. The aclonifen concentration on the fresh and dry leave samples were determined by the measuring the total radioactivity amount in dpm using liquid scintillation analyzer. The results of the trials indicated that the suggested doses of aclonifen critical concentration on the A. myosuroides leaves were: 1.58 ± 0.16 nmol/mg dry weight for pre-emergence; 3.04 ± 1.57 and 0.94 ± 0.81 nmol/mg dry weight for early and late post-emergence, respectively. It was also determined that the treatment of aclonifen with suggested dose when applied either as pre-emerge or as early post emergence until the plants reach 1-2 leaf stage before emergence or until 1-2 leaf stage result in 100% control; however, the treatments applied after 3-4 leaf stage are not successful although they result in delays of plant development.

  6. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  7. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N L Poyedinok

    2013-01-01

    .... Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of non-photosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited...

  8. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom (Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Key words: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), edible mushroom, antioxidant, reducing power, scavenging ability, phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION. The button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange). Imbach, is the premier cultivated edible mushroom and is consumed throughout the world.

  9. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  10. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  11. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-08-08

    Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The study was conducted in six villages in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa between June 2014 and March 2017. Data on socio-economic characteristics of the participants, useful plants harvested from the wild, managed in home gardens were documented by means of questionnaires, observation and guided field walks with 138 participants. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 54 genera were recorded from the study area. More than half of the species (59.2%) are from 13 families, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae. More than a third of the useful plants (37.6%) documented in this study are exotic to South Africa. About three quarters of the documented species (74.4%) were collected from the wild, while 20.8% were cultivated and 4.8% were spontaneous. Majority of the species (62.4%) were used as herbal medicines, followed by food plants (30.4%), ethnoveterinary medicine (18.4%), construction timber and thatching (11.2%). Other minor plant use categories (1-5%) included firewood, browse, live fence, ornamentals, brooms and crafts. This study demonstrated that local people in the Eastern Cape province harbour important information on local vegetation that provides people with food, fuel and medicines, as well as materials for construction and the manufacturing of crafts and many other products. This study also demonstrated the dynamism of

  12. Phosphorus reserves increase grass regrowth after defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Mariano; Oesterheld, Martín

    2009-04-01

    Accumulation of P above levels that promote growth, a common plant response called "luxury consumption", can be considered as a form of reserve to support future growth when the nutrient can subsequently be mobilized. However, the effect of P reserves on regrowth following defoliation has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that P luxury consumption increases plant tolerance to defoliation. We performed two experiments with four grass species from a continuously grazed temperate grassland in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina). The first experiment, aimed at generating P luxury consumption by fertilization, resulted in one species (Sporobolus indicus) showing luxury consumption. In this way, we were able to obtain plants of S. indicus with similar biomass but contrasting amounts of P reserves. The second experiment evaluated the subsequent regrowth following defoliation on a P-free medium of these plants differing in P reserves. Regrowth was larger for plants that had shown P luxury consumption during a previous period than for plants with lower levels of P reserves. During regrowth these plants showed a clear pattern of P remobilization from the stubble, crown, and root compartments to the regrowing tissue, in addition to a likely reutilization of P present in leaf-growth zones. This work is the first showing that high levels of P reserves can confer tolerance to defoliation by promoting compensatory growth under P deficiency.

  13. KARTAWINATA et al: Grass communities on Oahu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    " "

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available For the windward group, there was a significant correlation (TableV only between the amount of rainfall and the order of the plots on theX-axis. It has been shown in the ordination diagram (Fig. 4 that threecommunity types can be recognized, the Rhynchelytrum repens, Melinisminutiflora and Andropogon virginicus community types. The relationshipbetween the change of the grass dominance and the rainfall gradient alongthe X- axis is shown in Fig. 9. In this diagram the X-axis was dividedinto ten segments: 0.0 — 9.9; 10.0 — 19.9; 20.0 — 29.9; 30.0 — 39.9;40.0 — 49.9; 50.0 — 59.9; 60.0 — 69.9; 70.0 — 79.9; 80.0 — 89.9 and90.0 — 100.0. The intervals 20.0 — 39.9 and 50.0 — 69.9 were consideredas individual units because there was only one plot in the intervals20.0 — 29.9 and 50.0 — 59.9, respectively.

  14. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende; José Marques Pereira; Thasia Martins Macedo; Augusto Magno Ferreira Borges; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Érico de Sa Petit Lobão; Isis Miranda Carvalho Nicory

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos). Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and w...

  15. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, se...

  16. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E.H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  17. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia....

  18. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  19. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Reeder; G.E. Schuman

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in...

  20. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  1. Responses of Szarvasi-1 energy grass to sewage sludge treatments in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rév, Ambrus; Tóth, Brigitta; Solti, Ádám; Sipos, Gyula; Fodor, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) originating from communal wastewater is a hazardous material but have a potentially great nutritive value. Its disposal after treatment in agricultural lands can be a very economical and safe way of utilization once fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants of renewable energy production are cultivated. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this application, was grown in hydroponics in order to assess its metal accumulation and tolerance under increasing SS amendments. The applied SS had a composition characteristic to SS from communal wastes and did not contain any toxic heavy metal contamination from industrial sludge in high concentration. Toxic effects was assessed in quarter strength Hoagland nutrient solution and only the two highest doses (12.5-18.75 g dm -3 ) caused decreases in root growth, shoot water content and length and stomatal conductance whereas shoot growth, root water content, chlorophyll concentration and the maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II was unaffected. Shoot K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu content decreased but Na and Ni increased in the shoot compared to the unamended control. The nutritive effect was tested in 1/40 strength Hoagland solution and only the highest dose (12.5 g dm -3 ) decreased root growth and stomatal conductance significantly while lower doses (1.25-6.25 g dm -3 ) had a stimulative effect. Shoot K, Na, Fe and Ni increased and Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu decreased in this treatment. It was concluded that SS with low heavy metal content can be a potentially good fertilizer for high biomass non-food crops such as Szarvasi-1 energy grass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. C4 bioenergy crops for cool climates, with special emphasis on perennial C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; de Melo Peixoto, Murilo; Friesen, Patrick; Deen, Bill

    2015-07-01

    There is much interest in cultivating C4 perennial plants in northern climates where there is an abundance of land and a potential large market for biofuels. C4 feedstocks can exhibit superior yields to C3 alternatives during the long warm days of summer at high latitude, but their summer success depends on an ability to tolerate deep winter cold, spring frosts, and early growth-season chill. Here, we review cold tolerance limits in C4 perennial grasses. Dozens of C4 species are known from high latitudes to 63 °N and elevations up to 5200 m, demonstrating that C4 plants can adapt to cold climates. Of the three leading C4 grasses being considered for bioenergy production in cold climates--Miscanthus spp., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)--all are tolerant of cool temperatures (10-15 °C), but only cordgrass tolerates hard spring frosts. All three species overwinter as dormant rhizomes. In the productive Miscanthus×giganteus hybrids, exposure to temperatures below -3 °C to -7 °C will kill overwintering rhizomes, while for upland switchgrass and cordgrass, rhizomes survive exposure to temperatures above -20 °C to -24 °C. Cordgrass emerges earlier than switchgrass and M. giganteus genotypes, but lacks the Miscanthus growth potential once warmer days of late spring arrive. To enable C4-based bioenergy production in colder climates, breeding priorities should emphasize improved cold tolerance of M.×giganteus, and enhanced productivity of switchgrass and cordgrass. This should be feasible in the near future, because wild populations of each species exhibit a diverse range of cold tolerance and growth capabilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  5. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas

  6. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year......-old grassland and a pea field as reference. Aboveground and root biomass were determined and soils were incubated to study CO2 emissions after soil disturbance. Aboveground biomass was highest in 1-year-old grassland with slurry application and lowest in 4-year-old grassland without slurry application. Root...... in the CO2 emissions within 1–4-year-old grasslands. Only the 17-year-old grassland showed markedly higher CO2 emissions (4.9 ± 1.1 g CO2 kg−1 soil). Differences in aboveground and root biomass did not affect CO2 emissions, and slurry application did not either. The substantial increase in root biomass...

  7. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  8. Evaluation of pollen production in Bromus catharticus Vahl and Guadua trinii (Nees Nees ex Rupr. (Poaceae for interpretation of fossil data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nunes Radaeski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated pollen production per anther, per flower, and per spikelet of the grassland species Bromus catharticus and the forest taxon Guadua trinii (Poaceae, which have divergent pollination syndrome. We collected ten anthers of each taxon to determine differences in pollen production based on pollination system. Anthers were macerated and pollen grains were counted in a Neubauer chamber. Pollen morphology was observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy to establish relationships between pollen grain production and morphology. The anemophilous species Bromus catharticus (2,556,000 pollen grains/spikelet has twice the pollen production per anther and per spikelet compared to Guadua trinii (1,716,000 pollen grains/spikelet, a species that requires biotic assistance for pollination. Pollen grain size is inversely proportional to production. Microechinate ornamentation, which is not expected to occur in anemophilous species, was observed on pollen of both taxa. Our results indicate that the frequency of forest Poaceae in the quaternary records may be underestimated while frequency of grassland taxa may be overestimated, leading to misrepresentation of the respective flora in this period.

  9. Grasses and legumes in mixture: an energy intercropping system intended for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gatta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Batch testing of biomethanization was conducted on organic matrices from a mixture of grasses (triticale and barley and legumes (field bean - Vicia faba L. var. minor. These tests were performed in mesophylic conditions (35°C on previously chopped and ensiled biomass. The three crops have been cultivated in Southern Italy (Puglia region, both as single-crops and intercropping between triticale or barley and field bean, in different mixture combinations, during the season 2009-2010. Emphasis was placed on the determination of the chemical composition of feedstock from the three single species and their different intercropping ratios, mowed at two subsequent stages (milk and dough development of grasses, also assessing their consequent biogas and methane potential yields after silage. Seven overall treatments have been compared: the three species in monoculture (triticale, barley and field bean, respectively; two mixtures between triticale and field bean (with triticale at 70 and 50%, respectively; two mixtures between barley and field bean (again with barley at 70 and 50%, respectively. Immediately after cutting and for the next 90 days, biomass samples were closed into plastic mini-silos, each having a 5-L capacity, in order to simulate the silage process. Thereafter, the batch testing was performed and biogas and methane production have been determined, with respect to the main chemical characteristics of the chopped and ensiled biomass samples, able to affect biogas and methane yield. Considering the single-crop treatments the highest biogas per hectare production has been found with respect to triticale (8737.1 nm3 ha-1 and barley (8837.6 nm3 ha-1, at the first and second harvesting stage, respectively. Concerning grass-legume intercropping, the highest biogas yield (8635.0 nm3 ha-1 was observed with reference to the 70:30 mixing ratio, specifically on barley mowed at the milk development stage. The methane content in the biogas ranged from

  10. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  11. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  12. Seed transfer zones for a native grass Festuca roemeri: genecological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Wilson; Dale C. Darris; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Keli Kuykendall

    2008-01-01

    A common-garden study of Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae) revealed substantial genetic variation within and among 47 populations from throughout its range in the Pacific Northwest, USA, for growth, fitness, phenological, and morphological traits. Using climatic and physiographic variables, genetic patterns over the landscape were...

  13. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  14. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  15. Cultivation strategies for growth of uncultivated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R

    2016-11-01

    The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation. Auxotrophic bacteria, with small genomes lacking in the necessary genetic material to encode for essential nutrients, frequently rely on close symbiotic relationships with other bacteria for survival, and may therefore be recalcitrant to cultivation in purity. Since in-vitro culture is essential for the comprehensive characterisation of bacteria, particularly with regard to virulence and antimicrobial resistance, the cultivation of uncultivated organisms has been a primary focus of several research laboratories. Many targeted and open-ended strategies have been devised and successfully used. Examples include: the targeted detection of specific bacteria in mixed plate cultures using colony hybridisation; growth in simulated natural environments or in co-culture with 'helper' strains; and modified media preparation techniques or development of customised media eg. supplementation of media with potential growth-stimulatory factors such as siderophores. Despite significant advances in recent years in methodologies for the cultivation of previously uncultivated bacteria, a substantial proportion remain to be cultured and efforts to devise high-throughput strategies should be a high priority.

  16. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  17. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2017-07-06

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  19. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  20. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  1. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-05

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphogenetical, structural and access to productive buffel grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando de Sousa Moreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the buffel grass is so important to the productive systems in the semiarid Brazilian studies with this forage are still scarce and diffused, so this experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphogenesis, structural and productive six accessions of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. belonging to the active germplasm bank (BAG Embrapa semiarid. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Technology and Social Sciences (DTCS University of Bahia (UNEB, from December 2008 to January 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized with six accessions of buffel grass (Tanzania, Pusa Giant, Aridus, Buchuma, Iran and Biloela and five replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Regarding the results, the accessions differed significantly in most variables, especially in morphogenetic and structural variables. It was observed that the buffel grass provides a mean rate of appearance of one sheet every four days in each tiller, with a lifetime of sheet 17 days, keeping ten per tiller. Although they found morphogenetic and structural differences between accessions of buffel grass they did not affect the production parameters.

  3. Establishment, Growth, and Yield Potential of the Perennial Grass Miscanthus × Giganteus on Degraded Coal Mine Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jeżowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus × giganteus is a giant C4 grass native to Asia. Unlike most C4 species, it is relatively cold tolerant due to adaptations across a wide range of altitudes. These grasses are characterized by high productivity and low input requirements, making them excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for growing Miscanthus on extremely marginal soils, degraded by open lignite (brown coal mining. Field experiments were established within three blocks situated on waste heaps originating from the lignite mine. Analyses were conducted over the first 3 years following Miscanthus cultivation, focusing on the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on crop growth, development and yield in this extreme environment. The following levels of fertilization were implemented between the blocks: the control plot with no fertilization (D0, a plot with sewage sludge (D1, a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus one dose of mineral fertilizer (D2 and a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus a double dose of mineral fertilizer (D3. Crop development and characteristics (plant height, tillering, and biomass yield [dry matter] were measured throughout the study period and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Significant differences were apparent between plant development and 3rd year biomass production over the course of the study (0.964 kg plant-1 for DO compared to 1.503 kg plant-1 for D1. Soil analyses conducted over the course of the experiment showed that organic carbon levels within the soil increased significantly following the cultivation of Miscanthus, and overall, pH decreased. With the exception of iron, macronutrient concentrations remained stable throughout. The promising yields and positive effects of Miscanthus on the degraded soil suggests that long term plantations on land otherwise unsuitable for agriculture may prove to be of great

  4. Fungal species and multiple mycotoxin contamination of cultivated forage crops

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Kononenko; Alexey Burkin; Olga Gavrilova; Tatiana Gagkaeva

    2015-01-01

    The quality of grass samples used for animal feed by combining mycotoxin measures and mycological determination of mycobiota were explored. The samples of the plant material were collected in 2014 in two stages: before the first mowing (May–June) and before the second one (July–August) from the fields of stock-farms located in northwestern part of the Russia. All samples were divided into three types: grasses, mixture of different grasses and clover, alfalfa mixed with timothy. The occurrence...

  5. Cultivation of microalgae in industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson

    that has many potential uses. Unfortunately, the current high costs of cultivation have limited the development and exploitation of such systems, resulting in only a few full-scale algae wastewater treatment installations and a small industry based mostly around food and pigments. This thesis contributes...... to autotrophic controls. Industrial wastewater was used as cultivation medium of Chlorella sorokiniana. The culture was able to grow at high rates upto a density of 4 g L-1. The deceleration-stat technique was used to create a series of pseudo-steady states to give information about the expected results...... to a growing body of knowledge with the aim to make algae cultivation viable for the production of sustainable products. Specific contributions include: improvement in the methods of screening the growth potential of different microalgae species; identification of an industrial wastewater that allows good...

  6. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  7. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  8. Residual phosphate fertilization and Azospirillum brasilense in the common bean in succession to maize intercropped with Marandu grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Dickmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the alternatives for achieving sustainable agriculture and a reduction in production costs, especially with phosphate fertilisers, is to inoculate seeds with bacteria of the genus Azospirillum. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate residual phosphate fertilisation and Azospirillum brasilense, together with the contribution of straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass, on leaf nutritional content, yield components and winter bean yield. The experiment was carried out on the Teaching and Research Farm, of the School of Engineering at UNESP, located in Selvíria in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in a typic clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of beans sown on straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass on areas that had received five levels of P2O5 in the form of MAP, applied during an initial cultivation of black oats (0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 kg ha-1, both with and without inoculation of the oat and maize which preceded the beans with Azospirillum brasilense. Leaf nutrient content, leaf chlorophyll index (ICF, yield components and bean productivity were all evaluated. Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense of the black oat and maize seeds improved the nutritional status of the plants, but had a negative effect on grain yield. Fertilisation of the oat crop with phosphorus had a positive residual effect on the beans, with increases in yield components and grain yield.

  9. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  10. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  11. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  12. Radiocaesium in soil, grass and lamb at Ribe[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    The {sup 137}Cs concentrations found in soil, grass and lamb during 1998-2000 follow the declining tren seen from previous years. The values have been compared with the corresponding levels predicted from model calculation. The results observed during 1998-2000 of {sup 137}Cs in soil, grass and lamb in Denmark at the Ribe site are in good agreement with values predicted by model calculations. The {sup 129}I results from the Ribe site show an average concentration of 1.3 Bg kg{sup -1} in lamb's thyroids and 1.3 mBq kg{sup -1} in grass. Studies in Nordic and North European countries indicate that environmental {sup 129}I is due to atmospheric emissions and discharges to sea from the reprocessing plants Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. (au)

  13. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  14. Preliminary analysis on mowing and harvesting grass along riverbanks for the supply of anaerobic digestion plants in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Boscaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of vegetal biomass for biogas production is causing competition with food production. To reduce this problem and to provide new opportunities it is necessary to take into consideration different kinds of vegetable biomass that are more sustainable. Grass from the maintenance of non-cultivated areas such as riverbanks has not yet been fully studied as a potential biomass for biogas production. Although grass has lower methane potential, it could be interesting because it does not compete with food production. However, there is a lack of appropriate technologies and working system adapted to these areas. In this paper, different systems that could be available for the mowing and harvesting of grass along riverbanks have been preliminarily assessed through the evaluation of the field capacity, labour requirement, economic and energy aspects. The splitting of the cutting and harvesting phases into operations with different machinery seems to be the best system for handling this biomass. However, these solutions have to take into consideration the presence of obstacles or accessibility problems in the harvesting areas that could limit the operational feasibility and subsequent correct sizing.

  15. Fusarium dactylidis sp. nov., a novel nivalenol toxin-producing species sister to F. pseudograminearum isolated from orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) in Oregon and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Vaughan, Martha M; McCormick, Susan P; Busman, Mark; Ward, Todd J; Kelly, Amy; O'Donnell, Kerry; Johnston, Peter R; Geiser, David M

    2015-01-01

    The B trichothecene toxin-producing clade (B clade) of Fusarium includes the etiological agents of Fusarium head blight, crown rot of wheat and barley and stem and ear rot of maize. B clade isolates also have been recovered from several wild and cultivated grasses, including Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass or cock's foot), one of the world's most important forage grasses. Two isolates from the latter host are formally described here as F. dactylidis. Phenotypically F. dactylidis most closely resembles F. ussurianum from the Russian Far East. Both species produce symmetrical sporodochial conidia that are similar in size and curved toward both ends. However, conidia of F. ussurianum typically end in a narrow apical beak while the apical cell of F. dactylidis is acute. Fusarium dactylidis produced nivalenol mycotoxin in planta as well as low but detectable amounts of the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone in vitro. Results of a pathogenicity test revealed that F. dactylidis induced mild head blight on wheat. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Penetrating palpebral grass awn in a dog: Unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Andrea; Fruganti, Alessandro; Cerquetella, Matteo; Cassarani, Maria Paola; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    An unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid of a dog is reported. A 6-month-old mixed breed dog was referred to the Ophthalmology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Camerino University for anorexia, lethargy, left monolateral ocular swelling and pain to the left eye, present from 1 month. Ophthalmic examination of the left eye showed copious and purulent discharge, and ultrasonography revealed the presence of an abscess containing a grass foreign body. The grass awn was surgically removed. Three days after surgery, the dog showed a marked improvement, with a total resolution obtained in 7 days. To the authors' knowledge, penetrating foreign bodies such as the one of this paper have never been described before in literature.

  17. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  18. Multilocus phylogeny and phylogenomics of Eriochrysis P. Beauv. (Poaceae-Andropogoneae): Taxonomic implications and evidence of interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Cassiano A D; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda M; Peichoto, Myriam Carolina; McKain, Michael R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Species delimitation is a vital issue concerning evolutionary biology and conservation of biodiversity. However, it is a challenging task for several reasons, including the low interspecies variability of markers currently used in phylogenetic reconstructions and the occurrence of reticulate evolution and polyploidy in many lineages of flowering plants. The first phylogeny of the grass genus Eriochrysis is presented here, focusing on the New World species, in order to examine its relationships to other genera of the subtribe Saccharinae/tribe Andropogoneae and to define the circumscriptions of its taxonomically complicated species. Molecular cloning and sequencing of five regions of four low-copy nuclear genes (apo1, d8, ep2-ex7 and ep2-ex8, kn1) were performed, as well as complete plastome sequencing. Trees were reconstructed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. The present phylogenetic analyses indicate that Eriochrysis is monophyletic and the Old World E. pallida is sister to the New World species. Subtribe Saccharinae is polyphyletic, as is the genus Eulalia. Based on nuclear and plastome sequences plus morphology, we define the circumscriptions of the New World species of Eriochrysis: E. laxa is distinct from E. warmingiana, and E. villosa is distinct from E. cayennensis. Natural hybrids occur between E. laxa and E. villosa. The hybrids are probably tetraploids, based on the number of paralogues in the nuclear gene trees. This is the first record of a polyploid taxon in the genus Eriochrysis. Some incongruities between nuclear genes and plastome analyses were detected and are potentially caused by incomplete lineage sorting and/or ancient hybridization. The set of low-copy nuclear genes used in this study seems to be sufficient to resolve phylogenetic relationships and define the circumscriptions of other species complexes in the grass family and relatives, even in the presence of polyploidy and reticulate evolution

  19. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  20. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F

    2013-04-01

    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  1. physicochemical characterization of 3 cultivated ivorian plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cooking quality of the most cultivated and consumed plantain in Côte d'Ivoire : Corne 1, French 2 and. Orishele at stage 5 of ripening (more yellow than green) were determined. Their gelatinization properties were also analyzed. Corne 1 variety contained the most ash, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium and the least ...

  2. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assuming cultivated pasture area will decrease with land degradation, conversion to grain crops or urban expansion, the only alternative is to increase ... In rangeland or natural grassland systems, sequential or simultaneous introduction of MHS results in greater productivity, diversity and resilience of plant as well as ...

  3. Cultivating Student Learning across Faith Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Marion; Shady, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Educators face the important challenge of preparing students to live constructively in a religiously diverse world. At some institutions, a reluctance to allow issues of faith into the classroom creates an obstacle to cultivating the skills students need to understand, process, and engage a religiously pluralistic society. At faith-based…

  4. Perfect roses and energy efficient cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, De A.

    2017-01-01

    How to grow roses with a constant quality year round in an energy efficient manner? That is the question for an applied research in which assimilation lighting, existing of HPS lamps and inter lighting LED, and cooling equipment and forced ventilation for semi-closed cultivation are combined. The

  5. Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, A.E.; Peene, F.; Donner, S.; Wijnhoven, S.; Geijsen, P.; Bossier, P.; Nevejan, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth.Broodstock animals were conditioned with

  6. Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation and expansion of a learning network around rainwater harvesting demonstration sites in the Eastern Cape, ... South Africa has water, nutrition and food security challenges, especially the Eastern Cape Province where there is a relatively high level of poverty.

  7. Phosphoglucose isomerase polymorphism in cultivated groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to study one of the enzymes involved in glycolysis, Phosphoglucose isomerase subunits (PGI) (EC 5.3.1.9), in the cultivated groundnut, Arachis hypogaea, and some of its wild relatives. Two gene loci specifying PGI were detected. The more anodal locus, Pgi-1, was ...

  8. Alternative substrates for cultivating oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw has generally been used as the main substrate for cultivating oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus); however, in South Africa it is becoming expensive for small-scale farmers to utilise. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to investigate the use of alternative, but suitable substrates for planting oyster ...

  9. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom ( Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities and phytochemical compounds of ethanol and hot water extracts of Agaricus bisporus species fruiting body and mycelia cultivated in Kenya were spectophotometrically determined and evaluated. The total antioxidant activity was analysed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil, hydroxyl, superoxide ...

  10. Isolation and cultivation of Walsby's square archaeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H; Poele, EMT; Rodriguez-Valera, F

    2004-01-01

    In 1980, A. E. Walsby described a square halophilic archaeon. This archaeon is of specific interest because of its unique shape and its abundance in hypersaline ecosystems, which suggests an important ecophysiological role. Ever since its discovery, the isolation and cultivation of 'Walsby's square

  11. Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

  12. The cultivation, bioactive components and pharmacological effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... and relationship between structure and function of their secondary metabolites. Key words: Armillaria mellea, cultivation, ... were soybean cake powder and wheat bran, respectively. To optimize the submerged culture ... silkworm pupa powder, 1.5% soybean cake power, 2.0% sucrose, 1% ethanol, 1.0% ...

  13. Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

    1990-01-01

    Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

  14. Some Processes in the Cultivation Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    Elaborates on the cultivation hypothesis: that heavy television viewers incorporate biases present in television content into their own constructions of reality. Suggests that the integration of discrete television events into social reality beliefs requires cognitive skills not available to or unused by younger children. (JMF)

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available at various scales such as local, regional and global scale. Traditional field techniques to measure grass nutrient concentration have been reported to be laborious and time consuming. Remote sensing techniques provide opportunity to map grass nutrient...

  16. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  17. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  18. Effect of fire and grazing on invasive species in northern mixed grass prairie

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plants pose a threat to pristine and natural mixed grass prairie so managers seek to control them. On the basis of experience in the tall grass prairie,...

  19. Hoosier Farmland Wildlife Notes: Warm Season Grasses, Why All the Fuss?

    OpenAIRE

    MacGowan, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Many wildlife professionals are encouraging landowners to include planting warm season grasses in their wildlife management plans. The purpose of this publication is to describe the many benefits of warm season grasses, especially their benefits to wildlife.

  20. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  2. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Saroj; Jain, Anand K.; Mehta, Swaroop C.; Tonpay, Shrinivas D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administra...

  3. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari Saroj; Jain Anand; Mehta Swaroop; Tonpay Shrinivas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice admi...

  4. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H. S.; Nolte, H.; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...

  5. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Visser; Wilson, John R.U.; Kim Canavan; Susan Canavan; Lyn Fish; David Le Maitre; Ingrid Nänni; Caroline Mashau; Tim O’Connor; Philip Ivey; Sabrina Kumschick; Richardson, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alie...

  6. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  7. (Poaceae) compromise meiotic division

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leading to pollen abortion and sterility. The cause of the abnormality reported here is not known. Brachiaria is a wild genus from African savannas that has been domesticated only a few years ago. The Brazilian breeding programme was initiated in the year 1980s. Cy- tological characterization of the myriad of accessions in ...

  8. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  9. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, S; Nishino, N

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of wilting, storage period and bacterial inoculant on the bacterial community and ensiling fermentation of guinea grass silage. Fermentation products, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. There was more lactic acid than acetic acid in all silages, but the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This shift from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and bacterial inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in the shift to acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in tropical grass silage with sufficient wilting prior to ensiling. Prolonged storage may lead to high levels of acetic acid without distinctive changes in the bacterial community. The bacterial community looks stable compared to fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in tropical grass silage. Acetic acid fermentation in tropical grass silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than community structure.

  10. Reed canary grass: from production to end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea - RCG) is a lignocellulosic perennial crop that is carbon-efficient in terms of sequestration and nutrient recycling, and grows well on land that is marginal for food and feed production. Therefore, it can help deliver sustainable bioenergy without impacting f...

  11. Effect of maturity on the mineral content of Columbus grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of maturity on mineral content in Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). Immediately after field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Thereafter, 60 plots 2 x 2 sq. m size were demarcated and ...

  12. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  13. Short Communication: Habitat preferences of twenty-three grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some grass species occur more frequently in certain habitats than in others, but uncertainty as to exactly which factors are responsible for this phenomenon exist. Species composition as well as habitat data were collected from plots situated on the mild slopes of the study area, and the data were analysed by means of a ...

  14. Canonical correlations in elephant grass for energy purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant grass has the potential to be used as a source for energy production. Besides dry matter yield, other characteristics related to biomass quality are important. The canonic correlation analysis is a multivariate statistical procedure that allows for discovering characteristic associations among groups. The objective of ...

  15. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.; Alvim Kamei, C.L.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Vermerris, W.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the

  16. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indicate that the MT-1 and Mott have a closest genetic relationship; Huanan and N51 possess a relatively close relationship, and Guimu-1 is the most distinct from the other four cultivars. [Xie X-M., Zhou F., Zhang X-Q. and Zhang J-M. 2009 Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass and closely related.

  17. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  18. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Nairobi, Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Received 9 ... ers lack specific guidelines on how to combine napier grass with Iucerne for dairy heifers and the effect of ..... (CP). dry matter (DM). average daily weight gains (AUG). substitution rate (SR) and feed efficiency. (FE) for ...

  19. Follow the Grass: a Smart Material Interactive Pervasive Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Huisman, Gijs; Nijholt, Antinus; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    Smart materials offer new possibilities for creating engaging and interesting forms of interaction and ways of displaying information in a material way. In this paper we describe Follow the Grass, a concept of an interactive pervasive display for public spaces. The display will be built up out of a

  20. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral antiinflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods:The chemical profile ofLGEOas determined bygas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed ...

  1. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  2. Differential responses of Duo grass ( Lolium × Festuca ), a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of suitable plants to extract and concentrate excess phosphorus (P) from contaminated soil serves as an attractive method of phyto-remediation. Plant species vary considerably in their potential to assimilate different organic and inorganic P substrates. Duo grass (a hybrid of Lolium × Festuca) seedlings were grown in ...

  3. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass biomass increased 47% in weeding treatments and 117% with protection from grazing. Ipomoea hildebrandtii removal also led to decline in soil moisture at at a depth of 5 cm and an increase at 30 cm, and lower soil compaction. Grazing lowered soil moisture and increased soil compaction. Mineralisation of N was ...

  4. INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF LOW QUALITY RHODES GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Bunda College, Malawi, to determine the effect of magadi (a sodium sesquicarbonate- Na2CO3, NaHCO3.2H2O) treated forages on their intake and digestibility and growth of sheep. Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth), Cedrela (Toona ciliata, M. Roem) and Sesbania [Sesbania sesban ...

  5. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly, it was discovered that forages, grains, fruits, tubers and nuts were offered to the grasscutters. Reflecting that grass cutters domestication in southwestern Nigeria is possible if only, social infrastructures such as constant electricity supply, pipe borne water and good network of roads, incentives like pups, feed ...

  6. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  7. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  8. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was animal primarily (probability P = 50%) rolled its body onto its side to rapidly (time t = 2.1 s) maneuver through the gaps between model grass. We developed a simple energy minimization model, and found that body roll reduces the energy barriers that the animal must overcome during traversal. We hypothesized that the animal's ellipsoidal body shape facilitated traversal. To test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  9. January 1977 The punctated grass-mouse, Lemniscomys striatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 730 puncta ted grass-mice was dissected to study their biology. Breeding occurred during the rains and ceased during the dry seasons, and the mean number of embryos per female reached a maximum towards the end of the breeding season. The testes and vesiculae seminales of adult males regressed during ...

  10. Is the grazing tolerance of mesic decreaser and increaser grasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of two decreasers, three Increaser II grasses, and an Increaser III species to frequent, severe defoliation under three levels of competition from neighbours and two levels of soil nutrients was examined in a pot trial. The effects of competition and especially nutrients markedly modified the defoliation ...

  11. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  12. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  13. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be ...

  14. Rangeland resilience and resistance: annual and perennial grass stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience, the ability to resist a shift to an alternative vegetation state, has become an important topic in range management. To quantify the degree to which a plant community is resilient, we experimentally manipulated communities dominated by either the invasive annual grass chea...

  15. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    For the evaluation of rumen degradation parameters and INDF, grass species, year, ... variability in the chemical composition and degradability parameters, reflecting a wide range in NDF quality .... silage processing and microorganisms, may be more susceptible to enzymatic attack, mainly in ..... of their rapid maturing rate.

  16. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17......: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; ...

  17. Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in soil moisture content were measured by Gypsum Block which aided in determining the irrigation schedules. The grasses demonstrated varied levels of WUE which was evaluated by amount of biomass productivity in relation to evapotranspired water during the growing period. The three soil moisture content ...

  18. Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea extracts. Negussie Wodajo, Ghirma Moges, Theodros Solomon. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(2), 129-134. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  19. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  20. Rainbows in the grass. II. Arbitrary diagonal incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Charles L; Lock, James A; Fleet, Richard W

    2008-12-01

    We consider external reflection rainbow caustics due to the reflection of light from a pendant droplet where the light rays are at an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal. We compare this theory to observation of glare spots from pendant drops on grass; we also consider the potential application of this theory to the determination of liquid surface tension.