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Sample records for cultivated field conditions

  1. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  2. The flowering pattern of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Sugier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the flowering of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. was carried out in the years 2005-2006 on two- and three-year plantations on grey-brown podsolic soil with the granulometric composition of heavy clay sand. The aim of the work was to determine the pattern and length of flowering of two- and three-year-old plants under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection. The flowering of Arnica montana in both years of study lasted 26 days (from the 28th of May to the 22nd of June. In this period, eight collections of flower heads were made. When analyzing the number of inflorescences gathered during particular collections, it was concluded that at the initial stage of flowering it was not great, but it successively increased with the passage of time up to the seventh collection. The pattern of flowering of the two- and three-year-old Arnica montana plants was similar. The inflorescences of Arnica chamissonis were collected six times, and the most abundant flowering was found in the middle period of this stage, which lasted 20 days.

  3. Biodiversity of Dominant Cultivable Endophytic Bacteria Inhabiting Tissues of Six Different Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) Cropped under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Katarzyna; Pietr, Stanisław Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (EnB) play a crucial role in plant development. This study was an attempt to isolate and identify dominant cultivable EnB inhabiting young seedlings germinated in vitro and leaves of six maize cultivars grown under field conditions at temperate climate zone with culture-dependent approach. We isolated bacteria from field cropped maize only. Strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and α- and γ-Proteobacteria were found. Species of two genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant among them. Higher diversity of EnB was found in plants collected from Kobierzyce, where we identified 35 species from 16 genera with 22 species uniquely found at this field. On the contrary, from maize leaves collected at Smolice we identified 24 species representing 10 genera with 10 species uniquely isolated from this field. However, none of species was common for all cultivars at both locations. Among isolated EnB six species only, Pseudomonas clemancea, Pseudomonasfluorescens, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, were found in aboveground parts of the same cultivar grown on both tested fields. The fact that the same cultivars, sown from the same lots of seeds, under field conditions on two different locations were colonized with noticeably different associations of cultivable EnB suggest that cultivar genotype is an important factor selecting endophytic bacteria from local agro-environment. To our knowledge this is first report about the significant variation of diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria inhabiting aboveground parts of the same maize cultivars grown at different locations.

  4. Laboratory degradation studies of 14C-atrazine and -isoproturon in soil from sugarcane cultivated fields under Kenyan tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getenga, Z M; Dörfler, U; Schroll, R

    2009-06-01

    A study to compare the degradation rates of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diammine) and isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] in soils from sugarcane fields with different practices of herbicides application was carried out. (14)C-atrazine was poorly mineralized to (14)CO(2) (1.10% +/- 0.22%) after 139 days of incubation in soil without previous exposure to atrazine. In the same soil also with no previous isoproturon exposure isoproturon was mineralized to (14)CO(2) by 7.70% +/- 0.94%. Atrazine mineralization after 98 days was 13.4% +/- 0.30% in soil which discontinued the use of atrazine in 1997 while it was 89.9% +/- 1.23% in soil in which atrazine is currently being used. The isoproturon mineralization values were 7.24% +/- 0.85% and 22.97% +/- 0.96% in soil which discontinued atrazine and soil currently using atrazine, respectively.

  5. Monitoring of pesticide leaching from cultivated fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüsch, Walter; Rosenbom, Annette E; Badawi, Nora;

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP) was initiated in 1998 by the Danish Parliament in order to evaluate whether the use of approved pesticides will result in an unacceptable contamination of the groundwater, if applied under field conditions in accordance with current Danish...... regulation. In this programme, water samples from variably saturated soil and groundwater collected at five cultivated fields are analysed for selected pesticides and their degradation products. The PLAP results are summarised and evaluated in yearly reports and used by the Danish Environmental Protection...

  6. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  7. Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, D; Vasquez, G A; Muyanja, C; Ryckeboer, J; Geeraerd, A H; Springael, D

    2011-01-31

    Surface contamination and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest (120 days post-transplantation) following amendment of contaminated bovine manure to soil at different times during crop cultivation were investigated under tropical field conditions in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Fresh bovine manure inoculated with rifampicin-resistant derivatives of non-virulent strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was incorporated into the soil to achieve inoculum concentrations of 4 and 7 log CFU/g at the point of transplantation, 56 or 105 days post-transplantation of cabbage seedlings. Frequent sampling of the soil enabled the accurate identification of the survival kinetics in soil, which could be described by the Double Weibull model in all but one of the cases. The persistence of 4 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the soil was limited, i.e. only inocula applied 105 days post-transplantation were still present at harvest. Moreover, no internalisation in cabbage leaf tissues was observed. In contrast, at the 7 log CFU/g inoculum level, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in the soil throughout the cultivation period. All plants (18/18) examined for leaf contamination were positive for E. coli O157:H7 at harvest irrespective of the time of manure application. A similar incidence of leaf contamination was found for S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, only plants (18/18) cultivated on soil amended with contaminated manure at the point of transplantation showed internalised E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at harvest. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, the risk of surface contamination and internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest depend on the inoculum concentration and the time of manure application. Moreover, the internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues

  8. SULFENTRAZONE PHYTOREMEDIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA FERREIRA BELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a technique that has been used with increasing frequency to decontaminate soils treated with herbicides that have long - term residual effects, such as sulfentrazone. The goal was to assess phytoremediation of the herbicide sulfentrazone under field conditions by the species Canavalia ensiformis and Crotalaria juncea . The treatments consisted of combinations of the plant species C. ensiformis and C. juncea plus a control treatment (with manual weeding and four doses of the herbicide sulfentrazone. The experimental design used herein was a split - plot randomized block design with four replicates per subplot. The treatments were kept in the field for 75 days. After this period, the experimental area was again furrowed and fertilized, considering the requirements for Pennisetum glaucum , a plant used as an indicator of the presence of sulfentrazone. Thirty - four days after sowing pearl millet, the fresh and dry shoot masses of the plants were assessed. At the end of the cycle, the plant height, stem diameter, internode length, number of leaves, number of panicles, and fresh and dry panicle masses were determined. Previous cultivation of phytoremediation species C. ensiformis and C. juncea promotes sulfentrazone remediation. C. ensiformis is the most efficient species for the decontamination of the herbicide sulfentrazone under field conditions.

  9. Hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots in Danish carrot fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bjørn, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that wild carrots may pollute the seed crops of cultivated carrots, but whether cultivated carrots can also disperse pollen and seed, and thereby introduce genes into wild carrot populations, is only little described. In Denmark, there is no commercial seed production of carrots...... seeds. Pollen and seed dispersal from fields into wild carrot populations is probably rather frequent in Denmark. A closer inspection of the morphology of flowering plants indicate that some of these (2-60%) are bolters of pure cultivar origin, as indicated primarily by orange root colour. The remainder...... is probably first or advanced generation hybrids between wild and cultivated plants, as indicated by their white roots and combinations of morphological characters from either plant type. Some of these hybrids are imported to Denmark together with the sowing seed, as indicated by significantly different...

  10. Optimization of Cultivating Conditions for Triterpenoids Production from Antrodia cinnmomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Chuan; He, Kai-Ze; Pu, Qiang; Li, Jing; Zhao, Zong-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The submerged cultivating conditions for triterpenoids production from Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized using uniform design method and the one-factor-at-a-time method was adopted to investigate the effect of plants oils and glucose supply on triterpenoids production and mycelia growth. Corn starch and culturing time were identified as more significant variables for triterpenoids production. The optimal conditions for triterpenoids production was 20.0 g/L corn starch, 20.0 g/L wheat bran, 1.85 g/L MgSO4, initial pH 3 and 16 days of cultivation. In addition, investigation of plant oils and glucose supply showed that 0.3 % (v/v) olive oil supply at the beginning of fermentation stimulated mycelia growth and significantly increased triterpenoids production; 0.2 % (w/v) glucose supplement at 10th day enhanced production of triterpenoids with slight effect on biomass, which is reported for the first time. The triterpenoids production experimentally obtained under the optimal conditions was 7.23 % (w/w). The uniform design method may be used to optimize many environmental and genetic factors such as temperature and agitation that can also affect the triterpenoids production from A. cinnamomea.

  11. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  12. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  13. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Middleton, Beth; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Sedge meadows can be difficult to restore from farmed fields if key structural dominants are missing from propagule banks. In hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China, we asked if tussock-forming Carex and other wetland species were present as seed or asexual propagules. In the Sanjiang Plain, China, we compared the seed banks, vegetative propagules (below-ground) and standing vegetation of natural and restored sedge meadows, and hand-cultivated soybean fields in drained and flooded conditions. We found that important wetland species survived cultivation as seeds for some time (e.g. Calamogrostis angustifolia and Potamogeton crispus) and as field weeds (e.g. C. angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Key structural species were missing in these fields, for example, Carex meyeriana. We also observed that sedge meadows restored without planting or seeding lacked tussock-forming sedges. The structure of the seed bank was related to experimental water regime, and field environments of tussock height, thatch depth, and presence of burning as based on Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling analysis. To re-establish the structure imposed by tussock sedges, specific technologies might be developed to encourage the development of tussocks in restored sedge meadows.

  14. Suitability of Nigerian Weather Conditions for Cultivation of Microalgae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Thus Kaduna and Enugu would support better growth of Chlorella than Jos ... The United Nations food and agricultural organization (FAO) estimates that the world ... cultivated to log phase and 500ml of the culture was used to inoculate each of .... of diets, production of useful metabolites, and environmental bioremediation, ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  16. Desirable turfgrass attributes for cultivation under Brazilian conditions: a proposition

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    Francisco Humberto Dübbern de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass cultivation is a multi-purpose popular practice, associated with life quality of urban populations in consequence of its capability of providing safe, pleasant environments, suitable for recreational and sportive activities. Additionally, it plays relevant environmental functions. For these reasons, turfgrasses constitute an important segment of the agribusiness in many countries. In Brazil, the importance of this type of cultivation has increased in spite of the reduced number of available turfgrass cultivars. Research programs aiming the exploitation of his ample genetic diversity could promote Brazil to the forefront of this type of agriculture in the tropical world. In this work, we discussed and proposed degrees of relevance for different characteristics of grass plants destined for use as permanent ground coverage under a variety of Brazilian situations.

  17. QUALITY EVALUATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA CULTIVATED IN FARMERS FIELD

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    Chauhan Nirpendra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the potential industrial crops Stevia rebaudiana introduce in newly develop state Uttarakand for cultivated as well as quality evaluations of farmers produced and its comparative assessment with other parts of northern areas. Stevia rebaudiana is a natural, non-caloric, sweet-tasting plant used globally for its sweeter properties. Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in different region of north India, stevioside vary 6.0- 9.5%, rebaudioside vary ranging 1.60-3.90 % within different location.

  18. Maximizing establishment and survivorship of field-collected and greenhouse-cultivated biocrusts in a semi-cold desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Chuckran, Peter; Barger, Nicole N.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    AimsBiological soil crusts (biocrusts) are soil-surface communities in drylands, dominated by cyanobacteria, mosses, and lichens. They provide key ecosystem functions by increasing soil stability and influencing soil hydrologic, nutrient, and carbon cycles. Because of this, methods to reestablish biocrusts in damaged drylands are needed. Here we test the reintroduction of field-collected vs. greenhouse-cultured biocrusts for rehabilitation.MethodsWe collected biocrusts for 1) direct reapplication, and 2) artificial cultivation under varying hydration regimes. We added field-collected and cultivated biocrusts (with and without hardening treatments) to bare field plots and monitored establishment.ResultsBoth field-collected and cultivated cyanobacteria increased cover dramatically during the experimental period. Cultivated biocrusts established more rapidly than field-collected biocrusts, attaining ~82% cover in only one year, but addition of field-collected biocrusts led to higher species richness, biomass (as assessed by chlorophyll a) and level of development. Mosses and lichens did not establish well in either case, but late successional cover was affected by hardening and culture conditions.ConclusionsThis study provides further evidence that it is possible to culture biocrust components from later successional materials and reestablish cultured organisms in the field. However, more research is needed into effective reclamation techniques.

  19. Monitoring of pesticide leaching from cultivated fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüsch, Walter; Rosenbom, Annette E; Badawi, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP) was initiated in 1998 by the Danish Parliament in order to evaluate whether the use of approved pesticides will result in an unacceptable contamination of the groundwater, if applied under field conditions in accordance with current Danish...... Agency in the regulation of pesticides in Denmark (Brüsch et al. 2015). In order to represent typical farming scenarios in Denmark, the test fields are situated on meltwater and marine sands, and on tile-drained clayey soils in till areas....

  20. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions Risco do cultivo de campo de pepino decapado causado por condições desfavoráveis de duração de brilho solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalbarczyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar conditions described by sunshine duration in the five development stages on the quantity of the total and marketable yield of cucumber with consideration of a linear trend of an independent variable was determined by means of multiple regression analysis. The accuracy of the equations was evaluated on the basis of, among other things, determination coefficient, average relative forecast error and the indexes: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE and root mean square error (RMSE. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. yield was confirmed for the period from the end of emergence to the beginning of flowering and from the beginning of harvesting to the end of harvesting. Cucumber yield was lower by 18% than the multiannual average in the years 1966-2005 every 1.5-2 years -in the case of the occurrence of the shortage in the period from the end of emergence to the beginning of flowering and by 12-15% every 2-3 years in the period from the beginning of harvesting to the end of harvesting. In four years, out of the 40 considered ones, simultaneously in both cucumber development stages, unfavorable solar conditions occurred, causing reduction by at least 5% in the total yield of the plant in Poland, and in three years - the marketable yield.A disponibilidade de energia solar para as plantas desde o nascer ao por do sol é de fundamental importância para todo agronegócio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o risco da produção de pepino (Cucumis sativus

  1. Effect of Different Water Management and Nitrogen Forms on Characteristics of Iron Nutrition of Rice Cultivated Under Aerobic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-qing; SHEN Qi-rong; WANG Juan-juan; YANG Jian-chang; ZHOU Ming-yao; BAI Yan-chao

    2003-01-01

    Although available iron is usually abundant for the growth of rice cultivated in waterlogged condition, the rice crop may suffer from its deficiency when cultivated in aerobic soil since the soil properties are totally different from waterlogged. Solubility of iron is very low in soils with high Eh and/or high Ph. A field experiment with five different depth (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm) of groundwater, and a pot-experiment with five treatments of ammonium-nitrate ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100) were conducted to study the characteristics of iron nutrition of rice in non-full irrigation condition. Moreover, the contents of iron extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl of rice plant samples of 8 cultivars from both aerobic and waterlogged cultivation were analyzed to study the effect of water regimes on iron content of rice plants. The results were as follows: (1) The average content of available Fe (2.70 mg kg-1) of 5 layers of the soil treated with 10-cm depth of groundwater was significantly higher than that (0.83 mg kg-1) with 50-cm depth of groundwater, and the iron concentration of rice plant of the former was much higher than that of the later. (2) Iron deficiency of rice became much severe when high ratio of nitrate (more than 75 percent) in nitrogen fertilizer applied at different intervals in aerobic cultivation. (3) The iron concentrations of 3 cultivars, Wuyujing3 (99 mg kg-1), Yangdao4 (87 mg kg-1) and 9520 (95 mg kg-1), of rice plants cultivated in aerobic condition were significantly less than those(195, 197 and 175 mg kg-1) respectively in waterlogged condition at tillering stage. And even much significant differences existed in the iron concentrations of different cultivars growing in the aerobic and waterlogged condition at maturity.

  2. [Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids.

  3. The effects of minimal tillage, contour cultivation and in-field vegetative barriers on soil erosion and phosphorus loss

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Runoff, sediment, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus losses in overland flow were measured for two years on unbounded plots cropped with wheat and oats.\\ud \\ud Half of the field was cultivated with minimum tillage (shallow tillage with a tine cultivator) and half was conventionally ploughed. Within each cultivation treatment there were different treatment areas (TAs). In the first year of the experiment, one TA was cultivated up and down the slope, one TA was cultivated on the co...

  4. Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α

    OpenAIRE

    Rafidah Mohd Ariff; Anwar Fitrianto; Mohd Yazid Abd. Manap; Aini Ideris; Azhar Kassim; Afinah Suhairin; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no sign...

  5. Optimal control of the process of cultivation in the conditions of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a way of solving of the optimal control problem of antibiotic feeding under condition of infection, consisting in the selection of the optimal control in the field of admissible control, with the aim of achieving a compromise between the losses in production due to the presence of foreign microflora, and the cost of its suppression due to the application of antibiotic. The presence of other microorganisms in the finished product, in particular of the “wild“ ones, considerably impairs the quality indicators of the final product (in particular, it reduces the storage time. In peculiar conditions of production it is possible to improve the quality of target product due to elimination of infection, including, when used antibiotics in the process of cultivation, but due to the lack of efficient algorithms and control systems of their supply the question is still open. We use the system of Lotka-Volterra adapted for microbiological process as a mathematical model adequately describing the situation of competitive interaction of two populations of microorganisms (useful and “wild“ ones due to the consumption of one resource. The aim is to find a control law U(t belonging to the field of admissible control. The control that affords minimum to the optimization criterion in accordance with the principle of maximum is defined by the condition of the maximum of Hamilton function and the resulting canonical system of equations. The modified conjugated system of equations in matrix form is obtained. The solution of system of differential-different equations in the analytical form is found using the method of coordinate transformation. As a result an optimal control law is found (with regard to the selected criterion. This is the control law of application of the antibiotic, allowing to control the concentration of foreign microflora in the process of cultivation of microorganisms and accounting for the specific

  6. Cultivation of Isochrysis galbana in phototrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Yousef; Qin, Jian G

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the growth and biomass production of Isochrysis galbana under hetero-, mixo-, and phototrophic conditions using different organic carbon sources. The growth of I. galbana was inhibited in heterotrophy but was enhanced in mixotrophy compared to that in phototrophy. Subsequently, the influences of organic carbon and environmental factors (light and salinity) on the growth of I. galbana were further investigated. Algal dry weight increased as glycerol concentrations increased from 0 to 200 mmol and the highest algal production occurred at 50 mmol glycerol. At a range of light intensities of 25-200 μ mol photons m(-2) s(-2), the highest algal growth rate occurred at 100 photons μ mol m(-2) s(-2). The growth of I. galbana was significantly affected by photoperiod, and the maximal dry weight was obtained at 12 h light and 12 h dark. In the salinity test, I. galbana could grow in a wide range of salinities from 10 to 65 ‰, but the 35 ‰ salinity was optimal. This study suggests that the growth and production of I. galbana can be improved using mixotrophic culture at 50 mmol glycerol in 35 ‰ salinity.

  7. Ecological Characterization of White Grubs (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) Community in Cultivated and Noncultivated Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherman, M A; Morón, M A; Dal Prá, E; Valmorbida, I; Guedes, J V C

    2014-06-01

    Comparative studies on the density and diversity of white grubs community (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) occurring in cultivated and noncultivated fields of the Planalto region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are presented. Sampling was carried out in 23 municipalities during the 2009 and 2010 winter seasons. Cultivated and noncultivated fields were chosen in each locality. Melolontid larvae were collected for identification and counted to determine the population density. A mean of 12.9 larvae m(-2) were collected in cultivated areas against 10.5 larvae m(-2) in noncultivated areas. The latter were more diverse (H' = 2.52) than cultivated areas (H' = 2.26). Despite the high evenness index (J = 0.75 noncultivated and J = 0.74 cultivated), faunistic parameters indicated Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow and Diloboderus abderus Sturm as an extremely dominant species in cultivated areas. These results showed that the population density of white grubs increases, and their community composition is affected in cultivated areas.

  8. Deciphering Community Structure of Methanotrophs Dwelling in Rice Rhizospheres of an Indian Rice Field Using Cultivation and Cultivation-Independent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranitha S; Rahalkar, Monali C; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Ranade, Dilip R; Pore, Soham; Arora, Preeti; Kapse, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Methanotrophs play a crucial role in filtering out methane from habitats, such as flooded rice fields. India has the largest area under rice cultivation in the world; however, to the best of our knowledge, methanotrophs have not been isolated and characterized from Indian rice fields. A cultivation strategy composing of a modified medium, longer incubation time, and serial dilutions in microtiter plates was used to cultivate methanotrophs from a rice rhizosphere sample from a flooded rice field in Western India. We compared the cultured members with the uncultured community as revealed by three culture-independent methods. A novel type Ia methanotroph (Sn10-6), at the rank of a genus, and a putative novel species of a type II methanotroph (Sn-Cys) were cultivated from the terminal positive dilution (10(-6)). From lower dilution (10(-4)), a strain of Methylomonas spp. was cultivated. All the three culture-independent analyses, i.e., pmoA clone library, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and metagenomics approach, revealed the dominance of type I methanotrophs. Only metagenomic analysis showed significant presence of type II methanotrophs, albeit in lower proportion (37 %). All the three isolates showed relevance to the methanotrophic community as depicted by uncultured methods; however, the cultivated members might not be the most dominant ones. In conclusion, a combined cultivation and cultivation-independent strategy yielded us a broader picture of the methanotrophic community from rice rhizospheres of a flooded rice field in India.

  9. Irrigation Difference and Productivity Variations in Paddy Cultivation: Field Evidences from Udalguri District of Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Phanindra GOYARI

    2014-01-01

    Using field survey data, the paper examines the seasonal variation of irrigation facilities for cultivation of paddy with special emphasis on summer paddy in Assam. Paddy is cultivated in three seasons: autumn, winter and summer. In terms of acreage and production, winter rice has traditionally been the most dominant. However, the acreage shares of winter and autumn rice in total rice area have been declining continuously over the years. On the contrary, the importance of summer rice has been...

  10. Quantification of gully erosion in a cultivated area in Southern Spain under high rainfall conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; Mora, J.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Gully erosion is a major process contributing to soil degradation on cultivated areas, specially when is triggered by extreme rainfall conditions (e.g. Øygarden, 2003). This study evaluates the gully erosion rates in a Mediterran agricultural area over a five years, 2010-2011, period. This period includes the maximum annual record of the last 50 years. A qualitative field survey (June 2006, to register present gullies and those refilled by tillage) and two field measurement surveys (June 2010 and 2011) were conducted in a set of cultivated catchments located in Cordoba (Spain) within the area named as "Campiña Media del Guadalquivir". The area of these landscapes ranged from 10 to 100 ha, and they were covered by field crops (mostly bean, sunflower and wheat) on vertic soils. The main gully defining properties (widths and depths) were measured after the rainy season, and before tillage operations covered them again, using global position system (GPS), pole and measurement tape. Soil erosion was estimated calculating the gully volume difference between two periods, by assuming simple geometric forms such as a triangle, triangle or trapezium for gully cross sections. Comparing 2006 and 2010 survey results, a mean erosion rate of 10 t ha-1 yr-1 was calculated, under the hyphotesis of only one removing (gully filling) operation. For the 2010-2011 period, a great enlargement of the gully network was observed, including headward migration, cross sectional widening and sidewall sloughing. In most cross sections the widths increase ratio (width in 2011 compared to that in 2010) exceeded 2, reaching in some cases to 3 o 4 times the original dimensions. Gully erosion estimates at the different catchments ranges from 37 to 250 t ha-1 yr-1, exceeding by far the tolerable soil erosion rates. The lack of vegetation, removed during years of continued tillage at valley bottoms, the elimination of natural features such as reach sinuosity by management practices, in combination

  11. Changes in Soil Properties of Paddy Fields Across A Cultivation Chronosequence in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Pei; ZHANG Tao-Lin; LI De-Cheng; B.VELDE; HAN Feng-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    Rice production plays a crucial role ia the food supply of China and a better understanding of the changes in paddy soil fertility and the management effects is of practical importance for increasing rice productivity. In this study, field sampling in a typical red soil region of subtropical China, Jiangxi Province, was used to observe changes in the soil physical, chemical,and biological properties in a cultivation chronosequence of paddy fields. After cultivation, clay (< 0.002 mm) content in the soil, which was 39% in the original uncultivated wasteland, decreased to 17% in the 80-year paddy field, while silt(0.02-0.002 mm) content increased. Additionally, macroporosity increased and pore shapes became more homogeneous.Soil pH generally increased. Soil organic C and total N contents of the 0-10 cm layer increased from 4.58 and 0.39 g kg-1to 19.6 and 1.62 g kg-1, respectively, in the paddy fields after 30-year cultivation and then remained stable. Soil total P content increased from 0.5 to 1.3 g kg-1 after 3 years of rice cultivation, indicating that application of phosphate fertilizer could accelerate phosphorous accumulation in the soil. Total K content in the 0-10 cm soil layer for the 80-year paddy field decreased by 28% compared to that of the uncultivated wasteland land. Total Fe and free Fe contents declined with years of cultivation. The bacterial population increased and urease activity noticeably intensified after years of cultivation.In this chronosequence it appeared that it took 30 years to increase soil fertility to a relatively constant value that was seen after 80 years of cultivation.

  12. Efficient robust conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A

    2015-10-01

    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.

  13. Cultivating Kuumba: Applying Art Based Strategies to Any Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Auburn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many contemporary issues to address in adult education. This paper explores art-based strategies and the utilization of creativity (Kuumba) to expand learning for global communities in any field of practice. Benefits of culturally grounded approaches to adult education are discussed. Images from ongoing field research can be viewed at…

  14. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  15. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis.

  16. Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide yield by the strain was 70.0 g/L of NaCl,and 0.9 g/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29℃, aeration, and continuous illumination at 86.0 μE/M2/S. Under the optimal conditions, over 18.4 g/L of exopolysaccharide was produced within 12 days. This was so far the highest exopolysaccharide yield produced with strains of Cyanothece sp. obtained.

  17. Bacterial cultivation in high magnetic fields by 7-tesla superconducting magnet; 7T chodendo magnet ni yori hasseishita kojiba ni okeru biseibutsu no baiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, M.; Saito, I.; Kamikado, T.; Ito, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Japan Magnet Technology Inc., Kobe (Japan); Liuno, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ano, T.; Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1994-12-20

    Although a large number of studies on effects of magnetic fields on living organisms was reported, no definite results were obtained in many cases because the related conditions are non-uniform and uncertain, such that the uniform magnetic space is smaller than test samples, and temperature control is insufficient. Therefore, the present study developed a microorganism cultivation system that is applied with a 7-T superconducting magnet. This system has the following features: it generates homogeneous magnetic fields of 0.5 to 7 T {plus_minus} 0.5% in the space with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 200 mm in a normal temperature bore (with a diameter of 160 mm); it can cultivate microorganisms aerobically at temperatures of 10 to 70{degree}C {plus_minus} 0.1{degree}C; it can perform the cultivation simultaneously with a control cultivation in a small magnetic field weaker than the geomagnetism; and a gradient magnetic field and a variable magnetic field can also be applied. As a result of cultivating colibacillus by using the system, a proliferation effect greater by 40% to 80% than the control was obtained in a uniform magnetic field of 7 T, and a proliferation effect greater by several times in variable magnetic fields of 5.2 to 6.1 T was attained with good reproducibility. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  19. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    costs associated with fencing of fields, and are faced with physical constraints. The simulation results are compared with land-cover data obtained from remote sensing. Comparisons are made on patterns as detected visually and using the mean nearest-neighbour ratio. Baseline simulation outputs show high...

  20. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  1. FEATURES OF VENTILATION CONDITIONS BY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN MINING UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial cultivation of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus in one of the dead faces of the »Krš« pit of the Dalmatian bauxite mines Obrovac proved, that an optimal yield can be attained with the domestic mycelium. The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Cultivating the Pedagogy of Experience Through International Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yigitcanlar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban and regional planners, in the era of globalization, require being equipped with necessary skill sets to better deal with complex and rapidly changing economic, sociocultural, political, and environmental fabrics of cities and their regions. To provide such skill sets, urban and regional planning curriculum of Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, offers planning practice in the international context. This article, first, reports the findings of pedagogic analyses of the international field trips conducted to Malaysia, Korea, Turkey, and Taiwan. The article, then, discusses the opportunities and constraints of exposure of students to planning practice beyond the Australian context.

  3. Effect of Cultivation Time and Medium Condition in Production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber for Urease Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pesaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nanoporous biomatrix originated from bacterial resources has been chosen for urease immobilization. Urease has been immobilized on synthesized bacterial cellulose nanofiber since this enzyme has a key role in nitrogen metabolism. Gluconacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 has been cultivated for synthesis of a nanofiber with the diameter of 30–70 nm. Different cultivation processes in the aspect of time and cultivation medium conditions were chosen to study the performance of immobilized enzyme on four types of bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs. Urease immobilization into the nanofiber has been done in two steps: enzyme adsorption and glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The results showed that the immobilized enzymes were relatively active and highly stable compared to the control samples of free enzymes. Optimum pH was obtained 6.5 and 7 for different synthesized BCNs, while the optimum temperature for immobilized urease was 50°C. Finding of the current experiment illustrated that the immobilized enzyme in optimum condition lost its initial activity by 41% after 15 weeks.

  4. Cultivation and characters of aerobic granules for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-xia; CHEN Yuan-cai; CHEN Zhong-hao; CHEN Rong

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition ( DO concentration was controlled at 0.2-0.7 mg/L) was studied in this paper. Anaerobic granules were selected as inoculum. The changes of appearance were observed and the variations of SVI, VSS/TSS, PN/PS and the size of sludge were measured during cultivating. The capabilities for degradation of PCP, AOX and CODcr were also studied. Observations on mature granules were carried out by scanning electron microscope, and the results indicated bacillus was dominant on the surface of granules while in the inner of granules both bacillus and coccus were the dominant microorganisms. K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and Zn were detected in the granules by element analysis.

  5. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  6. Crossing methods and cultivation conditions for rapid production of segregating populations in three grain amaranth species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G Stetter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp. have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by manipulating day length and achieved flowering times of four weeks and generation times of two months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10% and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%. Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26% with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridisations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid

  7. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant:...

  8. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual de...

  9. BIOFERTILISERS - EFFICIENCY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATOES CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of biofertilisers on the vegetative growth, yield and productivity of tomatoes cultivated under the conditions of organic farming. The research was carried out in the polyethylene greenhouse and experimental field of the Agroecological centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv (Bulgaria, in the period from 2013 until 2014 with on determinant tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l., of the variety of “Trapezitsa”. The standard yield had its highest value upon the application of biofertiliser Emosan on the basic fertilization Boneprot- 3140 kg/da (2013 and 3116 kg/da (2014, thus determining the positive impact of the tested combination of biofertilisers. The combined application of biofertilisers in the form of basic fertilisation and additional vegetation feeding had a positive impact on the formation of the standard yield, the number and the mass of fruits.

  10. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  11. [Mechanism of malate dehydrogenase isoform formation in Sphaerotilus natans D-507 under different cultivation conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Arabtseva, M A; Lavrinenko, I A; Parfenova, I V; Grechkina, M V; Abud, F S

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretically homogenous preparations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoforms of the bacteria Sphaerotilus natans D-507 with specific activity 7.46 U/mg and 5.74 U/mg with respect to protein concentration have been obtained. The dimeric isoform of the enzyme was shown to function under organotrophic growth conditions, whereas the tetrameric isoform was induced under mixotrophic cultivation conditions. PCR-analysis revealed a single gene encoding the malate dehydrogenase molecule. The topography of the MDH isoform surface was studied by atomic-force microscopy, and a 3D-structure of the enzyme was obtained. Spectraphotometric analysis data allowed us to suggest that stabilization of the tetrameric form of MDH is due to additional bounds implicated in the quaternary structure formation.

  12. Effect of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultivation conditions on the selected properties of bacterial cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijałkowski Karol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the changes in the parameters of bacterial cultures and bacterial cellulose (BC synthesized by four reference strains of Gluconacetobacter xylinus during 31-day cultivation in stationary conditions. The study showed that the most visible changes in the analyzed parameters of BC, regardless of the bacterial strain used for their synthesis, were observed in the first 10–14 days of the experiment. It was also revealed, that among parameters showing dependence associated with the particular bacterial strain were the rate and period of BC synthesis, the growth rate of bacteria anchored to the cellulose fibrils, the capacity to absorb water and the water release rate. The results presented in this work may be useful in the selection of optimum culturing conditions and period from the point of view of good efficiency of the cellulose synthesis process.

  13. Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneous medium developed around the grains during fermentation and, for the lactic acid streptococci, even more to the initial conditions of fermentation, probably to parameters linked to milk renewal (room temperature, waiting time at room temperature before incubation.

  14. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions. © 2013.

  15. The archaeobotany of Asian rice expansion and the development of wet-field cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D.

    2008-12-01

    Archaeobotanical evidence provides direct data on past human diet and agriculture, including a geographical and chronological framework for studying the expansion of rice agriculture. The growth of systematic archaeobotanical sampling in recent years has allowed for the past presence of rice to be seen in relation to cultivation of other crops and associated weeds. The weed flora provides a basis for inferring the nature of cultivation systems, whether rain-fed dry rice or wetland "paddy" rice, a key distinction for considerations of past methane production. Nevertheless, current data is very unevenly distributed. This poster will summarize available evidence for the origins and spread of rice in South Asia (India and Pakistan), and mainland and Island Southeast Asia deriving from an earlier Chinese domestication. Where possible, such as in India or China, the potential of the weed flora remains for distinguishing wetland rice crops will be summarized. In broad terms, although the origins of rice use and cultivation begins by or during the Middle Holocene (6000- 3000 BC), rice cultivation spread outside the regions of the wild progenitor after this time. Two phases of rice expansion can be distinguished. Phase 1, between 3000 and 1500 BC, introduced rice to Southeast Asia, probably under wetland cultivation, and the spread of dry rice over northern India and Pakistan. Phase 2, taking place between 1000 and 0 BC, sees the spread of rice throughout the Southern Indian Peninsula, with weed evidence suggesting irrigated wetland rice. Similarly, this period sees the spread of intensive paddy agriculture through Korea and Japan, but in Southeast Asia is probably related to a spread of rice in upland, dry field systems.

  16. Effects of Changing Cultivation System on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Cotton Field of Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Tian, C.

    2010-12-01

    There has being a change in cotton cultivative practice in the northwestern China, i.e., from the traditional cultivation (TF) of no mulching with flood-irrigation to the modern cultivation (PM) of plastic film mulching with drip-irrigation. Little is known how this change affects soil carbon dynamics. This paper presents a field study that includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil CO2 concentration and soil surface CO2 efflux during cotton growing season. At the initial growing stage, SOC content was similar between TF and PM, showing a clear decreasing trend over depth (i.e., ~9 g/kg, ~7.5 g/kg and ~3 g/kg at 0-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-70 cm, respectively). After five months, SOC generally decreased at 0-20 cm but increased below 30 cm. Overal, SOC was higher in the surface soil in the PM than in the TF, particularly at 20-30 cm where SOC reached ~9 g/kg in the PM. In general, CO2 concentration in soil profile was higher in the PM (3107 - 9212 ppmv) than in the TF (1275 - 8994 ppmv). However, rate of CO2 efflux was lower in the PM than in the TF, primarily owing to plastic film covering. For the whole cotton growing season, accumulated rates of CO2 efflux were 300 g C m-2 and 394 g C m-2 in the PM and the TF, respectively. Fig. 1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in (a) May (b) August and (c) October between plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) and traditional flooding cultivation (TF). Table 1. Soil surface CO2 efflux during different growing stages in different systems ADR: averaged daily rate during each stage; AE: accumulative efflux for each stage.

  17. INFLUENCE OF CULTIVATION CONDITIONS ON ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF Nocardia vaccinii ІMV B-7405 SURFACTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was investigation of antimicrobial effect of Nocardia vaccinii ІMV B-7405 surfactants, synthesized in various culture conditions, against phytopathogenic bacteria of genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and Pectobacterium. The antimicrobial properties of surfactant were determined in suspension culture by Koch method and also by index of the minimum inhibitory concentration. Surfactants were extracted from supernatant of cultural liquid using mixture of chloroform and methanol (2: 1. It has been established that antimicrobial properties of surfactants depend on the nature of the carbon source in the medium (refined vegetable oil, as well as waste oil after frying potatoes and meat, glycerol, the duration of the cultivation (5 and 7 days, the degree of purification of the surfactants (the supernatant of cultural liquid, purified surfactants solution and the test culture type. The highest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by purified surfactants solutions synthesized by microorganisms on the waste oil after potato frying (decreased survival of pathogenic bacteria by 50–95%, and surfactants formed within 7 days of strain B-7405 ІMV cultivation on all test substrates (minimum inhibitory concentration 7–40 µg/mL, which is several times lower than the surfactant, synthesized for 5 days. These data are promising for the development of ecologically friendly biopreparations for the regulation of the number of phytopathogenic bacteria.

  18. A stable lipase from Candida lipolytica: cultivation conditions and crude enzyme characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Meirelles, F V; Rocha-Leão, M H; Sant Anna, G L

    1997-01-01

    Although lipases have been intensively studied, some aspects of enzyme production like substrate uptake, catabolite repression, and enzyme stability under long storage periods are seldom discussed in the literature. This work deals with the production of lipase by a new selected strain of Candida lipolytica. Concerning nutrition, it was observed that inorganic nitrogen sources were not as effective as peptone, and that oleic acid or triacylglycerides (TAG) were essential carbon sources. Repression by glucose and stimulation by oleic acid and long chain TAG (triolein and olive oil) were observed. Extracellular lipase activity was only observed at high levels at late stationary phase, whereas intracellular lipase levels were constant and almost undetectable during the cultivation period, suggesting that the produced enzyme was attached to the cell wall, mainly at the beginning of cultivation. The crude lipase produced by this yeast strain shows the following optima conditions: pH 8.0-10.0, temperature of 55 degrees C. Moreover, this preparation maintains its full activity for at least 370 d at 5 degrees C.

  19. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  20. Sesquiterpene lactone content in leaves of in vitro and field cultivated Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T J; Bomme, U; Alfermann, A W

    1998-04-01

    On the basis of GC and GC/MS analyses we report on the full qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone (STL) content of in vitro cultivated A. montana plantlets consisting of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters in approximately equal amounts. The accumulation of STL was shown to be correlated with tissue differentiation in the above-ground parts. The seasonal variation of STL content in leaves of A. montana cultivated in the proving field was investigated. Changes in the composition of the STL fraction were detected. While young plants accumulate mainly helenalin derivatives, the content of such compounds decreases to almost zero within about 6 weeks from the beginning of leaf formation while that of dihydrohelenalin type compounds increases at the same rate and remains constant for a longer period.

  1. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. in field pea (Pisum sativum L. organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (foliar fertilizer, as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively. These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators, which provides good insect control and high productivity in pea organic farming conditions.

  2. Evaluation of holistic approaches to predicting the concentrations of metals in field-cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Wang, Xiaorong; Luo, Jun; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Hao

    2008-10-15

    Measurements of metals in soils by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have previously been shown to be linearly related to metals measured in shoots of plants grown in pots. We examine the relationships between metals measured by DGT and other techniques with metals in the roots and unpolished grains of rice cultivated under field conditions at 18 sites in Jiangsu province, China. Rhizosphere soils of rice were collected and the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined on soil solution, acetic acid, and calcium chloride (CaCl2) extractions and by DGT. Simple linear regression analyses between concentrations of metals in plants and those measured using DGT and chemical extractions showed a very good fit for DGT measurements of the concentrations of all four metals in both rice roots and unpolished grains. Good fits were also found using soil solution and acetic acid extractions, but the correlation coefficients were lower than those obtained by DGT. CaCl2 extractions provided the poorest fits for all four metals. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil organic carbon (SOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and texture. Two principal components were extracted. The first was well correlated with SOC, DOC, and clay proportion and is therefore representative of "organic matter". The second primarily correlated positively with pH and negatively with CEC and is representative of "inorganic ions". When these principle components were included in multiple linear regression, correlation coefficients for plots involving metals in soil solution and in extractions using acetic acid and CaCl2 were improved, but there was little change in the correlation coefficients for comparable plots using metals measured by DGT. These results show for the first time that the DGT measurement quantitatively incorporates the main factors affecting bioavailability.

  3. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate......-products, the resulting environmental impacts were allocated between the main product and their respective by-products using economic allocation. Impact assessment was done using the ReCiPe (H) methodology, except for toxicity impacts, which were assessed using USEtox. The results show that the impacts for all impact...... for the increased impacts. This finding was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Because this study focused solely on the impacts of climate change, technological improvements and political measures to reduce impacts in the 2050 scenario are not taken into account. Options to mitigate the environmental impacts...

  4. The study of LED light source illumination conditions for ideal algae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chen, Cin-Fu; Yue, Cheng-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing LED light source modules with 3 different RGB colors, the illumination effect of different wavelengths had been investigated on the growth curve of the same kind of micro algae. It was found that the best micro algae culturing status came out with long wavelength light such as red light (650 670 nm). Based on the same condition for a period of 3 weeks , the grown micro algae population density ratio represented by Optical Density (O.D.) ratio is 1?0.4?0.7 corresponding to growth with Red, Green, Blue light sources, respectively. Mixing 3 types and 2 types of LEDs with different parameters, the grown micro algae population densities were compared in terms of O.D. Interestingly enough, different light sources resulted in significant discoloration on micro algae growth, appearing yellow, brown, green, etc. Our experiments results showed such discoloration effect is reversible. Based on the same lighting condition, micro algae growth can be also affected by incubator size, nutrition supply, and temperature variation. In recent years, micro algae related technologies have been international wise a hot topic of energy and environmental protection for research and development institutes, and big energy companies among those developed countries. There will be an economically prosperous future. From this study of LED lighting to ideal algae cultivation, it was found that such built system would be capable of optimizing artificial cultivation system, leading to economic benefits for its continuous development. Since global warming causing weather change, accompanying with reducing energy sources and agriculture growth shortage are all threatening human being survival.

  5. Mycelial cultivation of Phellinus linteus using cheese-processing waste and optimization of bioconversion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Seungyong; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2011-02-01

    A medicinal mushroom, Phellinus linteus, was successfully cultivated using a cheese-processing waste, whey, and the optimal bioconversion conditions for the maximum mycelial growth rate was also estimated through solid-state cultivation experiments. Response surface analysis with a face-centered design (center point replication = 5) was applied to statistically approximate the simultaneous effects of the three variables, i.e., substrate concentration (10-30 g lactose l⁻¹), temperature (20-30°C), and pH (4-6), on the mycelial growth rate of P. linteus. The following is a partial cubic model where η is the mycelial growth rate (K(r)) and x(k) is the corresponding variable term (k = substrate concentration, temperature, and pH in order): η = -23.8 + 8.67 × 10⁻² x₁ + 1.48x₂ + 1.77x₃ + 8.00 × 10⁻⁴ x₁x₂ + 7.25 × 10⁻² x₁x₃ + 5.13 × 10⁻² x₂x₃ -1.28 × 10⁻² x₁² -3.18 × 10⁻² x²₂. -2.64 × 10⁻¹ x₃² -3.28 × 10⁻³ x₁x₂ x₃ + 4.68 × 10⁻⁴ x₁²x₂. The produced response surface model proved to be significant (r² > 0.99, P-value linteus mycelia. This may provide another potential for managing this nutrient-rich waste in a cost-effective way.

  6. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH4 and N2O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  7. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Cultivated in POME Medium as Biofuel Feedstock under Mixotrophic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Azimatun Nur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae cultivated in mixotrophic conditions have received significant attention as a suitable source of biofuel feedstock, based on their high biomass and lipid productivity. POME is one of the wastewaters generated from palm oil mills, containing important nutrients that could be suitable for mixotrophic microalgae growth. The aim of this research was to identify the growth of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in POME medium under mixotrophic conditions in relation to a variety of organic carbon sources added to the POME mixture. The research was conducted with 3 different carbon sources (D-glucose, crude glycerol and NaHCO3 in 40% POME, monitored over 6 days, under an illumination of 3000 lux, and with pH = 7. The biomass was harvested using an autoflocculation method and dry biomass was extracted using an ultrasound method in order to obtain the lipid content. The results show that C. vulgaris using D-glucose as carbon source gained a lipid productivity of 195 mg/l/d.

  8. Effects of site conditions and methods of cultivation on growth of sawtooth oak plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luozhong TANG; Mukui YU; Dan ZHAO; Chunfeng YAN; Zhilong LIU; Shengzuo FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of site conditions and cultivation on the growth of sawtooth oak {Quercus acutissima Carr.) plantations were evaluated at the Hongyashan forest farm, in Chuzhou City, Anhui Province, China. The results indicate that the position on the slope, the amount of gravel and the thickness of the soil were important factors in the growth of the sawtooth oak. Lower slope positions with small amounts of gravel and a thick soil were better for the growth of this species than middle slope positions with more gravel and a thin soil. Given the site conditions of the hilly and mountainous areas in Chuzhou City, the mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and sawtooth oak forests did not improve forest productivity compared with pure sawtooth oak forests. Both urea and compound fertilizers promoted the growth of sawtooth oak, as did site preparation and intercropping. Two years after planting, the height growth of ordinary seedlings with a starting height of 0.6 m was higher than that of supper seedlings with a starting height of 1.0 m. Compared with planting, the early growth of the coppices was faster, but the later growth of the coppices was slower.

  9. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KALBARCZYK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005 data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant: sunshine duration, soil temperature at a height of 5 cm, air temperature at a height of 2 m and 5 cm above ground level and atmospheric precipitation. The agrometeorological data was collected from 53 meteorological stations, in the Polish network of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Weather-yield regression equations were used to determine unfavourable agrometeorological elements which is the best way to determined the quantity of the cucumber total and marketable yield. The highest climatic risk of pickling cucumber field cultivation occurred in about 7% of Poland’s area. This is the area covering the southwestern, southeastern, the northern and northeastern parts of the country. In these areas, very high occurrence frequency of agrometeorological elements was noted. These elements were: air and soil temperatures that were too low during the whole growing season and, too short of a duration of the period without frost, lasting ≤120 days.

  10. Using Probabilistic-Risky Programming Models in Identifying Optimized Pattern of Cultivation under Risk Conditions (Case Study: Shoshtar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kelashemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Telser and Kataoka models of probabilistic-riskymathematical programming, the present research is to determine the optimized pattern of cultivating the agricultural products of Shoshtar region under risky conditions. In order to consider the risk in the mentioned models, time period of agricultural years 1996-1997 till 2004-2005 was taken into account. Results from Telser and Kataoka models showed that due to accepting the risk amounts, most of the optimized amounts suggest the tomato cultivation during the cultivation period of fall, and watermelon cultivation during the cultivation period of spring. On the basis of results, due to allocation of agricultural lands of Shoshtar to tomato and watermeloncultivation and specializing the farming activity in this province,gross profit of agricultural production system can be increasedto 6116047000 and 727782272 thousand Rials, respectively.The results of understudy models were investigated under different income scenarios and probabilistic levels of risk acceptance. Correct policy making in order to offer the suitable equipments for adjusting the effects of lack of certainty and risks due to the climatic unwanted conditions in production process of agricultural products of Shoshtar region improve the life situation of farmers of the mentioned region.

  11. Conditional Random Fields for Image Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and application of CRFs (Conditional Random Fields in computer vision, many researchers have made some outstanding progress in this domain because CRFs solve the classical version of the label bias problem with respect to MEMMs (maximum entropy Markov models and HMMs (hidden Markov models. This paper reviews the research development and status of object recognition with CRFs and especially introduces two main discrete optimization methods for image labeling with CRFs: graph cut and mean field approximation. This paper describes graph cut briefly while it introduces mean field approximation more detailedly which has a substantial speed of inference and is researched popularly in recent years.

  12. Changes in Soil C and N Contents and Mineralization Across a Cultivation Chronosequence of Paddy Fields in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Pei; ZHANG Tao-Lin; HAN Feng-Xiang; P. FELIX-HENNINGSEN

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic matter in a cultivation chronosequence of paddy fields were studied in subtropical China.Mineralization of soil organic matter was determined by measuring CO2 evolution from soil during 20 days of laboratory incubation. In the first 30 years of cultivation, soil organic C and N contents increased rapidly. After 30 years, 0-10 cm soil contained 19.6 g kg-1 organic C and 1.62 g kg-1 total N, with the corresponding values of 18.1 g kg-1 and 1.50 g kg-1 for 10-20 cm, and then remained stable even after 80 years of rice cultivation. During 20 days incubation the mineralization rates of organic C and N in surface soil (0-10 cm) ranged from 2.2% to 3.3% and from 2.8% to 6.7%,respectively, of organic C and total N contents. Biologically active C size generally increased with increasing soil organic C and N contents. Soil dissolved organic C decreased after cultivation of wasteland to 10 years paddy field and then increased. Soil microbial biomass C increased with number of years under cultivation, while soil microbial biomass N increased during the first 30 years of cultivation and then stabilized. After 30 years of cultivation surface soil (0-10 cm)contained 332.8 mg kg-1 of microbial biomass C and 23.85 mg kg-1 of microbial biomass N, which were 111% and 47% higher than those in soil cultivated for 3 years. It was suggested that surface soil with 30 years of rice cultivation in subtropical China would have attained a steady state of organic C content, being about 19 g kg-1.

  13. Distribution and identification of proteolytic Bacillus spp. in paddy field soil under rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Hayano, K

    1993-07-01

    Proteolytic bacteria in paddy field soils under rice cultivation were characterized and enumerated using azocoll agar plates. Bacillus spp. were the proteolytic bacteria that were most frequently present, comprising 59% of the isolates. They were always the numerically dominant proteolytic bacteria isolated from three kinds of fertilizer treatments (yearly application of rice-straw compost and chemical fertilizer, yearly application of chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer application) and at three different stages of rice development (vegetative growth stage, maximal tillering stage, and harvest stage). Of the 411 proteolytic bacteria isolated, 124 isolates had stronger proteolytic activity than others on the basis of gelatin liquefaction tests and most of them were Bacillus spp. (100% in 1989 and 92.4% in 1991). Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were the main bacteria of this group and Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus megaterium were also present. We conclude that these Bacillus spp. are the primary source of soil protease in these paddy fields.

  14. Spatial and Height Distribution of Harvested Rupestrian Field Species in Preserved and Cultivated Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare the spatial and the height distribution of three plant species between two rupestrian field communities, one preserved (A and the other cultivated (B. One 50 × 100 m plot was delimited in each community and the populations of Eremanthus incanus, Lychnophora pinaster and Vellozia caruncularis were assessed for height and spatial distribution (using the Ripleys’s L-function. In community A, 4,098 individuals were counted, mostly L. pinaster, against 220 individuals in community B, prevailing E. incanus. An inverted-J pattern was observed for height distribution in both communities, however, with lower frequencies in B. Regular spatial distribution was found for E. incanus and V. caruncularis in community A, whereas the pattern for L. pinaster depended on the scale of analysis. The spatial distribution of all species differed between communities. The Ecological Park Quedas do Rio Bonito contributes to the conservation of these rupestrian field species.

  15. Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; van der Aa, N.P.; Tan, R.T.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of action recognition, the design of features has been explored extensively, but the choice of action classification methods is limited. Commonly used classification methods like k-Nearest Neighbors and Support Vector Machines assume conditional independency between features. In contras

  16. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  17. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  18. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  19. Optimization of cultivation conditions in spin tubes for Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin and the comparison of glycosylation patterns in different cultivation vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Jure; Brinc, Matjaz; Spudić, Vatroslav; Jelnikar, Nadja; Mirnik, Lidija; Carman, Barbara; Kravanja, Zdravko

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the optimization of cultivation factor settings, that is the shaking rate and working volume in 50 mL spin tubes for a Chinese hamster ovary cell line expressing recombinant human alpha-erythropoietin, using a response D-optimal surface method. The main objectives of the research were, firstly, to determine a setting in which the product titer and product quality attributes in spin tubes are equivalent to those in 250 mL shake flasks in a seven day batch and, secondly, to find a setting in which the product titer is maximal. The model for product titer prediction as a function of shaking rate and working volume in the defined design space was successfully applied to the optimization of cultivation conditions in spin tubes for the tested cell line. Subsequently, validation experiments were carried out simultaneously in spin tubes, shake flasks and bench scale bioreactors to compare cell culture performance parameters such as growth, productivity and product quality attributes in the form of isoform profiles and glycan antennarity structures. The results of the experiments showed that similar cell culture performance and product quality could be achieved in spin tubes when compared to shake flasks. Additionally, bioreactor titers could be reproduced in spin tubes at high shaking rates and low working volumes, but with differing product quality. Cultivation at lower shaking rates in spin tubes and shake flasks produced a glycoprotein with a product quality slightly comparable to that from bioreactors, but with titers being only two thirds. Copyright 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  20. Energy conditions and classical scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S

    2002-01-01

    Attention has been recently called upon the fact that the weak and null energy conditions and the second law of thermodynamics are violated in wormhole solutions of Einstein's theory with classical, nonminimally coupled, scalar fields as material source. It is shown that the discussion is only meaningful when ambiguities in the definitions of stress-energy tensor and energy density of a nonminimally coupled scalar are resolved. The three possible approaches are discussed with emphasis on the positivity of the respective energy densities and covariant conservation laws. The root of the ambiguities is traced to the energy localization problem for the gravitational field.

  1. Transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation to import countries for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Shuichi; Hoshikawa, Kana; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-12-01

    Requirement of in-country confined field trials for genetically modified (GM) crops prior to unrestricted release is well-established among countries with domestic regulations for the cultivation approval of GM crops. However, the requirement of in-country confined field trials is not common in countries where the scope of the application does not include cultivation. Nonetheless, Japan and China request in-country confined field trials for GM crops which are intended only for use as food, feed and processing. This paper considers the transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation countries (e.g. United States, Canada, and South American countries) to import countries like Japan for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops by reviewing: (1) the purpose of confined field trial assessment, (2) weediness potential, defined as "an ability to establish and persist in an unmanaged area that is frequently disturbed by human activity", of host crops, and (3) reliability of the confined field trial data obtained from cultivation countries. To review the reliability of the confined field data obtained in the US, this paper describes actual examples of three confined field trials of approved GM corn events conducted both in the US and Japan. Based on the above considerations, this paper concludes that confined field data of GM corn and cotton is transportable from cultivation countries to importing countries (e.g. from the US to Japan), regardless of the characteristics of the inserted gene(s). In addition, this paper advocates harmonization of protocols for confined field trials to facilitate more efficient data transportability across different geographies.

  2. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Yitshak Sade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012. Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79. In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  3. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  4. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  5. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  6. The Use of Solar Cell in Ground Water Irrigation to Support Agricultural Cultivation in Rainfed Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvi Yanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at developing the use of solar cell to water the ground water irrigation in order to support agricultural cultivation in rain-fed field. The location of this research was agricultural land (ricefield in Singkarak village, X Koto Singkarak sub-district, Solok district. This research was conducted with the design and technical test of ground water irrigation with solar cell, the analysis of irrigation water demand with crop-wat and the analysis of financial feasibility. The result of analysis showed that the potential of solar energy in Singkarak village could be used to activate the water pump of irrigation. The result of measurement showed that battery which its capacity was 12 V and 100 Ah needed four hours to be charged by five units of 50 Wp panel PV. Battery as the source of power was able to activate water pump of 125 Watt for 7,52 hours and mean debit that was able to be pumped is 17,45 litre/minute. From 24 periods of plantation time planned in rain-fed field, there were only three periods of plantation that the operational hours of their water pumps were able to be covered by the battery namely January 2, February 2, and November 2. Based on the result of financial analysis, these three periods of plantation were financially feasible in their implementation because the value of B/C ratio > 1 and NPV > 0.

  7. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.

  8. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  9. Conditional Neural Fields untuk Pengenalan Fase Gerak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nurma Yulita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengenalan pola merupakan area informatika yang banyak dikaji hingga saat ini. Hal ini dikarenakan pemanfaatannya yang luas diterapkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Di dalam makalah ini disajikan pengenalan pola untuk gerakan khususnya fase gerak. Secara khusus pengenalan fase gerak di dalam makalah ini menitik beratkan pada pengenalan pola pada data berbentuk sekuensial. Pengenalan ini dapat saja mengabaikan faktor sekuensialnya, namun tentu akan menurunkan akurasi yang akan diperoleh. Oleh karena itu untuk mengatasi tantangan tersebut, maka ditawarkan penggunaan Conditional Neural Fields (CNF. Metode ini merupakan gabungan antara Conditional Random Fields (CRF dan Artifisial Neural Networks (ANN. Representasi ANN disajikan dalam bentuk gate pada lapisan tengah dari CRF. Lapisan ini bertujuan untuk memetakan hubungan non-linear antara input dan output yang terdapat di dalam data. Sebagai hasilnya diperoleh bahwa CNF terbukti lebih efektif dan efisien dibandingkan CRF berdasarkan akurasi dan banyaknya iterasi yang dibutuhkan. Namun penggunaan terlalu banyak gate ternyata tidak efektif dikarenakan konvergensi dari model pengenalan semakin sulit tercapai. Di sisi lain, jika hanya satu gate yang digunakan maka konvergensi tercapai namun akuarsi yang diperoleh rendah. Sehingga diperlukan upaya untuk menemukan banyaknya gate optimal yang diperlukan.

  10. Effect of cultivating conditions on α-galactosidase production by a novel Aspergillus foetidus ZU-G1 strain in solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cai-qin; CHEN Qi-he; CHENG Qian-jun; WANG Jin-ling; HE Guo-qing

    2007-01-01

    The work is intended to achieve optimum culture conditions of α-galactosidase production by a mutant strain Aspergillusfoetidus ZU-G1 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain fermentation parameters involving moisture content, incubation temperature, cultivation period of seed, inoculum volume, initial pH value, layers of pledget, load size of medium and period of cultivation were investigated separately. The optimal cultivating conditions of α-galactosidase production in SSF were 60%initial moisture of medium, 28 ℃ incubation temperature, 18 h cultivation period of seed, 10% inoculum volume, 5.0~6.0 initial pH of medium, 6 layers of pledget and 10 g dry matter loadage. Under the optimized cultivation conditions, the maximum α-galactosidase production was 2037.51 U/g dry matter near the 144th hour of fermentation.

  11. Influence of feeding conditions on clavulanic acid production in fed-batch cultivation with medium containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Juliana C; Baptista-Neto, Alvaro; Cruz-Hernández, Isara L; Hokka, Carlos O; Badino, Alberto C

    2006-09-01

    First, the effect of different levels of nitrogen source on clavulanic acid (CA) production was evaluated in batch cultivations utilizing complex culture medium containing glycerol and three different levels of soy protein isolate (SPI). Cellular growth, evaluated in terms of the rheological parameter K, was highest with a SPI concentration of 30 g.L(-1) (4.42 g.L(-1) N total). However, the highest production of CA (380 mg.L(-1)) was obtained when an intermediate concentration of 20 g.L(-1) of SPI (2.95 g.L(-1) total N) was used. To address this, the influences of volumetric flow rate (F) and glycerol concentration in the complex feed medium (Cs(F)) in fed-batch cultivations were investigated. The best experimental condition for CA production was F=0.01 L.h(-1) and Cs(F)=120 g.L(-1), and under these conditions maximum CA production was practically twice that obtained in the batch cultivation. A single empirical equation was proposed to relate maximum CA production with F and Cs(F) in fed-batch experiments.

  12. Conditional simulations for fields of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Aurélien; Vrac, Mathieu; Bel, Liliane

    2014-05-01

    Many environmental models, such as hydrological models, require input data, e.g. precipitation values, correctly simulated and distributed, even at locations where no observation is available. This is particularly true for extreme events that may be of high importance for impact studies. The last decade has seen max-stable processes emerge as a powerful tool for the statistical modeling of spatial extremes. Recently, such processes have been used in climate context to perform simulations at ungauged sites based on empirical distributions of a spatial field conditioned by observed values in some locations. In this work conditional simulations of extremal t process are investigated, taking benefits of its spectral construction. The methodology of conditional simulations proposed by Dombry et al. [2013] for Brown-Resnick and Schlather models is adapted for the extremal t process with some improvements which enlarge the possible number of conditional points. A simulation study enables to highlight the role of the different parameters of the model and to emphasize the importance of the steps of the algorithm. In this work, we focus on the French Mediterranean basin, which is a key spot of occurrences of meteorological extremes such as heavy precipitation. Indeed, major extreme precipitation are regularly observed in this region near the 'cévenol" mountains. The modeling and the understanding of these extreme precipitation - the so-called 'cévenol events" - are of major importance for hydrological studies in this complex terrain since they often trigger major floods in this region. The application of our methodology on real data in this region shows that the model and the algorithm perform well provided the stationary assumptions are fulfilled.

  13. Highly Volatile Constituents of Vetiveria zizanioides Roots Grown under Different Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampan Promsiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC and solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC×GC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively. The highly volatile fractions isolated from the three essential oils by SPME were subjected to analysis by GC-MS and 42 compounds were identified in total. Volatile component profiles of the oils obtained by normal soil and semi-hydroponic cultivation were similar, whereas a quantitative difference was noted in some major volatiles when the cultivation system containing microbes was utilized.

  14. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield.

  15. Thermal field theories and shifted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The analytic continuation to an imaginary velocity of the canonical partition function of a thermal system expressed in a moving frame has a natural implementation in the Euclidean path-integral formulation in terms of shifted boundary conditions. The Poincare' invariance underlying a relativistic theory implies a dependence of the free-energy on the compact length L_0 and the shift xi only through the combination beta=L_0(1+xi^2)^(1/2). This in turn implies that the energy and the momentum distributions of the thermal theory are related, a fact which is encoded in a set of Ward identities among the correlators of the energy-momentum tensor. The latter have interesting applications in lattice field theory: they offer novel ways to compute thermodynamic potentials, and a set of identities to renormalize non-perturbatively the energy-momentum tensor. At fixed bare parameters the shifted boundary conditions also provide a simple method to vary the temperature in much smaller steps than with the standard procedur...

  16. Development of air conditioning system and labor saving technology for efficient hydroponic cultivation; Konoritsuna suiko saibai no tame no kucho to shoryokuka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, T.; Terazoe, H.; Shoji, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, K.; Otani, F. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sekiyama, T.; Kosakai, K.; Sato, H.

    1997-06-01

    Equipment which made experiments on air conditioning and hydroponic cultivation possible was set up at the technical research center of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., to study an air conditioning system using night power and energy saving technology for the cultivation. Vegetables suitable to the cultivation were selected. For air conditioning, adopted was a water heat storage air conditioning system using night power. The space between the shade curtain and the greenhouse roof was ventilated to prevent increase in cooling load caused by rise in curtain temperature. Moreover, the cultivation equipment was covered with transparent vinyl film to cool the inside of the equipment. The hydroponic cultivation equipment was trially manufactured which makes the continued production by one worker possible. The cultivation of spinach, leaf lettuce and chingensai throughout the year became possible. The yield of chingensai reached the target, but those of spinach and leaf lettuce were approximately 70% of the targets. Vegetables to be produced in the air-conditioned greenhouse by hydroponic cultivation are thought to be those that can have added values such non-pesticides and ingredients, young plants which were increased by cutting or tissue culturing, etc. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Metabolite changes in nine different soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand L

    2016-11-15

    Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites. Sugar molecules (glucose, sucrose, and pinitol) and isoflavone aglycons were increased but the isoflavones glucoside content decreased in the greenhouse cultivated soybeans. The amino acids and organic acids varied between the varieties. The results show that clustering (PCA and PLS-DA) patterns of soybean metabolites were significantly influenced by the genetic variation and growing conditions.

  18. Effects of cultivation conditions on the diversity of microbes involved in the conversion of rice straw to fodder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yan; GAO Li-juan; WANG Xiao-fen; WANG Wei-dong; CUI Zong-jun

    2007-01-01

    To confirm the optimum cultivation conditions for analyzing lactic acid bacterial communities and to provide the cultivation foundation for lactic acid bacterial communities that were used to convert straw into fodder, fermented rice straw was inoculated into 13 different broths. After 48 h of cultivation, pH values, volatile products, and microbial diversity were analyzed. Except for LAB broth, the pH values of the other broths could decrease to approximately 4.5. GC/MS analysis showed that lactic acid in Tomato MRS broth, MRS broth, LAB broth, and Tomato juice broth was higher than that in the other broths. DNA concentration analysis showed that the counts of microbes in Tomato MRS broth were 2.5 times higher than those in other broths and that tomato juice favored the reproduction of the microbes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the number of lactic acid bacterial species in HYA broth, Tomato juice broth, and Tomato MRS broth were higher than those in the other broths.

  19. Optimization of Cultivation Conditions for Exopolysaccharide and Mycelial Biomass by Clitocybe sp.Using Box-Behnken Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-xiang; L(U) Feng-xia; LU Zhao-xin

    2004-01-01

    Response surface(RSM)methodology based on a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design of experiment was used to optimize the exopolysaccharide content(EPC)and the mycelium biomass in submerged cultivation by Clitocybe sp. AS 5.112. The critical factors selected for the investigation were cultivation temperature,time and volume of medium,based on the results of previous Plackett-Burman design. By analyzing the response surface plots,the optimum ranges of cultivation temperature,time and medium volume for obtaining over 1 253.00μgmL-1 of EPC lie in 24.3-25.8℃,9.7- 10.2d and 76.0-90.0 mL,respectively. While for obtaining over 8.32 mg mL-1 of dry cell weight(DCW),the above variables would be in the range of 23.8- 24.8℃,9.6- 10.3 d and 71.0 - 98.0mL,respectively. By solving the inverse matrix from the quadratic regression equations,the optimal conditions to gain 1 265.45μgmL-1 of EPC were 25.0℃,9.9d and 83.4mL,to gain8.50mg mL-1 of DCW were 24.4℃,9.9d and 87.1mL. In order to obtain the maximum yield of EPC and DCW at the same time,the above conditions would be 24.5℃,9.9d and 84.7mL,respectively,in this situation,the maximum predicted EPC and DCW were 1 261.60μgmL-1and 8.47 mg mL-1,respectively.. The experimental data under various conditions have validated the theoretical values.

  20. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  1. Genetic stability of murine pluripotent and somatic hybrid cells may be affected by conditions of their cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovna, Shramova Elena; Alekseevich, Larionov Oleg; Mikhailovich, Khodarovich Yurii; Vladimirovna, Zatsepina Olga

    2011-01-01

    Using mouse pluripotent teratocarcinoma PCC4azal cells and proliferating spleen lymphocytes we obtained a new type of hybrids, in which marker lymphocyte genes were suppressed, but expression the Oct-4 gene was not effected; the hybrid cells were able to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. In order to specify the environmental factors which may affect the genetic stability and other hybrid properties, we analyzed the total chromosome number and differentiation potencies of hybrids respectively to conditions of their cultivation. Particular attention was paid to the number and transcription activity of chromosomal nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), which harbor the most actively transcribed - ribosomal - genes. The results showed that the hybrids obtained are characterized by a relatively stable chromosome number which diminished less than in 5% during 27 passages. However, a long-term cultivation of hybrid cells in non-selective conditions resulted in preferential elimination of some NO- chromosomes, whereas the number of active NORs per cell was increased due to activation of latent NORs. On the contrary, in selective conditions, i.e. in the presence of hypoxantine, aminopterin and thymidine, the total number of NOR-bearing chromosomes was not changed, but a partial inactivation of remaining NORs was observed. The higher number of active NORs directly correlated with the capability of hybrid cells for differentiation to cardiomyocytes.

  2. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  3. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates.

  4. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  5. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Valenova, Sarka [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vavrikova, Zuzana [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: vanek@uochb.cas.cz

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 9}Sr and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of {sup 137}Cs and 20% of {sup 9}Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. {sup 137}Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of {sup 9}Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of {sup 9}Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of {sup 137}Cs in plants increased. The influence of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4} {sup +} on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} on the uptake of {sup 9}Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of {sup 137}Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of {sup 137}Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of {sup 9}Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions.

  6. Effects of cultivation conditions and media composition on cell growth and lipid productivity of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-02-01

    The growth and lipid productivity of an isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 were investigated under different media and cultivation conditions, including phototrophic growth (NaHCO(3) or CO(2), with light), heterotrophic growth (glucose, without light), photoheterotrophic growth (glucose, with light) and mixotrophic growth (glucose and CO(2), with light). C. vulgaris ESP-31 preferred to grow under phototrophic (CO(2)), photoheterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions on nitrogen-rich medium (i.e., Basal medium and Modified Bristol's medium), reaching a biomass concentration of 2-5 g/l. The growth on nitrogen-limiting MBL medium resulted in higher lipid accumulation (20-53%) but slower growth rate. Higher lipid content (40-53%) and higher lipid productivity (67-144 mg/l/d) were obtained under mixotrophic cultivation with all the culture media used. The fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid comprises over 60-68% of saturated fatty acids (i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0)) and monounsaturated acids (i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)). This lipid composition is suitable for biodiesel production.

  7. Precision insolation measurement under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. S.; Gardner, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory had resulted in the development of a primary absolute cavity radiometer (PACRAD), which was recently accepted as an international standard of irradiance. The development of an wall-weather, field-worthy solar radiometer based on the PACRAD is discussed, and its calibration stability over a two-year period in the field is described.

  8. Cultivation technique for marine seaweeds allowing controlled and optimized conditions in the laboratory and on a pilotscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lignell, A.; Ekman, P.; Pedersen, M.

    1987-09-01

    A method for cultivation of Gracilaria secundata Harv. in plexiglass cylinders and in tanks with submerged light sources is described. Growth rates up to 47% d/sup -1/ were recorded in the system, compared to growth rates of 6% d/sup -1/ in a spray system and less than 3% d/sup -1/ in tank cultivation of G. secundata. The advantage of the system described is the greater availability of light to the seaweeds. Growth of G. secundata was not light saturated up to the highest photon irradiance used (1450 ..mu..Em/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). Self-shading followed a hyperbolic function with increasing biomass and had a great impact on the growth rates of the seaweed. At a distance of 15 cm from the light source 90% of the irradiance was absorbed at a plant density of 3 kg fresh-weight per m/sup -3/. The water in the tanks was agitated by injection of compressed air at the bottom. The constant rubbing of the seaweeds against each other and on the walls, together with recirculation of the water through filters, kept the system free from epiphytes and debris. In this way the cultures were stable, thus allowing growth under optimal conditions without any infection by bacteria or epiphytes. High growth rates could be achieved for long periods of time. An annual yield of 80 kg dry-weight per m/sup -3/ of G. secundata was estimated after pilot-scale studies. Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb. and Ceramium rubrum (Huds.) C. Ag. also showed high potentials for growth in the system. Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link and other species that easily form dense mats are not suitable for the cultivation technique described.

  9. Cultivation period, lighting conditions and BAP concentrations on in vitro induction shoots of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of in vitro micropropagation allows the production of large amounts of plants. However, some aspects of the orchid’s in vitro micropropagation are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the lighting conditions, time of cultivation and BAP concentrations on in vitro budburst of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of biometric parameters of plants grown during 90 and 180 days on ½ MS medium under different lighting conditions (18.90 mol m-2 s-1, 14.85 mol m-2 s-1, 9.45 mol m-2 s-1 and concentrations of BAP (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5 e 3 mg L-1. The best results of budburst were obtained during 180 days, under white fluorescent light (18.90 mol m-2 s-1 and using 1.5±0.1 mg L-1 of BAP.

  10. Reasons of leaves withering in tropical plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Czerwiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the reasons of necrosis of exotic plants leaves cultivated in greenhouses plants belonging to ten following species were examined: Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn., Stangeria eriopus (Kunze Nash (Cycadaceae, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae, Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae, Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien (Palmae, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. (Taxodiaceae, Calathea bachemiana Morr. (Marantaceae, Cordyline terminalis Kunth (Agavaceae, Spathiphyllum wallisii Reg. and Anthurium magnificum Lind. (Araceae. Chemical analysis were performed in soil samples in which these plants grow, in samples of tap-water applied for watering and in samples of decaying and healthy leaves. In order to examine the process of withdrawal of mineral components from necrotic leaves, both: necrotic and green parts of decaying leaves were subjected to examination. On the basis of the research it was concluded, that - in spite of generally low level of salinity of the water used for watering - some ions content, particularity that of CI-, was unfavourable to plants. Unfavourable ionic composition was discovered in water extracts derived from some of the breeding-ground soils. A comparison of healthy and decaying, necrotic leaves chemism proves that CI- assimilated by the plants from the breeding-grounds and accumulated in leaves, affects them toxically.

  11. Soil Nutrient Condition of Coffee Cultivation with Industrial Woody-crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  12. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  13. Suppressive effect of magnesium oxide materials on cadmium accumulation in winter wheat grain cultivated in a cadmium-contaminated paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tetsuro, E-mail: tetsu-k@hino.meisei-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori, E-mail: masaok24@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motobayashi, Takashi, E-mail: takarice@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Field Science Center for Education and Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-7-1 Hommachi, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-0027 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    The effectiveness of two kinds of magnesium oxide (MgO) materials, commercial MgO (2250 kg ha{sup -1}) and a material derived from MgO and magnesium silicate minerals named 'MgO-SH-A' (2250 and 4500 kg ha{sup -1}1), in suppression of uptake and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) into grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ayahikari) was examined in a Cd-contaminated alluvial paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational system. The MgO materials were mixed into the plough-layer soil only once prior to the preceding rice cultivation. Cadmium concentration in wheat grain produced from the non-amendment control exceeded the maximum limit of Cd in wheat grain adopted by FAO/WHO (0.2 mg kg{sup -1}). All of the treatments with the MgO materials significantly lowered plant available Cd fraction in the plough-layer soil. However, only the treatment with the commercial MgO at 2250 kg ha{sup -1} produced wheat grain whose Cd concentration was not only significantly lower than that from the control but also less than 0.2 mg kg{sup -1}. It is suggested that the significant suppressive effect of the commercial MgO on Cd accumulation in wheat grain would be mainly attributed to its high soil neutralizing capacity as compared to that of MgO-SH-A.

  14. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez' grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon' and a cereal plant of barley (the wild form Hordeum spontaneumm and Hordeum vulgaree 'Maresi'. The examined species differed in the size of the experienced stress. the Iargest RWC reduction was found iii broccoli leaves, while somewhat smaller - in barley. In poinsettia leaves, the reduction of RWC level was not large or did not occur at all. The accumulation of free proline in the species under study was also variable. The largest amount of this amino acid tended to accumulate in broccoli leaves, whereas the increase of its level took place only at a strong dehydration of tissues. The increase of proline level was smaller in barley leaves than in broccoli, but that was found already at a smalI dehydration of tissues. In poinsettia leaves, a several f`old increase of proline level was found at the early stage of the stress. The level of that amino acid gradually increased at consecutive times and did not depend on tissue dehydration. Damage of cell membranes amounted to 8.5-9.5% in barley leaves, about 3% in brocolli and to 0-2.6% in poinsettia. The role of proline in prevention of leaf dehydration and in alleviation of dehydration effects in the studied species has been discussed.

  15. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  16. Optimization of Cultivation Conditions for Inoculums of Cordyceps sinensis%冬虫夏草液体种子培养条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷海松; 秦韶燕; 乔长晟; 贾士儒

    2013-01-01

    At the submerged cultivation conditions in the shake flask , to optimize the cultivation conditions for Inoculums of Cordyceps sinensis,single factor and orthogonal array design were employed for investigating the effects of different cultivation conditions on cell growth of Cordyceps sinensis. The result indicated that the optimum cultivation conditions for Cordyceps sinensis were as follows:cultivation temperature 24 ℃,rotation speed 150 r/min, the medium volume in the flask 30%(75 mL/250 mL). At the cultivation conditions, we get 10.45 g DW/L at the submerged cultivation in the shake flask.%  在摇瓶液体培养条件下,优化冬虫夏草液体种子培养条件,采用单因素和正交试验法,研究了不同培养条件对冬虫夏草液体细胞生长的影响。结果表明,在所考察的因素中,冬虫夏草液体种子最优培养条件为:培养温度24℃,转速150 r/min,装液量30%(75 mL/250 mL)。在此条件下,经摇瓶培养,获得最大菌体干重为10.45 g/L。

  17. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  18. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m -2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. Light intensity of 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m 2) as compared to 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  19. Initial conditions in the neural field model

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes-Hernandez, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the large amount of existing neural models in the literature, there is a lack of a systematic review of the possible effect of choosing different initial conditions on the dynamic evolution of neural systems. In this short review we intend to give insights into this topic by discussing some published examples. First, we briefly introduce the different ingredients of a neural dynamical model. Secondly, we introduce some concepts used to describe the dynamic behavior of neural models, namely phase space and its portraits, time series, spectra, multistability and bifurcations. We end with an analysis of the irreversibility of processes and its implications on the functioning of normal and pathological brains.

  20. The effect of cultivation on the size, shape, and persistence of disease patches in fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, J E; Gilligan, C A

    2001-06-19

    Epidemics of soil-borne plant disease are characterized by patchiness because of restricted dispersal of inoculum. The density of inoculum within disease patches depends on a sequence comprising local amplification during the parasitic phase followed by dispersal of inoculum by cultivation during the intercrop period. The mechanisms that control size, shape, and persistence have received very little rigorous attention in epidemiological theory. Here we derive a model for dispersal of inoculum in soil by cultivation that takes account into the discrete stochastic nature of the system in time and space. Two parameters, probability of movement and mean dispersal distance, characterize lateral dispersal of inoculum by cultivation. The dispersal parameters are used in combination with the characteristic area and dimensions of host plants to identify criteria that control the shape and size of disease patches. We derive a critical value for the probability of movement for the formation of cross-shaped patches and show that this is independent of the amount of inoculum. We examine the interaction between local amplification of inoculum by parasitic activity and subsequent dilution by dispersal and identify criteria whereby asymptomatic patches may persist as inoculum falls below a threshold necessary for symptoms to appear in the subsequent crop. The model is motivated by the spread of rhizomania, an economically important soil-borne disease of sugar beet. However, the results have broad applicability to a very wide range of diseases that survive as discrete units of inoculum. The application of the model to patch dynamics of weed seeds and local introductions of genetically modified seeds is also discussed.

  1. Enhanced production of elastase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410: optimization of cultivation conditions using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequential methodology based on the application of three types of experimental designs was used to optimize the fermentation conditions for elastase production from mutant strain ZJUEL31410 of Bacillus licheniformis in shaking flask cultures. The optimal cultivation conditions stimulating the maximal elastase production consist of 220 r/min shaking speed, 25 h fermentation time, 5% (v/v) inoculums volume, 25 ml medium volume in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and 18 h seed age. Under the optimized conditions, the predicted maximal elastase activity was 495 U/ml. The application of response surface methodology resulted in a significant enhancement in elastase production. The effects of other factors such as elastin and the growth factor (corn steep flour) on elastase production and cell growth were also investigated in the current study. The elastin had no significant effect on enzyme-improved production. It is still not clear whether the elastin plays a role as a nitrogen source or not. Corn steep flour was verified to be the best and required factor for elastase production and cell growth by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410.

  2. Cultivating conditions effects on kefiran production by the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria imbedded within kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajšek, Katja; Goršek, Andreja; Kolar, Mitja

    2013-08-15

    The influence of fermentation temperature, agitation rate, and additions of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, vitamins and minerals on production of kefiran by kefir grains lactic acid bacteria was studied in a series of experiments. The main aim of the work was to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production where customised milk was used as fermentation medium. It was proved that the controlling of culturing conditions and the modifying of fermentation medium conditions (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources and vitamins) can dramatically enhance the production of the EPS. The temperature and agitation rate were critical for kefiran production during the 24 h cultivation of grains; our optimised conditions being 25°C and 80 rpm, respectively. In addition, when optimising the effects of additional nutrition, it was found that 5% (w/v) lactose, 0.1% (w/v) thiamine, and 0.1% (w/v) FeCl3 led to the maximal production of EPS. The results indicate that nutrients can be utilised to improve the production of EPS and that good kefir grains growth does not appear to be a determining factor for a high production yield of EPS.

  3. Effect of cultivation conditions on ligninolytic enzyme production by Ganoderma carnosum

    OpenAIRE

    Simonić Jasmina Lj.; Vukojević Jelena B.; Stajić Mirjana M.; Glamočlija Jasmina M.

    2009-01-01

    Ganoderma carnosum has been found in Europe only, at coniferous trees and it is difficult to distinguish it morphologically from G. lucidum. Since G. carnosum has not been studied biochemically yet, the aim of this study was to analyse its ability to produce Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP) and laccase (Lac) under conditions of solid-state fermentation of selected plant raw materials as carbon sources, in the presence of different nitrogen concentrations in the medium....

  4. Boundary conditions for the gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    A review of the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is presented with the emphasis on application to the formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity. At present, it is known how to treat boundaries in the harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations and a tetrad formulation of the Einstein-Bianchi system. However, a universal approach valid for other formulations is not in hand. In particular, there is no satisfactory boundary theory for the 3+1 formulations which have been highly successful in binary black hole simulation. I discuss the underlying problems that make the initial-boundary-value problem much more complicated than the Cauchy problem. I review the progress that has been made and the important open questions that remain. Science is a differential equation. Religion is a boundary condition. (Alan Turing, quoted in J D Barrow, ‘Theories of Everything’)

  5. RESEARCH ON STOLBUR OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria stolbur is a disease of economic significance that affects pepper, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes. Stolbur is referred to the transmission diseases, i.e. the agent is being transferred via vector, namely cicada Hyalesthes obsoletus in this specific case. This research aims at following the stolbur disease of pepper of the variety of Sofiiska Kapiya. The experiment took place in 2010 and in 2011 on the experimental fields of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv. The occurence of Hyalesthes obsoletus was determined via visual observations of flower sticky traps (yellow, blue, and white. Route investigations were carried out for the purpose of tracking the symptoms of the disease. Reinforced migration of cicadas was established during the second ten days of July. It was established that the larger number of cicadas were reported for the yellow sticky traps, which may be recommended for practical application as a successful fight against cicada and limitation of its flight.

  6. Concentrations of Cu, growth, and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in naturally enriched Cu soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.M.; Vardaka, E.; Lanaras, T. [Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1997-02-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian massif of northern Greece is notable for the occurrence of numerous small areas of sulphide mineralisation. Varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation, associated with post-Miocene volcanic rocks of rhyolitic composition, can be encountered in agricultural fields which are used mainly for wheat production. Although Cu is a trace element essential to plant nutrition, in excess, it is phytotoxic causing stunted growth, chlorosis and root malformation. Previous studies on wheat growing in these naturally enriched Cu soils have shown that plants have reduced growth, chlorosis and chloroplast ultrastructural changes and a reduced efficiency of the photochemistry of photosystem II (PSII). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the Cu concentration of the soil and the plant tissue Cu concentration, growth and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in soils with varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  8. Cultivation of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 fed probiotic in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Cavichioli Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the growth of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus in laboratory conditions when fed a diet supplemented with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum. Changes in the intestinal flora, haematological parameters and growth performance were assessed using 180 fishes (54.2 ± 13.4 g each. The fishes were subjected to two treatments divided into six cages: 1 feed supplemented with probiotic, and 2 feed without probiotic (control. The temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity were maintained at 25 ± 1 ° C, 4.0 mg.L-1 and 33 ‰, respectively. After 10 weeks of culture, the fishes fed probiotic had reduced viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio spp. and increased lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal tract, as well as a higher number of thrombocytes, leukocytes and lymphocytes in the blood. No significant difference was observed in the growth, survival or body composition, but the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in the fishes fed with probiotic and control.

  9. Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Hybrids for Silage Production Cultivated in Semiarid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Alexandre F; Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Santos, Edson M; Bezerra, Higor F C; Silva, Thiago C; Pereira, Gildenia A; Ramos, Rosângela C S; Rodrigues, José A S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the agronomic traits of different Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench hybrids for silage productionin semiarid conditions. It was a 1-year evaluation conducted in a randomized block design with 24 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were sorghum hybrids developed by the breeding program of "Embrapa Milho e Sorgo" (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation). The fresh matter yield (FMY) in the first cut varied from 22,643.56 to 44,033.15 kg/ha, with an average of 32,607.37 kg/ha, leading to the formation of two groups. Similar results were observed for the dry matter yield (DMY), in which the highest group yielded from 9,471.32 to 14,540.23 kg/ha dry matter (DM). For plant regrowth, there was an increase in the number of stems and a decrease in the amount of panicles. Two groups were formed for the accumulated dry matter yield (ADMY), averaging 14,217.91 kg/ha; the highest group showed mean values of 18,003.00 to 14,221.94 kg/ha. The evaluated sorghum hybrids exhibited satisfactory accumulated forage yields due to their high yield in regrowth, which indicates that they are suitable for use in animal production systems in semi-arid regions.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota of White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei Under Intensive Cultivation Conditions in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza, Oreste; Ramírez, Carolina; Ramos, Alfredo Salinas; Romero, Jaime

    2017-09-20

    The goal of the study was to characterize the intestinal tract bacterial microbiota composition of Penaeus vannamei in intensive commercial ponds in Ecuador, comparing two shrimp-farming phases: nursery and harvest. Bacterial microbiota was examined by sequencing amplicons V2-V3 of the 16S rRNA using Ion Torrent technology. Archaea sequences were detected in both phases. Sequence analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between the nursery phase and the harvest phase in shrimp intestinal microbiota composition. The main differences were observed at the phylum level during the nursery phase, and the prevailing phyla were CKC4 (37.3%), Proteobacteria (29.8%), Actinobacteria (11.6%), and Firmicutes (10.1%). In the harvest phase, the prevailing phyla were Proteobacteria (28.4%), Chloroflexi (19.9%), and Actinobacteria (15.1%). At the genus level, microbiota from the nursery phase showed greater relative abundances of CKC4 uncultured bacterium (37%) and Escherichia-Shigella (18%). On the contrary, in the microbiota of harvested shrimp, the prevailing genera were uncultured Caldilinea (19%) and Alphaproteobacteria with no other assigned rate (10%). The analysis of similarity ANOSIM test (beta diversity) indicated significant differences between the shrimp microbiota for these two farming phases. Similarly, alfa-diversity analysis (Chao1) indicated that the microbiota at harvest was far more diverse than the microbiota during the nursery phase, which showed a homogeneous composition. These results suggest that shrimp microbiota diversify their composition during intensive farming. The present work offers the most detailed description of the microbiota of P. vannamei under commercial production conditions to date.

  11. Effect of cultivation conditions on ligninolytic enzyme production by Ganoderma carnosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonić Jasmina Lj.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma carnosum has been found in Europe only, at coniferous trees and it is difficult to distinguish it morphologically from G. lucidum. Since G. carnosum has not been studied biochemically yet, the aim of this study was to analyse its ability to produce Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP, versatile peroxidase (VP and laccase (Lac under conditions of solid-state fermentation of selected plant raw materials as carbon sources, in the presence of different nitrogen concentrations in the medium. Wheat straw, corn stem, oak and grapevine sawdust were the analysed plant raw materials. Nitrogen source in synthetic medium was NH4NO3 and its concentrations were: 10mM N and 20 mM N. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically, using ABTS and phenol red, as the substrates for Lac and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases, respectively. Maximum level of MnP activity (56.82 U/l was obtained in the medium with wheat straw and nitrogen concentration of 10 mM. Best carbon source for VP production was grapevine sawdust at nitrogen concentration of 10 mM (80.80 U/l. The obtained Lac activity was very low in the medium with wheat straw (1.80 U/l, while it was not detected in the presence of other three analyzed plant raw materials. Maximum of total protein content (0.06 mgml-1 was noted in the medium where oak sawdust was carbon source and nitrogen concentration was 20 mM.

  12. [Proliferative activity parameters and their correlation with genetic damage of blood lymphocytes during cultivation under the conditions of cytokinetic block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', F I; Iurchenko, V V; Gus'kov, A S; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2006-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 15 volunteers aged 22 to 25 years, who underwent 25 air ionization sessions. The effects of genome instability were evaluated, and correlations between indicators of genome damage (lesions of micronuclei and nucleoplasmatic bridges) and parameters of proliferative and replicative activity (mitotic index, proliferative pool, the fraction of rapidly dividing cells, and replication index) of blood lymphocytes in the culture were studied. In order to establish the associations between the parameters, the parallel cultures were exposed to 0.07 mM of the standard mutagen MNNG during 5 hours. The study showed that the course of air ionization did not induce the micronuclei and nucleoplasmatic bridges in binuclear cells, but increased proliferative cell activity. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of rapidly dividing cells among all the dividing cells, and an increase in the dispersion of all proliferation parameters. MNNG induced a constant level of micronuclei in binuclear cells during the whole course, but not before the beginning of air ionization. The changes in the parameter "the fraction of dividing cells" (proliferative pool) were the most prominent manifestation of the suppression of proliferation by MNNG. MNNG loading inhibited the formation of binuclear cells most of all. The results demonstrate a non-random character of the correlation between the level of micronuclei in binuclear cells and proliferative activity parameters during cell cultivation under the conditions of cytokinetic block.

  13. Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufi, Sihem; D'Urso, Gilda; Pizza, Cosimo; Rezgui, Salah; Bettaieb, Taoufik; Montoro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener, sensitive to low temperature during the developmental stage. Stimulation of chilling stress with a pre-treatment with endogenous signalling components and in particular with salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) could induce tolerance to chilling and could constitute a suitable way to maintain quality and quantity of steviol glycosides under controlled artificial environment. In the present work the effects of different putative signalling molecules on the morpho-physiological parameters were evaluated, and a specific method for the quali-quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana plants cultivated under controlled conditions was developed, by using LC-ESI-FT (Orbitrap) MS, LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS and multivariate data analysis. This approach underlined that the pre-treatment has influence on the production of secondary metabolites. In particular Stevia plants characterised by higher contents of rebaudioside A and stevioside, were identified.

  14. Adipose-derived stem cells cultivated on electrospun l-lactide/glycolide copolymer fleece and gelatin hydrogels under flow conditions - aiming physiological reality in hypodermis tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerell, Alfred; Neumann, Anne; Kober, Johanna; Tammaro, Loredana; Hoch, Eva; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Kamolz, Lars; Kasper, Cornelia; Keck, Maike

    2015-02-01

    Generation of adipose tissue for burn patients that suffer from an irreversible loss of the hypodermis is still one of the most complex challenges in tissue engineering. Electrospun materials with their micro- and nanostructures are already well established for their use as extracellular matrix substitutes. Gelatin is widely used in tissue engineering to gain thickness and volume. Under conventional static cultivation methods the supply of nutrients and transport of toxic metabolites is controlled by diffusion and therefore highly dependent on size and porosity of the biomaterial. A widely used method in order to overcome these limitations is the medium perfusion of 3D biomaterial-cell-constructs. In this study we combined perfusion bioreactor cultivation techniques with electrospun poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (P(LLG)) and gelatin hydrogels together with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for a new approach in soft tissue engineering. ASCs were seeded on P(LLG) scaffolds and in gelatin hydrogels and cultivated for 24 hours under static conditions. Thereafter, biomaterials were cultivated under static conditions or in a bioreactor system for three, nine or twelve days with a medium flow of 0.3ml/min. Viability, morphology and differentiation of cells was monitored. ASCs seeded on P(LLG) scaffolds had a physiological morphology and good viability and were able to migrate from one electrospun scaffold to another under flow conditions but not migrate through the mesh. Differentiated ASCs showed lipid droplet formations after 21 days. Cells in hydrogels were viable but showed rounded morphology. Under flow conditions, morphology of cells was more diffuse. ASCs could be cultivated on P(LLG) scaffolds and in gelatin hydrogels under flow conditions and showed good cell viability as well as the potential to differentiate. These results should be a next step to a physiological three-dimensional construct for soft tissue engineering and regeneration. Copyright © 2014

  15. Productivity of selected species of Fabaceae in reduced tillage conditions within a production field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Panasiewicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 on farm production fields located in Baborówko (the Wielkopolska voivodeship. The aim of this study was to determine the productivity of plants and also the canopy of white lupine, blue lupine, yellow lupine and pea conducted in the reduced tillage. On the basis of statistical characteristics it can be indicated that the slightest variation was for the number of seeds per pod, the feature whose coefficient variant reached about 5%. In the conditions of observations the lowest seed yield (2.57 t?ha-1 was obtained in the cultivation of pea. White and blue lupine gave crops in the amount of approximately 3.4 t?ha-1 and the highest yield reached yellow lupine – almost 3.7 t?ha-1.

  16. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  17. BIOPREPARATIONS AS THE NEW ELEMENT OF CULTIVATION OF AN APPLE-TREE GARDEN IN THE CONDITIONS OF NIZHNEE POVOLZHYE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the article there were presented the results of cultivation of an apple-tree garden with application of growth stimulators. Positive action of Buton and Mival-Agro preparations on grades of all terms of maturing is noted

  18. New Initial Conditions for Quantum Field Simulations after a Quench

    CERN Document Server

    Salle, M; Vink, Jeroen C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a new way of using the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum as initial conditions for subsequent classical field dynamics. This method avoids problems with renormalization and leads to better thermalization.

  19. Selecting and applying cesium-137 conversion models to estimate soil erosion rates in cultivated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lobb, David A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; McConkey, Brian G

    2010-01-01

    The fallout radionuclide cesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been successfully used in soil erosion studies worldwide. However, discrepancies often exist between the erosion rates estimated using various conversion models. As a result, there is often confusion in the use of the various models and in the interpretation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the structural and parametrical uncertainties associated with four conversion models typically used in cultivated agricultural landscapes. For the structural uncertainties, the Soil Constituent Redistribution by Erosion Model (SCREM) was developed and used to simulate the redistribution of fallout (137)Cs due to tillage and water erosion along a simple two-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) transect. The SCREM-predicted (137)Cs inventories were then imported into the conversion models to estimate the erosion rates. The structural uncertainties of the conversion models were assessed based on the comparisons between the conversion-model-estimated erosion rates and the erosion rates determined or used in the SCREM. For the parametrical uncertainties, test runs were conducted by varying the values of the parameters used in the model, and the parametrical uncertainties were assessed based on the responsive changes of the estimated erosion rates. Our results suggest that: (i) the performance/accuracy of the conversion models was largely dependent on the relative contributions of water vs. tillage erosion; and (ii) the estimated erosion rates were highly sensitive to the input values of the reference (137)Cs level, particle size correction factors and tillage depth. Guidelines were proposed to aid researchers in selecting and applying the conversion models under various situations common to agricultural landscapes.

  20. Soil properties and crop yield under different tillage methods for rapeseed cultivation in paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year research was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on some soil physical characteristics and crop yield in rapeseed cultivation after rice harvesting. Five tillage treatments including: (i using rotavator, once to depth of 10-15 cm (T1, (ii using rotavator, twice to depth of 10-15 cm (T2, (iii using moldboard plow to depth of 25 cm + rotavator, once to depth of 10-15 cm (T3, (iv no-till planting through removing rice stubbles from plots (T4, and (v no-till planting without removing rice stubbles from plots (T5, were evaluated under randomized complete block design (RCBD in three replications. The biannual results revealed that the effect of tillage methods was significant (p<0.01 on soil bulk density, surface residues after tillage, dry mass of weeds, seed germination, and grain yield. T2 and T3 made considerable reduction in soil bulk density compared to other treatments for the 15- to 30-cm tillage depths. In T1, T2, T3, and T4, surface residues after tillage decreased in comparison with T5 by up to 35.37, 50.71, 69.92, and 75.75%, respectively. Having 71.48 g m-2, T5 had the maximum dry mass of weeds while T3 had the minimum one with 37.50 g m-2. Means comparison represented that in T2 and T3, seed germination reached the shortest length of 6.4 days in average. The highest and lowest grain yields were acquired in T3 (1,571 kg ha-1 and T5 (1,339 kg ha-1, respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between T1 (1,432 kg ha-1 and T2 (1,537 kg ha-1 compared with T3 in terms of grain yield.

  1. Systematic planning and cultivation of agricultural fields using a geo-spatial arable field optimization service: Opportunities and obstacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.; Lerink, P.; Riviere, la I.J.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a geo-spatial arable field optimization service (GAOS) and an assessment of users' experiences after three years of experimental operation. The service was developed in close cooperation with farmers. It allows farmers to optimize the locations of tracks within their fields, exp

  2. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  3. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  4. Evaluation of the cultivation conditions of marine microalgae Chlorella sp. to be used as feedstock in ultrasound-assisted ethanolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus S. Amaral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8 assays was conducted to study the influence of different variables namely, light intensity, CO2 level, NaNO3 concentration and aeration rate, on the cultivation of the marine microalgae Chlorella sp. to enhance the biomass feedstock availability for biodiesel. The experiments were designed using a Taguchi L8 experimental array set at two levels of operation, having light intensity (0.85 and 14.5 klux, CO2 (5 and 10%, NaNO3 (0.025 and 0.075 g L-1 and aeration rate (3:33 and 1.67 vvm as independent variables and considering biomass productivity and lipid content as response variables. All the experiments were performed in six photobioreactor vessels connected in series with a total volume of 8.4 L and working volumes of 2 L and 4 L, depending on the conditions assessed. The highest biomass productivity was 210.9 mg L-1day-1, corresponding to a lipid content of 8.2%. Such results were attained when the culture conditions were set at 0.85 klux light intensity, 5% CO2 and 0.075 g L-1 NaNO3. The aeration rate showed no significant influence on the biomass productivity. On the other hand, the highest lipid content was achieved when the cultures were grown using the lowest concentration of NaNO3 (0.025 g L-1 and an aeration rate of 1.67 vvm, while the other factors had no statistical significance. Under these conditions, the lipid content obtained was 19.8%, at the expense of reducing the biomass productivity to 85.9 mg L-1day-1.The fatty acid profile of the lipid material characterized by gas chromatography identified fourteen fatty acids with carbon chain ranging from C8 to C20 in which most of the fatty acids present were saturated (58.7 % and monounsaturated (36.1% fatty acids. Those obtained at higher proportions were the oleic (22.8%, palmitic (20.7% and lauric (17.7 % acids, indicating a suitable composition for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE synthesis. This was confirmed by acid catalysis performed under ultrasound irradiations

  5. Initial Conditions in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Many different models of inflation give rise to the same effective field theory of the inflaton. While effective field theories in flat space provide little information about UV physics, we propose that in inflationary backgrounds a large amount of information can be encoded by the initial conditions of the effective theory. We identify conditions under which this information would remain available at late times, e.g. through observation of non-gaussianities. We also study the power spectrum of a simple set of initial conditions, and find that it is constrained by the WMAP7 results.

  6. Intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of a true bug in semi-field and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Peri

    Full Text Available Research on interspecific competitive interactions among insect parasitoids has often been characterized by laboratory studies in which host insects are exposed to female parasitoids of different species in various sequences and combinations. In the last years, an increasing number of studies have investigated interspecific interactions under field and semi-field conditions although just a few number of works focused on egg parasitoids. In this work, we undertook a two-year study to investigate interspecific interactions between Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, two egg parasitoids of the pest Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae that co-occur in cultivated crops. Under semi-field (in out-door mesh cages and field conditions, we investigated: 1 the seasonal occurrence of competing parasitoid species on sentinel egg masses; 2 the impact achieved by competing species on the shared host on naturally laid egg masses; 3 the outcome of intraguild interactions under controlled conditions. Results from sentinel egg masses showed that T. basalis occurs in May and successfully parasitizes hosts until the end of September/beginning of October, whereas O. telenomicida is mainly occurring in July-August. In both years, it was found that T. basalis is predominant. From naturally laid egg masses, results indicated that T. basalis achieves higher impact on the hosts, even in those egg masses which are parasitized by more than one female of different species ( =  multiparasitism. Results from manipulating intraguild interactions showed that T. basalis achieves higher impact on N. viridula when released alone, but it suffers from competition with O. telenomicida. The ecological factors that play a role in intraguild interactions in the context of biological control perspective are discussed.

  7. A conditional simulation model of intermittent rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Lanza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic generation of random fields with specified probability distribution, correlation structure and probability of no-rain areas is used as the basis for the formulation of a stochastic space-time rainfall model conditional on rain gauge observations. A new procedure for conditioning while preserving intermittence is developed to provide constraints to Monte Carlo realisations of possible rainfall scenarios. The method addresses the properties of the convolution operator involved in generating random field realisations and is actually independent of the numerical algorithm used for unconditional simulation. It requires only the solution of a linear system of algebraic equations the order of which is given by the number of the conditioning nodes. Applications of the methodology are expected in rainfall field reconstruction from sparse rain gauge data and in rainfall downscaling from the large scale information that may be provided by remote sensing devices or numerical weather prediction models. Keywords: Space-time rainfall; Conditioning; Stochastic models

  8. Farm management and economic drivers for implementation of soilless cultivation of field vegetables in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Spruijt, J.; Vermeulen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Current field vegetable production in the Netherlands has difficulty to meet the requirements of the EU directives on water quality and to meet the market require¬ments on food safety, product quality and predictability. Therefore, a multiannual research program has been carried out to develop new s

  9. Tomato quality: from the field to the consumer : interactions between genotype, cultivation and postharvest conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of product quality in the marketing chain is of great importance for the final financial result of all stakeholders and consumer satisfaction. Improve product quality management requires an understanding of the various aspects of product and requires the availability of techniques t

  10. Tomato quality: from the field to the consumer : interactions between genotype, cultivation and postharvest conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of product quality in the marketing chain is of great importance for the final financial result of all stakeholders and consumer satisfaction. Improve product quality management requires an understanding of the various aspects of product and requires the availability of techniques

  11. Conditions for vigorous growth on sulfide and reactor-scale cultivation protocols for the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Johnson, E.F.; Ascano, M. Jr. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a reactor-scale cultivation protocol for the fastest-growing and only known thermophilic member of the family Chlorobiaceae, Chlorobium tepidum. They discovered that C. tepidum would grow with sulfide as the sole electron source at rates and with final cell yields comparable to those found with thiosulfate only if the sulfide concentration was maintained below 0.1 mM and the culture redox potential was at {minus}300 {+-} 20 mV. Such was also the requirement for growth in a photobioreactor when thiosulfate (optimum level, 12 mM) was used as the preferred electron source. For cultivation of C. tepidum on a 5- to 500-ml scale, the authors used the system of Balch and Wolfe using stopper-sealed serum tubes and bottles as an alternative to the methods commonly used for the cultivation of phototrophic anaerobes and obtained consistent results.

  12. NMR and GC-MS based metabolic profiling and free-radical scavenging activities of Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under different media and light conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Joo Oh

    Full Text Available Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources.

  13. NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolic Profiling and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Cordyceps pruinosa Mycelia Cultivated under Different Media and Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taek-Joo; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seul-Gi; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2014-01-01

    Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources. PMID:24608751

  14. Nutrient Deficiency Affects Root Architecture of Young Seedlings of Malus hupehensis (Pamp) Rehd. Under Conditions of Artificial Medium Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; YANG Hong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    What the researchers go in for is to establish models between root architecture (RA) changes and nutrition, mold ideal root architecture of apple trees, improve the nutrient uptake efficiency, and further explore the functional mechanism of nutrient elements during the course of RA construction. The cultivation system of filter paper is utilized to research the effect of nutrient deficiency on the RA of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. There may be eight types of RA. In complete Hogland solution, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root". With the lack of P, K or Ca, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper region primary root", and the "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" types of RA decrease. But with shortage of P, the type of lateral roots clustering in the upper and lower regions of primary root increases, and the type of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decreases, with the types of RA diversified. Under the condition of K deficiency, the type of no lateral root increases and types of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decrease, and the percentage of such types as "no lateral root", "lateral roots clustering in the upper region of primary root", and "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" accounts for 97.9% in all, with the types of RA simplified.With lack of Fe, Mg or Zn, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root",but the type of lateral roots evenly-distributed on primary root increases. The main type of RA is "lateral roots evenlydistributed on primary root", under the condition of N deficiency, and the types of RA turn out to be diversified. There exists a close relation between nutrient deficiency and RA changes. Owing to various forms of nutrient deficiency,correspondingly different types of RA have

  15. [Effect of controlled release fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission from paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lü, Shi-Hua; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Jiang; Dong, Yu-Jiao

    2014-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of controlled release fertilizer on N2O emission in paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) with water-saving irrigation. Results showed that in the rice growing season, cumulative N2O emissions from the plots applied with urea (PM+U) and with controlled release fertilizer (PM+CRF) were (38.2 +/- 4.4) and (21.5 +/- 5.2) mg N x m(-2), respectively. The N2O emission factors were 0.25% and 0.14% in the treatments PM+U and PM+CRF, respectively. The controlled release fertilizer decreased the total N2O emission by 43.6% compared with urea, of which 49.6% was reduced before the drying period. It also reduced the peak of N2O emission by 52.6%. However, it did not affect soil microbial biomass N and soil NH(4+)-N content at any rice growing stage, and grain yield either. No significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm.

  16. The status of transitions between cultivated fields and their boundaries: ecotones, ecoclines or edge effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoit, Thierry; Buisson, Elise; Gerbaud, Eric; Roche, Philip; Tatoni, Thierry

    2007-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concepts of ecotones, ecoclines and edge effects have been discussed from a theoretical point of view. However, there have been very few experimental tests of these ideas, which are sometimes radically different. This study presents data from field experimental researches and determines the status of transitions between cereal fields and grazed grasslands. Five study sites were chosen in Southern France because they were included in agri-environmental schemes aimed at conserving arable weeds and dry grassland species. In total, 128 quadrats of 1 m 2 were sampled on replicated transects running through transition zones. There was no significant increase of species-richness but there were changes in the botanical composition from cereal fields to grassland. These experimental results confirmed the opinion of Van der Maarel, E. (1990. Ecotones and ecoclines are different. J. Veg. Sci. 1, 135-138) that an ecotone is poorer in species than the adjacent ecosystems, as only a few species can adapt to the typical environmental factors in this zone. The transition zones studied rather reflected an edge effect than a real ecotone following the definition of Odum, E.P. (1971. Fundamentals of Ecology, 3e éd. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphie). In our case, when the transition zone between the two adjacent ecosystems is managed as a "constraint ecotone" following Vanpeene-Bruhier's, S. (1998. Transformations des paysages et dynamique de la biodiversité végétale. Les écotones, un concept clé pour l'étude des végétations post-culturales. L'exemple de la commune d'Aussois (Savoie). Thèse de Doctorat de l'ENGREF; CEMAGREF de Grenoble) definition, sheep grazing allowed the weed flora to colonise grassland boundaries via the gaps created by livestock trampling. These results are then discussed for the biological conservation of threatened arable weeds in agricultural landscapes.

  17. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  18. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions.

  19. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  20. Uncertainties in the national inventory of methane emissions from rice cultivation: field measurements and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Sun, Wenjuan; Li, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainties in national inventories originate from a variety of sources, including methodological failures, errors, and insufficiency of supporting data. In this study, we analyzed these sources and their contribution to uncertainty in the national inventory of rice paddy methane emissions in China and compared the differences in the approaches used (e.g., direct measurements, simple regressions, and more complicated models). For the 495 field measurements we collected from the scientific literature, the area-weighted 95 % CI (confidence interval) ranged from 13.7 to 1115.4 kg CH4 ha-1, and the histogram distribution of the measurements agreed well with parameterized gamma distributions. For the models, we compared the performance of methods of different complexity (i.e., the CH4MOD model, representing a complicated method, and two less complex statistical regression models taken from literature) to evaluate the uncertainties associated with model performance as well as the quality and accessibility of the regional datasets. Comparisons revealed that the CH4MOD model may perform worse than the comparatively simple regression models when no sufficient input data for the model is available. As simulated by CH4MOD with data of irrigation, organic matter incorporation, and soil properties of rice paddies, the modeling methane fluxes varied from 17.2 to 708.3 kg CH4 ha-1, covering 63 % of the range of the field measurements. When applying the modeling approach to the 10 km × 10 km gridded dataset of the model input variables, the within-grid variations, made via the Monte Carlo method, were found to be 81.2-95.5 % of the grid means. Upscaling the grid estimates to the national inventory, the total methane emission from the rice paddies was 6.43 (3.79-9.77) Tg. The fallacy of CH4MOD contributed 56.6 % of the total uncertainty, with the remaining 43.4 % being attributed to errors and the scarcity of the spatial datasets of the model inputs. Our analysis reveals the

  1. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  2. Study of Sage (Salvia officinalis L. Cultivation in Condition of Using Irrigated Water Polluted By Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Amirmoradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulation of heavy metals in agronomic soils continuously by contaminated waste waters not only causes to contamination of soils but also it affects food quality and security. Cadmium and lead are one of the most important heavy metals due to long permanence and persistence in soil can cause problems to human and animal health. Some medicinal plants are able to accumulate of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Heavy metals are not able to enter in the essential oil of some aromatic plants. Study of these plants helps human to select them for cultivating the resistant medicinal plants in contaminated soils. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out in the research greenhouse of agriculture faculty of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2011. Seeds were cultivated in planting aprons into peat moss medium. Then the uniform plantlets were transferred into soil in the plastic boxes (30×50×35 cm at two leaf stage. In each box 6 plantlets were sown with distance of 15 cm on the planting rows and 20 cm between rows. Experiment was set up as factorial on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was cadmium concentrations consisted of 0,10,20,40 mg per kilogram and the second factor was lead concentrations consisted of 0,100,300 and 600 mg/kg. Plants were irrigated during of15 weeks with cadmium and lead nitrogen nitrate solutions and then irrigated with distilled water. The differences of nitrogen amounts in treatments were compensated with ammonium nitrate on the basis of differences between level of the highest treatment and the treatment which obtained lower amount of nitrogen. Plants were harvested after 180 days at the beginning of flowering. All shoots and roots were weighted separately as fresh weight and then were dried under shading and then were weighted. The essential oil sage was determined by using of 30 grams of dried sage leaves with distillation method with

  3. Stable field emission from W tips in poor vacuum conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tondare, V.N.; van Druten, N.J.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report a stable field emission (FE) current from sharp tungsten (W) tips in relatively poor vacuum (up to 10-2 mbar) conditions. We use small tip-anode spacing to keep the extraction voltage low. A simple current regulator circuit, with a bandwidth of ~1.6 kHz, was designed, which controls the vo

  4. Closed form maximum likelihood estimator of conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Training Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) can be very slow for big data. In this paper, we present a new training method for CRFs called {\\em Empirical Training} which is motivated by the concept of co-occurrence rate. We show that the standard training (unregularized) can have many maximum likeliho

  5. Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF

  6. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessit

  7. Condition monitoring with Mean field independent components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condition monitoring based on mean field independent components analysis of acoustic emission energy signals. Within this framework it is possible to formulate a generative model that explains the sources, their mixing and also the noise statistics of the observed signals. By using...

  8. [Analysis of solutions for parenteral use under field conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiroga, M; Popović, R

    1989-01-01

    Methods for determination of relative density, osmolarity, then refractometry, polarymetry and conductometry as simple methods suitable for work under field conditions have been applied for the quality control of the following solutions for infusion and injections: glucose, mannitol, sodium chloride, sodium hydrogencarbonate, magnesium sulphate and potassium chloride. The results obtained in the analysis of preparations have shown the advantage of refractometry.

  9. Endotracheal Intubation Done in Field Conditions of Restrained Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gavrilovic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation used as a method of cardiopulmonal resuscitation and advanced life support in a field condition frequently represents a problem even to very experienced resuscitatiors because of its extremly complex circumstances. The author’s aim of this work is to suggest his own way of the patient’s intubation in a field condition by the application of the method which has not been described in the literature yet. A several dozen of patients have been intubated by this method in such conditions which did not represent even the minimum for intubation done in a conventional way, but they were enough to prove our method. Maximum performing time for the sample was 15 seconds. We consider that, using this method, the endo-tracheal intubation can be realized in all conditions up to now thought untouchable. This method requires only 30 to 35 cm wider space than patient’s shoulders occupate and 20 to 30 cm extra of his height. The only noted inadequacy is the risk in spine injury intubation, but with more careful treatment it can be avoided. Key words: Endotracheal intubation, cardiopul-monal resuscitation, field condition, restrained space.

  10. 螺旋藻的磁处理培养%Cultivation of Spirulina Platensis with a Magnetic Field Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭祀远; 李志勇; 李琳; 蔡妙颜; 郑必胜

    2002-01-01

    The enhancement of cultivation of Spirulina platensis with a magnetic field treatment technology was investigated. It was found that the cultivation of Spirulina platensis could be obviously promoted by a suitable magnetic field treatment. When microalgae Spirulina platensis were cultured under an extraneous magnetic field with intensity of 200~320 kA/m, the maximum dry weight of cells was 2.76 g/L on the sixth growth day, which was 46.8% more than the control. Meanwhile the specific growth rate increased from 0.4 to 0.6 d-1, and the cultural period could be cut down for 2~3 d. At the same time, the content of proteins in Spirulina platensis increased by 5.2 mg/g, the total amino acids (except tryptophan) in Spirulina platensis increased by 0.71 mg/g, where essential amino acids increased by 3.15 mg/g. In addition, the contents of trace elements such as Sr, Ni, Cu, Mn and Zn also increased sharply, e.g., Sr and Ni were 22.3 and 5.1 times more than the controls respectively. Finally, the paper presents a brief discussion on the stimulation of magnetic field treatment of the culture of Spirulina platensis and points out that it is relative to the promotion of photosynthesis and the enhancement of nutritional assimilation.%就磁场处理技术对螺旋藻培养过程的强化进行了研究,发现螺旋藻的培养能明显地被适当的磁场处理所刺激.在强度为200~320 kA/m的外加磁场作用下培养至第6天,螺旋藻最大细胞干重达2.76 g/L, 比同等条件下的空白对照试样多46.8 %;其比生长率由0.4 d-1增至0.6 d-1,培养周期可缩短2~3 d.同时,螺旋藻中蛋白质的含量增加了5.2 mg/g;氨基酸总含量(除色氨酸外)增加了0.71 mg/g,其中必需氨基酸增加了 3.15 mg/g.此外,微量元素 Sr、Ni、Cu、Mn和Zn等均有显著增加,其中Sr和Ni分别增加了22.3和5.1倍.文中最后讨论了磁场处理对螺旋藻培养的强化机制,指出这种刺激作用与磁场处理加速了螺旋藻的光合

  11. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Nicolas; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frédéric E; Labrecque, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

  12. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  13. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  14. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1. At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provinces, two coastal provinces that are most affected by seawater intrusion in the North of Vietnam, same genotypes were studied under two plant densities (20 x 5cm and 50 x 5cm. The results showed that salinity stresses reduced growth and yield characteristics of quinoa plant and varying due to different saline conditions. Plant density of quinoa grown under saline fields was not associated with difference in morphological traits but might relate to the change in yield characteristics. Salinity stresses reduced plant height, the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, head panicle length, the number of branches per panicle, dry matter accumulation, 1000-seed weight, individual and grain yield of all quinoa genotypes. However, most of quinoa genotypes produced acceptable yield even under high salt conditions in the field. Among quinoa genotypes, Moradas and Verde adapted well to salt stress conditions with high potential for the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, dry matter accumulation and yield than others. These should be recommended varieties for cultivation in saline areas in Vietnam as well as be useful to improve genetic resources in breeding program for salt tolerant quinoa varieties.

  15. 竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究%Studies of Cultivation Technique on Bamboo Powder Ganoderma Lucidum Planted by Imitating Wild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德峰; 涂建生; 叶财旺; 邱思锋; 蒙绍权; 韩娜

    2016-01-01

    采用竹制品下脚料诸如竹粉等作为培养基主要原料,替代木材进行仿野生栽培灵芝,结果表明,仿野生栽培的竹粉灵芝所含的有效成分与纯天然野生灵芝相似,竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究为灵芝人工栽培节约了大量的林木资源,对于保护自然资源,开发野生灵芝产业有着广阔的前景和意义。%Abstrct:The cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was an fungus planting technology imitating wild condition, which are drawn from bamboo products waste as culture medium to replace wood for producing Ganoderma lucidum. The result showed that effective components of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was very similar to that of pure natural wild Ganoderma lucidum, which also save a lot of forest resources in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation. There was the wide prospects and important significance in cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum, which also opened up a new way in development of wild Ganoderma lucidum industry.

  16. Conditional random field-based gesture recognition with depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyunsook; Yang, Hee-Deok

    2013-01-01

    Gesture recognition is useful for human-computer interaction. The difficulty of gesture recognition is that instances of gestures vary both in motion and shape in three-dimensional (3-D) space. We use depth information generated using Microsoft's Kinect in order to detect 3-D human body components and apply a threshold model with a conditional random field in order to recognize meaningful gestures using continuous motion information. Body gesture recognition is achieved through a framework consisting of two steps. First, a human subject is described by a set of features, encoding the angular relationship between body components in 3-D space. Second, a feature vector is recognized using a threshold model with a conditional random field. In order to show the performance of the proposed method, we use a public data set, the Microsoft Research Cambridge-12 Kinect gesture database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently and effectively recognize body gestures automatically.

  17. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  18. High cell density cultivation of recombinant yeasts and bacteria under non-pressurized and pressurized conditions in stirred tank bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Arnd; Bartsch, Stefan; Husemann, Bernward; Engel, Philip; Schroer, Kirsten; Ribeiro, Betina; Stöckmann, Christoph; Seletzky, Juri; Büchs, Jochen

    2007-10-31

    This study demonstrates the applicability of pressurized stirred tank bioreactors for oxygen transfer enhancement in aerobic cultivation processes. The specific power input and the reactor pressure was employed as process variable. As model organism Escherichia coli, Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Corynebacterium glutamicum were cultivated to high cell densities. By applying specific power inputs of approx. 48kWm(-3) the oxygen transfer rate of a E. coli culture in the non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.51moll(-1)h(-1). When a reactor pressure up to 10bar was applied, the oxygen transfer rate of a pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.89moll(-1)h(-1). The non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities of more than 40gl(-1) cell dry weight (CDW) of E. coli, whereas the pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities up to 225gl(-1) CDW of A. adeninivorans, 89gl(-1) CDW of S. cerevisiae, 226gl(-1) CDW of C. glutamicum and 110gl(-1) CDW of E. coli. Compared to literature data, some of these cell densities are the highest values ever achieved in high cell density cultivation of microorganisms in stirred tank bioreactors. By comparing the specific power inputs as well as the k(L)a values of both systems, it is demonstrated that only the pressure is a scaleable tool for oxygen transfer enhancement in industrial stirred tank bioreactors. Furthermore, it was shown that increased carbon dioxide partial pressures did not remarkably inhibit the growth of the investigated model organisms.

  19. Difficult Airway Management in Field Conditions: Somalia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Nasır, Serdar Nazif

    2015-10-01

    Difficult airway is defined as having the patient's mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation of an experienced anaesthesiologist. A number of reasons, such as congenital or acquired anatomical anomalies, can cause difficult intubation and difficult ventilation. Keeping all equipment ready for airway management of patients will reduce mortality and complications. In this case, it is intended that the submission of difficult airway management who encountered in mandibular reconstruction for mandible bone defect repairing with reconstruction plates before at the field conditions in Somalia.

  20. Field quality of the LHC dipole magnets in operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sanfilippo, S; Scandale, Walter; Schmidt, F; Todesco, Ezio; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R

    2002-01-01

    We report here the main results of the field measurements performed so far on the pre-series LHC superconducting dipoles at superfluid helium temperature. After discussing the results at injection and collision conditions, we focus on the non-linear contributions at high field, on the contribution of superconductor magnetization at injection, and on ramp rate effects. The statistics accumulated on the first magnets of the production verify the hypotheses that have been used to design the correctors scheme for the LHC. In particular high field saturation is in line with the expectations, although a small systematic deformation due to Lorentz forces affects both sextupole and decapole terms. The decay at injection and snap-back at beginning of beam acceleration require careful characterization.

  1. Diel periodicity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140

  2. Joint Conditional Random Field Filter for Multi-Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ronghua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking can improve the performance of mobile robot especially in populated dynamic environments. A novel joint conditional random field Filter (JCRFF based on conditional random field with hierarchical structure is proposed for multi-object tracking by abstracting the data associations between objects and measurements to be a sequence of labels. Since the conditional random field makes no assumptions about the dependency structure between the observations and it allows non-local dependencies between the state and the observations, the proposed method can not only fuse multiple cues including shape information and motion information to improve the stability of tracking, but also integrate moving object detection and object tracking quite well. At the same time, implementation of multi-object tracking based on JCRFF with measurements from the laser range finder on a mobile robot is studied. Experimental results with the mobile robot developed in our lab show that the proposed method has higher precision and better stability than joint probabilities data association filter (JPDAF.

  3. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-01-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable. PMID:27597259

  4. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-09-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable.

  5. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  6. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark.......g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... varying in climate, soil type and geology. Each site, is systematically subsurface tile drained in a depth of about 1.1 meters and with a horizontal spacing of 18-20 meters. On each site detailed information are recorded regarding crop development, tillage, N-fertilization (amount, type and time...

  7. Behavior of the reversed field pinch with nonideal boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yung-Lung

    1988-11-01

    The linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability of current-driven modes are studied for a reversed field pinch with nonideal boundary conditions. The plasma is bounded by a thin resistive shell surrounded by a vacuum region out to a radius at which a perfectly conducting wall is situated. The distant wall and the thin shell problems are studied by removing either the resistive shell or the conducting wall. Linearly, growth rates of tearing modes and kink modes are calculated by analytical solutions based on the modified Bessel function model for the equilibrium. The effects of variation of the shell resistivity and wall proximity on the growth rates are investigated. The modes that may be important in different parameter regimes and with different boundary conditions are identified. The nonlinear behaviors are studied with a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. The fluctuations generally rise with increasing distance between the conducting wall and the plasma. The enhanced fluctuation induced v x b electric field primarily oppose toroidal current; hence, loop voltage must increase to sustain the constant. Quasilinear interaction between modes typically associated with the dynamo action is identified as the most probable nonlinear destabilization mechanism. The helicity and energy balance properties of the simulation results are discussed. The interruption of current density along field lines intersecting the resistive shell is shown to lead to surface helicity leakage. This effect is intimately tied to stability, as fluctuation induced v x b electric field is necessary to transport the helicity to the surface. In this manner, all aspects of helicity balance, i.e., injection, transport, and dissipation, are considered self-consistently. The importance of the helicity and energy dissipation by the mean components of the magnetic field and current density is discussed.

  8. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  9. Microbial degradation of clomazone under simulated California rice field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomco, Patrick L; Holstege, Dirk M; Zou, Wei; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2010-03-24

    Clomazone (trade names Cerano and Command) is a popular herbicide used on California rice fields to control aquatic weeds. Its physicochemical characteristics indicate that it will persist primarily in the water column, where microbial degradation may drive its environmental fate. The objectives were to determine microbial degradation rates and compare the metabolic products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions similar to those in California rice fields during the summer. Time-series samples were extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Metabolic profiling revealed the following clomazone-derived transitions: m/z 240 --> 125 (clomazone), m/z 242 --> 125 (ring-open clomazone), m/z 256 --> 125 (5-hydroxyclomazone), m/z 256 --> 141 (aromatic hydroxyclomazone), m/z 268 --> 125 (unknown metabolite), and m/z 272 --> 141 (4'5-dihydroxyclomazone). Results indicate an anaerobic half-life of 7.9 days, with ring-open clomazone reaching 67.4% of application at 38 days. Aerobically, clomazone degraded more slowly (t(1/2) = 47.3 days), forming mostly soil-bound residues. Thus, under summer conditions, clomazone is likely to dissipate rapidly from fields via anaerobic degradation.

  10. Chloride penetration into concrete under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, K.; Misra, S.; Yamamoto, A. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of field conditions such curing period, slump, maximum size of aggregate, etc. on chloride penetration into concrete. With a view to closely simulate the field conditions, all specimens were exposed to chloride attack for five days after casting. From the preliminary results obtained after a six month immersion in 3.3% NaCl solution, higher degrees of chloride ingress were observed in cases when the concrete was prematurely exposed to chloride attack or had a higher slump. In addition, apart from properties, such as water-cement ratio, etc., the relative orientation of the direction of penetration to that of casting, the mortar content of the mix, and the properties of the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and mortar were found to affect the diffusivity of the chloride. Under a limited number of conditions, soluble chloride content was also illustrated in addition to the total chlorides. 10 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  12. a Study on the SAR Data Observation Time for the Classification of Planting Condition of Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, A.; Kondo, A.; Mochizuki, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, cultivation methods of rice have been diversified due to the low cost of rice-growing techniques. For example, there is direct sowing of seed rice in paddy field in addition to the practice of usual paddy field to flooding at the time of planting. The yield of the usual paddy field and the direct sowing is different even though the same varieties are grown in the same area. It is necessary to grasp by performing classification for the usual paddy field or direct sowing for the management of agricultural crops. The main objective of this study was to select the observation time for the classification of paddy fields' planting conditions by utilizing Synthetic Aperture Radar TerraSAR-X satellite. The planting conditions included the usual planting of rice, the direct sowing of rice and the soybean. We selected the observation time by the statistical distance of the microwave backscattering in each paddy field for maximizing the planting condition classification. In addition, the satellite data observation timing considered the processing time of the analysis and the acquisition costs. The acquisition was performed 4 periods from 2 periods in the rice growing season and the planting phase. In the current study, we were able to classify the usual planting of rice, the direct sowing of rice and the soybean by TerraSAR-X data for the later planting of rice during mid-May and initial growth of rice in early June.

  13. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  14. Effect of artificial electric fields on plants grown under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G.; Gordeev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ionic and structural hetorogeneity of cells, tissues, and organs of plants are associated with a spectrum of electric characteristics such as bioelectric potentials, electrical conductance, and bioelectric permeability. An important determinant for the plant function is electric properties of the cell membranes and organelles which maintain energy and substance exchange with the environment. Enzymes and other biologically active substances have a powerful charge at the molecular level. Finally, all molecules, including those of water, represent dipoles, and this determines their reactive capacity. A major determinant is the bioelectric polarity of a plant is genetically predetermined and cannot be modified. It is an intrinsic structural feature of the organism whose evolution advent was mediated by gravity. An illustrative presentation of polarity is the downward growth of the roots and upward growth of stems in the Earth's gravitation field. However, gravity is a critical, but not the sole determinant of the plant organism polarization. Potent polarizing effects are exerted by light, the electromagnetic field, moisture, and other factors. It is known that plant cultivation in an upturned position is associated with impairment of water and nutrient uptake, resulting in dyscoordination of physiological processes, growth and developmental retardation. These abnormalities were characteristic when early attempts were made to grow plants in weightlessness conditions.

  15. Effect of artificial electric fields on plants grown under microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G; Gordeev, A

    2001-01-01

    Ionic and structural hetorogeneity of cells, tissues, and organs of plants are associated with a spectrum of electric characteristics such as bioelectric potentials, electrical conductance, and bioelectric permeability. An important determinant for the plant function is electric properties of the cell membranes and organelles which maintain energy and substance exchange with the environment. Enzymes and other biologically active substances have a powerful charge at the molecular level. Finally, all molecules, including those of water, represent dipoles, and this determines their reactive capacity. A major determinant is the bioelectric polarity of a plant is genetically predetermined and cannot be modified. It is an intrinsic structural feature of the organism whose evolution advent was mediated by gravity. An illustrative presentation of polarity is the downward growth of the roots and upward growth of stems in the Earth's gravitation field. However, gravity is a critical, but not the sole determinant of the plant organism polarization. Potent polarizing effects are exerted by light, the electromagnetic field, moisture, and other factors. It is known that plant cultivation in an upturned position is associated with impairment of water and nutrient uptake, resulting in dyscoordination of physiological processes, growth and developmental retardation. These abnormalities were characteristic when early attempts were made to grow plants in weightlessness conditions. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi eMochida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer designed crops to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  17. COMUNITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN CULTIVATED SOIL WITH EUCALYPT, PINUS AND NATIVE FIELD, IN SANDY SOIL, SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in five areas cultivated with eucalipt (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, pinus (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and native field, in arenization process, located in São Francisco de Assis-RS. The study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore community was carried out by direct and indirect identification and the diversity index determination. The analyzed areas were native field, 2 and 6 years-old eucalypt field and 2 and 12 years-old pinus field. The obtained results showed that the most frequent genera were Acaulospora, Scutellospora and Glomus. The highest diversity of species was found in area of native field, followed by 2 years-old Eucalyptus area. The Cluster analyses showed a similarity of the minimum 70 % to the species of FMAs identified through spores and 50 % to the areas being studied.

  18. Quantum physics, fields and closed timelike curves: The D-CTC condition in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tolksdorf, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The D-CTC condition is a condition originally proposed by David Deutsch as a condition on states of a quantum communication network that contains "backward time-steps" in some of its branches. It has been argued that this is an analogue for quantum processes in the presence of closed timelike curves (CTCs). The unusual properties of states of quantum communication networks that fulfill the D-CTC condition have been discussed extensively in recent literature. In this work, the D-CTC condition is investigated in the framework of quantum field theory in the local, operator-algebraic approach due to Haag and Kastler. It is shown that the D-CTC condition cannot be fulfilled in states which are analytic for the energy, or satisfy the Reeh-Schlieder property, for a certain class of processes and initial conditions. On the other hand, if a quantum field theory admits sufficiently many uncorrelated states across acausally related spacetime regions (as implied by the split property), then the D-CTC condition can always...

  19. Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Bioinformatics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelli Pier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminative models are designed to naturally address classification tasks. However, some applications require the inclusion of grammar rules, and in these cases generative models, such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Stochastic Grammars, are routinely applied. Results We introduce Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields (GRHCRFs as an extension of Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs. GRHCRFs while preserving the discriminative character of HCRFs, can assign labels in agreement with the production rules of a defined grammar. The main GRHCRF novelty is the possibility of including in HCRFs prior knowledge of the problem by means of a defined grammar. Our current implementation allows regular grammar rules. We test our GRHCRF on a typical biosequence labeling problem: the prediction of the topology of Prokaryotic outer-membrane proteins. Conclusion We show that in a typical biosequence labeling problem the GRHCRF performs better than CRF models of the same complexity, indicating that GRHCRFs can be useful tools for biosequence analysis applications. Availability GRHCRF software is available under GPLv3 licence at the website http://www.biocomp.unibo.it/~savojard/biocrf-0.9.tar.gz.

  20. Effects of Boundary Conditions on Near Field Plasma Plume Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Iain

    2004-11-01

    The successful development of various types of electric propulsion devices is providing the need for accurate assessment of integration effects generated by the interaction of the plasma plumes of these thrusters with the host spacecraft. Assessment of spacecraft interaction effects in ground based laboratory facilities is inadequate due to the technical difficulties involved in accurately recreating the near vacuum ambient conditions experienced in space. This situation therefore places a heavy demand on computational modeling of plasma plume phenomena. Recently (Boyd and Yim, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 95, 2004, pp. 4575-5484) a hybrid model of the near field of the plume of a Hall thruster was reported in which the heavy species are modeled using particles and the electrons are modeled using a detailed fluid description. The present study continues the model development and assessment by considering the sensitivity of computed results to different types of boundary conditions that must be formulated for the thruster exit, for the cathode exit, for the thruster walls, and for the plume far field. The model is assessed through comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data measured in the plume of the BHT-200 Hall thruster.

  1. Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Farnsworth, Kara; Prilepina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality $\\langle T^{00} \\rangle \\ge -C/L^4$, where $L$ is the size of the smearing region, and $C$ is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarka...

  2. Positive energy conditions in 4D conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality ≥ - C/L 4, where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.

  3. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  4. EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bershatskaya S. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the predecessor, on the time of sowing and various mineral nutrition levels, on the productivity of seven cultivars of winter soft wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection was investigated. On the basis of the obtained experimental data and production audit it was found that all studied cultivars under the total complex of cultivation technological methods are able to form the yield of 6-7 t / ha with the payment of one kg of active ingredient of fertilizer by the grain within 6.50-9.86, and 8.56- 10.71 kg. Soil was ordinary chernozem with a low humus content powerful humus content, depending on the power of backgrounds in the arable (0-30sm soil layer is 3,95-4,00%, of mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, mobile phosphorus is 22,4 - 26,6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. Predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard cultivated on seeds. The main tillage is resource-saving with the mulching of 0-10 cm layer. Studied sowing terms are the 20th of September, the 1st and 10th of October. The backgrounds of mineral nutrition: 1-without fertilizer N0P0К0; 2-minimum dose of complete mineral fertilizer N60P30К30; 3-average dose N90P60К60; 4-high dose N120- 160P90К60. Seeding rate is 5 million germinating seeds per hectare. The objects of the research were seven winter soft wheat cultivars of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection. We studied winter wheat cultivars with different combination of biological characteristics and predecessors. This combination is contributed to the yield growing from 4,26-5,82 t / ha up to 6,97-7,2 4,26-5,82 t / ha with the payment of one kilogram of active fertilizer substance with the output of grain within 8,52-12,0kg

  5. Building a field- and model-based climatology of local water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel - annual budgets and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Boulain, N.; Ramier, D.; Mainassara, I.; Charvet, G.; Boucher, M.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Maidaji, B.; Arpin-Pont, F.; Benarrosh, N.; Mahamane, A.; Nazoumou, Y.; Favreau, G.; Seghieri, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the sub-Saharan Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for the regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still very poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of long-term average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use types of the cultivated Sahelian belt: rainfed millet crop and fallow bush. These estimates build on the combination of a 7-year field data set from two typical plots in southwestern Niger with detailed physically based soil-plant-atmosphere modeling, yielding a continuous, comprehensive set of water and energy flux and storage variables over this multiyear period. In the present case in particular, blending field data with mechanistic modeling makes the best use of available data and knowledge for the construction of the multivariate time series. Rather than using the model only to gap-fill observations into a composite series, model-data integration is generalized homogeneously over time by generating the whole series with the entire data-constrained model simulation. Climatological averages of all water and energy variables, with associated sampling uncertainty, are derived at annual to sub-seasonal scales from the time series produced. Similarities and differences in the two ecosystem behaviors are highlighted. Mean annual evapotranspiration is found to represent ~82-85% of rainfall for both systems, but with different soil evaporation/plant transpiration partitioning and different seasonal distribution. The remainder consists entirely of runoff for the fallow, whereas drainage and runoff stand in a 40-60% proportion for the millet field. These results should provide a robust reference for the surface energy- and water-related studies needed in this region. Their significance and the benefits they gain from the innovative data-model integration approach are thoroughly discussed

  6. Optimal conditions of different flocculation methods for harvesting Scenedesmus sp. cultivated in an open-pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Wang, Cunwen; Wang, Weiguo; Wei, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    The effects of culture medium pH, flocculant type (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, Alum, Ca(OH)2, chitosan, polyacrylamide), dosage and sedimental time on flocculation efficiency of harvesting Scenedesmus sp. cultivated in an open-pond system were investigated. Meanwhile, the relation between initial biomass concentration and the flocculant dosage needed was also investigated. The results from this work indicated that the flocculation efficiency achieved 97.4% after 10 min of sedimentation when the pH was adjusted to be 11.5, without adding flocculants. FeCl3 and chitosan showed a good flocculation efficiency at dosage of 0.15 and 0.08 g/L, respectively without pH adjustment. The flocculation efficiency increased from 49.74% to 90.63% when the final medium pH was adjusted to 6 after adding 0.1 g/L Alum. An increment from 68.18% to 92.84% was observed after adding 0.1 g/L Al2(SO4)3 followed by pH adjustment. Finally, the most suitable flocculation method was discussed in this paper.

  7. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei under three cultivated conditions with different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Lu, Yunliang

    2016-03-10

    Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important euryhaline crustaceans, is cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater worldwide. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing of L. vannamei gills, generating 124,914,870; 119,250,450; and 105,487,350 raw reads from the shrimps cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater, respectively. From these reads, 466,293 transcripts were de novo assembled and annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 1752 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the freshwater group compared with the seawater group, including 1242 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. In addition, 1246 genes were differentially expressed in the brackish group vs. the seawater water group, including 659 upregulated and 587 downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, substance metabolism, ion transport and signal transduction, and genetic process. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the functional significance of the differentially expressed genes, included those responding to salinity through diverse biological functions and processes and numerous potential genes associated with the osmotic response. L. vannamei responses to the three cultivated salinities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The transcriptional database established from the current research adds to the information available on L. vannamei and the findings expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of osmoregulation mechanisms in this species.

  8. Mycelium growth kinetics and optimal temperature conditions for the cultivation of edible mushroom species on lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, G; Philippoussis, A; Ioannidou, S; Diamantopoulou, P

    2001-01-01

    The influence of environmental parameters on mycelial linear growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. pulmonarius, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Auricularia auricula-judae was determined in two different nutrient media in a wide range of temperature, forming the basis for the assessment of their temperature optima. V. volvacea grew faster at 35 degrees C, P. eryngii at 25 degrees C, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius at 30 degrees C, A. aegerita at 25 or 30 degrees C and A. auricula-judae at 20 or 25 degrees C depending on the nutrient medium used and L. edodes at 20 or 30 degrees C depending on the strain examined. The mycelium extension rates were evaluated on seven mushroom cultivation substrates: wheat straw, cotton gin-trash, peanut shells, poplar sawdust, oak sawdust, corn cobs and olive press-cake. The mycelium extension rates (linear growth and colonization rates) were determined by the 'race-tube' technique, and were found to be the highest on cotton gin-trash, peanut shells and poplar sawdust for Pleurotus spp. and A. aegerita. Wheat straw, peanut shells and particularly cotton gin-trash supported fast growth of V. volvacea, whereas wheat straw was the most suitable substrate for L. edodes and A. auricula-judae. Supplemented oak sawdust and olive press-cake were poor substrates for most species examined, while almost all strains performed adequately on corn cobs.

  9. D-Root: a system for cultivating plants with the roots in darkness or under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Navas, Javier; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Manzano, Concepción; Pallero-Baena, Mercedes; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Téllez-Robledo, Bárbara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M; Baigorri, Roberto; Gallego, Francisco Javier; del Pozo, Juan C

    2015-10-01

    In nature roots grow in the dark and away from light (negative phototropism). However, most current research in root biology has been carried out with the root system grown in the presence of light. Here, we have engineered a device, called Dark-Root (D-Root), to grow plants in vitro with the aerial part exposed to the normal light/dark photoperiod while the roots are in the dark or exposed to specific wavelengths or light intensities. D-Root provides an efficient system for cultivating a large number of seedlings and easily characterizing root architecture in the dark. At the morphological level, root illumination shortens root length and promotes early emergence of lateral roots, therefore inducing expansion of the root system. Surprisingly, root illumination also affects shoot development, including flowering time. Our analyses also show that root illumination alters the proper response to hormones or abiotic stress (e.g. salt or osmotic stress) and nutrient starvation, enhancing inhibition of root growth. In conclusion, D-Root provides a growing system closer to the natural one for assaying Arabidopsis plants, and therefore its use will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in root development, hormonal signaling and stress responses.

  10. 荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵工艺条件的探讨%Investigation on the cultivation conditions of kombucha fermentation of Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柳玲; 胡卓炎; 余小林; 赵雷; 方祥; 梁芹

    2013-01-01

    为了探索荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵果醋的适宜条件,探讨了红茶菌接种量、荔枝果汁初始可溶性固形物含量、发酵温度和初始pH值等因素对荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵液的总酸含量、pH、可溶性固形物含量、还原糖转化率等指标的影响,并通过响应曲面分析和期望函数优化途径,获得荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵优化的工艺条件.结果表明:发酵温度32℃,荔枝果汁初始可溶性固形物浓度为14°Brix,红茶菌接种量10%,发酵6d后,发酵液总酸含量可达2.48 g/100 mL,pH值为3.04.%In order to obtain the cultivation conditions of kombucha fermentation for litchi juice,effects of fermentation conditions including kombucha inoculation concentration,initial total suluble solid content,fermentation temperature,and initial pH value of litchi juice on acid content,pH,total suluble solids content,reducing sugar consumption rate of the fermented litchi juice were investigated.Response surface methodology and desirability function approach was applied to obtain the optimal cultivation conditions.Results showed that the kombucha cultivation conditions for litchi juice were selected as 10% of inoculums concentration,14°Brix of initial soluble solid content,30℃ of fermentation temperature,after 6 days of kombucha fermentation of litchi juice,the content of acid was increased to 2.48g/100 mL,pH value was 3.04.

  11. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Since 1985, several political agreements have been adopted to protect the aquatic environment and nature in Denmark. The farmers have repeatedly been ordered to reduce the consumption of nitrogen in their agricultural production. The reductions have been imposed nation-wide regardless of e.g. cli...... in concentrations and leaching losses of nitrate as well as in the dynamic over time. The results highlight some of the problems ahead when future regulations change from nation-wide to local scale........g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark...

  12. Sensitivity of drainage efficiency of cranberry fields to edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    Water management on a cranberry farm requires intelligent irrigation and drainage strategies to sustain strong productivity and minimize environmental impact. For example, to avoid propagation of disease and meet evapotranspiration demand, it is imperative to maintain optimal moisture conditions in the root zone, which depends on an efficient drainage system. However, several drainage problems have been identified in cranberry fields. Most of these drainage problems are due to the presence of a restrictive layer in the soil profile (Gumiere et al., 2014). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of a restrictive layer on the drainage efficiency by the bias of a multi-local sensitivity analysis. We have tested the sensitivity of the drainage efficiency to different input parameters set of soil hydraulic properties, geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Soil water flux dynamic for every input parameters set was simulated with finite element model Hydrus 1D (Simanek et al., 2008). Multi-local sensitivity was calculated with the Gâteaux directional derivatives with the procedure described by Cheviron et al. (2010). Results indicate that drainage efficiency is more sensitive to soil hydraulic properties than geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Then, the geometrical parameters of the depth are more sensitive than the thickness. The drainage efficiency was very insensitive to the climatic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of drainage efficiency according to soil hydraulic properties, geometrical and climatic conditions are essential for diagnosis drainage problems. However, it becomes important to identify the mechanisms involved in the genesis of anthropogenic soils cranberry to identify conditions that may lead to the formation of a restrictive layer. References: Cheviron, B., S.J. Gumiere, Y. Le Bissonnais, R. Moussa and D. Raclot. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of distributed erosion models: Framework. Water Resources Research

  13. A CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS APPROACH TO BIOMEDICAL NAMED ENTITY RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Named entity recognition is a fundamental task in biomedical data mining. In this letter, a named entity recognition system based on CRFs (Conditional Random Fields) for biomedical texts is presented. The system makes extensive use of a diverse set of features, including local features, full text features and external resource features. All features incorporated in this system are described in detail,and the impacts of different feature sets on the performance of the system are evaluated. In order to improve the performance of system, post-processing modules are exploited to deal with the abbreviation phenomena, cascaded named entity and boundary errors identification. Evaluation on this system proved that the feature selection has important impact on the system performance, and the post-processing explored has an important contribution on system performance to achieve better results.

  14. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  15. Decomposition of corn and soybean residues under field conditions and their role as inoculum source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotrophic parasites of above-ground plant parts survive saprophytically, between growing seasons in host crop residues. In an experiment conducted under field conditions, the time required in months for corn and soybean residues to be completely decomposed was quantified. Residues were laid on the soil surface to simulate no-till farming. Crop debris of the two plant species collected on the harvesting day cut into pieces of 5.0cm-long and a 200g mass was added to nylon mesh bags. At monthly intervals, bags were taken to the laboratory for weighing. Corn residues were decomposed within 37.0 months and those of soybean, within 34.5 months. Hw main necrotrophic fungi diagnosed in the corn residues were Colletotrichum gramicola, Diplodia spp. and Gibberella zeae, and those in soybeans residues were Cercospora kikuchii, Colletotrichum spp, Glomerella sp. and Phomopsis spp. Thus, those periods shoulb be observed in crop rotation aimed at to eliminating contaminated residues and, consequently, the inoculum from the cultivated area.

  16. Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.

  17. Aboriginal Drained-Field Cultivation in the Americas: Pre-Columbian reclamation of wet lands was widespread in the savannas and highlands of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevan, W M

    1970-08-14

    The three main types of land reclamation in aboriginal America were irrigation, terracing, and drainage. Of these, drainage techniques have received the least attention, probably because they are no longer important and because the remnants are not conspicuous. Nevertheless, drained-field cultivation was widespread and was practiced in varied environments, including high-land basins, tropical savannas, and temperate flood plains. Sites ranged from seasonally waterlogged or flooded areas to permanent lakes. Ridging, mounding, and ditching were emphasized, rather than diking. Tools were simple, crops varied, and fertilization was accomplished mainly by mulching.

  18. Bearing Fault Classification Based on Conditional Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring of rolling element bearing is paramount for predicting the lifetime and performing effective maintenance of the mechanical equipment. To overcome the drawbacks of the hidden Markov model (HMM and improve the diagnosis accuracy, conditional random field (CRF model based classifier is proposed. In this model, the feature vectors sequences and the fault categories are linked by an undirected graphical model in which their relationship is represented by a global conditional probability distribution. In comparison with the HMM, the main advantage of the CRF model is that it can depict the temporal dynamic information between the observation sequences and state sequences without assuming the independence of the input feature vectors. Therefore, the interrelationship between the adjacent observation vectors can also be depicted and integrated into the model, which makes the classifier more robust and accurate than the HMM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, four kinds of bearing vibration signals which correspond to normal, inner race pit, outer race pit and roller pit respectively are collected from the test rig. And the CRF and HMM models are built respectively to perform fault classification by taking the sub band energy features of wavelet packet decomposition (WPD as the observation sequences. Moreover, K-fold cross validation method is adopted to improve the evaluation accuracy of the classifier. The analysis and comparison under different fold times show that the accuracy rate of classification using the CRF model is higher than the HMM. This method brings some new lights on the accurate classification of the bearing faults.

  19. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  20. Considerations in detecting CDC select agents under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Charles; Soelberg, Scott; Swanson, Nathaneal; Furlong, Clement; Baker, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a widely accepted technique for real-time detection of interactions between receptor molecules and ligands. Antibody may serve as receptor and can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR device, while candidate analyte fluids contact the detecting antibody. Minute, but detectable, changes in refractive indices (RI) indicate that analyte has bound to the antibody. A decade ago, an inexpensive, robust, miniature and fully integrated SPR chip, called SPREETA, was developed. University of Washington (UW) researchers subsequently developed a portable, temperature-regulated instrument, called SPIRIT, to simultaneously use eight of these three-channel SPREETA chips. A SPIRIT prototype instrument was tested in the field, coupled to a remote reporting system on a surrogate unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Two target protein analytes were released sequentially as aerosols with low analyte concentration during each of three flights and were successfully detected and verified. Laboratory experimentation with a more advanced SPIRIT instrument demonstrated detection of very low levels of several select biological agents that might be employed by bioterrorists. Agent detection under field-like conditions is more challenging, especially as analyte concentrations are reduced and complex matricies are introduced. Two different sample preconditioning protocols have been developed for select agents in complex matrices. Use of these preconditioning techniques has allowed laboratory detection in spiked heavy mud of Francisella tularensis at 10 3 CFU/ml, Bacillus anthracis spores at 10 3 CFU/ml, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) at 1 ng/ml, and Vaccinia virus (a smallpox simulant) at 10 5 PFU/ml. Ongoing experiments are aimed at simultaneous detection of multiple agents in spiked heavy mud, using a multiplex preconditioning protocol.

  1. Gaussian conditional random fields for regression in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, Vladan

    In recent years many remote sensing instruments of various properties have been employed in an attempt to better characterize important geophysical phenomena. Satellite instruments provide an exceptional opportunity for global long-term observations of the land, the biosphere, the atmosphere, and the oceans. The collected data are used for estimation and better understanding of geophysical parameters such as land cover type, atmospheric properties, or ocean temperature. Achieving accurate estimations of such parameters is an important requirement for development of models able to predict global climate changes. One of the most challenging climate research problems is estimation of global composition, load, and variability of aerosols, small airborne particles that reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation. The existing algorithm for aerosol prediction from satellite observations is deterministic and manually tuned by domain scientist. In contrast to domain-driven method, we show that aerosol prediction is achievable by completely data-driven approaches. These statistical methods consist of learning of nonlinear regression models to predict aerosol load using the satellite observations as inputs. Measurements from unevenly distributed ground-based sites over the world are used as proxy to ground-truth outputs. Although statistical methods achieve better accuracy than deterministic method this setup is appropriate when data are independently and identically distributed (IID). The IID assumption is often violated in remote sensing where data exhibit temporal, spatial, or spatio-temporal dependencies. In such cases, the traditional supervised learning approaches could result in a model with degraded accuracy. Conditional random fields (CRF) are widely used for predicting output variables that have some internal structure. Most of the CRF research has been done on structured classification where the outputs are discrete. We propose a CRF model for continuous outputs

  2. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David A; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-07-15

    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer's process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by integrated modelling of geochemical and hydrological processes. For the parameterization of mineral reactions, amounts and reaction kinetics of the mineral phases natron, calcite, tricalcium aluminate, sodalite, muscovite and analcime were derived from measured acid neutralization curves. The effective exchange capacity for ion adsorption was measured using three independent exchange methods. The geochemical model, which accounts for mineral reactions, cation exchange and activity corrected solution speciation, was formulated in the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, and partially validated in a saturated-flow column experiment. For the integration of variably saturated flow with multi-component solute transport in heterogeneous 2D domains, a coupling of PHREEQC with the multi-purpose finite-element solver COMSOL was established. The integrated hydrogeochemical model was applied to predict water availability and quality in a vertical flow lysimeter and a cover design for a storage facility using measured time series of rainfall and evaporation from southwest Western Australia. In both scenarios the sand was fertigated and gypsum-amended. Results show poor long-term retention of fertilizer ions and buffering of the pH around 10 for more than 5 y of leaching. It was concluded that fertigation, gypsum amendment and rainfall leaching alone were insufficient to render the geochemical conditions of residue sand suitable for optimal plant growth within the given timeframe. The

  3. Effect of different cultivation conditions for the production of ligninolytic enzymes by the white-root Fungi Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, M.; Tortella, G. R.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    At present, the study of the ligninolytic enzyme from white-rot fungi to degrade ligninolytic compounds has increased. Until now, most studies have been focused on the enzymatic system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor due to its rapid growth, easy growing conditions and ligninolytic properties. (Author)

  4. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  5. Accumulation of mercury in Typha domingensis under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lominchar, M A; Sierra, M J; Millán, R

    2015-01-01

    Typha species is a common wetland plant used in the treatment of urban and industrial effluents. But, despite their widespread implementation, there are not many studies based on the behaviour of this plant growing in an areas affected by mercury. The present work investigates the ability of Typha domingensis to accumulate mercury under field conditions. The study area was along the Valdeazogues river which flows through the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) that is considered the largest mercury reservoir in the world. The mercury concentration in different plant fractions was measured as well as the available and total concentration in the bottom sediments. The results showed that the highest mercury concentrations were found in the belowground organs. T. domingensis had a high efficiency to accumulate mercury in their organs although available metal concentrations in the environment did not exceed 0.16 mg kg(-1). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged between 121 and 3168 in roots. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between mercury concentration in all plant organs and Hg in sediments (both total and available). These results demonstrated that T. domingensis could be used as a biomonitor as well as in phytoextraction technology in areas affected by mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahiko; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-03-01

    The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported. However, in an arsenite uptake experiment, phosphorous (P) starvation-dependent uptake of arsenate was observed under aerobic conditions. Time course-dependent analysis of arsenite oxidation showed that arsenite was gradually oxidized to arsenate during incubation. Arsenite oxidation was not observed in any of the control conditions, such as exposure to a nutrient solution or to culture medium only, or with the use of dried root; arsenite oxidation was only observed when live root was used. This result suggests that sufficient aeration allows the rhizosphere system to oxidize arsenite and enables the fern to efficiently take up arsenite as arsenate. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that long-duration exposure to arsenic using a hydroponic system led to the accumulation of arsenate as the dominant species in the root tips, but not in the whole roots, partly because up-regulation of arsenate uptake by P starvation of the fern was caused and retained by long-time incubation. Analysis of concentration-dependent arsenate uptake by P. vittata showed that the uptake switched from a high-affinity transport system to a low-affinity system at high arsenate concentrations, which partially explains the increased arsenate abundance in the whole root. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  8. 彭阳县机修梯田荞麦种植技术%Buckwheat Cultivation Technologies in Terraced Fields Constructed by Machinery in Pengyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2015-01-01

    荞麦有较高的营养价值,目前市场需求量很大,但由于种植粗放,产量水平较低。从种植适期尧种子准备尧科学施肥尧田间管理等方面总结了机修梯田荞麦种植技术,以供当地种植户参考。%Nutritive value of buckwheat is higher,and the market demand is great at present.However,due to the extensive planting,the production level is low. Buckwheat cultivation technologies in terraced fields constructed by machinery were summarized from planting in appropriate period,seed preparation,scientific fertilization,field management etc,so as to provide reference for local growers.

  9. The ecological effects of different loading rates of metalaxyl on microbial biomass in unplanted and planted soils under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansourzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides are most widely used pesticides in Iran and the world. Application of fungicides may affect the populations and activity of soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, with a consequence for soil fertility and crop growth. In the current study, the effects of different levels of metalaxyl on soil microbial biomass carbon (C and nitrogen (N, microbial biomass C/N ratio and metabolic quotient under field conditions were assessed. Two levels of metalaxyl (30 and 60 kg.ha-1 were applied in planted soils with corn and unplanted calcareous soils, using a split-plots experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The C and N contents in soil microbial biomass as well as metabolic quotient were measured at 30 and 90 days after the onset of the experiment. Results showed that in cultivated soils metalaxyl application at 30 kg.ha-1 increased (15-80% significantly (p≤0.01 the amounts of microbial biomass C and N at both intervals (except microbial biomass C at 90 days compared to the control soil (0 kg.ha-1, while in uncultivated soils both microbial biomass C and N reduced by almost 1-34%. Microbial biomass C/N ratios in unplanted soils decreased (15 and 53% with increasing loading rates of metalaxyl, without a clear effect in cultivated soils. On the other hand, metabolic quotient values reduced (48% at 30 and 60 kg.ha-1 metalaxyl in corn-cultivated soils when compared to untreated soils while in uncultivated soils metalaxyl rate at 30 kg.a-1 had the greatest values at 30 days, and increased with increasing the levels of metalaxyl at 90 days. In summary, application of metalaxyl can either reduce or increase soil biological indices, and the direction and changes are depended upon the application rate of metalaxyl, time elapsed since metalaxyl application and the presence or absence of plant.

  10. Lipase production by solid-state fermentation: cultivation conditions and operation of tray and packed-bed bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarra, Melissa L E; Cavalcanti, Elisa D C; Castilho, Leda R; Freire, Denise M G; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2005-01-01

    The production of lipase by Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation was studied using babassu cake as the basal medium. Tray-type and packed-bed bioreactors were employed. In the former, the influence of temperature; content of the medium, and medium supplementation with olive oil, sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, and yeast hydrolysate was studied. For all combinations of supplements, a temperature of 30 degrees C, a moisture content of 70%, and a concentration of carbon source of 6.25% (m/m, dry basis) provided optimum conditions for lipase production. When used as single supplements olive oil and molasses also were able to provide high lipase activities (20 U/g). Using packed-bed bioreactors and molasses-supplemented medium, optimum conditions for enzyme production were air superficial velocities above 55 cm/min and temperatures below 28 degrees C. The lower temperature optimum found for these reactors is probably related to radial heat gradient formation inside the packed bed. Maximum lipase activities obtained in these bioreactors (26.4 U/g) were 30% higher than in tray-type reactors.

  11. Ganoderma lucidum Field Cultivation of Soil Fungi Identification%灵芝大田栽培土壤真菌的初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友; 徐宏家; 陈永敢

    2013-01-01

    This article through to the Ganoderma lucidum field cultivation soil with coated plate method, extraction and separation of soil fungi were cultured in detection and identification. The results showed that soil of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Neurospora, Rhizopus, Chaetomium and Gymnoascus subumbrinus in eight species of fungi. According to the fungal growth speed, Ganoderma lucidum in different growth period appeared the species and the colony number, put forward suggestions of prevention of soil fungi cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. This experiment was to obtain beneficial fungi resources, high yield, high quality and efficient cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, provide effective help.%通过对灵芝大田栽培土壤采用涂布平板法,提取分离土壤中的真菌进行培养检测及鉴定.结果表明,土壤中共有木霉、青霉、曲霉、毛霉、链孢霉、根霉、毛壳霉、狄氏裸囊菌8种真菌.根据真菌的生长速度,灵芝生长不同时期出现的真菌种类和菌落数量,提出针对灵芝栽培土壤真菌的防治建议.试验既获得有益的真菌资源,又为高产、高质、高效的灵芝栽培提供有效帮助.

  12. The problem of weed infestation in conditions of applying the growth bioregulators and foliar fertilization in potato cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sawicka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in Parczew in the mid-eastern part of Poland in the 2001-2003 years. It was set up in a split-block design, with the following experimental factors: A – potato cultivars ‘Bila’, ‘Glada’, ‘Danusia’, ‘Ania’, B – treatments of a biostimulator or/and foliar fertiliser: Asahi SL, Insol 7, Asahi SL + Insol 7 and control. The preparations were applied at doses recommended by producers. Application of growth regulator Asahi SL increased growth of fresh and dry weight of weeds, both before closing rows, and before harvest, compared with the control. Preparation Insol 7 limited fresh and dry mass of weeds, but only to the row closeness, while before harvest contributed to the growth of a secondary infestation. Combined use of agrochemicals was conducive to maintaining a greater abundance of weeds monocotyledons, mainly Echinochloa crus-galli, and reduces the number of dicotyledonous weeds, through the elimination of Chenopodium album.

  13. Molecular- and cultivation-based analyses of microbial communities in oil field water and in microcosms amended with nitrate to control H{sub 2}S production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, Raji; Ebert, Sara; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Foght, Julia M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Biological Sciences; Gray, Murray R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Nitrate injection into oil fields is an alternative to biocide addition for controlling sulfide production ('souring') caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study examined the suitability of several cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to assess potential microbial activities (sulfidogenesis and nitrate reduction) and the impact of nitrate amendment on oil field microbiota. Microcosms containing produced waters from two Western Canadian oil fields exhibited sulfidogenesis that was inhibited by nitrate amendment. Most probable number (MPN) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of uncultivated produced waters showed low cell numbers ({<=}10{sup 3} MPN/ml) dominated by SRB (>95% relative abundance). MPN analysis also detected nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (HNRB) at numbers too low to be detected by FISH or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In microcosms containing produced water fortified with sulfate, near-stoichiometric concentrations of sulfide were produced. FISH analyses of the microcosms after 55 days of incubation revealed that Gammaproteobacteria increased from undetectable levels to 5-20% abundance, resulting in a decreased proportion of Deltaproteobacteria (50-60% abundance). DGGE analysis confirmed the presence of Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and also detected Bacteroidetes. When sulfate-fortified produced waters were amended with nitrate, sulfidogenesis was inhibited and Deltaproteobacteria decreased to levels undetectable by FISH, with a concomitant increase in Gammaproteobacteria from below detection to 50-60% abundance. DGGE analysis of these microcosms yielded sequences of Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria related to presumptive HNRB and NRSOB (Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter), thus supporting chemical data indicating that nitrate-reducing bacteria out-compete SRB when nitrate is

  14. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  15. Lack of glyphosate resistance gene transfer from Roundup Ready soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum under field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Laura Arango; Opelt, Katja; Wagner, Tobias; Mattes, Elke; Bieber, Evi; Hatley, Elwood O; Roth, Greg; Sanjuán, Juan; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center to determine the effect of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in combination with herbicide (Roundup) application on its endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. DNA of bacteroids from isolated nodules was analysed for the presence of the transgenic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) DNA sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To further assess the likelihood that the EPSPS gene may be transferred from the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean to B. japonicum, we have examined the natural transformation efficiency of B. japonicum strain 110spc4. Analyses of nodules showed the presence of the transgenic EPSPS DNA sequence. In bacteroids that were isolated from nodules of transgenic soybean plants and then cultivated in the presence of glyphosate this sequence could not be detected. This indicates that no stable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the EPSPS gene had occurred under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, no natural transformation was detected in B. japonicum strain 110spc4 in the presence of various amounts of recombinant plasmid DNA. Our results indicate that no natural competence state exists in B. japonicum 110spc4. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate the lack of functional transfer of the CP4-EPSPS gene from glyphosate-tolerant soybean treated with glyphosate to root-associated B. japonicum.

  16. Conformal field theory, boundary conditions and applications to string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schweigert, C.; Fuchs, J.; Walcher, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to two-dimensional conformal field theory and its applications in string theory. Modern concepts of conformal field theory are explained, and it is outlined how they are used in recent studies of D-branes in the strong curvature regime by means of CFT on surfaces with boundary.

  17. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Blackberry under Field Conditions Improves Fruit Quality by Modifying Flavonoid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Seco

    Full Text Available Application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4, to roots of blackberries (Rubus sp. is part of an optimised cultivation practice to improve yields and quality of fruit throughout the year in this important fruit crop. Blackberries are especially rich in flavonoids and therefore offer potential benefits for human health in prevention or amelioration of chronic diseases. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway and its regulation during ripening have not been studied in detail, in this species. PGPR may trigger flavonoid biosynthesis as part of an induced systemic response (ISR given the important role of this pathway in plant defence, to cause increased levels of flavonoids in the fruit. We have identified structural genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways catalysing the conversion of phenylalanine to the final products including flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins from blackberry, and regulatory genes likely involved in controlling the activity of pathway branches. We have also measured the major flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins at three stages during ripening. Our results demonstrate the coordinated expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes with the accumulation of anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols in developing fruits of blackberry. Elicitation of blackberry plants by treatment of roots with P.fluorescens N21.4, caused increased expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes and an accompanying increase in the concentration of selected flavonoids in fruits. Our data demonstrate the physiological mechanisms involved in the improvement of fruit quality by PGPR under field conditions, and highlight some of the genetic targets of elicitation by beneficial bacteria.

  18. Field-scale spatial correlation between contents of iron oxides and CO2 emission in an Oxisol cultivated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza Bahia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 emission (FCO2 is one of the main sources of carbon release into the atmosphere. Moreover, FCO2 is related to soil attributes governing the transfer of gases from soil to the atmosphere. This study aimed firstly to describe the spatial variability of hematite (Hm, goethite (Gt, iron extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (Fed contents, soil CO2 emission (FCO2 and free-water porosity (FWP and secondly, to develop statistical models to predict the above mentioned factors in an Oxisol cultivated under manual harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharumspp. in southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted on an irregular 50 m × 50 m grid containing 89 points, each 0.5-10 m apart. The 0-0.1 m soil layer at each sampling point was used to assess soil FCO2, moisture and total pore volume. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses using auto- and cross-semivariograms. All soil attributes exhibited a spatial dependence structure and the experimental semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models. The Gt content was the individual attribute that exhibited the highest linear and spatial correlation, especially with FCO2. We were able to use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to map large areas, which allows for easy identification and estimation of soil attributes such as FCO2 and FWP. Geostatistical techniques faciltate the interpretation of spatial relationships between soil respiration and the examined properties.

  19. Conformal Boundary Conditions and Three-Dimensional Topological Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Giovanni; Fröhlich, Jürg; Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2000-02-01

    We present a general construction of all correlation functions of a two-dimensional rational conformal field theory, for an arbitrary number of bulk and boundary fields and arbitrary topologies. The correlators are expressed in terms of Wilson graphs in a certain three-manifold, the connecting manifold. The amplitudes constructed this way can be shown to be modular invariant and to obey the correct factorization rules.

  20. Conformal boundary conditions and three-dimensional topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Fuchs, J; Schweigert, C

    2000-01-01

    We present a general construction of all correlation functions of a two-dimensional rational conformal field theory, for an arbitrary number of bulk and boundary fields and arbitrary topologies. The correlators are expressed in terms of Wilson graphs in a certain three-manifold, the connecting manifold. The amplitudes constructed this way can be shown to be modular invariant and to obey the correct factorization rules.

  1. Necessary stability condition for field-reversed theta pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J. R.

    1981-03-01

    Toroidal systems of arbitrary cross section without toroidal magnetic field are analyzed via the double adiabatic fluid equations. Such systems are shown to be unstable if there exists one closed field line on which the average of kapparB/sup 2/ is positive, where kappa is the curvature. A similar criterion is derived for linear systems and is applied to a noncircular z-pinch.

  2. Cultivation of two thermotolerant microalgae under tropical conditions: Influences of carbon sources and light duration on biomass and lutein productivity in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pai-Ho; Soong, Keryea; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Biomass and lutein productivities of two thermotolerant microalgae were assessed in tropical outdoor conditions in all four seasons. Generally, addition of bicarbonate at 0.2g/L every two days or 2% CO2 did not enhance the productivities compared to the controls, and the productivities in the spring were higher than in the fall. Durations of effective irradiance positively correlated to the productivity of Coelastrella sp. F50 well, but not for Desmodesmus sp. F2. The ineffective light intensity was below 5000 lux (about 106μmol/m(2)s). The productivities produced in the 17cm diameter bottles were 1.5- to 1.9-fold higher than that in the 27cm ones. Lutein content, about 0.5% in biomass on average, did not change significantly grown in different carbon sources or seasons. The annual productivities of the microalgal biomass and lutein in one hectare were estimated to be 33tons and 180kg, respectively, using the non-optimized photobioreactor cultivation.

  3. 聊城灵芝种植的气象条件适宜性分析%Analysis of Weather Conditions for Ganoderma lucidum Cultivation in Liaocheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙青然; 赵芬; 郭晓霞; 王丽; 孙瑞英

    2011-01-01

    [目的分析灵芝(Ganoderma Lucidum)对气象条件的要求,并探讨聊城市适宜灵芝种植的气象因子灾害性天气.[方法]根据灵芝对气象条件的要求,通过分析聊城市4~10月的月平均气温和月平均相对湿度;最后针对聊城市每年4~10月发生的灾害性天气提出了防御措施.[结果]在聊城4月下旬比较适宜灵芝种植接种.[结论]该研究可为地方政府部门决策及灵芝的种植者提供参考.%[ Objective ] To investigate the suitable weather conditions for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum in Liaocheng, and propose the defensive measures against disastrous weather. [ Method ] Monthly average temperature and relative humidity from April to October in Liaocheng have been analyzed in this paper. [ Result] The rational planting period of Ganoderma lucidum in Liaocheng was the last ten-day of April.

  4. [Growth of modules and survival space enlargement of Leymus secalimus clones under cultivated conditions in Songnen Plain of Northeast China: an experimental research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-fei; Zhang, Bao-tian; Zhang, Chun-hua

    2007-05-01

    Leymus secalimus is a kind of rhizome grass and a species of typical clonal plant. The study showed that under cultivated conditions in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China, the growth of four test L. secalimus clones is with great plasticity. After 153 days of growth in the year of transplanting, the clones had 215 tillers in maximum and 40 tillers in minimum, and the growth pattern accorded with exponential function. The number and biomass of the tillers, rhizomes and buds, as well as the variations of their quantitative characters and of the survival space of the clones in two growth seasons all presented good regularity. The tillers number was in a power allometry growth with the increase of clonal diameter, and the biomass of tillers and rhizomes as well as the number of buds were all in an exponential allometry growth with the increase of the diameter. The number and biomass of the tillers and rhizomes were all in a linear isogony growth with increasing survival space of the clones. When the space was enough and no interspecies competition existed, L. secalimus clones survived first and developed then, and well exercised continuing updating potency.

  5. Effects of N loading rate on CH4 and N2O emissions during cultivation and fallow periods from forage rice fields fertilized with liquid cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, S; Zhou, S; Kobara, Y; Sagehashi, M; Terada, A; Hosomi, M

    2015-09-15

    The use of liquid cattle waste (LCW) as a fertilizer for forage rice is important for material recycling because it can promote biomass production, and reduce the use of chemical fertilizer. Meanwhile, increase in emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially CH4 and N2O would be concerned. We conducted a field study to determine the optimum loading rate of LCW as N to promote forage rice growth with lower GHG emissions. The LCW was applied to forage rice fields, N100, N250, N500, and N750, at four different N loading rates of 107, 258, 522, and 786 kg N ha(-1), respectively, including 50 kg N ha(-1) of basal chemical fertilizer. The above-ground biomass yields increased 14.6-18.5 t ha(-1) with increases in N loading rates. During the cultivation period, both the CH4 and N2O fluxes increased with increases in LCW loading rates. In the treatments of N100, N250, N500, and N750, the cumulative CH4 emissions during the entire period, including cultivation and fallow period were 29.6, 18.1, 54.4, and 67.5 kg C ha(-1), respectively, whereas those of N2O were -0.15, -0.02, 1.49, and 5.82 kg N ha(-1), respectively. Considering the greenhouse gas emissions and above-ground biomass, the yield-scaled CO2-equivalents (CO2-eqs) were 66.3, 35.9, 161, and 272 kg CO2 t(-1) for N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively. These results suggest that N250 is the most appropriate LCW loading rate for promoting forage rice production with lower GHG emissions.

  6. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p Erosion reduction at the AFS site was mainly attributed to the ground cover plants characterizing the recently established system. Moreover, edaphic change throughout AFS and F soil profiles differed from the SCC site. At the latter site, losses of fine particles and Hg were enhanced towards soil surface, while they were less pronounced at the other sites. This study shows that agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels

  7. Sprint running performance: comparison between treadmill and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Sève, Pierrick

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the differences in performance between 100-m sprints performed on a sprint treadmill recently validated versus on a standard track. To date, studies comparing overground and treadmill running have mainly focused on constant and not maximal "free" running speed, and compared running kinetics and kinematics over a limited number of steps, but not overall sprint performance. Eleven male physical education students including two sprinters performed one 100-m on the treadmill and one on a standard athletics track in a randomized order, separated by 30 min. Performance data were derived in both cases from speed-time relationships measured with a radar and with the instrumented sprint treadmill, which allowed subjects to run and produce speed "freely", i.e. with no predetermined belt speed imposed. Field and treadmill typical speed-distance curves and data of maximal and mean speed, 100-m time and acceleration/deceleration time constants were compared using t tests and field-treadmill correlations were tested. All the performance parameters but time to reach top speed and deceleration time constant differed significantly, by about 20% on average, between field and treadmill (e.g. top speed of 8.84 ± 0.51 vs. 6.90 ± 0.39 m s(-1)). However, significant correlations were found (r > 0.63; P 100-m sprint performances are different, despite the fact that subjects could freely accelerate the belt. However, the significant correlations found make it possible to investigate and interpret inter-individual differences in field performance from treadmill measurements.

  8. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variabl...

  9. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  10. Statistical analysis of lightning electric field measured under Malaysian condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain

    2014-02-01

    Lightning is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The Lightning characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of lightning protection system as well as for the calculation of lightning radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect lightning signals and to determine various parameters produced by a lightning flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the lightning signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of lightning signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed lightning signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.

  11. Heterogeneous Web Data Extraction Algorithm Based On Modified Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Cheng

    2014-01-01

    As it is of great importance to extract useful information from heterogeneous Web data, in this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous Web data extraction algorithm using a modified hidden conditional random fields model. Considering the traditional linear chain based conditional random fields can not effectively solve the problem of complex and heterogeneous Web data extraction, we modify the standard hidden conditional random fields in three aspects, which are 1) Using the hidden Markov mo...

  12. Potential risk levels of invasive Neoleucinodes elegantalis (small tomato borer) in areas optimal for open-field Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) cultivation in the present and under predicted climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-03-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is one of the major insect pests of Solanum lycopersicum. Currently, N. elegantalis is present only in America and the Caribbean, and is a threat in the world's largest S. lycopersicum-producing countries. In terms of potential impact on agriculture, the impact of climate change on insect invasions must be a concern. At present, no research exists regarding the effects of climatic change on the risk level of N. elegantalis. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for S. lycopersicum and N. elegantalis, utilizing CLIMEX to determine risk levels of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation in the present and under projected climate change, using the global climate model CSIRO-Mk3.0. Large areas are projected to be suitable for N. elegantalis and optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation at the present time. However, in the future these areas will become unsuitable for both species. Conversely, other regions in the future may become optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation, with a varying risk level for N. elegantalis. The risk level results presented here provide a useful tool to design strategies to prevent the introduction and establishment of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  14. The evaluation of the growth and nutrition conditions of the garden nursery material Prunus and Thuja according to the use of various cultivating substrates and systems of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meisl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different peat-based cultivating substrates and the system of fertilization on the nutrition conditions and growth characteristics of garden nursery material Prunus kurilensis ‘Brillant’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘Smaragd’ were observed during a three-year experiment. Three kinds of substrates were tested: peat + pumice (pemza proportioned 8:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2. Two fertilizers were used: granular controlled-release fertilizer – Osmocote, and watersoluble with irrigation – Kristalon.A higher content of macroelements was observed in the leaves of Prunus. The only exception was potassium, the quantity of which was demonstrably higher in the assimilative organs of Thuja. On the contrary, Thuja had a higher content of trace elements except for copper and iron. The highest contents of nitrogen, potassium, and iron were statistically proved in leaves of woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice due to its higher sorption capability. A better nutrition conditions in almost all nutrients were observed at plants where the gradually effective Osmocote was applied. The exceptions were calcium, molybdenum and iron, the content of which was, on the contrary, higher where Kristalon with irrigation were used. Physical characteristics of the growing substrates that contained bark were significantly worse at the end of the experiment. This was even intensified by clay. The substrate containing peat and pumice were less stable. The best growth was observed in woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice, ie where peat was not substituted by bark, and, at the same time, expanded clay was used instead of classic clay. Higher values of growth characteristics were demonstratively observed after the Osmocote fertilizer was applied.The results of the experiment reveal that pumice should be recommended, pemza with a high sorption capability and the

  15. The practice of recent radiative transfer Monte Carlo advances and its contribution to the field of microorganisms cultivation in photobioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; El Hafi, Mouna; Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The present text illustrates the practice of integral formulation, zero-variance approaches and sensitivity evaluations in the field of radiative transfer Monte Carlo simulation, as well as the practical implementation of the corresponding algorithms, for such realistic systems as photobioreactors involving spectral integration, multiple scattering and complex geometries. We try to argue that even in such non-academic contexts, strong benefits can be expected from the effort of translating the considered Monte Carlo algorithm into a rigorously equivalent integral formulation. Modifying the initial algorithm to simultaneously compute sensitivities is then straightforward (except for domain deformation sensitivities) and the question of enhancing convergence is turned into that of modeling a set of well identified physical quantities.

  16. Reduction, methylation, and translocation of arsenic in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Mi, Yanhua; Li, Qiwan; Chen, Lu; Du, Lijuan; He, Lizhong; Lei, Mei

    2016-04-15

    Variations in arsenic (As) species in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions remain understudied compared with those under greenhouse conditions. In the present study, soil and plant samples were collected from Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, which is the main production area of P. notoginseng in China, to identify As species in the soil and plant tissues and further assess effect of As toxic stress on As transformation and translocation in P. notoginseng. The results showed that arsenate (As(V)) was almost exclusively identified in the soil, while arsenite (As(III)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were detected in high proportions in plant tissues, suggesting that As(V) could be reduced and subsequently methylated in the plant body, mainly in the root. The reduction and methylation of As in the root of P. notoginseng were promoted by low As toxic stress, but were impeded by high As toxic stress. Arsenic(III) and MMA could rapidly translocate upwards in P. notoginseng. In addition, the translocation of total As, As(III), and MMA from the root to the rhizome was a response to As toxic stress, and the translocation rate increased with the increasing As concentration in the taproot. This study provides new insights into the detoxification mechanism of P. notoginseng grown in As-contaminated soils and the control of As during cultivation.

  17. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, electro-scan (FELL-41), and a multi-sens...

  18. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  19. Liquid Culture of Adventitious Roots is a Potential Alternative to Field Cultivation for Psammosilene tunicoides, a Rare and Endangered Endemic Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshen Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish an adventitious roots culture system for sterile plantlet segments of P. tunicoides and improved the accumulation of total saponins in cultured roots. Psammosilene tunicoides is a native Chinese plant with high commercial value as medicinal herb. Combination of NAA and IBA significantly affected the adventitious roots formation on agar-solided B5 media and a maximal induction rate of 83% was obtained at 24±2°C with a photoperiod of 12 h. With a shaking of 110 rpm in darkness, transferring the detached adventitious roots to the growth regulator free 1/2 B5 liquid media notably increased the biomass production compared to that on solid media over a 30-day-culture period. Further analyses showed that more saponins could be accumulated in the liquid culture than in the solid culture and the addition of exogenous oxalic acid to the liquid media could enhance the accumulation of total saponins in adventitious roots. These results suggested that adventitious roots culture will be an efficient alternative to the field cultivation of intact plants for the production of useful natural compounds from P. tunicoides.

  20. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  1. 栽培措施对半夏倒苗率和产量的影响%Effect of Different Cultivation Conditions on Yield and Lodge Rate of Pinellia ternata ( Thunb. ) Breit.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章艳玲

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To find out a cultivation method that can lower the rate of lodge Pinellia ternata ( Thunb. ) Breit. and increase the yield of it. [ Method ] Cultured in perlite and soil respectively, nine treatments for each culture matrix were designed to cultivate Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. to analyze effect of cultivation method on vield and rate of lodge Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit.. [ Result] The yield of Pinellia temata ( Thunb. ) Breit. cultured in perlite was significantly higher than that cultivated in soil; effects of fertilizing amount on yield and lodge rate of Pinellia ternata ( Thunb. ) Breit. were significant. [ Conclusion] The optimum artificial cultivation conditions for Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. are 1/5MS + 100 mg/L KH2PO4 in perlite.%[目的]探索能够降低半夏倒苗率、提高半夏产量的栽培措施.[方法]用珍珠岩和土壤为基质,分别设9个处理栽培半夏,分析施肥措施对其倒苗率和产量的影响.[结果]以珍珠岩为基质的半夏产量极显著高于以土壤为基质的半夏;不同的施肥量对半夏的产量和倒苗率有极显著的影响.[结论]种植半夏以珍珠岩为基质, 基本营养液浓度为1/5MS, 施以浓度为100 mg/L的KH2PO4效果最佳.

  2. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  3. Interaction of Arsenic with Zinc and Organics in a Rice (Oryza sativa L.–Cultivated Field in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Das

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment on an Inceptisol with pH 7.6, organic carbon 6.8 g kg–1, and 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic 0.4 mg kg–1 was conducted to study the interaction effect of graded levels of arsenic (0, 5, and 10 mg kg–1 with zinc (0, 10, and 20 mg kg–1 and organics (0, 1, and 2% on soil weight basis separately on the mobilization of arsenic in soils.The results show that the amount of 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic at pH 8.5 increased with the progress of submergence up to 35 days. However, the increase in arsenic concentration was correlated with decreasing application of graded levels of Zn as zinc sulfate. The intensity of reduction varied with varying levels of Zn, being higher (0.73–2.72 mg kg–1 in the treatment where Zn was at 10 mg kg–1 and lower (0.70–1.08 mg kg–1 with Zn at 20 mg kg–1 application.The amount of arsenic content in the soil significantly decreased with the application of varying levels of organics. However, such depressive effect was found more pronounced with well-decomposed farm yard manure than that of vermicompost. The results of field experiments showed that the grain yield between continuous flooding (4.84 t ha–1 and intermittent flooding up to 40 days after transplanting then continuous flooding (4.83 t ha–1 with the application of ZnSO4 at 25 kg ha–1 did not vary. The lowest grain yield (3.65 t ha–1 was recorded in the treatment where intermittent flooding was maintained throughout the growth period without the application of Zn. The amount of arsenic content was, however, recorded much lower in the treatment where intermittent flooding throughout the growth period was maintained with ZnSO4.

  4. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  5. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  6. Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto indians of the Colombian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, M.J.; Andrade, A.

    1987-09-01

    The investigation of crop and soil-crop conditions among Andoke and Witoto cultivators in southeast Colombia is used as a basis for assessing Geertz' (1963) model of swidden cultivation. In this respect, the extent to which manioc-dominated swiddens in the study area simulate the structure and composition of the forest climax community is questioned. As Geertz (1963) indicates, and initial nutrient boost for crop cultivation results from the preliminary burning of forest debris, but weed competition, rather than progressive loss of soil fertility, is reported to be the primary cause of abandoning manioc cultivation after 2-3 years. While the Andoke and Witoto crop system remains adaptive at the individual field level, particularly in its constituent species, its fundamental adaptation is considered to be its integration into the broader field and fallow system that juxtaposes crop production with extended periods of forest regeneration.

  7. Degradation studies of fenazaquin in soil under field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena

    2011-08-01

    Degradation of fenazaquin in sandy loam soil was investigated under field and laboratory conditions. Fenazaquin (Magister 10EC) was applied @ 125 and 250 g a.i./ha in field and in pot under field capacity moisture in laboratory. Samples drawn periodically were analyzed on GC-NPD. The residues of fenazaquin in both the doses and conditions dissipated almost 90% in 90 days. Half-life period were 32.04 and 31.35 days at two doses, respectively at field conditions and 30.10 and 28.94 days at laboratory conditions. Dissipation was approximated to first order kinetics in both conditions having correlation coefficient ranging from -0.9848 to -0.9914.

  8. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-01-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently

  9. Stabilize the Cultural Conditions of Aureobasidium pullulans by Dialysis Cultivation%透析培养法稳定出芽短梗霉摇瓶发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 童群义

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the cell morphologies of Aureobasidium pulhdans G58-2 under the dialysis cultivation, and the optimal cultivation conditions for pullulan production were studied. The results showed that inoculation by dialysis cultivation was better than normal cultivation, OD600 of bacterial suspension was 0. 442, the inoculation time 36 h, initial pH7.0, 250 mL shake flask containing 50 mL of sucrose medium with 200 r/min. Under these conditions, the highest pullulan yield (4.84 g/100 mL) with the lowest pigment was obtained, and the stability of experiments effectively was improved.%以出芽短梗霉色素低产株G58—2为生产菌株,研究了其透析培养下的菌体形态,及普鲁兰多糖摇瓶发酵的最佳条件。结果表明,通过透析培养制备的发酵接种液优于普通培养,在其OD600为0.442,接种龄36h,初始pH7.0,装液量50mL/250mL,摇床转速200r/min条件下培养84h出芽短梗霉G58—2不仅色素含量低,粗多糖产量可达到4.84g/100mL,并且实验稳定性有效提高。

  10. Solitonic sectors, conformal boundary conditions and three-dimensional topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schweigert, C

    2000-01-01

    The correlation functions of a two-dimensional rational conformal field theory, for an arbitrary number of bulk and boundary fields and arbitrary world sheets can be expressed in terms of Wilson graphs in appropriate three-manifolds. We present a systematic approach to boundary conditions that break bulk symmetries. It is based on the construction, by `alpha-induction', of a fusion ring for the boundary fields. Its structure constants are the annulus coefficients and its 6j-symbols give the OPE of boundary fields. Symmetry breaking boundary conditions correspond to solitonic sectors.

  11. Particular features of conditioned electrodefensive reflex in white rats on background of constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shust, I.V.; Galantyuk, S.I.; Cheretyanko, Yu.V.

    Study of the influence of magnetic fields upon the higher nervous activity of man and animals has long been attracting the attention of researchers. It is indicated in the literature that magnetic fields inhibit development of conditioned reflexes in planarians, fishes, and mammals. However, there are data of opposite nature as well, indicating accelerated development of the avoidance reflex in animals exposed previously to a magnetic field. Researchers studied formation of a conditioned electrodefensive reflex (CER) in white rats exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF), and the influence of a vitamin preparation - galascorbin - on formation of the CER in animals exposed to a CMF.

  12. Cultivating Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toni; Bacala

    2011-01-01

    Empowered Benin farmers benefit from the economic and nutritional value of the moringa tree by Toni Bacala IN the fields of Benin,a green revolution has placed local farmers at the forefront of the battle against malnutrition.With the establishment of Association Beninoise du

  13. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Vergara-Diaz; Shawn; C.Kefauver; Abdelhalim; Elazab; Maria; Teresa; Nieto-Taladriz; José; Luis; Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen(Warrior/Ambition),against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red,Green, Blue(RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity.RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust(R2= 0.581 and R2= 0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI(R2= 0.118 and R2= 0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  14. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz; Shawn C. Kefauver; Abdelhalim Elazab; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; José Luis Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition), against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2=0.581 and R2=0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2=0.118 and R2=0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7%of the yield losses.

  15. Climatic conditions for grapevine cultivation in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil = Aptidão climática para o cultivo da videira em Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine plants have been grown in different tropical regions of Brazil. In the state of Roraima, this culture was introduced commercially in 2005 in Boa Vista. Unlike temperate regions, tropical regions present thermal conditions for grape production throughout the year. To evaluate the climatic characteristics on different periods of the year, it can be used different indices. The objective of this study was to characterize climate suitability of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, for grapevine cultivation at different months of the year. For climate classification it was used the Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (CCM, which is composed by three indices: Heliothermal (IH, Cool Night (IF, and Drought (IS. It was also used the Zuluaga Index (IZ, to assess the risk of incidence of fungal diseases on the vine, especially in relation to the incidence of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, one of the main grapevine diseases in humid regions. Based on the evaluated indices, it was found that the most favorable period for grape production goes from October to March because of the lower values of rainfall. During the other months, it can be employed branch pruning without fruit production, as occurs in other tropical locations of Brazil. =A videira tem sido cultivada em diferentes regiões tropicais do Brasil. No estado de Roraima, ela foi implantada comercialmente em 2005 em Boa Vista. Ao contrário das regiões de clima temperado, as regiões tropicais apresentam condições térmicas para a produção de uvas durante o ano inteiro. Para se avaliar as características climáticas dos diferentes períodos do ano pode-se recorrer a diversos índices. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a aptidão climática de Boa Vista, Roraima, para o cultivo da videira, considerando-se diferentes períodos de produção ao longo do ano. Na caracterização climática, foi utilizado o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicrit

  16. Dynamical fine-tuning of initial conditions for small field inflations

    CERN Document Server

    Iso, Satoshi; Shimada, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Small-field inflation (SFI) is widely considered to be unnatural because an extreme fine-tuning of the initial condition is necessary for sufficiently large e-folding. In this paper, we show that the unnaturally-looking initial condition can be dynamically realised without any fine-tuning if the SFI occurs after rapid oscillations of the inflaton field and particle creations by preheating. In fact, if the inflaton field $\\phi$ is coupled to another scalar field $\\chi$ through the interaction $g^2 \\chi^2 \\phi^2$ and the vacuum energy during the small field inflation is given by $\\lambda M^4$, the initial value can be dynamically set at $(\\sqrt{\\lambda}/g) M^2/M_{\\rm pl}$, which is much smaller than the typical scale of the potential $M.$ This solves the initial condition problem in the new inflation model or some classes of the hilltop inflation models.

  17. MICROORGANISMS RESISTANCE OF THE CHERNOZEM POLLUTION BY ANTIBIOTICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF FIELD MODEL EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In article the problem of environmental pollution by veterinary antibiotics and acquisitions of resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to them is considered. In the conditions of field experiment resistance of chernozem microorganisms to pollution oxytetracycline and tylosin is studied

  18. Methods of evaluating tomato susceptibility to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigations carried out in 1983-1985 was to assess the usefulness of natural and artificial infections under field conditions for evaluating tomato resistance to late blight in Poland. It was found, that the degree of natural infection by this fungus was a better indicator of tomato resistance than the degree of artificial infection obtained under field conditions.

  19. Casimir Effect of Massive Scalar Field with Hybrid Boundary Condition in (1+1)-Dimensional Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-Kai; LIU Wen-Biao; QIU Wei-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir energy of maesive scalar field with hybrid (Dirichlet-Neumann) boundary condition is calcu-lated. In order to regularize the model, the typical methods named as mode summation method and Green's function method are used respectively. It is found that the regularized zero-point energy density depends on the scalar field's mass. When the field is massless, the result is consistent with previous literatures.

  20. 模拟栽培条件的改变对稻田主要温室气体排放的影响%Simulation of greenhouse gas emissions as affected by cultivation practices in rice fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙园园; 孙永健; 杨志远; 徐徽; 马均; 李首成

    2013-01-01

    Using the high resolution(1 m)IKONOS satellite and employing typical sampling and terrain→land use→land cover→comprehensive information extraction method,representative of the middle Jintang hilly area feature were selected .Detailed farmer investigations were carried out,including crop diversity,tillage,fertilizer,manure type,irri-gationsoil pH,meteorological data.Emissions of CO2,N2O and CH4 emissions of rice fields with farmers crop production conditions simulated using DNDC model .In-depth analysis of factors contributing to emissions of CO2,N2O,CH4,and global warming potential (GWP)was performed by changing a factor of production conditions of the winter water paddy rice field (winter paddy field area accounts for 58 .07%of the area of research)in the target area .The results show that nitrogen fertilizer,organic fertilizer number and variety types,animal dung urine into quantity,middle-stage drainage, depth of cultivated fields,average temperature,rainfall,soil pH,content of soil organic matter,soil texture have signifi-cant influence on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy field .GWP of CO2,CH4,and N2O emissions of one year from three kinds of paddy field-permanently flooded paddy fields (PF),rapeseed-paddy rice fields (RR)and winter wheat-paddy rice fields (RW)were in the order of RW>RR>PF .%利用IKONOS高分辨率(1 m)卫星遥感图,运用典型抽样和地形→土地利用→土地覆盖→综合信息提取的方法,选定了川中丘陵区代表区域,通过对研究区域农业生产情况、土样、水样和气象资料的调查和分析,利用DNDC模型模拟农户作物生产条件下稻田CO2、CH4和N2 O排放情况,在此基础上,通过改变目前的研究区域冬水田(PF)(PF占研究区域面积的58.07%)生产条件中的某一影响因子,进一步研究这一因子的改变对CO2、CH4和N2O排放的影响及全球增温潜势(GWP)变化情况。结果表明:氮肥种类和数量、有机肥种

  1. Question of consistent boundary conditions when simulating reversed field pinch dynamics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirin, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The issue of proper boundary conditions when performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the reversed field pinch is examined. Of particular concern is the choice of constant current, which when combined with other commonly used boundary conditions, may, under careless implementation, lead to an inconsistency. It is shown that this may cause erroneous results. Cases both with and without Hall terms are presented.

  2. Thermal field of the Joule-Thomson effect under conditions of bed cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, R.F.; Filippov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Features are examined of the thermal field for the Joule-Thomson effect under bed conditions when there is cooling by injected water. It is indicated that the time for establishing the temperature significantly depends on the thermophysical properties of the bed and underlying rocks. Results of calculations of the temperature relationship for different conditions of well operation are presented.

  3. Alternative cultivation systems for energy crops. Exploitation of phosphor and nitrogen in the cultivation of mixed fruits with leguminous plants under the conditions of drought stress; Alternative Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Phosphor- und Stickstoffausnutzung im Mischfruchtanbau mit Leguminosen unter Trockenstressbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stefanie; Eichler-Loebermann, Bettina [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Pflanzenbau

    2013-10-01

    Alternative cropping systems with an efficient utilization of resources are particularly interesting for energy cropping. The P- and N- uptake of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) of maize and sorghum (here called ''energy crops'') intercropped with legumes (substitutive, 50:50) under drought conditions were investigated in a eight week pot experiment. Yield, P- and N- uptake of all species and mixtures were significantly lower under drought conditions than when well watered. The yield and the P-uptake of the mixtures was lower than of the sole cropped energy crops when well watered, but comparable under water deficit with exception of the sorghum mixtures, which reached a lower yield than sole sorghum. Despite the lower N-fertilization the N-uptake of the mixtures was comparable to the sole cropped maize or sorghum when well watered, but under drought N uptake of the mixtures was decreased in comparison to sole cropping. Under drought conditions the N-uptake of maize and sorghum plants in mixtures was not decreased, while the N-uptake of the legumes decreased in comparison to the well watered treatment. This may be an evidence for the benefit of the non-legumes in the investigated intercropping system under drought conditions. (orig.)

  4. Residue behavior and risk assessment of mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian Xiang; Liu, Cong Yun; Lu, Da Hai; Chen, Jia Jia; Deng, Yi Cai; Wang, Fu Hua

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr residues in chieh-qua. Field trials were designed to investigate the dissipation and terminal residue behavior of the mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua in Guangzhou and Nanning areas. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the risk quotient (RQ) values. The developed analytical method exhibited recoveries of 89.9-110.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8-12.5% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.003 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for both imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr. It was found that the half-lives of imidacloprid in chieh-qua under field conditions were 3.3 and 3.5 days in Guangzhou and Nanning at a dose of 180 g ai/ha, while the half-lives of chlorfenapyr were 3.3 and 2.6 days, respectively. The terminal residues of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr were from 0.01 to 0.21 mg/kg and from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, respectively. Results of dietary exposure assessment showed that the RQ values were much lower than 1, indicating that the risk of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr applied in chieh-qua was negligible to human health under recommended dosage and good agricultural practices. The proposed study would provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua cultivation in China.

  5. Field Emission Characteristics of Conducting Polymer Films Conditioned by Electric Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohong LAI; Zhenglin LI; Lan CHENG; Junbiao PENG

    2006-01-01

    A pure conducting polymer(PANI-CSA)film conditioned by an electric discharge was tentatively utilized as an cathode for emitting electrons under electric fields. The emission of electrons was observed using a phosphor(ZnO:Zn)screen excited by electrons from the conditioned film. The film morphology was investigated using a scanning electron microscope and it was found that undulate whisker-like sites formed on the surface. The emission was presumably due to the undulate whisker-like sites. The field enhancement factor was estimated to be as high as 1150. The electron emitting process of the PANI-CSA film conditioned by electric discharge was also discussed.

  6. Numerical Methods for the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Nonzero Far-field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical methods for the nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) in the semiclassical regimes: \\[i \\vep\\; u_t^\\vep=-\\fl{\\vep^2}{2}\\;\\btu u^\\vep+V(\\bx)u^\\vep+ f(|u^\\vep|^2)u^\\vep, \\qquad \\bx\\in{\\Bbb R}^d,\\] with nonzero far-field conditions. A time-splitting cosine-spectral (TS-Cosine) method is presented when the nonzero far-field conditions are or can be reduced to homogeneous Neumann conditions, a time-splitting Chebyshev-spectral (TS-Chebyshe...

  7. Temporal patterns of infiltration into a water repellent soil under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phil; Roper, Margaret; Micin, Shayne; Jongepier, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency causes substantial economic losses for farmers in southern Australia through impacts on crop growth and weed germination. However, recent research has demonstrated that laboratory measurements of water repellency may not be a reliable indicator of the severity of symptoms experienced in the field. In particular, crop residue retention and minimal soil disturbance led to increased water repellency, but was also associated with higher soil water contents measured at strategic times of the year. Little is known about the temporal patterns of soil water storage close to the soil surface in a water repellent sand. In this research we measured soil water content at a depth of 0.05 m at 15-minute intervals from June 2011 to October 2012, under various treatment combinations of residue retention and soil disturbance. Measurements were made in both 'crop row' and 'crop inter-row' positions. For a rainfall event (9.2 mm) in March 2012, prior to crop seeding, plots previously established with no-till absorbed significantly more water (increase in soil water content of 0.074 v/v) than plots conventionally cultivated (0.038 v/v). In June 2012 (12.6 mm), 4 weeks after crop seeding, tillage was again significant, and there was a significant interaction between tillage and 'row' or 'inter-row' position. These results demonstrate the importance of crop management in modifying the response of water repellent soils to rainfall in the field.

  8. A compact source condition for modelling focused fields using the pseudospectral time-domain method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Engelke, Daniel; Sampson, David D

    2014-03-10

    The pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method greatly extends the physical volume of biological tissue in which light scattering can be calculated, relative to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We have developed an analogue of the total-field scattered-field source condition, as employed in FDTD, for introducing focussed illuminations into PSTD simulations. This new source condition requires knowledge of the incident field, and applies update equations, at a single plane in the PSTD grid. Numerical artifacts, usually associated with compact PSTD source conditions, are minimized by using a staggered grid. This source condition's similarity with that used by the FDTD suggests a way in which existing FDTD codes can be easily adapted to PSTD codes.

  9. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  10. Modified light cone condition via vacuum polarization in a time dependent field

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Huayu

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of unconventional vacuum properties in intense fields has long been an active field of research. In this paper the vacuum polarization effect is investigated via a pump probe scheme of a probe light propagating in the vacuum excited by two counter-propagating laser beams. The modified light cone condition of the probe light is derived analytically for the situation that it passes through the electric/magnetic antinode plane of the pump field. The derivation does not follow the commonly adopted assumption of treating the pump field as a constant field. Differences from the conventional light cone conditions are identified. The implications of the result are discussed with a consideration of the vacuum birefringence measurement.

  11. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  12. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  13. Robotics in Protected Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.; Bac, C.W.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews robotics for protected cultivation systems. Based on a short description of the greenhouse crop production process, the current state in greenhouse mechanization and the challenges for robotics in protected cultivation are identified. Examples of current greenhouse robotics

  14. The tendencies in the condition of field-protecting shelter belts in southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Varaksin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to analyze the stands’ condition to use the method of tendencies, which occupies an intermediate position between a static evaluation of the life conditions and the dynamic assessment of the condition. The trends take into account the totality of the factors, affecting the condition of the trees. The basis for the method is the analysis of tree distribution by the categories of condition. This approach allowed us to identify a set of factors affecting the condition of the trees, depending on the growth conditions of soil and tree species. Siberian larch is characterized by healthy condition, regardless of the method of planting, density, number of rows and soil conditions. This situation can be explained by shelterbelts’ age not exceeding 20 years. At older ages, the soil conditions influence field-protecting forest belts. The best conditions are formed in the stands on the southern chernozems of pure composition, with a row and chess-type of planting. In clean multi-row pine stands, the trees are more healthy condition, compared to mixed stands. The living condition of birch stands is weakened. Favorable conditions found in pure Siberian elm stands with a 3-row and chess-type planting, compared to mixed stands. Relatively favorable conditions for the growth of black poplar trees were observed in pure 4-row stands, growing on ordinary chernozems. Point scale assessment of the stands shows that healthy state have larch belts in the steppe of Shira lake. Field-protecting shelter belts in the Republics of Khakassia and Tyva, with some exceptions, are in weakened and badly weakened condition. In those stands conducting agronomic and silvicultural treatments to improve mineral nutrition and moisture supply is the urgent need.

  15. BANCO DE SEMENTES DE PLANTAS DANINHAS EM SOLO CULTIVADO COM ADUBOS VERDES WEED SEED BANK IN GREEN-MANURE-CULTIVATED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO JOSÉ SEVERINO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a composição de banco de sementes de plantas daninhas em solo cultivado com adubos verdes, desenvolveu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP, entre dezembro de 1999 e fevereiro de 2000. As parcelas experimentais, compostas de 1 kg de solo amostrado por um trado de 4,3 cm de diâmetro, a partir da experimentação em campo, foram instaladas em bandejas de 30 x 20 x 5 cm. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições constando dos fatores: a adubos verdes - amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu-anão [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] e testemunha sem capina; b plantas daninhas - capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., além da vegetação espontânea. Avaliou-se o número de plantas daninhas emergidas aos 30 e 60 dias após a instalação do experimento. Os resultados permitem concluir que o banco de sementes de plantas daninhas foi significativamente reduzido com a utilização dos adubos verdes, constituindo em prática agrícola relevante para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas.In order to evaluate the composition of a weed seed bank in a soil cultivated with green manure, an experiment was carried out from December, 1999, to February, 2000, in a greenhouse of the Plant Production Department, ESALQ/University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental units were made of 30 x 20 x 5 cm trays, filled with 1.0 kg of soil. The soil was collected by a 4.3 cm core sampler from the experimental field where the green manure and weeds were grown. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with four replicates, green manure (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, Crotalaria juncea L. and Cajanus cajan L

  16. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD IN SOME Camelina sativa L. VARIETIES CULTIVATED UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela PODGOREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerged interest in using renewable vegetable sources as feedstock for biofuel production requires the identification of effective solutions aimed to follow the principles of sustainable development. Biofuels from the first generation were produced from sugarcane, starch and oils derived from agricultural products, but they may not be sustainable because are competing with the agricultural production. Currently, studies are focused on the obtaining of a second generation of biofuels that originate from plants other then food crops, from agricultural residues and from municipal wastes. Being economically attractive and having certain agro-technical advantages, the Camelina sativa seed oil is considered a sustainable source for obtaining second generation biofuels. The aim of the present research was to record the effect of genotype in 3 foreign varieties of Camelina sativa (CALENA, GP 204 and GP 202 and in 3 autochthonous ones (CAMELIA, one local population Fundulea and one hybrid line as regards both the growth characteristics and the yield components in a greenhouse experiment, in order to evaluate their potential performance and adaptability in field conditions. Periodic phenological observations were performed on the occurrence of flowering, on the pod maturation and genotypic differences of the biometric measurements such as plant height, number of branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pods and thousand seed weight are discussed.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF GREENHOUSE CULTIVATION AND ITS PROBLEMS IN T.R.N.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, malnutrition that is caused by the rapidly increasing global population became one of the problems worldwide. Additionally, serious health problems that are caused by GMOs are the great concerns of the countries. Therefore, researchers from different fields are trying to find a variety solutions to this problem. Thus, greenhouse cultivation holds importance as an alternative agricultural method. In fact, historically greenhouse cultivation goes up until Roman Empire, and it has been developed in recent years. Greenhouse cultivation had started as an avocation or a leisure activity of only rich people. However, it expanded to a broader range of population to enable farming of some fruits and vegetables at their unnatural habitats or seasons. In this study, alterations of these processes since the day of establishment were analyzed. Greenhouse cultivation in T.R.N.C. in the content of agricultural geography has been evaluated because of its convenient conditions due to its duration of sunlight achievement and localization.

  18. Pilot scale land-based cultivation of Saccharina latissima Linnaeus at southern European climate conditions: Growth and nutrient uptake at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Isabel C.; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Silva, Diogo M.

    2016-01-01

    of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems, presenting good results considering both growth and biofiltration performance. In the present work, the cultivation of S. latissima in a pilot land-based system was performed in order to assess the efficiency of two different methods: tumbling in the water...... during high temperature periods. Densities around 8 kg m− 3 were effective in keeping epiphytes development low. This system may be used for seaweed monoculture or as a biofilter component of IMTA systems.......Saccharina latissima is a cold water seaweed species with commercial potential. The northern Portuguese coast is the southern distribution limit of the species, where some dispersed populations can be found. S. latissima has been identified as being a potential candidate for monoculture or as part...

  19. Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-08-01

    A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  20. A study of the stability of polyacrylamide solutions under laboratory and field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Kissne, G.M.; Lakatosne, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Questions are examined of thermal, mechanical and microbiological stability of polyacrylamide solutions used in the processes of oil expulsion and formation treatment. Results are given from experiments performed with nonhydrolyzed and partially hydrolyzed domestic and foreign polyacrylamides under laboratory and field conditions. Attention is drawn to the fact that problems of stability are varied. The economic aspect of field use of the processes must not be underestimated. Stability of polymers can be ensured by effective chemical microbiological protection.

  1. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Boundary conditions for Maxwell fields in Kerr-AdS spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie

    2016-05-01

    Perturbative methods are useful to study the interaction between black holes and test fields. The equation for a perturbation itself, however, is not complete to study such a composed system if we do not assign physically relevant boundary conditions. Recently we have proposed a new type of boundary conditions for Maxwell fields in Kerr-anti-de Sitter (Kerr-AdS) spacetimes, from the viewpoint that the AdS boundary may be regarded as a perfectly reflecting mirror, in the sense that energy flux vanishes asymptotically. In this paper, we prove explicitly that a vanishing energy flux leads to a vanishing angular momentum flux. Thus, these boundary conditions may be dubbed as vanishing flux boundary conditions.

  3. Condition and size of damselflies: a field study of food limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L

    1989-10-01

    Based on evidence from field manipulations, several authors have recently suggested that interference competition among larval odonates reduces individual growth rates and biomass by reducing foraging rates. This study was designed to test the effects of food shortage on "condition" (relative mass per unit head width) of larval Ischnura verticalis (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) under laboratory conditions and to use these results to estimate the degree of food shortage of larvae under naturally occurring field conditions. In the laboratory, there were marked differences in condition of larvae fed diets ranging from ad libitum feeding with worms to ad libitum feeding with Daphnia 1 day out of every 8. Condition of larvae collected from May through October from 17 different sites in southern Ontario indicated that, for most of the year, larvae had conditions similar to those fed ad libitum with Daphnia in the laboratory. There was no evidence that larval condition was related to population density. Condition of larvae in most sites during July was similar to that of larvae fed poor diets in the laboratory. It is unlikely that the low conditions were due to competition as there were no correlations with density across sites and population densities during July were at their lowest. Adult head widths showed a seasonal decline from mid June to the end of the flight season. There was no evidence that head widths were related to population density although there was some evidence that head widths of males were positively related to larval condition. My results do not support the hypothesis that competition is important in affecting foraging rates and subsequent development of larvae. Contrasts between my results and other studies may stem from difficulties with the interpretation of field experiments, that densities in my study may have been low due to fish predation, and/or that I. verticalis larvae are slow moving relative to other larvae and thus less likely to interact.

  4. A Field Survey of Window-Opening Behavior and Thermal Conditions in Apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arethusa, Meita Tristida; Kubota, Tetsu; Nugroho, Agung Murti; Antaryama, I Gusti Ngurah; Ekasiwi, Sri Nastiti; Uno, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia to investigate occupants’ window-opening behavior and their thermal conditions. A total of 347 households were interviewed and about 30 houses were covered for measurements of thermal conditions. It was seen that occupants in the naturally ventilated apartments tend to open windows or doors as much as possible at least during daytime for satisfying air flow and ventilation in particular. The average duration of opening windows/...

  5. The mathematical simulation of the temperature fields of building envelopes under permanent frozen soil conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. V.; Babuta, M. N.; Kuznetsova, U. N.; Safonova, E. V.; Minaeva, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The physical-mathematical model of the thermal state of the aired technical underground taking into account the air exchange and design features of construction under permanent frozen soil conditions has been suggested. The computational scheme of the temperature fields prediction of building envelopes of projected buildings and soil under and nearby buildings has been developed. The numerical simulation of the temperature fields of building envelopes changes was conducted during a year. The results of the numerical simulation showed that the heat coming from the technical undergrounds and through the walls does not influence the temperature field of the soil neither under a building nor at a distance from it.

  6. Effect of magnetic field on the behavior of operantly conditioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, T..; Williams, M.C.; Ward, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two mice were trained to run a T-shaped maze. One mouse was trained to turn right while the other mouse was trained to turn left. A magnetic field was then set up in the arm of the maze to which the mouse had been trained to turn. The mice were allowed to run the maze and scored on the basis of their correct response. The scores of both mice were significantly lower when the magnetic field was present, thus indicating interference by the magnetic field on their operant conditioning.

  7. Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.

  8. Comparison of the behavior of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae under controlled and field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions, in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established at near-wild type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by By28a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. 58 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Solar UVB response of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. L.): a comparison of protected and open-field cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josuttis, Melanie; Dietrich, Helmut; Treutter, Dieter; Will, Frank; Linnemannstöns, Ludger; Krüger, Erika

    2010-12-22

    Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Everest, Elsanta) were grown in a tunnel covered with two films, which were distinguished in their ultraviolet transparency, as well as under open-field conditions. One applied film was not transparent for UVB radiation, and the second film transmitted 70% of UVB radiation. During the present study, the nutritional value and quality parameters of the fruits were evaluated. Strawberries were UV-unresponsive in view of the content of ascorbic acid and sum parameters like total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity measured with TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and total phenols. These parameters were mainly affected by sampling date and cultivar. However, HPLC analysis showed that individual phenolics were affected in the absence of UV radiation. The content of the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucoside and the flavonols quercetin 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-glucoside was decreased in the fruits grown under UV blocking film compared to open-field grown strawberries. By means of the UV transparent film the content of the mentioned flavonoids could be enhanced up to similar amounts like in open-field grown strawberries. All other phenolics were not consistently affected by UV radiation. This result was independent of cultivar.

  10. Cultivating local champions for mentoring colleagues through integrated e-learning within District Health Information System: A quasi field experiment in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Learning how to use distributed business systems requires expensive and sustained training efforts, and this study addresses the need for sustainable and effective training solutions, and an approach to nurture local users to become mentor for colleagues has been developed as an alternative to training courses. The objective of the study was to find the sufficient training and support to cultivate mentors, how e-learning courses should be designed considering areas with poor Internet connecti...

  11. Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-11

    Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination.

  12. Composting of a solid olive-mill by-product ("alperujo") and the potential of the resulting compost for cultivating pepper under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J

    2006-01-01

    A pollutant solid material called "alperujo" (AL), which is the main by-product from the Spanish olive oil industry, was composted with a cotton waste as bulking agent, and the compost obtained (ALC) was compared with a cattle manure (CM) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) for use as organic amendment on a calcareous soil. The experiment was conducted with a commercial pepper crop in a greenhouse using fertigation. Composting AL involved a relatively low level of organic matter biodegradation, an increase in pH and clear decreases in the C/N and the fat, water-soluble organic carbon and phenol contents. The resulting compost, which was rich in organic matter and free of phytotoxicity, had a high potassium and organic nitrogen content but was low in phosphorus and micronutrients. The marketable yields of pepper obtained with all three organic amendments were similar, thus confirming the composting performance of the raw AL. When CM and SSC were used for soil amendment, the soil organic matter content was significantly reduced after cultivation, while it remained almost unchanged in the ALC-amended plots.

  13. Methane mitigation in transplanting and direct-wet seeding rice fields treated with fertilizers under condition of alternately flooding and soil aerating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanwangsi, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is main staple crop of the world. Growing rice in flooded water entails methane (CH4 emission. CH4 is one of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. The experiment aimed to clarify the influence of fertilizer and water management on total methane emission (TME, methane mitigation and rice yields (RY. The experimental design was a split - split plot with 3 replications taking 2 cultivation in main plots, transplanting (TP rice and direct-wet seeding (DWS rice fields; 2 basal fertilizers, 16-16-8, 20 kg/rai and chicken manure pallet (CMP, 105 kg/rai in sub plots; and 3 top dressing fertilizers 1 none, 2 urea (46% N, 15 kg/rai and 3 ammonium sulfate (AS, 21% N, 30 kg/rai in sub-sub plots. It also examined relationship between quantity of paddy-soil water, TME and RY of both cultivations. Methane emission rate (MER occurred during the whole growth period and was characterized by 2 large peaks: one from after transplanting or broadcasting to maximum tillering stage and the other from flowering to yellow ripening stage. Rapid declines of MER were dictated by soil aeration recognized as 3-5 days cracks. In TP rice plot based with CMP, 105 kg/rai, topped with AS, 30 kg/rai, TME decreased to 73.0% and RY increased to 14.7% over that of untreated plots with top dressing fertilizer, while in that topped with urea, 15 kg/rai, TME decreased to 68.9% and RY increased to 16.9%. In all of DWS rice plots which were topped with AS or urea, declines of TME ranged from 27.3 to 56.4% and increase of RY ranged from 31.3 to 47.9% over those without top dressing. In both TP and DWS plots, TMEs were closely correlated with the quantity of paddy-soil water (r = 0.83 and 0.86, respectively and with submergence days (r = 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. Hence, saturated condition in paddy soil is a primary factor for methanogenesis. Moreover, for TP rice, the relationship between TME and RY was weakly positive (r = 0.16, whereas that for DWS rice was obviously

  14. Coupling the Gaussian free fields with free and with zero boundary conditions via common level lines

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Wei; Werner, Wendelin

    2017-01-01

    We describe level-line decompositions of the two-dimensional Gaussian Free Field (GFF) with free boundary conditions. In particular, we point out a simple way to couple the GFF with free boundary conditions in a domain with the GFF with zero boundary conditions in the same domain: Starting from the latter, one just has to sample at random all the signs of the height gaps on its boundary touching 0-level lines (these signs are alternating for the zero-boundary GFF) in order to obtain a free bo...

  15. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew;

    2008-01-01

    on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  16. Kernel conditional ordinal random fields for temporal segmentation of facial action units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of automated recognition of temporal segments (neutral, onset, apex and offset) of Facial Action Units. To this end, we propose the Laplacian-regularized Kernel Conditional Ordinal Random Field model. In contrast to standard modeling approaches to recognition of AUs’ temporal

  17. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  18. Conditional Random Fields versus Hidden Markov Models for activity recognition in temporal sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.L.M.; Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Smit, G.J.M.; Epema, D.H.J.; Lew, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Conditional Random Fields are a discriminative probabilistic model which recently gained popularity in applications that require modeling nonindependent observation sequences. In this work, we present the basic advantages of this model over generative models and argue about its suitability in the do

  19. Separate Training for Conditional Random Fields Using Co-occurrence Rate Factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The standard training method of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) is very slow for large-scale applications. As an alternative, piecewise training divides the full graph into pieces, trains them independently, and combines the learned weights at test time. In this paper, we present separate training

  20. Respondent Conditioning in Online Panel Surveys: Results of Two Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struminskaya, Bella

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate changes in survey reporting due to prior interviewing. Two field experiments were implemented in a probability-based online panel in which the order of the questionnaires was switched. Although experimental methods for studying panel conditioning are favorable, experi

  1. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samudrala, D.; Lammers, G.; Mandon, J.B.; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Harren, F.J.M.; Tappy, L.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. METHODS: Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath a

  2. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samudrala, D.; Lammers, G.; Mandon, J.B.; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Harren, F.J.M.; Tappy, L.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. METHODS: Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath

  3. Information Extraction from Research Papers based on Conditional Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shuxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of CiteSeer academic search engines, the accuracy of such systems has become more and more important. The paper adopts the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for training conditional random field model and applies it into the research papers’ title and citation retrieval. The improved particl swarm optimization algorithm  brings the particle swarm aggregation to prevent particle swarm from being plunged into local convergence too early, and uses the linear inertia factor and learning factor to update particle rate. It can control algorithm in infinite iteration by the iteration between particle relative position change rate. The results of which using the standard research papers’ heads and references to evaluate the trained conditional random field model shows that compared with traditionally conditional random field model and Hidden Markov Model, the conditional random field model ,optimized and trained by improved particle swarm, has been better ameliorated in the aspect of F1 mean error and word error rate.

  4. Bullying of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Conditions: A "State of the Field" Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    A "state of the field" review of what is currently known about bullying of children and adolescents with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is presented. We highlight compelling evidence that they are considerably more likely to be bullied than those with other or no special educational needs and disabilities. Although prevalence estimates…

  5. MICROORGANISMS RESISTANCE OF THE CHERNOZEM POLLUTION BY ANTIBIOTICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF FIELD MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimenko Y. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the problem of environmental pollution by veterinary antibiotics and acquisitions of resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to them is considered. In the conditions of field experiment resistance of chernozem microorganisms to pollution oxytetracycline and tylosin is studied

  6. A device for the remote detection of alpha emitters under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simakov, AB

    2005-01-01

    The portable DOP device was designed for the ecological monitoring of the radiation of alpha radioactive nuclides, such as plutonium, uranium, radium, etc. Under field conditions, it can detect alpha emitters at distances of up to 0.5 m. The device's performance data are as follows: the lower thresh

  7. Flow Field Characterization Inside an Arteriovenous Graft-to-Vein Anastomosis Under Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1 FLOW FIELD CHARACTERIZATION INSIDE AN ARTERIOVENOUS GRAFT- TO-VEIN ANASTOMOSIS UNDER PULSATILE FLOW CONDITIONS Nurullah Arslan1, Francis Loth2...the relationship between the distribution of turbulence intensity and the localization of stenoses inside the venous anastomosis of arteriovenous (A...found to be greatest downstream of the anastomosis . KEYWORDS: Arteriovenous graft, dialysis, turbulence, stenosis I. INTRODUCTION

  8. Reversal Frequency, Core-Mantle Conditions, and the SCOR-field Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most intriguing results from paleomagnetic data spanning the past 108 yr comes from the work of McFadden et al. (1991) who found that the variation in the rate of polarity reversal is apparently tied to the temporal variation in the harmonic content of the full-polarity field. Their finding indicates that it is the relative importance of the two dynamo families--i.e. the Primary Family (PF), the field antisymmetric about the equator, and the Secondary Family (SF), the field symmetric about the equator--that largely determines reversal frequency. More specifically, McFadden et al. found that as the relative significance of the SF increases, as is observed during the Cenozoic, so too does reversal rate. Such a finding is reminiscent of the seminal work of Allan Cox who some forty years ago proposed that interactions with the non-dipole field may provide the trigger for reversal of the axial dipole (AD) field. Hence, new questions arise: Do the two dynamo family fields interact in this manner, and, if so, how can such an interaction physically occur in the fluid core? Gaussian coefficient terms comprising the PF and SF have degree and order (n + m) that sum to an odd and even number, respectively. The most significant field term in the PF is by far that of the axial dipole (g10). The entire SF, starting with the equatorial dipole terms (g11 and h11) and the axial quadrupole (g20), are constituents of the non-axial dipole (NAD) field. By way of both paleomagnetic transition and geomagnetic data Hoffman and Singer (2008) recently proposed (1) that field sources exist within the shallow core (SCOR-field) associated with fluid motions affected by long-lived core-mantle boundary conditions; (2) that these SCOR-field sources are largely separated from, i.e. in “poor communication” with, deep field convection roll-generated sources; and (3) that the deep sources are largely responsible for the AD field, leaving the SCOR-field to be the primary source for the

  9. Evolution of the magnetic field structure outside the magnetopause under radial IMF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Gilbert; Shue, Jih-Hong; Grygorov, Kostiantyn; Li, Hsien-Ming; Němeček, Zdeněk.; Å afránková, Jana; Yang, Ya-Hui; Wang, Kaiti

    2017-04-01

    We use the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms data to investigate the magnetic field structure just outside the magnetopause and its time evolution for radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) events. When the magnetic field drapes around the magnetopause in the magnetosheath region, an asymmetric magnetic field orientation in different hemispheres is expected. Our two-case study reveals some conflicts with the predicted draped field configuration in the Southern Hemisphere. The magnetosheath Bz component had a different sign depending on the upstream IMF Bx component's polarity at the beginning of the radial IMF intervals. With time, the observed Bz became northward in both cases with increasing positive values through the events. The increasing value of the Bz component may be explained by two possible mechanisms: by a change of the upstream IMF and by a reconnection between magnetosheath and magnetospheric field lines. Our study shows that both mechanisms contributed to the observed changes. Thus, there was a correlation between the change of the upstream IMF conditions and an increase in the magnetosheath northward magnetic field component. The observed formation of the boundary layer near the magnetopause proves that the reconnection process was ongoing at least for a part of the time. We suggest two possible reconnection scenarios: one near subsolar point and another tailward of the one cusp due to lobe reconnection. The asymmetry of reconnection locations causes rearrangement of the magnetic field structure near the magnetopause and turns the observed magnetosheath Bz component even further into positive values.

  10. Study of deposition characteristics of multi-nozzle near-field electrospinning in electric field crossover interference conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured components have been receiving considerable attention in recent years. One advantage is the use of near-field electrospinning (NFES in microdevice manufacture. Multi-nozzle NFES is offered as a technique to increase the high-precision production rate of components. The deposition characteristics of the multi-nozzles were observed and analyzed based on the mutual influence of the jets under varied conditions. It was discovered that the mutual distance of deposition becomes larger with increases in working distance and nozzle spacing, but the influence of voltage is not particularly apparent. This paper discusses the results and conclusions of the experimental investigation and theoretical derivation.

  11. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  12. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-10-21

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production.

  13. Experimental investigation of the influence of electric field on frost layer growth under natural convection condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of direct current (DC) electric field on the thickness and mass of frost on a cold vertical plate was investigated. The photos of frost layer growth were taken with and without the presence of electric field, and results showed that the electric field has a strong influence on the frost thickness. The influences of cold plate temperature and ambient temperature on frost thickness and frost mass were also investigated under the natural convection condition with electric field. Experimental results demonstrated that the cold plate temperature has very strong effect on the frost layer thickness, but its influence on frost mass is minor; the influence of ambient temperature on the frost mass is more obvious than that on the frost thickness.

  14. In-field experimental verification of cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. using the flue gas from a cogeneration unit as a source of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastánek, Frantisek; Sabata, Stanislav; Solcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywette; Kastánek, Petr; Brányiková, Irena; Kuthan, Karel; Zachleder, Vilém

    2010-11-01

    A complex treatment of agricultural waste including the following major steps: anaerobic fermentation of suitable waste, cogeneration of the obtained biogas and growth of microalgae consuming the CO(2) from biogas and flue gas was verified under field conditions in a pilot-scale photobioreactor. The growth kinetics of microalgae Chlorella sp. consuming mixture of air and carbon dioxide (2% (v/v) of CO(2)), or flue gas (8-10% (v/v) of CO(2)) was investigated. The results obtained in the pilot photobioreactor were compared with results previously measured in laboratory photobioreactors. The field tests were performed in a pilot-scale outdoor solar-bubbled photobioreactor located at a biogas station. The pilot-scale photobioreactor was in the shape of a flat and narrow vertical prism with a volume of 300 L. The microalgae growth rates were correlated with empirical formulas. Laboratory analyses of the produced microalgae confirmed that it meets the strict EU criteria for relevant contaminants level in foodstuffs. Utilization of flue gases from cogeneration therefore was not found to be detrimental to the quality of microalgal biomass, and may be used in these types of bioreactors.

  15. Magnetic field amplification during gravitational collapse - Influence of initial conditions on dynamo evolution and saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Sharanya; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-01-01

    We study the influence of initial conditions on the magnetic field amplification during the collapse of a magnetised gas cloud. We focus on the dependence of the growth and saturation level of the dynamo generated field on the turbulent properties of the collapsing cloud. In particular, we explore the effect of varying the initial strength and injection scale of turbulence and the initial uniform rotation of the collapsing magnetised cloud. In order to follow the evolution of the magnetic field in both the kinematic and the nonlinear regime, we choose an initial field strength of $\\simeq 1\\,\\mkG$ with the magnetic to kinetic energy ratio, $E_{\\rm m}/E_{\\rm k} \\sim 10^{-4}$. Both gravitational compression and the small-scale dynamo initially amplify the magnetic field. Further into the evolution, the dynamo-generated magnetic field saturates but the total magnetic field continues to grow because of compression. The saturation of the small-scale dynamo is marked by a change in the slope of $B/\\rho^{2/3}$ and by...

  16. SU-E-T-406: Evaluation of the Stealth Chamber by IBA Under Large Field Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quino, L Vazquez; Hernandez, C Huerta; DeWeese, M [Alyzen Medical Physics, Paragould, AR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the stealth chamber by IBA under large field conditions. Methods: Measurement of PDDs and profiles for fields of 10×10, 15×15, 20×20 and 25×25 cm2 were acquired in a blue phantom2 scanning system for 6 and 15 MV beams in a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. The stealth chamber has a field size limit of 25×25 cm2. Measurements with two different detector set were performed. First a cc13 chamber as field and reference chamber was acquired. And with a cc13 chamber as field detector and the stealth chamber as the reference chamber. PDDs for the fields mentioned above were conducted and profiles with the same fields at depth of dmax, 5, 10 and 20 cm were acquired for comparison. Results: Examination of the PDDs and profile comparison with a criterion of 1% and 1 mm agreement was performed. Very good agreement between the cc13 and stealth chamber set was observed within the chosen criterion. Conclusion: This work indicates the comparable results obtained with the use of the stealth chamber and cc13 as the reference chamber in relative dosimetry measurements.

  17. Exchange of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) between plants and the atmosphere under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuninger, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Thielmann, A.; Kuhn, U.; Dindorf, T.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), often denoted as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3) are considered as most important compounds in atmospheric chemistry. In remote areas NOx concentration is related to biological activities of soils and vegetation. The emitted NOx will not entirely be subject of long range transport through the atmosphere. Aside oxidation of NO2 by the OH radical (forming HNO3), a considerable part of it is removed from the atmosphere through the uptake of NO2 by plants. The exchange depends on stomatal activity and on NO2 concentrations in ambient air. It is known that NO2 uptake by plants represents a large NO2 sink, but the magnitude and the NO2 compensation point concentration are still under discussion. Our dynamic chamber system allows exchange measurements of NO2 under field conditions (uncontrolled) as well as studies under controlled laboratory conditions including fumigation experiments. For NO2 detection we used a highly NO2 specific blue light converter (photolytic converter) with subsequent chemiluminescence analysis of the generated NO. Furthermore, as the exchange of NO2 is a complex interaction of transport, chemistry and plant physiology, in our field experiments we determined fluxes of NO, NO2, O3, CO2 and H2O. For a better knowledge of compensation point values for the bi-directional NO2 exchange we investigated a primary representative of conifers, Picea abies, under field and laboratory conditions, and re-analyzed older field data of the deciduous tree Quercus robur.

  18. Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

  19. Genetically modified corn on fall armyworm and earwig populations under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Regina Frizzas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corn MON810 on the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and the earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder were tested under field conditions in Brazil. Results from MON810 corn fields were compared with those fields of conventional corn with and without the application of insecticides in four harvests in the region of Barretos, SP. It was assessed the damage to S. frugiperda via direct counts of the number of fall armyworms and adults and nymphs of the predator D. luteipes on corn plants. The rate of S. frugiperda damage and the average numbers of larvae (large and small were lower in the MON810 corn field relative to the control plot. There were no differences (P>0.05 between treatments regarding the predator abundance in corn plants. The second crop season ("safrinha" showed the greatest extent of S. frugiperda damage and the lowest average abundance of earwigs. MON810 was effective in controlling S. frugiperda and abundance of predator D. luteipes was similar in the three treatments under field conditions.

  20. Urban and marine corrosion: Comparative behaviour between field and laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren Laco, J.I.; Liesa Mestres, F.; Bilurbina Alter, L. [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica E.T.S.E.I.B. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Cadena Villota, F. [Departamento de Materiales, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed study of the corrosion phenomena of carbon steel has been investigated in this work by means of the comparison of field and laboratory tests. Two areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were selected to carry out the field tests, whereas two different solutions of sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen sulfite were used to simulate the field conditions by means of cyclic laboratory tests. The corrosion rate has been evaluated from the weight loss of the specimens and the morphology surface has been visualized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products and contaminants have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The penetration results can be adjusted to the Passano equation and the corrosivity degree can be assigned in accordance with ISO standards. A correlation between field and laboratory tests has been found, by comparing the specimens with the same degree of corrosion, showing the validity of the accelerated laboratory tests in order to simulate the field conditions. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jason A; Spor, Aymé; Koren, Omry; Jin, Zhao; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L; Buckler, Edward S; Ley, Ruth E

    2013-04-16

    The rhizosphere is a critical interface supporting the exchange of resources between plants and their associated soil environment. Rhizosphere microbial diversity is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the rhizosphere, some of which are determined by the genetics of the host plant. However, within a plant species, the impact of genetic variation on the composition of the microbiota is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of 27 modern maize inbreds possessing exceptional genetic diversity grown under field conditions. Randomized and replicated plots of the inbreds were planted in five field environments in three states, each with unique soils and management conditions. Using pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, we observed substantial variation in bacterial richness, diversity, and relative abundances of taxa between bulk soil and the maize rhizosphere, as well as between fields. The rhizospheres from maize inbreds exhibited both a small but significant proportion of heritable variation in total bacterial diversity across fields, and substantially more heritable variation between replicates of the inbreds within each field. The results of this study should facilitate expanded studies to identify robust heritable plant-microbe interactions at the level of individual polymorphisms by genome wide association, so that plant-microbiome interactions can ultimately be incorporated into plant breeding.

  2. The long-term variation of Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by Noccaea spp and Arabidopsis halleri plants in both pot and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustoš, Pavel; Břendová, Kateřina; Száková, Jiřina; Najmanová, Jana; Koubová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Three Cd and Zn hyperaccumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens Noccaea praecox and Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicacceae) were cultivated in seven subsequent vegetation seasons in both pot and field conditions in soil highly contaminated with Cd, Pb, and Zn. The results confirmed the hyperaccumulation ability of both plant species, although A. halleri showed lower Cd uptake compared to N. caerulescens. Conversely, Pb phytoextraction was negligible for both species in this case. Because of the high variability in plant yield and element contents in the aboveground biomass of plants, great variation in Cd and Zn accumulation was observed during the experiment. The extraction ability in field conditions varied in the case of Cd from 0.2 to 2.9 kg ha(-1) (N. caerulescens) and up to 0.15 kg ha(-1) (A. halleri), and in the case of Zn from 0.2 to 6.4 kg ha(-1) (N. caerulescens) and up to 13.8 kg.ha(-1) (A. halleri). Taking into account the 20 cm root zone of the soil, the plants were able to extract up to 4.1% Cd and 0.2% Zn in one season. However, cropping measures should be optimized to improve and stabilize the long-term phytoextraction potential of these plants.

  3. Influence of selenium in drought-stressed wheat plants under greenhouse and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh HAJIBOLAND

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of selenium (Na2SeO4 was studied in two wheat genotypes under well-watered and drought conditions in greenhouse (15 µg Se L-1 and field (20-60 60 g ha-1 experiments. Application of Se improved dry matter and grain yield under both well-watered and drought conditions. Se increased leaf concentration of pigments and photosynthesis rate under both well-watered and drought conditions. Our results indicated that Se alleviates drought stress via increased photosynthesis rate, protection of leaf photochemical events, accumulation of organic osmolytes and improvement of water use efficiency. Under well-watered condition, Se-mediated growth improvement was associated with higher photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency, greater root length and diameter, and higher leaf water content.

  4. Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.

  5. Conditions for Emergence, Stability and Change in New Organizations in the Field of Citizens Climate Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    expanding worldwide the weight of expectations can be boiled down to two: One refers to their potential for delivering specific mitigation/adaptation goals; the second refers to their organizational potential, stability and the manner in which they can ultimately affect societal transformational change....... This contribution is concerned with the latter. It proposes that using field analysis it is possible to understand conditions of emergence, stability and change in citizen engagement in climate action. The present contribution offers only a preliminary exploration of possibilities for how using field theory can...

  6. The effect of field condition and shoe type on lower extremity injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Jaclyn Nicole; Yang, Jingzhen; Thomas, Geb; Wu, Hongqian; Schiltz, Trisha; Foster, Danny T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable improvement has been made in football field surfaces and types of shoe, yet relatively few epidemiological studies have investigated their roles in the risk of football injuries. This study examined the effects of field surface, surface condition and shoe type on the likelihood of lower extremity football injuries. Deidentified data from 188 players from one division I university football team during the 2007-2010 seasons were analysed. Lower extremity injury rate and rate ratio, along with 95% confidence limits, were calculated by football activity, playing surface condition and shoe type. A total of 130 lower extremity injuries were sustained, with an overall lower extremity injury rate of 33.5/10 000 athlete-sessions. The lower extremity injury rate was 2.61 times higher when the surface condition was abnormal compared with when the surface condition was normal. During games, the risk for lower extremity injury was 3.34 times higher (95% CI 1.70 to 6.56) on artificial turf compared with natural grass. However, this trend was not statistically significant in practice sessions. Furthermore, neither the number of shoe cleats nor the height of the shoe top was statistically associated with risk of lower extremity injuries. Football players who played on artificial turf or when the surface condition was abnormal were susceptible to lower extremity injuries. Evidence from this study suggests that further research into playing surfaces and shoe types may provide fruitful opportunities to reduce injuries to collegiate football players.

  7. 教育博士的发展定位与培养:场域理论视角%Development and Cultivation of Ed .D .Students from the Perspective of Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成明; 王晓阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper answers the question of how to develop and cultivate Ed .D .students from the perspective of field theory . Firstly ,it explains the field theory in relation to higher education ;secondly ,it explores the intrinsic logic of an Ed .D .program in light of its philosophy ,power and actions ;and last ,it offers some ideas and suggestions for Ed .D .development and cultivation in China .%从场域理论视角看,教育博士应该如何发展定位与培养呢?文章首先阐释场域理论及高等教育场域。其次,从哲学逻辑、权力逻辑和行动逻辑三个方面揭示教育博士专业学位的内在逻辑性。最后,就我国现实的教育博士发展定位与培养提出一些思考与建议。

  8. Influence of lubricant additives on rubber properties in conditions similar to the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinzburg, B.N. [CR Industries, Elgin, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Using FTIR spectroscopy, an investigation was performed to establish the oil degradation in a car engine under field conditions. This investigation was used as a baseline to create the laboratory rubber immersion in oil test with aeration. Aeration is required to improve the correlation of the laboratory immersion test with field conditions. The effects of dispersants, corrosion inhibitors and oxidation inhibitors containing amine groups on rubber compounds were evaluated in oil with and without aeration. Two rubber base compounds were tested: highly saturated butadiene-nitrile (HNBR) and fluoroelastomer (FKM). The aggressiveness of the inhibitors containing amines was varied and was affected to differing degrees by aeration, water, and type of rubber. 35 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Dissipation of pendimethalin in soil and its residues in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Disappearance of pendimethalin in the soil of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at 0-110 days, and terminal residues in plant samples have been studied under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied as pre-emergence herbicide at 750, 350 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) in winter, in chickpea crop. The dissipation of pendimethalin in the chickpea field soil conditions followed first order kinetics showing a half-life of 11.23 days averaged over all doses. Low pendimethalin residues were found in plant samples. 0.025, 0.015, <0.001 μg g(-1) residues of pendimethalin were found in grains at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. Much lower pendimethalin residues were found in straw viz. 0.015 to <0.001 μg g(-1) at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively.

  10. A Study and Comparative Analysis of Conditional Random Fields for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Guleria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are an important component of defensive measures protecting computer systems and networks from abuse. Intrusion detection plays one of the key roles in computer security techniques and is one of the prime areas of research. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. An intrusion detection system must reliably detect malicious activities in a network and must perform efficiently to cope with the large amount of network traffic. In this paper we study the Machine Learning and data mining techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems within computer networks and compare the various approaches with conditional random fields and address these two issues of Accuracy and Efficiency using Conditional Random Fields and Layered Approach.

  11. A Modified FCM Classifier Constrained by Conditional Random Field Model for Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shaoyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery has abundant spatial correlation information, but traditional pixel-based clustering algorithms don't take the spatial information into account, therefore the results are often not good. To this issue, a modified FCM classifier constrained by conditional random field model is proposed. Adjacent pixels' priori classified information will have a constraint on the classification of the center pixel, thus extracting spatial correlation information. Spectral information and spatial correlation information are considered at the same time when clustering based on second order conditional random field. What's more, the global optimal inference of pixel's classified posterior probability can be get using loopy belief propagation. The experiment shows that the proposed algorithm can effectively maintain the shape feature of the object, and the classification accuracy is higher than traditional algorithms.

  12. Effects of Cultivation Conditions on the Activity of POD, SOD and CAT in the Leaf of Pinellia ternate Breit%栽培条件对半夏叶片POD、SOD、CAT活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章艳玲; 程纪伦; 李关荣

    2012-01-01

    To screen out a cultivation condition that can increase the Activity of POD, SOD and CAT in the leaf of Pinellia ternate Breit, measurements of POD, SOD and CAT activity in the leaf of Pinellia ternate Breit cultivated under different treatment were done with gaiacol, NBT and Ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showrd that the difference in leaf POD activity of Pinellia ternate Breit cultivated in the two media was insignificant; but different amount of fertilizers had very significant difference on POD activity, with 1/2MS+K+ P (KH2PO4100 mg/L) being the highest; the difference in leaf SOD and CAT activity of Pinellia ternate Breit cultivated in the two media was significant, activity of the two enzymes in perlite was very significantly higher than that in soil; different amount of fertilizers had some influence on SOD and CAT activity too, with 1/2MS+ K + P (KH2PO4100 mg/L) being the highest in SOD activity. The best cultivation that can enhance the POD, SOD, CAT activity in the leaf of Pinellia ternate Breit was fertilizing with 1/2MS+K+P (KH2PO4 100 mg/L) in perlite.%为了筛选能提高半夏叶片POD、SOD、CAT活性的栽培条件,用愈创木酚法、NBT光化还原抑制法和紫外分光光度法分别测定了不同基质不同施肥条件下半夏叶片中过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性.结果表明:半夏叶片POD酶活性受基质影响不明显,但不同施肥处理对其活性影响极显著,其中施用1/2MS+K+P(KH2PO4 100 mg/L)的处理半夏叶片POD酶的活性最强;半夏叶片中SOD和CAT酶的活性受不同基质的影响比较明显,其中以珍珠岩为基质栽培的半夏叶片中2种酶的活性均显著高于以土壤为基质栽培的半夏;不同施肥处理对这两种酶的活性也有影响,其中施用1/2MS+K+P(KH2PO4 100 mg/L)的处理半夏叶片SOD酶的活性最强.栽培半夏以珍珠岩为基质、施用1/2MS+K+P(KH2PO4 100 mg/L)的处理对于

  13. Field training for permafrost students in the cold-climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, M.

    2009-04-01

    We all know how complicated is organizing expeditions to the Arctic, especially to the remote areas with continuous permafrost, tundra landscapes, expensive helicopters, and extreme living conditions. But this cannot be the reason to deprive students of studying the nature. There is a serious problem with computer modeling becoming a main research instrument. Often young people involved in such modeling have never seen the object of their modeling. Some of us are "remnants" of the epoch before computer and satellite technologies when field data was the main source of mapping information, small-scale maps were based on field mapping. This knowledge is getting lost with the experts getting retired. This is the reason for involving students into field research as much and as soon as possible. Arctic expeditions often mean absence of usual amenities in living conditions, exposure to weather extremes, bugs and simple meal. These complications make each bit of field data be of high-hourly-rate. That is why teaching the methods of field study is very important, to make each trip most effective and reduce costs of each bit of information. These methods include both science and logistic issues. There are two more aspects in field training: (1) students and teachers from different countries meeting in field learn to identify natural objects and conciliate positions and terminology; and (2) students and teachers from different disciplines learn to conciliate understanding of each others study subjects. Examples of field research stations in Russian Arctic where interdisciplinary studies are ongoing for many years with participation of graduate and postgraduate students show the effectiveness of the above mentioned approach. In the north of West Siberia there are four polygons serving as a base for associated research of permafrost geologists, geographers, biologists, geochemists and more. The system is built in which basic role is shifting from one subject to the other

  14. A Status Report on the Exploitation Conditions of the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-R., Jesus; Vides-R., Alberto; Cuellar, Gustavo; Samaniego-V., Fernando; Neri-I, Gustavo

    1983-12-15

    The present exploitation conditions of the Ahuachapan field are discussed. The high well density in a small area has resulted in a significant reservoir pressure decrease due to the inherent reservoir over-exploitation. The average pressure in the exploitation zone has decreased from the 1975 value of 34 kg/cm{sup 2} to the May 1983 value of 23 kg/cm{sup 2}. The production decline characteristics of the Ahuachapan wells were examined, concluding that all wells but Ah-22 show exponential decline. The cumulative production-reinjection for the field up to April 1983 is 159.090 x 10{sup 6} tons, and 37.592 x 10{sup 6} tons, respectively. The effect of reinjection upon field behavior is evident when observing the pressure decline characteristics of the field. It is seen that for indection fraction related to total mass extracted above 30 percent, the average decline pressure in the production area becomes approximately stabilized. If this condition is not met the reservoir pressure decreases sharply. From this finding it is concluded that a careful and properly planned reinjection program is a must for the field. The observed temperature reduction in some of the wells seems to be the result of two operating mechanisms. First, we have the pressure decline that produces water vaporization and the consequent temperature descend. Analysis of information available shows no clear indication of deleterious temperature effects on the producing wells due to injection. The only exception observed to date is well Ah-5 that because its close distance and its relative structural position and direct hydraulic connection to injector Ah-29, presented conditions for fast displacement of the thermal front, resulting in unsufficient contact area and residence time for reheating of the injected water.

  15. A condition of equilibrium of a condensate membrane in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovkin, V. P.; Bologa, M. K.; Savin, I. K.

    1986-08-01

    The change in the conditions of the thermodynamical equilibruim liquid-vapor due to wave structure formation in a homogeneous electric field has been examined. The authors show the increasing of the surface tension related with superficial electric tensions , leading to non isothermicity of the curved membrane and to increasing of the temperature of the equilibruim coexistence of phases as compared with smooth separation surface at the same pressure.

  16. The effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibová, Jana; Jačka, Lukáš; Petrů, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation cover is found to be an ideal solution to most problems of erosion on steep slopes. Biodegradable geotextiles (GTXs) have been proved to provide sufficient protection against soil loss in the period before vegetation reaches maturity, so favouring soil formation processes. In this study, 500 g m-2 jute (J500), 400 g m-2 (C400), and 700 g m-2 coir (C700) GTXs were first installed on a 9° slope under "no-infiltration" laboratory conditions, then on a 27° slope under natural field conditions. The impact of GTXs on run-off and soil loss was investigated to compare the performance of GTXs under different conditions. Laboratory run-off ratio (percentage portion of control plot) equalled 78, 83, and 91 %, while peak discharge ratio equalled 83, 91, and 97 % for J500, C700, and C400 respectively. In the field, a run-off ratio of 31, 62, and 79 %, and peak discharge ratio of 37, 74, and 87 % were recorded for C700, J500, and C400 respectively. All tested GTXs significantly decreased soil erosion. The greatest soil loss reduction in the field was observed for J500 (by 99.4 %), followed by C700 (by 97.9 %) and C400 (by 93.8 %). Irrespective of slope gradient or experimental condition, C400 performed with lower run-off and peak discharge reduction than J500 and C700. The performance ranking of J500 and C700 in the laboratory differed from the field, which may be explained by different slope gradients, and also by the role of soil, which was not included in the laboratory experiment.

  17. Gradient Computation In Linear-Chain Conditional Random Fields Using The Entropy Message Passing Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Velimir M; Todorovic, Branimir T; Stankovic, Miomir S

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a new recursive algorithm for the exact computation of the linear chain conditional random fields gradient. The algorithm is an instance of the Entropy Message Passing (EMP), introduced in our previous work, and has the purpose to enhance memory efficiency when applied to long observation sequences. Unlike the traditional algorithm based on the forward and the backward recursions, the memory complexity of our algorithm does not depend on the sequence length, having the same computational complexity as the standard algorithm.

  18. 氨基酸硒对桃设施栽培环境适应性的影响%Effects of selenoamino acids addition on the adaptability of peach ( Prunus persica) to the condition of protected culti-vation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝娣; 刘凤之; 史祥宾; 王宝亮; 郑晓翠; 王海波

    2015-01-01

    探讨了硒提高桃适应设施栽培环境的效果, 为提高设施桃的环境适应能力和改善果实品质调控技术提供依据. 以4年生桃设施栽培的主栽品种中油4号油桃和春雪毛桃为试验材料, 研究氨基酸硒对桃光合作用光响应曲线、二氧化碳响应曲线、 温度响应曲线和蒸腾速率的影响. 喷施氨基酸硒使设施桃的光补偿点和二氧化碳补偿点显著降低, 表观量子效率和羧化效率显著提高, 使设施桃净光合速率在高温条件下保持较高数值且呈平稳状态, 显著促进了设施桃的蒸腾作用. 喷施氨基酸硒显著增强了桃对设施弱光、 二氧化碳浓度低、 高温和高湿环境的适应能力, 为设施桃品质的改善奠定了良好基础, 因此, 喷施氨基酸硒是一项切实可行的提高桃对设施环境适应能力的重要农艺措施.%To study the effects of application of selenoamino acids ( Se-aa) on the physiological parameters of peach tree and its adaptability to the protected cultivation condition, an experiment was carried using two 4-year-old peach ( Prunus persica) cultivars ('No. 4 Zhongyou' nectarine and'Springsnow' peach) which were cultivated in greenhouse as experimental materi-als. The results showed that Se-aa addition significantly decreased light compensation point and CO2 compensation point of peach plant, but significantly increased apparent quantum efficiency and carboxylation efficiency. Meanwhile, Se-aa addition improved net photosynthetic rate of protected peach plant under the condition of high temperature, and significantly improved the peach transpiration. These results fully showed that Se-aa addition significantly enhanced the adaptability of peach to the weak light condition with low concentration of CO2 , high temperature and high humidity under protected cultivation, which could be helpful for improveing the quality of peach fruits. It could be concluded that Se-aa addition could be taken as a

  19. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  20. Thermodynamic potentials from shifted boundary conditions: the scalar-field theory case

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In a thermal field theory, the cumulants of the momentum distribution can be extracted from the dependence of the Euclidean path integral on a shift in the fields built into the temporal boundary condition. When combined with the Ward identities associated with the invariance of the theory under the Poincare' group, thermodynamic potentials such as the entropy or the pressure can be directly inferred from the response of the system to the shift. Crucially the argument holds, up to harmless finite-size and discretization effects, even if translational and rotational invariance are broken to a discrete subgroup of finite shifts and rotations such as in a lattice box. The formulas are thus applicable at finite lattice spacing and volume provided the derivatives are replaced by their discrete counterpart, and no additive or multiplicative ultraviolet-divergent renormalizations are needed to take the continuum limit. In this paper we present a complete derivation of the relevant formulas in the scalar field theory...

  1. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Parker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9-tricosene. In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z-9 > methomyl + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z-9 bait.

  2. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.

    2017-02-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagnetic main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a geomagnetic field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.

  4. The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.

  5. A New Force-Matched Reactive Force Field for Bulk Water Under Extreme Thermodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Laurence; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    A many-body classical force field is presented for water under dissociative thermodynamic conditions. The force field is optimized by force-matching to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The force field contains short-ranged central and many-body over-coordination terms, and long-range Ewald electrostatics. It is optimized and tested on water at density 1.5 g/mL and 2000 K, which is approximately 10% dissociated according to DFT. Molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce DFT radial distribution functions, as well as the distribution of wat and dissociation products. The calculated atomic self-diffusion constants appear about 50% lower than in DFT, although precise comparison is impossible due to the short timescale accessible to AIMD (about 20 ps). The force field is also compared to ReaxFF using the CHO parameter set of Chenowith et al. ReaxFF structural and dynamical properties are in overall fair agreement with DFT, although ReaxFF water is not dissociative at these conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Spectral conditions for strong local nondeterminism and exact Hausdorff measure of ranges of Gaussian random fields

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Nana

    2011-01-01

    Let $X= \\{X(t), t \\in \\R^N\\}$ be a Gaussian random field with values in $\\R^d$ defined by \\[ X(t) = \\big(X_1(t),..., X_d(t)\\big),\\qquad t \\in \\R^N, \\] where $X_1, ..., X_d$ are independent copies of a real-valued, centered, anisotropic Gaussian random field $X_0$ which has stationary increments and the property of strong local nondeterminism. In this paper we determine the exact Hausdorff measure function for the range $X([0, 1]^N)$. We also provide a sufficient condition for a Gaussian random field with stationary increments to be strongly locally nondeterministic. This condition is given in terms of the spectral measures of the Gaussian random fields which may contain either an absolutely continuous or discrete part. This result strengthens and extends significantly the related theorems of Berman (1973, 1988), Pitt (1978) and Xiao (2007, 2009), and will have wider applicability beyond the scope of the present paper.

  7. Design and experiment on critical component of cultivator for straw returning in paddy field and dry land%水旱两用秸秆还田耕整机关键部件设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 张居敏; 夏俊芳; 张顺; 翟建波; 吴昊

    2015-01-01

    As the main producing area of rice, the Yangtze River basin usually had various multiple cropping systems, such as rape-rice, wheat-rice, green manure-rice, the double cropping of rice, triple-cropping. Rice is planted immediately after the harvest of the previous crop. So the straws are buried in the field in a busy harvesting and planting season. Crop residues incorporated in farmland by mechanical technique can improve soil physics properties and fertility, increase the yield and farm income. Straw returning to field practice can reduce the problem of crop residue burning and also the amount of chemical fertilizer application. Based on our previous research on the 1GMC-70, the cultivator for high stubble returning in paddy field, a new roller of cultivator for straw returning both in paddy field and dry land was designed. The helical rotary blades, bent blades and the IIT245 rotary blade were the main tillage parts of the machine, and its power consumption was an important technical parameter to consider for the overall performance. The former two types of blade are used to cut soil, while the latter one to bury straw. In this study, based on the roller structural and working principle of the main parts of the cultivator, the parameters of key components were tested for the rotary blades IIT245 and spiral blades. Furthermore, their interrelationships and interactions were analyzed in detail. An advisable arrangement of rotary blades IIT245 fixed on the rotor was provided. The tillage width was 2 000 mm. The rotor speed was 335 rev/min. The forward velocity was 0.7 to 1.1 m/s. The lower forward velocity was used in dry land, while the higher forward velocity was for wet land tillage. Experiments of crop straw burying rotary tillage were conducted repeatedly both in wet land and dry land. The field test showed when tillage in fields of soil compaction value under 1260 kPa at about 150 mm depth, the cultivator could realize the straw mulching and returning, soil

  8. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  9. The development and cultivation of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. under the climatic conditions of Poland. I. Local cultivars, growth of aboveground vegetative parts, probable resistance to Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. grows in Poland much like in Mexico although its development cycle is much longer and lasts 6 months. It was sown at the beginning of April in a heated greenhouse, and transferred later on to a heated plastic tunnel. It was transplanted to a field about May 20 when danger of frosts had passed. Three local cultivars of Mexican origin were used and are briefly described. Their vegetative growth characteristics in Poland were similar to that of cv. Rendidora, which was described earlier in Mexico. The tomatillo internodes and leaves became progressively smaller with age. Tomatillo leaves and fruits were not attacked by Phytophthora infestans in the field and laboratory. Inoculation with tomato strains of this disease was without effect.

  10. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation for fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  11. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine....... The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currentsin the substorm current wedge...

  12. FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. BIOMASS PRODUCTION DEPENDED ON SEED AGE AND AGROECOLOGICAL GROWTH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weather conditions and seed age on fresh and dry biomass production, field germination, seed yield and 1000 seed weight of field pea were investigated in field trials during two years at two locations of East Croatia (Osijek and Vinkovci. Seed of „Timo“ cultivar 9 and 21 month old was used for sowing. In the investigation of the years influence, significantly higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (57,035 t/ha, dry matter yield (9.796 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (129.7 g was found in the first year of the investigation. On the average for years, significantly higher field germination (87.0% and seed yield (2.173 t/ha at p=0.01, and green mass yield (55.728 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (130.1 g at p=0.05 were found at location Osijek. Seed of 21 month old had higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (64.376 t/ha, dry matter yield (10.934 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (134 g but significantly lower field germination (76.4% at location Vinkovci in the investigation of seed age and location influences during 2005 year..

  13. Electric-field conditions for Landauer and Boltzmann-Drude conductance equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, E. W.

    1992-08-01

    It is shown explicitly in a unified theory of conductance, for bulk metals and mesoscopic systems, that a Landauer type of conductance equation is compatible with a spatially localized continuous-q-spectrum electric field that is unidirectional, but not with a homogeneous q=0 field. The reverse field condition holds for the Boltzmann-Drude conductance equation for an inhomogeneous bulk metal that has no inelastic scattering. A Feynman-diagram form of Green-function theory shows explicitly the virtual processes and repeated quantum scattering from a single object that occur with Feynman path integrals. The distinction between repeated scattering of current and repeated one-electron scattering is important. For a mesoscopic system, infinite conduction would occur if scattering were to be exactly zero-there is no necessity for postulated contact potentials between lead wires and thermal reservoirs. This is because just in this translationally invariant case a q=0 electric field must occur, and for this the Landauer equation must be replaced by the Boltzmann-Drude equation with zero scattering. In contrast to the strong frequency dependence of the Boltzmann-Drude equation, it is shown that no frequency dependence of the conductance occurs in the Landauer type of equation for frequencies much smaller than the inverse of the electron transit time across the electric-field region.

  14. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana to control Ceratitis capitata in semi field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali; Sermann, Helga; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a highly polyphagous pest of economic importance cultures in Syria, as in many other parts of the world. The potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiona BALS (VUIL.) strain 412 against adults of Mediterranean fruit fly C. capitata was evaluated in semi field conditions during the summer. Soil (5-7 cm high) was filled into plastic container (27 cm x 32 cm). In one container 75 pupae, two days before emergency, were spread uniformly on the soil. Then the pupae were covered with soil (4-5 cm layer). After that, 30 ml suspension of fungal spores (4 x 10(8) spores/ml) was applied to the soil surface using a dash bottle. This corresponded to a spore density of 1.3 x 10(7) spores/cm2 on soil. Water and food (1:4 yeast, sucrose) were placed in the cages for the emerged flies. The semi-field evaluation of B. bassiana revealed a fly mortality of about 46% compared to 16% in the control. In addition 72% of dead flies were moulded in the treatment. These results indicated that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana was pathogen against the adults of C. capitata not only in the laboratory condition but also under field condition. That means B. bassiana could decrease the offspring of C. capitata. Therefore B. bassiana could be an effective factor to control C. capitata in combination with other control methods, used in IPM program in the field.

  15. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  16. Farmland productivity under stress conditions: a field scale monitoring and modeling study on the Venice coastland, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Scudiero, Elia; Putti, Mario; Morari, Francesco; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    The Venice coastland, Italy, is a precarious environment jeopardized by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Due to a land elevation below sea level and the presence of sandy paleo-channels, salinization of soil and shallow groundwater is posing a serious threat to the agricultural productivity of the region. In order to identify and quantify the impacts of the saltwater contamination on crop productivity an integrated monitoring and modeling approach is used. A representative 21 ha basin cultivated with maize crop has been extensively studied by soil sampling, geophysical surveys, continuous hydrological monitoring and crop yield distribution. Based on field observations a field-scale model of soil moisture dynamics coupled with plant transpiration, photosynthesis and growth has been developed and applied at the site.

  17. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  18. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle.

  19. Tehnika za proizvodnju hrane u terenskim uslovima / Technology for food preparation in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko M. Tešanović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U terenskim uslovima osnovna sredstva za pripremanje hrane su pokretne kuhinje. One se koriste u miru za vreme izvođenja vežbi, logorovanja, za obuku vojnika kuvara i u vojnim školama za obuku studenata i učenika intendantske službe. Izuzetno, mogu se koristiti za kuvanje jela kada se vojni restorani adaptiraju ili se zbog drugih razloga hrana ne može pripremati u njima. U Vojsci Srbije danas su u upotrebi sledeće vrste pokretnih kuhinja: kuhinja autoprikolica od 250, 200, 300 i 400 l i kuhinja tovarna od 25 l. Za pripremu hrane u terenskim uslovima OS NATO koriste veoma raznovrstan park poljskih tehničkih sredstava. / In field conditions, the basic means for food preparation are mobile kitchens. Mobile kitchens are used in peace time during exercise and camping as well as for training military chefs and students of logistic support in military schools. Exceptionally, they can be used for cooking meals when repairing or adapting military restaurants or for some other valid reasons. In the Army of Serbia today, there are the following types of mobile kitchens: mobile kitchen 250, 200, 300 and 400 l and a kitchen pack of 25 l. For the preparation of food in field conditions, NATO forces use a very versatile choice of field technical resources.

  20. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  1. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Seepage Field of Tailing Water Channel Under Different Conditions in Operation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihan; Yan, Guoxin; Chen, Deling

    According to mathematical model of rock and soil, it calculated seepage field of tailing water channel under different conditions. The results showed that under condition of no.1, the seepage discharge from outside to inside of channel is 0.394 m3/h and the discharge under plastic concrete cut-off is 0.358m3/h, and that under condition of no.2, the seepage discharge from outside to inside of channel is 0.249 m3/h and the discharge under plastic concrete cut-off is 0.236m3/h. Under condition of no.1, the outflow of saturation line is at elevation of 411.0m which is under sand and gravel filling layer and near boundary of drift gravel sand layer. Under condition of no.2, the outflow of saturation line is at elevation of 403.0m which is under drift gravel sand layer and near rock foundation. The results showed that numerical simulation can be used to do with seepage problems of tailing water channel.

  3. Effect of the sowing date and agrotextile covering on the growth and length of vegetation period of sweet corn cultivated in the conditions of eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to examine the effect of three sowing dates and covering of soil with agrotextile on the length of sweet corn growing season and corn growth. When sweet corn sowing date was delayed from late April to late May, the growing season was shortened, the extent of this shortening being conditioned by the weather conditions in the study years. The growing season was much shorter in warmer years and a little shorter in a cold year. Covering with agrotextile at the first (26th April and second (10th May sowing date accelerated cob harvest by eight days. When seeds were sown at the third date (24th May, cobs were harvested five days earlier. Sweet corn plants grew better in colder versus warmer years. The greatest number of cobs per plant was formed when the weather was warmer and precipitation was evenly distributed. In warmer years, delayed sowing contributed to a lower number of cobs whereas in the colder year the opposite response was observed. Compared with a hot and dry year, significantly higher marketable tuber yields were harvested in a warm year characterized by evenly distributed precipitation and in a colder and wet year. The marketable cob yields of sweet corn sown on the 10th May were significantly higher compared with the 26th of April. Covering with agrotextile contributed to a significantly higher number of cobs per plant, and increased marketable cob yields, too.

  4. 乌鲁木齐南山杏树种植气候条件分析%Analysis on Cultivation Climate Conditions of Apricot Trees in Nanshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on the climate data from Urumqi Nanshan mountains, the climate conditions for planting apricot trees were analyzed. The results showed that heat, frost-free period, precipitation, sunshine intensity and other weather conditions in Urumqi Nanshan mountains are fit for the growth of apricots. In order to avoid freezing disaster in winter, apricot trees should be planted in a strong temperature inversion area. Frost Damage rate was 19.6% which was within mild risk degree during the flowering and fruiting period in spring. This study provides reference for the reasonable adjustment of cropping industry in local area.%利用乌鲁木齐南山山区历史气象资料,进行了杏树种植的气候条件分析。结果表明:乌鲁木齐南山的热量、无霜期、降水、光照等气候条件基本可以满足杏树的生长需求;为了避免冬季冻害,应选择在逆温强的地带发展杏树;春季花果期霜冻灾损率为19.6%,处于中轻度风险区。

  5. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V.; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  6. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  7. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-12-17

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha(-1) grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha(-1) independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  8. Synergy between Glomus fasciculatum and a beneficial Pseudomonas in reducing root diseases and improving yield and forskolin content in Coleus forskohlii Briq. under organic field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakshapal; Soni, Sumit K; Kalra, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and wilt, caused by a complex involving Fusarium chlamydosporum (Frag. and Cif.) and Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), are serious diseases affecting the cultivation of Coleus forskohlii, a crop with economic potential as a source of the medicinal compound forskolin. The present 2-year field experiments were conducted with two bioinoculants (a native Pseudomonas monteilii strain and the exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum) alone and in combination under organic field conditions in order to evaluate their potential in controlling root rot and wilt. Combined inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly increased plant height, plant spread, and number of branches; reduced disease incidence; and increased tuber dry mass of C. forskohlii, compared to vermicompost controls not receiving any bioinoculants. Increase in tuber yields was accompanied by an increase in plant N, P, and K uptake. Co-inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly improved the percent AM root colonization and spore numbers retrieved from soil. This suggests P. monteilii to be a mycorrhiza helper bacterium which could be useful in organic agriculture. The forskolin content of tubers was significantly increased by the inoculation treatments of P. monteilii, G. fasciculatum, and P. monteilii + G. fasciculatum.

  9. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  10. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wierman, C. [Boise Cascade Corp., Wallula, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  11. LHC Dipole Axis, Spool Piece Alignment and Field Angle in Warm and Cold Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Coccoli, M; García-Pérez, J

    2004-01-01

    The installation and commissioning of LHC requires knowledge of the magnetic alignment of the spool piece correctors mounted on the dipole end plates are, as well as of the dipole main field direction. The installation is based on the use of geometric information derived from mechanical measurements performed in warm conditions, assuming that geometric and magnetic axes coincide, and that thermal contractions of the assembly are homothetic. A series of measurements has been performed at room and superfluid Helium temperature to validate these assumptions. In this paper, a statistical analysis of the correlations obtained is presented for both corrector alignment and main field direction, and the results are compared with beam optics-based specifications.

  12. Hybrid passive-active absorption of a microperforated panel in free field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Pedro; Cuesta, María

    2007-06-01

    Although hybrid passive-active absorption in impedance tubes has been widely analyzed, its study in more realistic conditions remains to be accomplished. This letter describes the practical measurement of the passive-active absorption coefficient in a free field. The passive absorber consists of a microperforated panel backed by an air cavity and a wooden panel. A multichannel active system controls the sound pressure in a reduced cell behind the absorber. Measured absorption coefficients between 200 and 400 Hz account for 0.2-0.4 and 0.72-0.75, in the passive and active cases, respectively, and above 500 Hz both are comparable.

  13. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  14. Field scale heterogeneity of redox conditions in till-upscaling to a catchment nitrate model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.R.; Erntsen, V.; Refsgaard, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Point scale studies in different settings of glacial geology show a large local variation of redox conditions. There is a need to develop an upscaling methodology for catchment scale models. This paper describes a study of field-scale heterogeneity of redox-interfaces in a till aquitard within...... that the depth of the redox-interface is randomly distributed according to a log-normal probability distribution function. The upscaling approach using the random redox model estimated recharge concentrations comparable to the observed concentration in the underlying aquifer. The presented upscaling approach...

  15. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Bataineh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF. The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm.

  16. Automatic Recognition of Chinese Personal Name Using Conditional Random Fields and Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the features of Chinese personal name, we present an approach for Chinese personal name recognition based on conditional random fields (CRF and knowledge base in this paper. The method builds multiple features of CRF model by adopting Chinese character as processing unit, selects useful features based on selection algorithm of knowledge base and incremental feature template, and finally implements the automatic recognition of Chinese personal name from Chinese document. The experimental results on open real corpus demonstrated the effectiveness of our method and obtained high accuracy rate and high recall rate of recognition.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of Arnica montana under field conditions--conventional and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Przemysław; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-11-01

    Two distinct populations of Arnica montana, an endangered medicinal plant, were studied under field conditions. The material was investigated using microscopic and molecular methods. The analyzed plants were always found to be mycorrhizal. Nineteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA sequences were obtained from the roots. They were related to Glomus Group A, but most did not match any known species. Some showed a degree of similarity to fungi colonizing liverworts. Conventional analysis of spores isolated from soil samples allowed to identify different fungal taxa: Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora lacunosa, and Scutellospora dipurpurescens. Their spores were also isolated from trap cultures.

  18. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Long

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house) and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1). At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provin...

  19. Focus conditioning effects on molecular field-free alignment observed with high-order harmonic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家骏; 尉鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the focus conditioning effects on molecular field-free alignment observed with high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from CO2 molecules.We also experimentally demonstrate that both the spectral shape and alignment signal of HHG significantly vary with changing focus position.A maximal alignment signal is achieved at a given focus position because of the optimal intensity of the driving laser.This intensity is related to the ionization potential of the molecules.These results indicate that a unique focus position provides an optimal alignment signal for practical applications.

  20. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Safaa; Bahillo, Alfonso; Díez, Luis Enrique; Onieva, Enrique; Bataineh, Ikram

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF). The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm.

  1. Dirac fields in a Bohm-Aharonov background and spectral boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M

    1998-01-01

    We study the problem of a Dirac field in the background of an Aharonov-Bohm flux string. We exclude the origin by imposing spectral boundary conditions at a finite radius then shrinked to zero. Thus, we obtain a behaviour of the eigenfunctions which is compatible with the self-adjointness of the radial Hamiltonian and the invariance under integer translations of the reduced flux. After confining the theory to a finite region, we check the consistency with the index theorem, and discuss the vacuum fermionic number and Casimir energy.

  2. Dirac fields in the background of a magnetic flux string and spectral boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M

    1999-01-01

    We study the problem of a Dirac field in the background of an Aharonov-Bohm flux string. We exclude the origin by imposing spectral boundary conditions at a finite radius then shrinked to zero. Thus, we obtain a behaviour of eigenfunctions which is compatible with the self-adjointness of the radial Hamiltonian and the invariance under integer translations of the reduced flux. After confining the theory to a finite region, we check the consistency with the index theorem, and evaluate its vacuum fermionic number and Casimir energy.

  3. Hadamard states for a scalar field in anti-de Sitter spacetime with arbitrary boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dappiaggi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a real, massive scalar field on ${\\rm PAdS}_{d+1}$, the Poincar\\'e domain of the $(d+1)$-dimensional AdS spacetime. We first determine all admissible boundary conditions that can be applied on the conformal boundary, noting that there exist instances where "bound states" solutions are present. Then, we address the problem of constructing the two-point function for the ground state satisfying those boundary conditions, finding ultimately an explicit closed form. In addition, we investigate the singularities of the resulting two-point functions, showing that they are consistent with the requirement of being of Hadamard form in every globally hyperbolic subregion of ${\\rm PAdS}_{d+1}$ and proposing a new definition of Hadamard states which applies to ${\\rm PAdS}_{d+1}$.

  4. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  5. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  6. Calling, courtship, and condition in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Harrison

    Full Text Available Theoretically, sexual signals should provide honest information about mating benefits and many sexually reproducing species use honest signals when signalling to potential mates. Male crickets produce two types of acoustic mating signals: a long-distance mate attraction call and a short-range courtship call. We tested whether wild-caught fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus males in high condition (high residual mass or large body size produce higher effort calls (in support of the honest signalling hypothesis. We also tested an alternative hypothesis, whether low condition males produce higher effort calls (in support of the terminal investment hypothesis. Several components of long-distance mate attraction calls honestly reflected male body size, with larger males producing louder mate attraction calls at lower carrier frequencies. Long-distance mate attraction chirp rate dishonestly signalled body size, with small males producing faster chirp rates. Short-range courtship calls dishonestly reflected male residual mass, as chirp rate and pulse rate were best explained by a curvilinear function of residual mass. By producing long-distance mate attraction calls and courtship calls with similar or higher effort compared to high condition males, low condition males (low residual mass or small body size may increase their effort in current reproductive success at the expense of their future reproductive success, suggesting that not all sexual signals are honest.

  7. Approaches of [i]Rhodiola kirilowii [/i]and [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  8. Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, A.E.; Peene, F.; Donner, S.; Wijnhoven, S.; Geijsen, P.; Bossier, P.; Nevejan, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth.Broodstock animals were conditioned with die

  9. Aerobic versus Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Clothianidin under Simulated California Rice Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Tomco, Patrick L; Howard, Megan W; Schempp, Tabitha T; Stewart, Davis J; Stacey, Phillip M; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-09-28

    Microbial degradation of clothianidin was characterized under aerobic and anaerobic California rice field conditions. Rate constants (k) and half-lives (DT50) were determined for aerobic and anaerobic microcosms, and an enrichment experiment was performed at various nutrient conditions and pesticide concentrations. Temperature effects on anaerobic degradation rates were determined at 22 ± 2 and 35 ± 2 °C. Microbial growth was assessed in the presence of various pesticide concentrations, and distinct colonies were isolated and identified. Slow aerobic degradation was observed, but anaerobic degradation occurred rapidly at both 25 and 35 °C. Transformation rates and DT50 values in flooded soil at 35 ± 2 °C (k = -7.16 × 10(-2) ± 3.08 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 9.7 days) were significantly faster than in 25 ± 2 °C microcosms (k= -2.45 × 10(-2) ± 1.59 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 28.3 days). At the field scale, biodegradation of clothianidin will vary with extent of oxygenation.

  10. Treated wastewater irrigation: uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by common vegetables under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy L; Ernst, Frederick; Gan, Jay

    2014-10-07

    Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest. Plant samples at premature and mature stages were collected. Analysis of edible tissues showed a detection frequency of 64% and 91% in all vegetables from the treated wastewater and fortified water treatments, respectively. The edible samples from the two treatments contained the same PPCPs, including caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, naproxen, and triclosan. The total concentrations of PPCPs detected in edible tissues from the treated wastewater and fortified irrigation treatments were in the range of 0.01-3.87 and 0.15-7.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Annual exposure of PPCPs from the consumption of mature vegetables irrigated with the fortified water was estimated to be only 3.69 μg per capita. Results from the present study showed that the accumulation of PPCPs in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater was likely limited under field conditions.

  11. Detection and characterization of regulatory elements using probabilistic conditional random field and hidden Markov models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Xiaobo Zhou

    2013-01-01

    By altering the electrostatic charge of histones or providing binding sites to protein recognition molecules,Chromatin marks have been proposed to regulate gene expression,a property that has motivated researchers to link these marks to cis-regulatory elements.With the help of next generation sequencing technologies,we can now correlate one specific chromatin mark with regulatory elements (e.g.enhancers or promoters) and also build tools,such as hidden Markov models,to gain insight into mark combinations.However,hidden Markov models have limitation for their character of generative models and assume that a current observation depends only on a current hidden state in the chain.Here,we employed two graphical probabilistic models,namely the linear conditional random field model and multivariate hidden Markov model,to mark gene regions with different states based on recurrent and spatially coherent character of these eight marks.Both models revealed chromatin states that may correspond to enhancers and promoters,transcribed regions,transcriptional elongation,and low-signal regions.We also found that the linear conditional random field model was more effective than the hidden Markov model in recognizing regulatory elements,such as promoter-,enhancer-,and transcriptional elongation-associated regions,which gives us a better choice.

  12. Scene-Layout Compatible Conditional Random Field for Classifying Terrestrial Laser Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Sohn, G.

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) rapidly becomes a primary surveying tool due to its fast acquisition of highly dense threedimensional point clouds. For fully utilizing its benefits, developing a robust method to classify many objects of interests from huge amounts of laser point clouds is urgently required. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is a well-known discriminative classifier, which integrates local appearance of the observation (laser point) with spatial interactions among its neighbouring points in classification process. Typical CRFs employ generic label consistency using short-range dependency only, which often causes locality problem. In this paper, we present a multi-range and asymmetric Conditional Random Field (CRF) (maCRF), which adopts a priori information of scene-layout compatibility addressing long-range dependency. The proposed CRF constructs two graphical models, one for enhancing a local labelling smoothness within short-range (srCRF) and the other for favouring a global and asymmetric regularity of spatial arrangement between different object classes within long-range (lrCRF). This maCRF classifier assumes two graphical models (srCRF and lrCRF) are independent of each other. Final labelling decision was accomplished by probabilistically combining prediction results obtained from two CRF models. We validated maCRF's performance with TLS point clouds acquired from RIEGL LMS-Z390i scanner using cross validation. Experiment results demonstrate that synergetic classification improvement can be achievable by incorporating two CRF models.

  13. Non-destructive Phenotyping to Identify Brachiaria Hybrids Tolerant to Waterlogging Stress under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Cardoso, Juan A; Leiva, Luisa F; Gil, Juanita; Forero, Manuel G; Worthington, Margaret L; Miles, John W; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2017-01-01

    Brachiaria grasses are sown in tropical regions around the world, especially in the Neotropics, to improve livestock production. Waterlogging is a major constraint to the productivity and persistence of Brachiaria grasses during the rainy season. While some Brachiaria cultivars are moderately tolerant to seasonal waterlogging, none of the commercial cultivars combines superior yield potential and nutritional quality with a high level of waterlogging tolerance. The Brachiaria breeding program at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, has been using recurrent selection for the past two decades to combine forage yield with resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors. The main objective of this study was to test the suitability of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and image-based phenotyping as non-destructive approaches to identify Brachiaria hybrids tolerant to waterlogging stress under field conditions. Nineteen promising hybrid selections from the breeding program and three commercial checks were evaluated for their tolerance to waterlogging under field conditions. The waterlogging treatment was imposed by applying and maintaining water to 3 cm above soil surface. Plant performance was determined non-destructively using proximal sensing and image-based phenotyping and also destructively via harvesting for comparison. Image analysis of projected green and dead areas, NDVI and shoot biomass were positively correlated (r ≥ 0.8). Our results indicate that image analysis and NDVI can serve as non-destructive screening approaches for the identification of Brachiaria hybrids tolerant to waterlogging stress.

  14. Gas exchange in Paulownia species growing under different soil moisture conditions in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano-Sotelo, J M; Alcaraz-Melendez, L; Castellanos Villegas, A E

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate their responses to drought, we determined the photosynthetic activity water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water use efficiency photosynthetic photon flux density and leaf temperature of Paulownia imperialis, P. fortunei and P. elongata in three different soil moisture conditions in the field. Our results showed that P. imperialis had greater photosynthesis (8.86 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (0.79 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) than either P. elongata (8.20 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.71 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) or P. fortunei (3.26 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.07 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)). The rapid growth of Paulownia did not appear to be correlated with photosynthetic rates. Paulownia fortunei showed more transpiration (48.78 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1)) and stomatal conductance (840 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than P. imperialis (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 540 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) and P. elongata (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 410 mmol m(-2) s(-1)), which allowed these two Paulownia species to increase their tolerance to low soil moisture, and maintain higher water use efficiency under these conditions. According to our physiological gas exchange field tests, Paulownia imperialis does appear to be capable of successful growth in semiarid zones.

  15. Disparities in urban neighborhood conditions: evidence from GIS measures and field observation in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Gina S; Davies, Stephen; Purciel, Marnie; Quinn, James; Feder, Eric; Raghunath, Nakita; Wasserman, Benjamin; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although many low-income urban areas are highly walkable by conventional measures such as population density or land use mix, chronic diseases related to lack of physical activity are more common among residents of these areas. Disparities in neighborhood conditions may make poor areas less attractive environments for walking, offsetting the advantages of density and land use mix. This study compared poor and nonpoor neighborhoods in New York City, using geographic information systems measures constructed from public data for US census tracts within New York City (N=2,172) as well as field observation of a matched-pair sample of 76 block faces on commercial streets in poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Poor census tracts had significantly fewer street trees, landmarked buildings, clean streets, and sidewalk cafes, and higher rates of felony complaints, narcotics arrests, and vehicular crashes. The field observation showed similar results. Improving aesthetic and safety conditions in poor neighborhoods may help reduce disparities in physical activity among urban residents.

  16. The flow field investigations of no load conditions in axial flow fixed-blade turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gao, L.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhou, X. Z.; Xu, H. X.

    2014-03-01

    During the start-up process, the strong instabilities happened at no load operation in a low head axial flow fixed-blade turbine, with strong pressure pulsation and vibration. The rated speed can not reach until guide vane opening to some extent, and stable operation could not be maintained under the rated speed at some head, which had a negative impact on the grid-connected operation of the unit. In order to find the reason of this phenomenon, the unsteady flow field of the whole flow passage at no load conditions was carried out to analyze the detailed fluid field characteristics including the pressure pulsation and force imposed on the runner under three typical heads. The main hydraulic cause of no load conditions instability was described. It is recommended that the power station should try to reduce the no-load running time and go into the high load operation as soon as possible when connected to grid at the rated head. Following the recommendations, the plant operation practice proved the unstable degree of the unit was reduced greatly during start up and connect to the power grid.

  17. Non-destructive Phenotyping to Identify Brachiaria Hybrids Tolerant to Waterlogging Stress under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Cardoso, Juan A.; Leiva, Luisa F.; Gil, Juanita; Forero, Manuel G.; Worthington, Margaret L.; Miles, John W.; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2017-01-01

    Brachiaria grasses are sown in tropical regions around the world, especially in the Neotropics, to improve livestock production. Waterlogging is a major constraint to the productivity and persistence of Brachiaria grasses during the rainy season. While some Brachiaria cultivars are moderately tolerant to seasonal waterlogging, none of the commercial cultivars combines superior yield potential and nutritional quality with a high level of waterlogging tolerance. The Brachiaria breeding program at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, has been using recurrent selection for the past two decades to combine forage yield with resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors. The main objective of this study was to test the suitability of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and image-based phenotyping as non-destructive approaches to identify Brachiaria hybrids tolerant to waterlogging stress under field conditions. Nineteen promising hybrid selections from the breeding program and three commercial checks were evaluated for their tolerance to waterlogging under field conditions. The waterlogging treatment was imposed by applying and maintaining water to 3 cm above soil surface. Plant performance was determined non-destructively using proximal sensing and image-based phenotyping and also destructively via harvesting for comparison. Image analysis of projected green and dead areas, NDVI and shoot biomass were positively correlated (r ≥ 0.8). Our results indicate that image analysis and NDVI can serve as non-destructive screening approaches for the identification of Brachiaria hybrids tolerant to waterlogging stress. PMID:28243249

  18. Constraining Eruptive Conditions From Lava Flow Morphometry: A Case Study With Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Z. R.; Clarke, A.; Greeley, R.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanism is widely recognized as one of the primary factors affecting the surfaces of solid planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Basaltic lava is thought to be the most common composition based on observed features typical of basaltic eruptions found on Earth. Lava flows are one of the most easily recognizable landforms on planetary surfaces and their features may provide information about eruption dynamics, lava rheology, and potential hazards. More recently, researchers have taken a multi-faceted approach to combine remote sensing, field observations and quantitative modeling to constrain volcanic activity on Earth and other planets. Here we test a number of published models, including empirically derived relationships from Mt. Etna and Kilauea, models derived from laboratory experiments, and theoretical models previously applied to remote sensing of planetary surfaces, against well-documented eruptions from the literature and field observations. We find that the Graetz (Hulme and Felder, 1977, Phil.Trans., 285, 227 - 234) method for estimating effusion rates compares favorably with published eruption data, while, on the other hand, inverting lava flow length prediction models to estimate effusion rates leads to several orders of magnitude in error. The Graetz method also better constrains eruption duration. Simple radial spreading laws predict Hawaiian lava flow lengths quite well, as do using the thickness of the lava flow front and chilled crust. There was no observed difference between results from models thought to be exclusive to aa or pahoehoe flow fields. Interpreting historic conditions should therefore follow simple relationships to observable morphologies no matter the composition or surface texture. We have applied the most robust models to understand the eruptive conditions and lava rheology of the Batamote Mountains near Ajo, AZ, an eroded shield volcano in southern Arizona. We find effusion rates on the order of 100 - 200 cubic

  19. Automatic control of positioning along the joint during EBW in conditions of action of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, A. A.; Laptenok, V. D.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenok, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positioning along the joint during the electron beam welding is a difficult scientific and technical problem to achieve the high quality of welds. The final solution of this problem is not found. This is caused by weak interference protection of sensors of the joint position directly in the welding process. Frequently during the electron beam welding magnetic fields deflect the electron beam from the optical axis of the electron beam gun. The collimated X-ray sensor is used to monitor the beam deflection caused by the action of magnetic fields. Signal of X-ray sensor is processed by the method of synchronous detection. Analysis of spectral characteristics of the X-ray sensor showed that the displacement of the joint from the optical axis of the gun affects on the output signal of sensor. The authors propose dual-circuit system for automatic positioning of the electron beam on the joint during the electron beam welding in conditions of action of magnetic interference. This system includes a contour of joint tracking and contour of compensation of magnetic fields. The proposed system is stable. Calculation of dynamic error of system showed that error of positioning does not exceed permissible deviation of the electron beam from the joint plane.

  20. Velocity and magnetic field measurements of Taylor plumes in SSX under different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjit; Brown, M. R.; Han, J.; Shrock, J. E.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    The SSX device has been modified by the addition of a 1 m long glass extension for accommodating pulsed theta pinch coils. The Taylor plumes are launched from a magnetized plasma gun and flow to an expansion volume downstream. The time of flight (TOF) measurements of these plumes are carried out using a linear array of Ḃ probes (separated by 10cm). TOF of the plasma plumes from one probe location to the next is determined by direct comparison of the magnetic field structures as well as by carrying out a cross-correlation analysis. With the glass boundary, the typical velocity of the Taylor plumes is found to be 25km /s , accompanied by a fast plasma (>= 50km /s) at the leading edge. Magnetic field embedded in the Taylor plumes is measured in the expansion chamber using a three-dimensional array of Ḃ probes and is found to be 700G . Some flux conservation of the Taylor plumes is provided by using a resistive (soak time 3 μs) and a mesh (soak time 170 μs > discharge time) liner around the glass tube for improving the downstream Taylor state velocity as well as the magnetic field. The results from these different boundary conditions will be presented. Work supported by DOE OFES and ARPA-E ALPHA programs.

  1. On necessary and sufficient conditions of the BV quantization of a generic Lagrangian field system

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkirov, D; Mangiarotti, L; Sardanashvily, G

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem of extending an original field Lagrangian to ghosts and antifields in order to satisfy the master equation in the framework of the BV quantization of Lagrangian field systems. This extension essentially depends on the degeneracy of an original Lagrangian. A generic Lagrangian system of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold is examined in the algebraic terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex. Its Euler-Lagrange operator obeys the Noether identities which need not be independent, but satisfy the first-stage Noether identities, and so on. We state the necessary and sufficient condition of the existence of the exact antifield Koszul-tate complex with the boundary operator whose nilpotency property provides all the Noether and higher-stage Noether identities of an original Lagrangian system. The Noether inverse second theorem that we prove associates to this Koszul-Tate complex the sequence graded in ghosts whose ascent operator provides the gauge and higher-stage g...

  2. Table Extraction from Web Pages Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Toponym Related Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi Hanifah, Hayyu’; Akbar, Saiful

    2017-01-01

    Table is one of the ways to visualize information on web pages. The abundant number of web pages that compose the World Wide Web has been the motivation of information extraction and information retrieval research, including the research for table extraction. Besides, there is a need for a system which is designed to specifically handle location-related information. Based on this background, this research is conducted to provide a way to extract location-related data from web tables so that it can be used in the development of Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) system. The location-related data will be identified by the toponym (location name). In this research, a rule-based approach with gazetteer is used to recognize toponym from web table. Meanwhile, to extract data from a table, a combination of rule-based approach and statistical-based approach is used. On the statistical-based approach, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model is used to understand the schema of the table. The result of table extraction is presented on JSON format. If a web table contains toponym, a field will be added on the JSON document to store the toponym values. This field can be used to index the table data in accordance to the toponym, which then can be used in the development of GIR system.

  3. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  4. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. c...

  5. Nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen use efficiency in response to nitrophosphate, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide and dicyandiamide of a wheat cultivated soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. X. Ding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was designed to study the effects of nitrogen (N source and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT or nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD on nitrous oxide (N2O emission and N use efficiency (NUE in a sandy loam soil. Six treatments including no N fertilizer (control, N fertilizer urea alone (U, urea plus NBPT (NBPT, urea plus DCD (DCD, urea plus NBPT and DCD (NBPT + DCD, and nitrate-based fertilizer nitrophosphate (NP were designed and implemented separately during the wheat growth period. Seasonal cumulative N2O emissions with urea alone amounted to 0.49 ± 0.12 and were significantly (P 2O-N ha−1 by application of DCD, NBPT and NBPT + DCD, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions from NP were 0.28 ± 0.01kg N2O-N ha−1. A single N2O flux peak was identified following basal fertilization, and DCD and/or NBPT inhibition effects mainly occurred during the peak emission period. The NP application significantly (P 2O emissions. The application of NP instead of urea would be an optimum agricultural strategy for reducing N2O emissions and increasing crop yield and NUE for wheat cultivation in soils of the North China Plain.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen use efficiency in response to nitrophosphate, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and dicyandiamide of a wheat cultivated soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W. X.; Chen, Z. M.; Yu, H. Y.; Luo, J. F.; Yoo, G. Y.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Yuan, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was designed to study the effects of nitrogen (N) source and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) or nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N use efficiency (NUE) in a sandy loam soil. Six treatments including no N fertilizer (control), N fertilizer urea alone (U), urea plus NBPT (NBPT), urea plus DCD (DCD), urea plus NBPT and DCD (NBPT plus DCD) and nitrate-based fertilizer nitrophosphate (NP) were designed and implemented separately during the wheat growth period. Seasonal cumulative N2O emissions with urea alone amounted to 0.49 ± 0.12 kg N2O-N ha-1 and were significantly (P NUE from 28.8% (urea alone) to 35.9%, while urease and/or nitrification inhibitors showed a slight increase effect. Our results clearly indicated that the application of urea as basal fertilizer, but not as supplemental fertilizer, together with DCD and NBPT is an effective practice to reduce N2O emissions. The application of NP instead of urea would be an optimum agricultural strategy for reducing N2O emissions and increasing crop yield and NUE for wheat cultivation in soils of the North China Plain.

  7. LSST summit facility construction progress report: reacting to design refinements and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeffrey D.; Gressler, William; Sebag, Jacques; Seriche, Jaime; Serrano, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    The civil work, site infrastructure and buildings for the summit facility of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are among the first major elements that need to be designed, bid and constructed to support the subsequent integration of the dome, telescope, optics, camera and supporting systems. As the contracts for those other major subsystems now move forward under the management of the LSST Telescope and Site (T and S) team, there has been inevitable and beneficial evolution in their designs, which has resulted in significant modifications to the facility and infrastructure. The earliest design requirements for the LSST summit facility were first documented in 2005, its contracted full design was initiated in 2010, and construction began in January, 2015. During that entire development period, and extending now roughly halfway through construction, there continue to be necessary modifications to the facility design resulting from the refinement of interfaces to other major elements of the LSST project and now, during construction, due to unanticipated field conditions. Changes from evolving interfaces have principally involved the telescope mount, the dome and mirror handling/coating facilities which have included significant variations in mass, dimensions, heat loads and anchorage conditions. Modifications related to field conditions have included specifying and testing alternative methods of excavation and contending with the lack of competent rock substrate where it was predicted to be. While these and other necessary changes are somewhat specific to the LSST project and site, they also exemplify inherent challenges related to the typical timeline for the design and construction of astronomical observatory support facilities relative to the overall development of the project.

  8. Directional orientation of birds by the magnetic field under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews the directional orientation of birds with the help of the geomagnetic field under various light conditions. Two fundamentally different types of response can be distinguished. (i) Compass orientation controlled by the inclination compass that allows birds to locate courses of different origin. This is restricted to a narrow functional window around the total intensity of the local geomagnetic field and requires light from the short-wavelength part of the spectrum. The compass is based on radical-pair processes in the right eye; magnetite-based receptors in the beak are not involved. Compass orientation is observed under 'white' and low-level monochromatic light from ultraviolet (UV) to about 565 nm green light. (ii) 'Fixed direction' responses occur under artificial light conditions such as more intense monochromatic light, when 590 nm yellow light is added to short-wavelength light, and in total darkness. The manifestation of these responses depends on the ambient light regime and is 'fixed' in the sense of not showing the normal change between spring and autumn; their biological significance is unclear. In contrast to compass orientation, fixed-direction responses are polar magnetic responses and occur within a wide range of magnetic intensities. They are disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak, which indicates that the respective magnetic information is mediated by iron-based receptors located there. The influence of light conditions on the two types of response suggests complex interactions between magnetoreceptors in the right eye, those in the upper beak and the visual system.

  9. Crop Type Mapping from a Sequence of Terrasar-X Images with Dynamic Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenduiywo, B. K.; Bargiel, D.; Soergel, U.

    2016-06-01

    Crop phenology is dynamic as it changes with times of the year. Such biophysical processes also look spectrally different to remote sensing satellites. Some crops may depict similar spectral properties if their phenology coincide, but differ later when their phenology diverge. Thus, conventional approaches that select only images from phenological stages where crops are distinguishable for classification, have low discrimination. In contrast, stacking images within a cropping season limits discrimination to a single feature space that can suffer from overlapping classes. Since crop backscatter varies with time, it can aid discrimination. Therefore, our main objective is to develop a crop sequence classification method using multitemporal TerraSAR-X images. We adopt first order markov assumption in undirected temporal graph sequence. This property is exploited to implement Dynamic Conditional Random Fields (DCRFs). Our DCRFs model has a repeated structure of temporally connected Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). Each node in the sequence is connected to its predecessor via conditional probability matrix. The matrix is computed using posterior class probabilities from association potential. This way, there is a mutual temporal exchange of phenological information observed in TerraSAR-X images. When compared to independent epoch classification, the designed DCRF model improved crop discrimination at each epoch in the sequence. However, government, insurers, agricultural market traders and other stakeholders are interested in the quantity of a certain crop in a season. Therefore, we further develop a DCRF ensemble classifier. The ensemble produces an optimal crop map by maximizing over posterior class probabilities selected from the sequence based on maximum F1-score and weighted by correctness. Our ensemble technique is compared to standard approach of stacking all images as bands for classification using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and standard CRFs. It

  10. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory,an effective exchange field associated with the Dy-Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets.

  11. Conformal field theory of critical Casimir forces between surfaces with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Santachiara, R.; Emig, T.

    2017-03-01

    Systems as diverse as binary mixtures and inclusions in biological membranes, and many more, can be described effectively by interacting spins. When the critical fluctuations in these systems are constrained by boundary conditions, critical Casimir forces (CCF) emerge. Here we analyze CCF between boundaries with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions, employing conformal field theory (CFT). After presenting the concept of boundary changing operators, we specifically consider two different boundary configurations for a strip of critical Ising spins: (I) alternating equi-sized domains of up and down spins on both sides of the strip, with a possible lateral shift, and (II) alternating domains of up and down spins of different size on one side and homogeneously fixed spins on the other side of the strip. Asymptotic results for the CCF at small and large distances are derived. We introduce a novel modified Szegö formula for determinants of real antisymmetric block Toeplitz matrices to obtain the exact CCF and the corresponding scaling functions at all distances. We demonstrate the existence of a surface renormalization group flow between universal force amplitudes of different magnitude and sign. The Casimir force can vanish at a stable equilibrium position that can be controlled by parameters of the boundary conditions. Lateral Casimir forces assume a universal simple cosine form at large separations.

  12. MECHANICAL STRENGTH RESPONSES OF POLED LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE UNDER EXTREME ELECTRIC FIELD AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Zhang, Kewei [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    PZT (lead zirconate titanate), particularly PZT-5A, is used in a variety of critical actuation and sensing systems because of its high Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficients. However, PZT is susceptible to mechanical failure. The evaluation of the mechanical strength of the material under the target working conditions is very important. This study presents part of the recent experimental developments in mechanical testing and evaluation of PZT materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ball-on-ring and four-point bending testing setups were used, with modifications made to account for testing requirements from high-level electric field and elevated temperature. The poled PZT-5A or equivalent material was tested under various specimen and testing conditions. The parameters of the distribution of strengths (characteristic strength and Weibull modulus) are discussed in relation to the testing conditions. Fractographic results based on scanning electron microscopy are also presented and discussed. The related data can serve as input for the design of piezoceramic devices, not only those used in energy systems like fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines, but also those used in structural health monitoring, energy harvesting, and other critical systems in aerospace and civil engineering.

  13. Improved outer boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, Luisa T [Center for Relativity, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1606, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States); Sarbach, Olivier C A [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C P 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-06-21

    In a recent article, we constructed a hierarchy B{sub L} of outer boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations with the property that, for a spherical outer boundary, it is perfectly absorbing for linearized gravitational radiation up to a given angular momentum number L. In this paper, we generalize B{sub L} so that it can be applied to fairly general foliations of spacetime by space-like hypersurfaces and general outer boundary shapes and further, we improve B{sub L} in two steps: (i) we give a local boundary condition C{sub L}which is perfectly absorbing including first-order contributions in 2M/R of curvature corrections for quadrupolar waves (where M is the mass of the spacetime and R is a typical radius of the outer boundary) and which significantly reduces spurious reflections due to backscatter, and (ii) we give a non-local boundary condition D{sub L} which is exact when first-order corrections in 2M/R for both curvature and backscatter are considered, for quadrupolar radiation.

  14. 鲤鱼冻血细胞培养及染色体制备条件优化研究%Optimum Conditions Research on Frozen Blood Cell Cultivation and Chromosome Preparation of Common Carp( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晶; 张桂贤; 李运东; 刘青; 陈维伟

    2012-01-01

    鱼类染色体制备方法中,外周血淋巴细胞培养法远远优于PHA体内注射法,使用冻血省力省功。由于外周血培养需要一定的条件和技术。该文就鲤鱼血液保存方法、细胞培养温度、秋水仙素处理浓度及滴加时间、低渗温度、固定处理次数等条件进行分析,得到较好的鲤鱼全血细胞培养及染色体标本制备方法,可为鲤鱼分子细胞遗传的后续研究奠定基础。%Among fish chromosomes preparation methods ,the peripheral blood lymphocyte cuhure method is far superior to the PHA shots in the body.Frozen blood is easier to get ,but peripheral blood cultivation need some conditions and techniques. This experiment analyzed the common carp blood conservation techniques,cell culture temperature,concentrations of colchicine and adding-time,hypotonic treatment temperature,fixed processing times and so on.It got a good carp complete blood incubation and chromosome preparation methods,which laid the foundation of the follow-up molecular cytogenetics research of carp.

  15. Effect of co-substrate on production of poly-β- hydroxybutyrate (PHB and copolymer PHBV from newly identified mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemarajt Kemavongse

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic bacterial mutant strain U7 was identified using both classical and molecular (16S rDNA techniques to be Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The glutamate-acetate (GA medium containing sodium acetate and sodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources was used for production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB from R. sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition (200 rpm at 37oC. Effect of auxiliary carbon sources (propionate and valerate and concentrations (molar ratio of 40/0, 40/20, 40/40 and 40/80 on copolymer production were studied. Both combinations of acetate with valerate and acetate with propionate were found to induce the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV within the cell. Acetate with propionate in the molar ratio of 40/40 gave the highest poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA content (77.68%, followed by acetate with valerate at the same molar ratio (77.42%. Although their polymer contents were similar, the presence of 40 mM valerate gave more than 4 times higher hydroxyvalerate (HV fraction (84.77% than in the presence of 40 mM propionate (19.12% HV fraction.

  16. 基于GRNN和粒子群算法的酱油种曲培养条件优化%Optimization of koji cultivation conditions in soy sauce production base on GRNN and PSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如意; 王学雷

    2012-01-01

    The spores number is an important index of soy sauce's koji quality. In order to improve the quality of soy sauce koji, Based on process data, A General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) with cross validation for optimizing model parameter was proposed to predict the final spores number, then particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with GRNN was applied to optimize cultivation conditions. Simulation shows the algorithm runs fast and the optimization result is practical to guide koji production.%孢子数是酱油种曲质量的一个重要指标.为提高种曲质量,基于培养过程数据,给出一种广义回归神经网络和粒子群算法相结合的优化种曲培养条件方法.首先建立预测种曲孢子数的广义回归神经网络模型,并利用交叉验证确定GRNN模型的最优参数,而后使用粒子群算法寻优种曲培养条件.仿真实验显示优化结果可应用于实践指导生产,且算法易于实施、运行速度快.

  17. Defining treatment conditions for pulsed electric field pasteurization of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, G; Puértolas, E; Monfort, S; Raso, J; Alvarez, I

    2011-11-15

    The influence of temperature and the presence of N(α)-lauroyl ethylester (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE) on the inactivation caused by continuous pulsed electric field treatments (PEF) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice have been investigated to define treatment conditions applicable at industrial scale that promote an equivalent safety level when compared with thermal processing. In the range of experimental conditions investigated (outlet temperature: 20-40 °C, electric field strength: 20-30 kV, treatment time: 5-125 μs) at outlet temperatures equal or lower than 55±1 °C, the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 treated in apple juice ranged from 0.4 to 3.6 Log₁₀ cycles reduction and treated in apple juice supplemented with LAE (50 ppm) ranged from 0.9 to 6.7 Log₁₀ cycles reduction. An empirical mathematical model was developed to estimate the treatment time and total specific energy input to obtain 5 Log₁₀ cycles reduction in the population of E. coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice supplemented with 50 ppm of LAE at different electric field strengths and inlet temperatures. Treatment conditions established for E. coli O157:H7 were validated with other PEF resistant Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) strains. When the treatment was applied to the apple juice, a treatment of 25 kV/cm for 63 μs corresponding with an outlet temperature of 65 °C and input energy of 125 kJ/kg was required to achieve more than 5 Log₁₀ cycles in the four strains investigated. The addition of LAE reduced the treatment time required to obtain an equivalent inactivation (>5 Log₁₀ cycles) in the four microorganisms to 38.4 μs, the outlet temperature to 55 °C, and the input energy to 83.2 kJ/kg.

  18. Tissue biochemical alterations of Cyprinus carpio exposed to commercial herbicide containing clomazone under rice-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Roberta; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Loro, Vania Lucia; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Sartori, Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi; Clasen, Bárbara; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Marchesan, Enio; Zanella, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate toxicological responses of Cyprinus carpio exposed to the commercial herbicide clomazone (500 mg l(-1)). Fish were exposed to 0.5 mg l(-1) of the formulated herbicide for 7, 30, and 90 days. Fish were exposed to clomazone in field conditions (7, 30, or 90 days trapped in submersed cages together with rice crops) and in laboratory conditions where the fish were placed in 45-l tanks with tap water only for 7 days. Fish exposed for 7, 30, or 90 days showed no alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, decreased muscle AChE activity was observed only after 7 days of exposure. During the same evaluation period (7 days), oxidative stress parameters changed under both field and laboratory conditions; however, metabolic parameters were altered only under field conditions. Disorders in oxidative stress parameters and metabolism were evident in different tissues up to day 90 after treatment. These overall results show that AChE activity changed only under laboratory conditions. Oxidative stress, along with metabolic parameters, may be good indicators of herbicide contamination in C. carpio under rice-field conditions.

  19. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    A method of estimating the sound field radiated by a source under non-anechoic conditions has been examined. The method uses near field acoustic holography based on a combination of pressure and particle velocity measurements in a plane near the source for separating outgoing and ingoing wave...... components. The outgoing part of the sound field is composed of both radiated and scattered waves. The method compensates for the scattered components of the outgoing field on the basis of the boundary condition of the problem, exploiting the fact that the sound field is reconstructed very close...... to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  20. Sparse Reconstruction of Compressive Sensing MRI using Cross-Domain Stochastically Fully Connected Conditional Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Edward; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a crucial medical imaging technology for the screening and diagnosis of frequently occurring cancers. However image quality may suffer by long acquisition times for MRIs due to patient motion, as well as result in great patient discomfort. Reducing MRI acquisition time can reduce patient discomfort and as a result reduces motion artifacts from the acquisition process. Compressive sensing strategies, when applied to MRI, have been demonstrated to be effective at decreasing acquisition times significantly by sparsely sampling the \\emph{k}-space during the acquisition process. However, such a strategy requires advanced reconstruction algorithms to produce high quality and reliable images from compressive sensing MRI. This paper proposes a new reconstruction approach based on cross-domain stochastically fully connected conditional random fields (CD-SFCRF) for compressive sensing MRI. The CD-SFCRF introduces constraints in both \\emph{k}-space and spatial domains within a stochas...

  1. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  2. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  3. Map Matching Based on Conditional Random Fields and Route Preference Mining for Uncertain Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve offline map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories, a map matching algorithm based on conditional random fields (CRF and route preference mining is proposed. In this algorithm, road offset distance and the temporal-spatial relationship between the sampling points are used as features of GPS trajectory in a CRF model, which integrates the temporal-spatial context information flexibly. The driver route preference is also used to bolster the temporal-spatial context when a low GPS sampling rate impairs the resolving power of temporal-spatial context in CRF, allowing the map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories to get improved significantly. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is more accurate than existing methods, especially in the case of a low-sampling-rate.

  4. SkipCor: skip-mention coreference resolution using linear-chain conditional random fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Žitnik

    Full Text Available Coreference resolution tries to identify all expressions (called mentions in observed text that refer to the same entity. Beside entity extraction and relation extraction, it represents one of the three complementary tasks in Information Extraction. In this paper we describe a novel coreference resolution system SkipCor that reformulates the problem as a sequence labeling task. None of the existing supervised, unsupervised, pairwise or sequence-based models are similar to our approach, which only uses linear-chain conditional random fields and supports high scalability with fast model training and inference, and a straightforward parallelization. We evaluate the proposed system against the ACE 2004, CoNLL 2012 and SemEval 2010 benchmark datasets. SkipCor clearly outperforms two baseline systems that detect coreferentiality using the same features as SkipCor. The obtained results are at least comparable to the current state-of-the-art in coreference resolution.

  5. Sign Language Recognition with the Kinect Sensor Based on Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Deok Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft’s Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.

  6. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.

  7. System for Detecting Potential Lost Person based on Conditional Random Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, R. S.; Saptawati, G. A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has been used widely in transsportation industry to help company in managing taxis. The most popular GPS utilization for taxi company is to identify the position of taxis and monitor theirs the mobility. Nowdays, data collected from GPS tracker is combined with data from taxi meter are analyzed to provide region information regarding potential passengers. Zicheng Liao’s proposed a system based on GPS taxi data to detect anomalous area/region which was then interpreted as region with to predict rare passengers. The system was developed based on conditional random field (CRF) method and features position, velocity, passenger loading information. Our research was aimed to develop tool based on GPS data to detect potential lost person. We motivated by Liao research and modified the algorithms and features of CRF. Our experiments showed that the system has precision of 98.86% and recall of 87.478%.

  8. Document page structure learning for fixed-layout e-books using conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Canhui

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a model is proposed to learn logical structure of fixed-layout document pages by combining support vector machine (SVM) and conditional random fields (CRF). Features related to each logical label and their dependencies are extracted from various original Portable Document Format (PDF) attributes. Both local evidence and contextual dependencies are integrated in the proposed model so as to achieve better logical labeling performance. With the merits of SVM as local discriminative classifier and CRF modeling contextual correlations of adjacent fragments, it is capable of resolving the ambiguities of semantic labels. The experimental results show that CRF based models with both tree and chain graph structures outperform the SVM model with an increase of macro-averaged F1 by about 10%.

  9. Broadcast News Story Segmentation Using Conditional Random Fields and Multimodal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lei; Lu, Mimi; Ma, Bin; Chng, Eng Siong; Li, Haizhou

    In this paper, we propose integration of multimodal features using conditional random fields (CRFs) for the segmentation of broadcast news stories. We study story boundary cues from lexical, audio and video modalities, where lexical features consist of lexical similarity, chain strength and overall cohesiveness; acoustic features involve pause duration, pitch, speaker change and audio event type; and visual features contain shot boundaries, anchor faces and news title captions. These features are extracted in a sequence of boundary candidate positions in the broadcast news. A linear-chain CRF is used to detect each candidate as boundary/non-boundary tags based on the multimodal features. Important interlabel relations and contextual feature information are effectively captured by the sequential learning framework of CRFs. Story segmentation experiments show that the CRF approach outperforms other popular classifiers, including decision trees (DTs), Bayesian networks (BNs), naive Bayesian classifiers (NBs), multilayer perception (MLP), support vector machines (SVMs) and maximum entropy (ME) classifiers.

  10. Nonstationary Axisymmetric Temperature Field in a Two-Layer Slab Under Mixed Heating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, I. N.; Timar, I.; Kolodii, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    With the use of the Laguerre and Hankel integral transforms, the solution of a two-dimensional initial-boundary-value heat conduction problem for a two-layer slab under mixed boundary conditions is constructed: one of the surfaces is heated by a heat flux distributed axisymmetrically in a circle of radius R and is cooled by the Newton law outside this circle. The solution of the problem is reduced to a sequence of infinite quasi-regular systems of algebraic equations. The results of numerical analysis of the temperature field in the two-layer slab made from an aluminum alloy and ceramicsare presented depending on the relative geometric properties of the components and cooling intensity.

  11. Photoinhibitive and Recovery Properties of Hybrid Rice Ⅱ You 129 under Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-ming; TANG Yun-lai; WANG Ying; LU Wei; DAI Xin-bin; ZHANG Rong-xian; KUANG Ting-yun

    2003-01-01

    Photoinhibitive properties of super-high-yielding hybrid rice Ⅱ you 129 and its adaptation mechanism to strong light stress were investigated by measuring the light-response curve, diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Ⅱ you 129 leaves and compared with Shanyou 63. Photoinhibition of rice flag leaves under field conditions mainly resulted from the increase of thermal dissipation, especially for thermal dissipation depended on the xanthophyll circle, but no destruction of photosynthetic apparatus occurred. Potentially super-high-yielding hybrid rice Ⅱyou 129 was more tolerant to photoinhibition than Shanyou 63, because it had higher light saturation intensity and maximum net photosynthetic rate; more active xanthophyll cycle, and more rapid recovery ability after photoinhibition.

  12. Scaling Conditional Random Fields by One-Against-the-Other Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Zhao; Chunyu Kie

    2008-01-01

    As a powerful sequence labeling model, conditional random fields (CRFs) have had successful applications in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, the high complexity of CRFs training only allows a very small tag (or label) set, because the training becomes intractable as the tag set enlarges. This paper proposes an improved decomposed training and joint decoding algorithm for CRF learning. Instead of training a single CRF model for all tags, it trains a binary sub-CRF independently for each tag. An optimal tag sequence is then produced by a joint decoding algorithm based on the probabilistic output of all sub-CRFs involved. To test its effectiveness, we apply this approach to tackling Chinese word segmentation (CWS) as a sequence labeling problem. Our evaluation shows that it can reduce the computational cost of this language processing task by 40-50% without any significant performance loss on various large-scale data sets.

  13. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  14. Hierarchical Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields for Recursive Sequential Data

    CERN Document Server

    Truyen, Tran The; Bui, Hung H; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM), we present the hierarchical semi-Markov conditional random field (HSCRF), a generalisation of embedded undirectedMarkov chains tomodel complex hierarchical, nestedMarkov processes. It is parameterised in a discriminative framework and has polynomial time algorithms for learning and inference. Importantly, we consider partiallysupervised learning and propose algorithms for generalised partially-supervised learning and constrained inference. We demonstrate the HSCRF in two applications: (i) recognising human activities of daily living (ADLs) from indoor surveillance cameras, and (ii) noun-phrase chunking. We show that the HSCRF is capable of learning rich hierarchical models with reasonable accuracy in both fully and partially observed data cases.

  15. Ice Water Classification Using Statistical Distribution Based Conditional Random Fields in RADARSAT-2 Dual Polarization Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Hao, W.; Zhu, T.; Yuan, L.; Xiao, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Statistical Distribution based Conditional Random Fields (STA-CRF) algorithm is exploited for improving marginal ice-water classification. Pixel level ice concentration is presented as the comparison of methods based on CRF. Furthermore, in order to explore the effective statistical distribution model to be integrated into STA-CRF, five statistical distribution models are investigated. The STA-CRF methods are tested on 2 scenes around Prydz Bay and Adélie Depression, where contain a variety of ice types during melt season. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can resolve sea ice edge well in Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and show a robust distinction of ice and water.

  16. Segmentation of RGB-D indoor scenes by stacking random forests and conditional random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mikkel; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    on stacked classifiers; the benefits are two fold: on one hand, the system scales well to consider different types of complex features and, on the other hand, the use of stacked classifiers makes the performance of the proposed technique more accurate. The proposed method consists of a random forest using...... a stacked random forest which gives the final predictions. The model is tested on the renown NYU-v2 dataset and the recently available SUNRGBD dataset. The approach shows that simple multimodal features with the power of using multi-class multi-scale stacked sequential learners (MMSSL) can achieve slight...... random offset features in combination with a conditional random field (CRF) acting on a simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) superpixel segmentation. The predictions of the CRF are filtered spatially by a multi-scale decomposition before merging it with the original feature set and applying...

  17. Sign language recognition with the Kinect sensor based on conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee-Deok

    2014-12-24

    Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D) space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft's Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF) that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.

  18. Cultivation of Intercultural Business Communication Competence in Business English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏

    2013-01-01

    Different countries communicate more and more frequently as the development of economic globalization. In business fields, culture becomes into the lever and lubricant influencing those business activities. Thus, cultivating talents with intercultural communication competence is the final purpose of business English teaching. This paper has analyzed the reasons for the lacking of cultivating of intercultural communication competence in business English teaching by using the theories like the relationship between culture and language and communication competence, and then it suggested some ways to cultivate such kind of competence. In these ways, it is hoped that will cultivate more talents with excellent quality of intercultural communication competence and suitable for this age of economic globalization.

  19. Study on alternative cultivation patterns on nitrous oxide reduction in paddy fields of Fuzhou Plain%栽培方式对福州平原稻田氧化亚氮减排的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳; 王纯; 王维奇; 马永跃

    2014-01-01

    采用静态箱-气相色谱法对手插、抛秧、机插和直播的稻田氧化亚氮通量季节变化进行了测定与分析。研究结果表明:观测期内,手插、抛秧、机插和直播样地氧化亚氮季节变化通量分别为-55.67~63.73、-53.03~70.31、-47.41~84.29、-27.38~85.10μg/(m2· h ),平均值分别为7.71、20.98、11.24、37.78μg/(m2· h)。pH和Eh对手插样地氧化亚氮通量具有显著的影响,其他处理样地则是受到多因子的综合作用。从水稻千粒质量看,4种栽培方式由小到大的排序为机插、手插、直播、抛秧,从单丛产量看,4种栽培方式由小到大的排序为手插、抛秧、机插、直播。%In order to clarify the effect of alternative cultivation patterns on paddy field nitrous oxide fluxes ,seasonal nitrous oxide variation of hand transplanting ,seedlings throwing ,machine transplanting and direct seeding is determined by static chamber-gas chromatogram .The results show that the seasonal variations of nitrous oxide fluxes are -55 .67~63 .73 ,-53 .03~70 .31 ,-47 .41~84 .29 and -27 .38~85 .10μg/(m2 · h) ,and the averaged values were 7 .71 ,20 .98 , 11 .24 and 37 .78μg/(m2 · h) ,respectively .Nitrous oxide values are followed the order of hand transplanting < machine transplanting < seedlings throwing cultivation patterns are machine transplanting < hand transplanting < direct seeding < seedlings throwing and seen from single bundle yield ,the four different cultivation patterns are hand transplanting < seedlings throwing < machine transplanting < direct seeding .

  20. Definition of management zones for enhancing cultivated land conservation using combined spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  1. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Smith

    Full Text Available Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports.Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports.German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21 and 37 (SD 24 minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001 but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001.Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.

  2. Natural Gas Conditioning and Processing From Marginal Fields Using Modular Technology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriji A.Boniface

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas flaring in Nigeria is a major pollution concern for the environment and health of Nigerians. Burning of natural gas brings about emitting of carbon monoxide into the environment as well as warm up the environment, thereby contributing to the global warming scourge. The lack of processing this gas has also led to loss of revenue in a sector where there is a likelihood of otherwise generating more revenue in the country. Gas conditioning and processing in Nigeria has brought about certain level of solutions to the flaring of natural gas in the country. This paper discusses a modular technology associated with the conditioning and processing of natural gas that marginal fields can partake-in in Nigeria to monetize natural gas in the country using a typical Nigeria natural gas plant located in Delta State as a cased study. There have been lots of discouragement in the past about investing in associated gas produced during crude oil production, but the study on this particular gas plant in Nigeria shows solutions to most of this problems. The gas plant LPG facility is a modular assembly of process equipment linked with interconnecting pipework for scalability and ease of deployment. The design took into consideration the specific composition of the associated gas produced during production of crude oil.The traditional approach of piping gas from a remotely located oil field to a central processing facility can now be put aside paving the way for a less than orthodox technique of “bringing the plant to the gas” whereby the need for expensive pipeline will be eliminated by situating the facility adjacent to the oil flow station. The gas plant gives a full technology of utilizing natural gas resources to meet the socio-economic needs of mankind while preserving the environment not only for meeting present needs but for the needs of future generations

  3. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  4. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  5. Evaluation of N2—Fixing Capacites of Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes Under Field Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XJINGGUANGXI; SHISHULIAN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Natural 15N abundance method was used in this study to investigate the N2-fiing capacities of several herbaceous and shrub legumes by a field experiment,For herbaceous legumes,the results were in consistent with those obtained by a pot experiment .Crotalaria mucronata Desv.had a higher,N2-fixing capacity than Vigna sinensis(L.)Savi.For shurub legumes,N2-fixing Capacity under field condition was slightly different from that in pot experiment.These results demonstrated that the natural 15N abundance method was applicable to evaluating N2-fixing capacities of herbaceous and shrub legumes,and that pot experiment was suitable for evaluating the N2-fixing capacities of not only herbaceous legumes but also shrub legumes. Leguminous N2-fixing plants differed in response to phosphorus fertilization,Phosphorus fertilizer appication greatly increased the percentage of nitrogen derived from air (% N dfa)and total amount of N2 fixed by Lespedez formosa(Vog.)Koehne (Jiangxi),Phosphorus fertilizer showed no signifcant effect on the N2-fixing percentage of Cajanus cajan(L.)Millsp.but increased its total biomass,thus increasing the total amount of N2 fixed.

  6. On the stability conditions for theories of modified gravity coupled to matter fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Papadomanolakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    We present a thorough stability analysis of modified gravity theories when the coupling to matter fields is considered. We use the Effective Field Theory framework for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity to retain a general approach for the gravity sector and a Sorkin-Schutz action for the matter one. Then, we work out the proper viability conditions to guarantee in the scalar sector the absence of ghosts, gradient and tachyonic instabilities. The absence of ghosts can be achieved by demanding a positive kinetic matrix, while the lack of a gradient instability is ensured by imposing a positive speed of propagation for all the scalar modes. In case of tachyonic instability, the mass eigenvalues have been studied and we work out the appropriate expressions. For the latter, an instability occurs only when the negative mass eigenvalue is much larger, in absolute value, than the Hubble parameter. We discuss the results for the minimally coupled quintessence model showing for a particular set of parameters two typical...

  7. Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Detection Method Based on Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-wen CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks accurately and efficiently, a new detection model based on conditional random fields (CRF was proposed. The CRF based model incorporates the signature-based and anomaly-based detection methods to a hybrid system. The selected features include source IP entropy, destination IP entropy, source port entropy, destination port entropy, protocol number and etc. The CRF based model combines these IP flow entropies and other fingerprints into a normalize entropy as the feature vectors to depict the states of the monitoring traffic. The training method of the detection model uses the L-BFGS algorithm. And the model only needs to inspect the IP header fields of each packet, which makes it possible for real-time implementation even on real time network traffic. The CRF based model may have the ability to detect new form of forthcoming attacks, because it is independent from any specific DDoS flooding attack tools. The experiment results show that the CRF based method has higher detection accuracy and sensitivity as well as lower false positive alarms. Experiment with KDD CUP1999, DARPA 2000 and generated attack datasets, the CRF based model outperforms other well-known detection methods such as Naïve Bayes, KNN, SVM and etc. The accuracy goes beyond 95.0% and the false alarm rate is less than 5.0%. Meanwhile, the CRF based model is robust under massive background network traffic.

  8. Artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Sõber, Anu; Oksanen, Elina

    2016-07-01

    Relative air humidity (RH) is expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change. Increasing RH reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. Little is known about the effects of decreased VPD on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased VPD on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) foliar metabolite and nutrient profiles in a unique free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) field experiment during the fourth season of humidity manipulation, in 2011. Long-term exposure to decreased VPD modified nutrient homeostasis in tree leaves, as demonstrated by a lower N concentration and N:P ratio in aspen leaves, and higher Na concentration and lower K:Na ratio in the leaves of both species in decreased VPD than in ambient VPD. Decreased VPD caused a shift in foliar metabolite profiles of both species, affecting primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolic adjustment to decreased VPD included elevated levels of starch and heptulose sugars, sorbitol, hemiterpenoid and phenolic glycosides, and α-tocopherol. High levels of carbon reserves, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants under decreased VPD may modify plant resistance to environmental stresses emerging under changing climate.

  9. Mosquitoes meet microfluidics: High-throughput microfluidic tools for insect-parasite ecology in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Mukundarajan, Haripriya

    2013-11-01

    A simple bite from an insect is the transmission mechanism for many deadly diseases worldwide--including malaria, yellow fever, west nile and dengue. Very little is known about how populations of numerous insect species and disease-causing parasites interact in their natural habitats due to a lack of measurement techniques. At present, vector surveillance techniques involve manual capture by using humans as live bait, which is hard to justify on ethical grounds. Individual mosquitoes are manually dissected to isolate salivary glands to detect sporozites. With typical vector infection rates being very low even in endemic areas, it is almost impossible to get an accurate picture of disease distribution, in both space and time. Here we present novel high-throughput microfluidic tools for vector surveillance, specifically mosquitoes. A two-dimensional high density array with baits provide an integrated platform for multiplex PCR for detection of both vector and parasite species. Combining techniques from engineering and field ecology, methods and tools developed here will enable high-throughput measurement of infection rates for a number of diseases in mosquito populations in field conditions. Pew Foundation.

  10. Elimination of racemic and enantioenriched metalaxyl based fungicides under tropical conditions in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkiedje, Adolphe; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Maniepi, Saurelle Jacqueline Ngouopiho; Spiteller, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The elimination has been studied of racemic and enantioenriched metalaxyl applied as an emulsifiable concentrate and wettable powder combined with copper in a Cameroonian field site. The kinetics of the degradation/dissipation of metalaxyl and its acid metabolite were investigated using reversed phase HPLC-MS/MS, while the enantiomeric ratios were measured by HPLC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-H HPLC column. Some soil enzymes activities were determined concurrently for 120d. The elimination of racemic metalaxyl was shown to be enantioselective, with the R-enantiomer being degraded more slowly than the S-enantiomer. Dissipation followed approximate square root first-order kinetics (R>0.98) without lag phases. The enantiomers of metalaxyl have different elimination rates, with half-lives ranging from only 0.8 to 1.5 days. After application to soil, the elimination of metalaxyl in the copper containing formulation was slower. The activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and alkaline glucosidase were monitored throughout the experiments. No significant influence of metalaxyl and copper could be observed on these parameters. The significantly shorter half-life values of all forms of metalaxyl under field conditions, compared to the previously reported laboratory derived ones, may have implications for the plant disease control with these fungicides in tropical rainforest areas.

  11. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, Roelof; Slater, Lee; LaBrecque, Douglas

    2009-05-12

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO(3) and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO(3) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO(3) dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO(3) forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO(3) precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  12. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  13. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  14. Observation of high recombination occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Ceglie, Letizia; Gigli, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele

    2014-12-19

    Recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a well-documented phenomenon. A high recombination frequency has been reported in experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo, and its role in driving viral evolution has been postulated by several authors. However field evidences are rare, mainly obtained from large-scale sampling and typically represented by single sequences rather than by groups of circulating "recombinant progenies". The present work was aimed to investigate the gray area between experimental studies and large-scale epidemiological investigations. The study was performed on ORF5, ORF7 and concatenated sequences obtained in our laboratory or available in GenBank collected between 2009 and 2012 in northern Italy. Six independent recombinant strains out of 66 concatenated sequences (∼9%) were found, demonstrating a high recombination frequency respect to previous field studies but comparable to in vitro experiments. In silico analysis let speculate that this new strain displayed physicochemical features diverse enough to potentially alter its immunological properties. Taken altogether, the results of our study support previous experimental evidences that depict PRRSV to be extremely prone to recombination. The limited temporal and geographical spread of recombinant strains however states in favor of a limited fitness of the recombinant progeny compared to parental strains and the marginal role of this phenomenon in PRRSV evolution.

  15. Solutions from boundary condition changing operators in open string field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kiermaier, Michael; Soler, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We construct analytic solutions of open string field theory using boundary condition changing (bcc) operators. We focus on bcc operators with vanishing conformal weight such as those for regular marginal deformations of the background. For any Fock space state phi, the component string field of the solution Psi exhibits a remarkable factorization property: it is given by the matter three-point function of phi with a pair of bcc operators, multiplied by a universal function that only depends on the conformal weight of phi. This universal function is given by a simple integral expression that can be computed once and for all. The three-point functions with bcc operators are thus the only needed physical input of the particular open string background described by the solution. We illustrate our solution with the example of the rolling tachyon profile, for which we prove convergence analytically. The form of our solution, which involves bcc operators instead of explicit insertions of the marginal operator, can b...

  16. On the stability conditions for theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios

    2017-03-01

    We present a thorough stability analysis of modified gravity theories in the presence of matter fields. We use the Effective Field Theory framework for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity to retain a general approach for the gravity sector and a Sorkin-Schutz action for the matter one. Then, we work out the proper viability conditions to guarantee in the scalar sector the absence of ghosts, gradient and tachyonic instabilities. The absence of ghosts can be achieved by demanding a positive kinetic matrix, while the lack of a gradient instability is ensured by imposing a positive speed of propagation for all the scalar modes. In case of tachyonic instability, the mass eigenvalues have been studied and we work out the appropriate expressions. For the latter, an instability occurs only when the negative mass eigenvalue is much larger, in absolute value, than the Hubble parameter. We discuss the results for the minimally coupled quintessence model showing for a particular set of parameters two typical behaviours which in turn lead to a stable and an unstable configuration. Moreover, we find that the speeds of propagation of the scalar modes strongly depend on matter densities, for the beyond Horndeski theories. Our findings can be directly employed when testing modified gravity theories as they allow to identify the correct viability space.

  17. A new method for the analysis of soft tissues with data acquired under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Ruth S; Stobbe, Nina; Zavala Romero, Olmo; Slice, Dennis E; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing soft-tissue structures is particularly challenging due to the lack of homologous landmarks that can be reliably identified across time and specimens. This is particularly true when data are to be collected under field conditions. Here, we present a method that combines photogrammetric techniques and geometric morphometrics methods (GMM) to quantify soft tissues for their subsequent volumetric analysis. We combine previously developed methods for landmark data acquisition and processing with a custom program for volumetric computations. Photogrammetric methods are a particularly powerful tool for field studies as they allow for image acquisition with minimal equipment requirements and for the acquisition of the spatial coordinates of points (anatomical landmarks or others) from these images. For our method, a limited number of homologous landmarks, i.e., points that can be found on any specimen independent of space and time, and further distinctive points, which may vary over time, space and subject, are identified on two-dimensional photographs and their three-dimensional coordinates estimated using photogrammetric methods. The three-dimensional configurations are oriented by the spatial principal components (PCs) of the homologous points. Crucially, this last step orients the configuration such that x and y-information (PC1 and PC2 coordinates) constitute an anatomically-defined plane with the z-values (PC3 coordinate) in the direction of interest for volume computation. The z-coordinates are then used to estimate the volume of the tissue. We validate our method using a physical, geometric model of known dimensions and physical (wax) models designed to approximate perineal swellings in female macaques. To demonstrate the usefulness and potential of our method, we use it to estimate the volumes of Barbary macaque sexual swellings recorded in the field with video images. By analyzing both the artificial data and real monkey swellings, we validate our

  18. Root responses to soil physical conditions; growth dynamics from field to cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, A Glyn; Bransby, M Fraser; Hans, Joachim; McKenna, Stephen J; Roberts, Tim J; Valentine, Tracy A

    2006-01-01

    Root growth in the field is often slowed by a combination of soil physical stresses, including mechanical impedance, water stress, and oxygen deficiency. The stresses operating may vary continually, depending on the location of the root in the soil profile, the prevailing soil water conditions, and the degree to which the soil has been compacted. The dynamics of root growth responses are considered in this paper, together with the cellular responses that underlie them. Certain root responses facilitate elongation in hard soil, for example, increased sloughing of border cells and exudation from the root cap decreases friction; and thickening of the root relieves stress in front of the root apex and decreases buckling. Whole root systems may also grow preferentially in loose versus dense soil, but this response depends on genotype and the spatial arrangement of loose and compact soil with respect to the main root axes. Decreased root elongation is often accompanied by a decrease in both cell flux and axial cell extension, and recent computer-based models are increasing our understanding of these processes. In the case of mechanical impedance, large changes in cell shape occur, giving rise to shorter fatter cells. There is still uncertainty about many aspects of this response, including the changes in cell walls that control axial versus radial extension, and the degree to which the epidermis, cortex, and stele control root elongation. Optical flow techniques enable tracking of root surfaces with time to yield estimates of two-dimensional velocity fields. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be applied successfully to time-lapse sequences of confocal microscope images of living roots, in order to determine velocity fields and strain rates of groups of cells. In combination with new molecular approaches this provides a promising way of investigating and modelling the mechanisms controlling growth perturbations in response to environmental stresses.

  19. A new method for the analysis of soft tissues with data acquired under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S Sonnweber

    Full Text Available Analyzing soft-tissue structures is particularly challenging due to the lack of homologous landmarks that can be reliably identified across time and specimens. This is particularly true when data are to be collected under field conditions. Here, we present a method that combines photogrammetric techniques and geometric morphometrics methods (GMM to quantify soft tissues for their subsequent volumetric analysis. We combine previously developed methods for landmark data acquisition and processing with a custom program for volumetric computations. Photogrammetric methods are a particularly powerful tool for field studies as they allow for image acquisition with minimal equipment requirements and for the acquisition of the spatial coordinates of points (anatomical landmarks or others from these images. For our method, a limited number of homologous landmarks, i.e., points that can be found on any specimen independent of space and time, and further distinctive points, which may vary over time, space and subject, are identified on two-dimensional photographs and their three-dimensional coordinates estimated using photogrammetric methods. The three-dimensional configurations are oriented by the spatial principal components (PCs of the homologous points. Crucially, this last step orients the configuration such that x and y-information (PC1 and PC2 coordinates constitute an anatomically-defined plane with the z-values (PC3 coordinate in the direction of interest for volume computation. The z-coordinates are then used to estimate the volume of the tissue. We validate our method using a physical, geometric model of known dimensions and physical (wax models designed to approximate perineal swellings in female macaques. To demonstrate the usefulness and potential of our method, we use it to estimate the volumes of Barbary macaque sexual swellings recorded in the field with video images. By analyzing both the artificial data and real monkey swellings, we

  20. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em solo infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha verticilar Comparative reactions of some cotton varieties to Verticillium wilt in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Cia

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em terreno infestado pelo fungo causador da "murcha de Verticillium", no Estado de São Paulo. As variedades IAC RM3 e IAC RM4, resistentes à Fusariose, destacaram-se em produção e apresentaram as menores porcentagens de plantas com sintomas externos da doença estudada. Os resultados sugerem que tais variedades constituem também fontes genéticas de resistência à murcha verticilar.A study was made on the reactions of the cotton varieties commonly cultivated in the State of São Paulo (Brazil to Verticillium wilt under field conditions. The effects of the disease were evaluated by determining the percentages of plants showing the symptoms of the Verticilliumwilt and by measuring the yield of each variety. The Fusarium resistant varieties IAC RM3 and IAC RM4 gave the highest yields and the lowest percentages of plants infected by Verticilliumwilt. It is suggested that these varieties might represent sources of resistance to Verticillium wilt.

  1. a Method to Estimate Temporal Interaction in a Conditional Random Field Based Approach for Crop Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, P. M. A.; Feitosa, R. Q.; Sanches, I. D.; Costa, G. A. O. P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the temporal interaction in a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based approach for crop recognition from multitemporal remote sensing image sequences. This approach models the phenology of different crop types as a CRF. Interaction potentials are assumed to depend only on the class labels of an image site at two consecutive epochs. In the proposed method, the estimation of temporal interaction parameters is considered as an optimization problem, whose goal is to find the transition matrix that maximizes the CRF performance, upon a set of labelled data. The objective functions underlying the optimization procedure can be formulated in terms of different accuracy metrics, such as overall and average class accuracy per crop or phenological stages. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were carried out upon a dataset consisting of 12 co-registered LANDSAT images of a region in southeast of Brazil. Pattern Search was used as the optimization algorithm. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was able to substantially outperform estimates related to joint or conditional class transition probabilities, which rely on training samples.

  2. Expression of Low Molecular Weight Heat-Shock Proteins under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L. D.; Vierling, E.

    1993-04-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are known to be expressed in plants experiencing high-temperature stress. We have examined the expression of class I cytoplasmic low molecular weight (LMW) HSPs and find that these HSPs also frequently accumulate in seeds, seed pods, and flowers during a normal growing season. We first examined the expression of class I cytoplasmic LMW HSPs by western blot analysis in a range of seed samples from both commercially grown and wild legumes. LMW HSPs were present in all seed samples, indicating that these HSPs are regularly expressed in these tissues. To examine more specifically conditions under which LMW HSPs were produced during an average growing season, additional studies of Medicago sativa were carried out during the fall season in Tucson, AZ. Plants were irrigated to avoid conditions of water stress, and canopy temperature was monitored throughout the study period. LMW HSP expression in leaves, flowers, and developing seed pods was analyzed by western blotting. Results show that in the field HSPs are frequently produced in flowers and seed pods, even in plants that show no HSP expression in leaves. Parallel greenhouse studies indicate that HSP expression in seeds is in part developmentally regulated. In total our data suggest a more widespread occurrence of HSPs in optimal growth environments and emphasize their potential role during reproduction.

  3. Conditional symmetries in axisymmetric quantum cosmologies with scalar fields and the fate of the classical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampeli, Adamantia; Pailas, Theodoros; Terzis, Petros A.; Christodoulakis, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the classical and quantum solutions of some axisymmetric cosmologies coupled to a massless scalar field are studied in the context of minisuperspace approximation. In these models, the singular nature of the Lagrangians entails a search for possible conditional symmetries. These have been proven to be the simultaneous conformal symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantization is performed by adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems, i.e. promoting the first-class constraints to operators annihilating the wave function. To further enrich the approach, we follow [1] and impose the operators related to the classical conditional symmetries on the wave function. These additional equations select particular solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. In order to gain some physical insight from the quantization of these cosmological systems, we perform a semiclassical analysis following the Bohmian approach to quantum theory. The generic result is that, in all but one model, one can find appropriate ranges of the parameters, so that the emerging semiclassical geometries are non-singular. An attempt for physical interpretation involves the study of the effective energy-momentum tensor which corresponds to an imperfect fluid.

  4. Diagnosis of Bubonic Plague by PCR in Madagascar under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahalison, L.; Vololonirina, E.; Ratsitorahina, M.; Chanteau, S.

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a PCR assay that amplifies a 501-bp fragment of the Yersinia pestis caf1 gene has been determined in a reference laboratory with 218 bubo aspirates collected from patients with clinically suspected plague managed in a regional hospital in Madagascar. The culture of Y. pestis and the detection of the F1 antigen (Ag) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used as reference diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of PCR was 89% (57 of 64) for the Y. pestis-positive patients, and 80.7% (63 of 78) for the F1 Ag-positive patients. The specificity of PCR for the culture-, F1 Ag-, and antibody-negative patients (n = 105) was 100%. Because in Madagascar most patients with plague are managed and their clinical samples are collected in remote villages, the usefulness of PCR was evaluated for routine diagnostic use in the operational conditions of the control program. The sensitivity of PCR was 50% (25 of 50) relative to the results of culture and 35.2% (19 of 54) relative to the results of the F1 Ag immunocapture ELISA. The specificity of PCR under these conditions was 96%. In conclusion, the PCR method was found to be very specific but not as sensitive as culture or the F1 Ag detection method. The limitation in sensitivity may have been due to suboptimal field conditions and the small volumes of samples used for DNA extraction. This technique is not recommended as a routine diagnostic test for plague in Madagascar. PMID:10618097

  5. Effect of magnetic field and silver nanoparticles on yield and water use efficiency of Carum copticum under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seghatoleslami Mohammadjavad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally the productivity of cropping systems in arid and semi- arid regions is very low. The sustainable agricultural systems try to find out environmental friendly technologies based on physical and biological treatments to increase crop production. In this study two irrigation treatments (control and water stress and six methods of fertilizer treatment (control, NPK-F, using magnetic band- M, using silver nano particles- N, M+N and M+N+50% F on performance of ajowan were compared. Results showed that treatments with magnetic field or base fertilizer had more yield compared to the control and silver nanoparticles (N treatments. Application of silver nanoparticles had no positive effect on yield. The highest seed and biomass WUE achieved in base fertilizer or magnetic field treatments. Under water stress treatment, seed WUE significantly increased. In conclusion magnetic field exposure, probably by encourage nutrient uptake efficiency could be applied to reduce fertilizer requirement. On the other hand the cultivation of plants under low MF could be an alternative way of WUE improving.

  6. Rearing five species of Diptera (Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia in semicontrolled field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Calliphoridae is widely known to lead the colonization of corpses and their development rates are frequently used to estimate the postmortem interval. This study presents the larval growth of five forensically important species of Calliphoridae in Colombia. Rearing took place in semicontrolled field conditions where the egg masses were collected. We show curves of larval growth, larval length and time intervals to reach all immature stages for Lucilia eximia and Cochliomyia macellaria at two sites with different climatic conditions and for Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Calliphora nigribasis at one site. Overall, high temperatures speeded up the development of the species reared at two different sites, whereas low temperatures for C. nigribasis, lengthened the total development time. Differences between this study and others can be explained by the experimental conditions in the field without the possibility of strict laboratory rearing controls.La familia Calliphoridae es ampliamente conocida por liderar la colonización de los cadáveres y sus tasas de desarrollo son frecuentemente utilizadas para estimar el intervalo postmortem. Este estudio presenta el crecimiento larval de cinco especies de Calliphoridae de importancia forense en Colombia, considerando que la cría se dio en condiciones de campo semicontroladas en los lugares donde las masas de huevos fueron colectadas. Mostramos también, los intervalos de longitud y el tiempo empleado en alcanzar todos los estadios inmaduros para Lucilia eximia y Cochliomyia macellaria en dos lugares con diferentes condiciones climáticas y Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala y Calliphora nigribasis, en un solo lugar. En general, las altas temperaturas producen una aceleración en el desarrollo de las especies criadas en dos sitios diferentes, mientras que bajas temperaturas para C. nigribasis, alargaron el tiempo utilizado para completar el desarrollo. Las diferencias

  7. Modern Methods for Isolation, Purification, and Cultivation of Soil Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraleeva, A D; Dronova, S A; Moskalenko, S V; Didovich, S V

    2016-07-01

    Up-to-date methods for isolation of cyanobacteria from soil samples, removal of accompanying microflora, obtaining axenic strains, and -conditions and media for subsequnt cultivation are reviewed. Char acterization of soil as a specific habitat for cyanobacteria is provided. Comparative analysis of pH and ele- mental composition of the liquid phase of most soil types with the media for cultivating cyanobacteria is car- ried out. The functional role of the major components required for the cultivation of cyanobacteria is de- scribed. The problems associated with isolation, purification, and cultivation of soil cyanobacteria, as well as the relevant solutions, are discussed.

  8. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    to provide data for the evaluation of whether the consumption of the cultivated mushroom constitutes a human risk. The present report summarises the Nordic seminar which had the aim to present Nordic studies and to promote exchange of information between chemists and toxicologists in the field of Agaricus...... bisporus research. American, English and Czech researchers gave an up-to-date overview on the cultivated mushroom and its hydrazines and reviewed their ongoing research. Finally, Nordic researchers summarised their chemical and toxicological studies on behalf of the Nordic Project Group on Phenylhydrazines...

  9. A Field-motion tautological approach and the role of the acceleration in setting a quantization condition

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Daniel Lima

    2013-01-01

    In this work is made a reanalysis of the central problem of electrodynamics, i.e., finding the conditions under which an electromagnetic field generates a stable mechanical motion and conversely the existence of this field itself can be consistent with that motion.

  10. Measurements of heat fluxes and soil moisture patterns in the field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, M.; Snehota, M.; Haase, T.; Wild, J.

    2011-12-01

    temperature and soil salinity on the resulting values. The TMS2 sensors undergo present calibration process with implementation of new features, such as automated higher frequency data acquisition based on hydrological conditions and internal efficiency of the measurements as well. Soil database is to be build for use in different field conditions. The research is supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic projects No. TA01021283

  11. Seasonal growth variation of peach palms cultivated in containers under subtropical conditions Variação estacional do crescimento em pupunheiras cultivadas em recipientes em condição subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is grown in the São Paulo State, Brazil, under climate seasonal variation conditions, mainly temperature and rainfal with possible effects on plant physiology. Recently, due to a higher interest in carrying out physiological experiments on the species, there has been a requirement for more controlled experimental conditions. Therefore, with the aim of studying the seasonal variation of peach palm growth for heart-of-palm production, as well as the possibility of growing them until harvest in pots, for future utilization in physiological experiments, this work was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, with 40 spineless peach palms. One year after seed germination, seedlings were transplanted to 80 L plastic pots, spaced 2 x 1 m, arranged in four rows of ten plants. All plants had vegetative growth evaluated monthly by measurements of main stem height, number of functional leaves, number of offshoots and length of leaf raquis. Seasonal variations were observed in terms of height and diameter growth as well as raquis length of the youngest leaf and in the evolution of the number of leaves. After two years, plants had an average height of 230 cm, six functional leaves and 11.7 offshoots. Positive correlations (P A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é cultivada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sob condições de variação estacional do clima, particularmente temperatura e precipitação pluviométrica, com possíveis efeitos na fisiologia das plantas. Recentemente, devido ao crescente interesse em se realizar experimentos sobre a fisiologia da espécie, tem havido necessidade de cultivá-la sob condições experimentais mais controladas. Com o objetivo de estudar a variação estacional do crescimento de pupunheiras, bem como a possibilidade de cultivá-las em recipientes até a colheita, para a realização de futuros experimentos fisiológicos, foi executado este trabalho, em Campinas, SP, com 40 pupunheiras

  12. [Cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huai-Min

    2009-08-01

    The isolation and culture of pathogenic free-living amoebae are useful in the diagnosis and research. This review focuses on the methods of isolation and cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including sample treatment, culture conditions, passage culture, pathogen detection, and maintenance.

  13. Full-field predictions of ice dynamic recrystallisation under simple shear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Bons, Paul D.; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Evans, Lynn A.; Jansen, Daniela; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the flow of ice on the microstructural scale is essential for improving our knowledge of large-scale ice dynamics, and thus our ability to predict future changes of ice sheets. Polar ice behaves anisotropically during flow, which can lead to strain localisation. In order to study how dynamic recrystallisation affects to strain localisation in deep levels of polar ice sheets, we present a series of numerical simulations of ice polycrystals deformed under simple-shear conditions. The models explicitly simulate the evolution of microstructures using a full-field approach, based on the coupling of a viscoplastic deformation code (VPFFT) with dynamic recrystallisation codes. The simulations provide new insights into the distribution of stress, strain rate and lattice orientation fields with progressive strain, up to a shear strain of three. Our simulations show how the recrystallisation processes have a strong influence on the resulting microstructure (grain size and shape), while the development of lattice preferred orientations (LPO) appears to be less affected. Activation of non-basal slip systems is enhanced by recrystallisation and induces a strain hardening behaviour up to the onset of strain localisation and strain weakening behaviour. Simulations demonstrate that the strong intrinsic anisotropy of ice crystals is transferred to the polycrystalline scale and results in the development of strain localisation bands than can be masked by grain boundary migration. Therefore, the finite-strain history is non-directly reflected by the final microstructure. Masked strain localisation can be recognised in ice cores, such as the EDML, from the presence of stepped boundaries, microshear and grains with zig-zag geometries.

  14. Photochemical processing of aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions under arctic field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Glenn A.; Bausch, Alexandra R. [Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Grannas, Amanda M., E-mail: amanda.grannas@villanova.edu [Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are transported to the Polar Regions, where they have the potential to bioaccumulate, presenting a threat to the health of wildlife and indigenous communities. They deposit onto snowpack during winter, and accumulate until spring, when they experience prolonged solar irradiation until snowmelt occurs. Photochemical degradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin, in frozen aqueous solution made from MilliQ water, 500 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide solution or locally-collected melted snow were measured in a field campaign near Barrow, AK, during spring-summer 2008. Significant photoprocessing of both pesticides occurs; the reactions depend on temperature, depth within the snowpack and whether the predominant phase is ice or liquid water. The effect of species present in natural snowpack is comparable to 500 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide, pointing to the potential significance of snowpack-mediated reactions. Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 deg. C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples, implying that the microenvironments experienced on frozen ice surfaces are an important consideration. - Highlights: > Photodegradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions made from MilliQ water, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or melted snow are reported. > Photoprocessing depends on temperature, depth beneath the snowpack surface and dominant phase. > Species present in natural snowpack have a photosensitizing effect comparable to 500 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. > Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 deg. C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples. > Collectively we find that frozen aqueous surfaces play a unique role in aldrin and dieldrin photochemistry. - A field study finds that frozen aqueous solutions of aldrin and dieldrin undergo photochemical degradation under arctic snowpack conditions. The reactions are enhanced in frozen systems and by natural snowpack constituents.

  15. Extraction of semantic biomedical relations from text using conditional random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetter Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing amount of published literature in biomedicine represents an immense source of knowledge, which can only efficiently be accessed by a new generation of automated information extraction tools. Named entity recognition of well-defined objects, such as genes or proteins, has achieved a sufficient level of maturity such that it can form the basis for the next step: the extraction of relations that exist between the recognized entities. Whereas most early work focused on the mere detection of relations, the classification of the type of relation is also of great importance and this is the focus of this work. In this paper we describe an approach that extracts both the existence of a relation and its type. Our work is based on Conditional Random Fields, which have been applied with much success to the task of named entity recognition. Results We benchmark our approach on two different tasks. The first task is the identification of semantic relations between diseases and treatments. The available data set consists of manually annotated PubMed abstracts. The second task is the identification of relations between genes and diseases from a set of concise phrases, so-called GeneRIF (Gene Reference Into Function phrases. In our experimental setting, we do not assume that the entities are given, as is often the case in previous relation extraction work. Rather the extraction of the entities is solved as a subproblem. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, we achieve very competitive results on both data sets. To demonstrate the scalability of our solution, we apply our approach to the complete human GeneRIF database. The resulting gene-disease network contains 34758 semantic associations between 4939 genes and 1745 diseases. The gene-disease network is publicly available as a machine-readable RDF graph. Conclusion We extend the framework of Conditional Random Fields towards the annotation of semantic relations from

  16. Estrus induction and fertility response following different treatment protocols in Murrah buffaloes under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L.; Phogat, J. B.; Pandey, A. K.; Phulia, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Dalal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different treatment protocols for estrus induction and conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. Materials and Methods: The 47 postpartum anestrus buffaloes of the 2nd to 6th parity were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=16): Buffaloes received cosynch treatment, that is, buserelin acetate 10 µg on day 0 and 9, cloprostenol 500 µg on day 7 followed by fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) at the time of second buserelin acetate and 24 h later. Group 2 (n=15): Buffaloes received norgestomet ear implant subcutaneously for 9 days, estradiol benzoate 2 mg on the day of implant insertion (day 0), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) 400 IU and cloprostenol 500 µg on day 9 followed by AI at 48 and 72 h after implant removal. Group 3 (Cosynch-plus, n=16): Buffaloes received Cosynch protocol as per Group 1 except an additional injection of PMSG 400 IU (i.m.) was given 3 days before the start of protocol and FTAI done at the same time of Group 1. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed after 45 days of AI. Results: The estrus induction response following the treatment was 81.3%, 100%, and 93.7% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The buffaloes of Group 1, 2, and 3 expressed intense (38.4%, 60% and 46.6%, respectively) and moderate estrus (46.1%, 26.6%, and 40%, respectively). The conception rates in Group 1, 2, and 3, at FTAI and overall including subsequent estrus were 37.5% and 62.5%, 53.3%, and 66.6%, 56.3%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: All the three treatment protocols can be effectively used for induction of estrus with acceptable conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. However, Cosynch-plus (similar to Cosynch protocol except addition of PMSG, 400 IU 3 days before the start of first buserelin acetate administration) protocol results comparatively better pregnancy rate.

  17. L-乳酸调控乳酸产生菌产物光学纯度的分析%Effects of cultivation conditions on the optical purity of L(+)-lactic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟武; 李十中; 封文涛; 张晗星; 王瑞明

    2009-01-01

    发酵初期在米根霉菌发酵培养基中添加L-乳酸可以调控发酵产物乳酸的光学纯度.随着L-乳酸添加量的增加,所产L-乳酸的光学纯度随之增加,当L-乳酸的添加量≥1.5 g/L时,D-乳酸不再产生.同时,L-乳酸的产量、生物量、糖转化率也随之降低.该调控方法对乳酸菌调控产L-乳酸光学纯度影响不大,对大肠杆菌发酵调控产D-乳酸光学纯度没有效果.%The effect of cultivation conditions on the optical purity of L(+)-lactic acid produced by Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was investigated.The isomeric composition of lactic acid was influenced by the supplementation of L(+)-lactic acid to fermentation medium.L(+)-isomer increased with the dosage, no D(-)-lactic acid was observed when the concentration of supplemented L(+)-lactic acid in matrix was ≥ 1.5 g/L.However, the L(+)-lactic acid yield, biomass and glucose conversion rate decreased with the dosage.With the same method, the supplementation of L(+)-lactic to substrate had no influence on isomeric composition of lactic acid by Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli.

  18. Inoculant of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus clarus) Increase Yield of Soybean and Cotton under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Martha V. T.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; de Freitas, Vanessa F.; de Luca, Marcelo B.; Barazetti, André R.; dos Santos, Igor M. O.; Gionco, Barbara; Garcia, Guilherme V.; Prete, Cássio E. C.; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species of AMF domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for nutrient supply in soybean (Glycine max L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) when compared with conventional chemical fertilization under field conditions. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: Fertilizer, AMF, AMF with Fertilizer, AMF with 1/2 Fertilizer, and the Control with non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth, nutrient absorption and yield. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased around 20 % of root colonization in both soybean and cotton; nutrients analyses in vegetal tissues showed increase of P and nitrogen content in inoculated plants, these results reflect in a higher yield. Our results showed that, AMF inoculation increase the effectiveness of fertilizer application in soybean and reduce the fertilizer dosage in cotton. PMID:27303367

  19. Quantifying atmospheric stability conditions at a swine facility and an adjacent corn field in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo; Sauer, Thomas J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric stability conditions in the atmospheric surface layer control the distance and direction of transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, transport processes significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as point sources of dust and odor constituents; however, little information is available on atmospheric stability effects. This study was conducted to assess year-round temporal patterns of atmospheric stability at a swine production facility and an adjacent commercial corn field (CF) in the US Midwest. Two towers of 10 and 20 m heights for continuous micrometeorological measurements were deployed within a CF and between swine buildings (BSB), respectively. Each tower was equipped with an eddy-covariance system at 6.8 m height, infrared thermometers, and six cup anemometers with thermocouples installed at log-distributed heights. Overall results from gradient Richardson number and Monin-Obukhov (z/L) calculations revealed a greater prevalence of unstable conditions for BSB compared with CF. During the 13-month measurement period, unstable cases (z/L ranging from -1 to -0.01) occurred 1.4 times more frequently for BSB than CF (52 vs. 39%, respectively), while stable cases (0.011-0.2) were 1.8 times more frequent for CF than BSB (24 vs. 14%, respectively). These patterns were partly associated with higher surface radiometric temperatures for BSB. Relatively greater diurnal heat capture at BSB (ground and roof surfaces) and a cooling effect in CF through active canopy transpiration during the daytime explain these z/L and radiometric temperature results. Prevalent diurnal atmospheric instability at BSB suggests enhanced ascendant vertical transport of air pollutants perhaps causing greater mixing/dilution with the atmospheric layer and/or their facilitated transport over greater distances when sorbed onto particles. This enhanced understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of atmospheric stability can be subsequently

  20. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The frequent detection of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, consumer care products or pharmaceuticals in water is an increasing concern for human and ecosystem health. Degradation analysis of these compounds can be challenging in complex systems due to the fact that metabolites are not always found and mass balances frequently cannot be closed. Many abiotic and biotic degradation pathways cause, however, distinct isotope fractionation, where light isotopes are transferred preferentially from the reactant to the product pool (normal isotope fractionation). Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of multiple elements is a particularly powerful method to evaluate organic micropollutant transformation, because it can even give pathway-specific isotope fractionation (1,2). Available CSIA field studies, however, have focused almost exclusively on volatile petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are present in high concentrations in the environment and can be extracted easily from water for GC-IRMS analysis. In the case of micropollutants, such as pesticides, CSIA in more challenging since it needs to be con