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Sample records for cultivars triticum aestivum

  1. [CdCl2-induced morphogenetic variation of Triticum aestivum cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunetova, Zh Zh; Omirbekova, N Zh; Shulembaeva, K K

    2008-11-01

    The effect cadmium chloride on released local cultivars of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been studied under laboratory and field conditions in order to widen the variation spectrum of this plant. It has been found that treatment of grains with a 0.01% aqueous solution of CdCl2 induces the appearance of tall, strong plants with productive bushiness in the M1 generation that are characterized by various morphological changes: elongated ears, scales, and grains; increased number of grains per ear and mass of 1000 grains; anthocyan pigmentation of the stem and leaf axil; etc. Study of meiosis showed chromosome aggregation, displacement of the mitotic spindle of the metaphase plate, and empty (sterile) cells in anaphases (AI and AII). The altered characters of M1 plants are preserved in the M2-M4 generations.

  2. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

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    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  3. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

  4. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  5. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). On loamy sand two compaction treatments (PAC-1 and PAC-2) and a no compaction reference treatment (REF) were applied. PAC-1 was intended to affect primarily the subsoil whereas PAC-2 was intended to affect primarily the topsoil. PAC-2 showed the highest and REF the lowest...

  6. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Guo Guangfang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two

  7. Screening of Bangladeshi winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Bari, Shafiqul M; Burkey, Kent O; Stamatelopoulos, Dimitris; Agathokleous, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity to ozone of ten Bangladeshi wheat cultivars was tested by exposing plants to eight ozone exposure regimes (50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 135, 150, and 200 ppb for 14, 11, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 days, respectively, for 8 h/day) in controlled environment chambers. Visible leaf injury, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, leaf greenness (SPAD value), quantum yield of photosynthesis, and stomatal resistance were measured to evaluate response. Shoot biomass, total chlorophyll, leaf greenness, and carotenoid content were reduced in ozone-exposed plants. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA)-biplot analysis, the order of sensitivity to ozone was: Akbar > Sufi ≥ Bijoy ≥ Shatabdi > Bari-26 ≥ Gourab > Bari-25 ≥ Prodip ≥ Sourav > Kanchan. The most important parameters to discriminate cultivars with respect to ozone sensitivity were visible injury and chlorophyll b/a ratio, whereas quantum yield of photosynthesis was less important. Differences in stomatal resistance were not a significant factor in ozone response. Regression of cultivars' PCA scores against year of release revealed no trend, suggesting that ozone tolerance was not incorporated during cultivar breeding.

  8. Activation of polyphenol oxidase in extracts of bran from several wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars using organic solvents, detergents, and chaotropes.

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    Okot-Kotber, Moses; Liavoga, Allan; Yong, Kwon-Joong; Bagorogoza, Katherine

    2002-04-10

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), known to induce browning in wheat-based products, has been shown to be activatable in wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran extracts by chemical compounds. The activity in the extracts could be increased to varying degrees with acetone, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and n-butanol as additives in the extraction buffer. The most potent alcoholic activator was n-butanol (about a 3-fold increase), followed by 2-propanol and ethanol, whereas methanol had the least effect. Ionic detergents in the extraction buffer were also good activators, with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) being more potent (3-fold increase) than cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) that had only half as much effect, whereas the nonionic detergent, Triton X-114, was ineffective. The chaotropes, urea and guanidine x HCl (GND), were the most potent activators of all, increasing the activity over 4-fold. Of the two chaotropes, GND was more effective at lower concentrations (<6 M) than urea. However, the enzyme activity lessened at a higher concentration of GND (6 M), while there was a further increase in the activity with 6 M urea treatment. The activity lessened with higher concentration of GND presumably as a result of extensive denaturation of the enzyme, as GND is known to be a more potent denaturant than urea. It is hypothesized that in wheat PPO exists in an inactive form which may be activated by the presence of activators, hitherto unknown, similar in effect to that elicited by the chemical denaturants in this study.

  9. Use of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing the impact of ozone on growth and productivity of five cultivars of Indian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B

    2009-12-01

    Increase in concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) is one of the main factors affecting world agriculture production. Tropical countries including India are at greater risk due to their meteorological conditions (high solar radiation and temperature) being conducive to the formation of O(3). The most effective anti-ozonant chemical is N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N-phenylurea or ethylene diurea (EDU). Due to its specific characteristics, EDU has been used in the field as a phytomonitoring agent to assess crop losses due to O(3). Field experiments were conducted on five local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv HUW234, HUW468, HUW510, PBW343, and Sonalika) grown under natural field conditions in a suburban area of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India during December 2006 to March 2007 to determine the impact of O(3) on their growth and yield characteristics. Mean monthly O(3) concentrations varied between 35.3 ppb and 54.2 ppb at the experimental site. EDU treatment positively affected various growth and yield parameters with difference between cultivars. EDU-treated plants showed increase in shoot and root length, leaf area, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, and net primary productivity, indicating O(3) induced suppression in growth. EDU treatment was highly significant in different cultivars for total biomass and test weight but not for harvest index. Yield per plant was higher by 25.6%, 24%, 20.4%, 8.6%, and 1.9% in EDU-treated cultivars HUW468, Sonalika, HUW510, HUW234, and PBW343, respectively, than non-EDU-treated ones. These results clearly indicate the sensitivity of all the wheat cultivars to ambient levels of O(3) with cv HUW468 appearing to be most sensitive. The present study also supports the view that EDU has great potential in alleviating the unfavorable effects of O(3) and can be effectively used as a monitoring tool to assess growth and yield losses in areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O(3).

  10. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress at differ......The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv....../Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII (F′q/F′m) were measured before, during and after the heat stress. The heat stress significantly inhibited the Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m in all wheat cultivars at all growth stages. There were significant differences in Fv/Fm among the cultivars at anthesis and at early grain development...

  11. Resposta de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. ao controle químico das principais doenças fúngicas da cultura Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. to the chemical control of fungal diseases

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    Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doenças do trigo, como a ferrugem-da-folha, a helmintosporiose e o oídio, causadas por Puccinia recondita, Bipolaris sorokiniana e Blumeria graminis tritici, respectivamente, podem reduzir severamente o rendimento da cultura. Diversas medidas são preconizadas para o controle das mesmas, entre as quais o emprego de cultivares resistentes, na época adequada, e o controle químico, sem o qual, freqüentemente, a cultura torna-se inviável economicamente. No presente trabalho avaliou-se, em condições de campo, a resposta a aplicações de fungicidas de seis cultivares de trigo, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 e IAC 370, em quatro experimentos instalados nos anos de 2000 a 2003, em Capão Bonito, Estado de São Paulo. Os ensaios foram realizados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições, e analisados, a cada ano, em esquema fatorial, 2 x 6, sendo fungicida o fator 1 (com e sem e cultivar o fator 2. As pulverizações, duas ou três, foram iniciadas quando a ferrugem-da-folha atingiu entre 10 e 15% de incidência, e repetidas após aproximadamente 15 dias. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças por meio de uma escala de notas, que variou de 0 a 9 sendo 0 ausência de sintomas e 9 maior que 60 % de área de tecido foliar afetado pelas doenças, além do peso de mil sementes (PMS e do rendimento. O oídio foi encontrado apenas em 2000, a ferrugem-da-folha em todos os anos em elevados índices de severidade (30 a 60% de área foliar afetada e a helmintosporiose ocorreu nos três últimos anos, 2001 a 2003, apresentando os maiores índices de severidade em 2001 (até 60 % de área foliar afetada, o ano mais chuvoso. Em todos os anos os tratamentos químicos proporcionaram controle das doenças, aumentos no PMS e no rendimento. Nos anos mais favoráveis para a cultura, 2002 e 2003, o retorno em rendimento foi maior. As cultivares de ciclo mais longo, IAC 370, IAC 289 e IAC 350, foram as que mais responderam à aplicação do

  12. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

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    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  13. Evaluation of a Rapid Method for Screening Heat Stress Tolerance Using Three Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars.

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    Truong, Hai An; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Won Je; Lee, Byung Cheon; Chung, Namhyun; Kang, Chon-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2017-07-19

    Thermotolerance in plants is a topic of concern given the current trends in global warming. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid and reproducible screening method for selection of heat stress-tolerant wheat varieties to expedite the breeding process. We tested the robustness of the screen in three Korean wheat cultivars, "BackJung", "KeumKang", and "ChoKyeong". We showed that 4-day-old seedlings of "KeumKang" had the highest survival rates after a 45 °C treatment for 20 h. Moreover, the ability to retain chlorophyll and antioxidant activity was also highest in "KeumKang". The increase in malondialdehyde content in "ChoKyeong" indicated that this cultivar showed the greatest damage after heat stress. Collectively, our results showed that "KeumKang" is the most heat-tolerant cultivar of the three examined. In conclusion, the most reliable and rapid screening method in our investigation was survival rate examined at lethal temperature.

  14. Community Structure, Species Variation, and Potential Functions of Rhizosphere-Associated Bacteria of Different Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Aaron K; Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Minimal tillage management of extensive crops like wheat can provide significant environmental services but can also lead to adverse interactions between soil borne microbes and the host. Little is known about the ability of the wheat cultivar to alter the microbial community from a long-term recruitment standpoint, and whether this recruitment is consistent across field sites. To address this, nine winter wheat cultivars were grown for two consecutive seasons on the same plots on two different farm sites and assessed for their ability to alter the rhizosphere bacterial communities in a minimal tillage system. Using deep amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA, a total of 26,604 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found across these two sites. A core bacteriome consisting of 962 OTUs were found to exist in 95% of the wheat rhizosphere samples. Differences in the relative abundances for these wheat cultivars were observed. Of these differences, 24 of the OTUs were found to be significantly different by wheat cultivar and these differences occurred at both locations. Several of the cultivar-associated OTUs were found to correspond with strains that may provide beneficial services to the host plant. Network correlations demonstrated significant co-occurrences for different taxa and their respective OTUs, and in some cases, these interactions were determined by the wheat cultivar. Microbial abundances did not play a role in the number of correlations, and the majority of the co-occurrences were shown to be positively associated. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States was used to determine potential functions associated with OTUs by association with rhizosphere members which have sequenced metagenomics data. Potentially beneficial pathways for nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and malate metabolism, as well as antimicrobial compounds, were inferred from this analysis. Differences in these pathways and their

  15. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  16. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after one day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained...

  17. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

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    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation.

  18. Heat-shock effects on photosynthesis and sink-source dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Xu, H.Y.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms causing genotypic differences in heat tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), physiological responses to a heat shock in a vegetative (`end of tillering¿) or a reproductive (`early grain filling¿) stage were studied. Three cultivars ¿ Lavett, Ciano-79 and Attila ¿

  19. Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Analysis of Soluble Leaf Proteins of a Salt-sensitive (Triticum aestivum) and a Salt-tolerant (T. Durum) Cultivar in Response to NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this research, 3-day-old etiolated wheat seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ceyhan-99 (salt-sensitive) and T. durum Desf. cv. Firat-93 (salt-tolerant) were grown in control and salt (150 mmol/L NaCl) treatments at a 15/25℃ temperature regime in the light for 12 days. Soluble proteins extracted from the first leaf tissues of two cultivars were analyzed by twodimensional (2-D) electrophoresis in order to detect NaCl-induced changes. The soluble leaf protein profiles of cultivars were observed to be similar. However, quantitative differences in 74 proteins were detected in the salt treatment group,compared to the control. Among the 74 protein spots, 14 were common for two cultivars. As a result of NaCl treatment, two low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins (28.9 and 30.0 kDa) and one intermediate-molecular-weight (IMW) protein (44.3 kDa)in cv. Ceyhan-99 and six LMW proteins (18.6, 19.4, 25.7, 25.9, 26 and 27.6 kDa) in cv. Firat-93 were newly synthesized. The newly synthesized proteins were specific to each cultivar. In the Firat-93 cultivar, four proteins with LMW (24.8-27.9 kDa)were completely lost in NaCl treatment. Moreover, these four protein spots were not observed in both protein profiles of cv. Ceyhan-99. Most of these proteins were in acidic character (pi <6.0-6.9) and low molecular weight (<31.6 kDa). It is suggested that the newly synthesized or completely lost LMW proteins may be important for cultivars differing in sensitivity towards NaCl.

  20. EFECTOS DE LA SALINIDAD EN LAS VARIABLES HÍDRICAS POTENCIALES HÍDRICO Y OSMÓTICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN CULTIVARES CUBANOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. Y T. durum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 cultivares de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum L. y Triticum durum L., en etapas iniciales del desarrollo, siguiendo las metodologías para su determinación. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía aplicando, como primer tratamiento, una solución nutritiva salinizada a base de NaCl a una conductividad eléctrica de 8 dS.m-1. El tratamiento control consistió en la solución nutritiva sin salinidad significativa (0,36 dS.m-1. Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de los cultivares en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Los cultivares que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todos los cultivares y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todos los cultivares realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en los cultivares INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre los cultivares y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  1. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2013-09-25

    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  2. The stem structure of Triticum aestivum L. under different mineral nutrition

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    Olga I. Zhuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplying of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. plants by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the main stem structure and plant productivity was studied for cultivars ‘Mironivska 808’ and ‘Smuglyanka’. It was shown that increased mineral nutrition causes increasing stem and central xylem vessels diameter on average of 1 mm. Increased plant productivity was supported by increasing grains quantity per ear and mass of 1000 grains.

  3. Carbonisation and morphological changes in modern dehusked and husked Triticum dicoccum and Triticum aestivum grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.

    2008-01-01

    Modern Triticum dicoccum and Triticum aestivum grains, with and without glumes, were subjected to experimental carbonisation under anoxic conditions. Experimental variables were the presence or absence of glumes, temperature, exposure time and heating rate. The maximum temperature was 600°C, the tim

  4. Introgression of Aegilops triuncialis into Triticum aestivum. A progress report.

    OpenAIRE

    Delibes Castro, Angeles; Lopez Braña, Isidoro; Mena, M.; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1988-01-01

    [EN] The wild grass Aegilops triuncialis (genomes CCUU) has been crossed with the tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the resulting ABCU sterile hybrid has been rescued with pollen from the hexaploid T. aestivum (AABBDD). Seven spikes from two hybrid plants were pollinated with pollen from T. aestivum cv. Almatense and 8 kernels were obtained. After five rounds of selfing, plants with 28 to 41 chromosomes have been derived. Low fertility (3-5 viable kernels per plant) was observed t...

  5. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  6. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  7. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  8. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    in relevant seasons and environments. Depth penetration rate of roots varied significantly within the tested cultivars, from 1.39 (±0.35) mm °C-1 day-1 for cv. Tuareg to 2.07 (±0.34) mm °C-1 day-1, for cv. Mercedes. This study documented consistent differences of DPR among North-European winter wheat...... low light and temperature during autumn and winter-conditions not met in standard glasshouse facilities. This study used tube rhizotrons of 2 m length, positioned outdoor under a rainout shelter to screen for depth penetration rates (DPR) of roots. Rooting depths of 1 to 1.5 m were achieved with 23...

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  10. Determination of flavonoids in Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, M. L.; Opriş, O.; Copaciu, F.; Varodi, C.

    2012-02-01

    Pharmaceutical residues in the environment, and their potential toxic effects, have been recognized as one of the emerging research area in the environmental chemistry. Antibiotics can reach plants from treated soil or due to irrigation. The flavonoids extraction from Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin and separation of flavonoids are presented in this study. There were used classical and modern extraction techniques (maceration, microwave assisted solvents, etc). The efficiency of extraction process was spectrophotometricaly evaluated by determining the total flavonoids content and by HPTLC on silica gel plates using the mixture: carbon tetrachloride - acetone - formic acid (35:11:3, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plates were inspected both in ultraviolet and visible after visualization with NTS reagent (diphenylboryloxyethylamin). The chromatographic plates were compared in respect to determine the changes in extract composition due to the different extraction techniques. Depending on the concentration of ampicillin administered to plants, comparative studies on flavonoids content were performed.

  11. Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Duan, Xiang-Qiu; Xia, Yan-Mei; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Zhi-Hao; Min, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by improving plant growth. For a long time, the reactive α, β-carbonyl ketoaldehyde methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MG) has been regarded as merely a toxic metabolite in plants, but, now, emerging as a signal molecule in plants. In this study, cadmium (Cd) stress decreased plant height, root length, fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that Cd had toxic effects on the growth of wheat seedlings. The toxic effects of Cd were alleviated by exogenously applied MG in a dosage dependent fashion, and 700 mM MG reached significant differences, but this alleviating effect was eliminated by the treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), suggesting that MG could mitigate Cd toxicity in wheat. This study reported for the first time that MG could alleviate Cd toxicity in wheat, uncovering a new possible physiological function for MG, and opening a novel line of research in plant stress biology.

  12. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesha Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  13. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND TRITICUM DURUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of technological and antioxidant characteristics of selected varieties of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum grown in Slovakia and Serbia. Research was conducted during the two years 2009 and 2010. Measured values of water activity were in the range 0.4 - 0.5. Optimal activity of alpha-amylase was measured in Serbian varieties Etida (210 seconds, Pobeda (218 seconds and Renesansa (272 seconds. The highest sedimentation capacity expressed as sedimentation index by Zeleny had variety Karpatia (60 cm3. The high content of insoluble protein (gluten was measured in a variety Rusija (36.6%. Nitrogen content was in the range 12.7 - 13.9% of dry matter, starch content in the range 56.6 - 61.6% of dry matter. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method ranged in wheat varieties from 44 to 49%. The highest content of polyphenols was measured in a variety Etida (0.464 mg of catechin/g of sample. Durum wheat varieties have a higher content of polyphenols in general. The production of semolina flour from durum wheat may have the positive antioxidant effect according to gained measurements.

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum, TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm, longitud de las espigas (cm, masa de mil granos (g y rendimiento agrícola (t.ha-1. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva para cada una de las variables estudiadas, estimándose la media y desviación típica por especie. La variedad cubana de trigo harinero CC-204 fue utilizada como control. La matriz de datos obtenida (genotipo x variable fue procesada mediante la técnica multivariada de Componentes Principales. Los datos para todos los análisis estadísticos se ejecutaron por el paquete estadístico SPSS 11. 0 para Windows. La mayoría de los genotipos tuvieron un comportamiento medio general, aunque se separaron del resto algunos genotipos de trigo harinero y triticale. Los valores de la media y desviación estándar para las variables analizadas muestran que no fue posible distinguir diferencias por especie, aunque las plantas de trigo duro fueron las de menor altura, siendo los mejores genotipos: 12 y 54 de la especie T. aestivum (trigo harinero; 17, 18 y 25 de T. durum (trigo duro; 29 y 37 del X Triticum secale (tritic

  15. Effect of Temperature on Triticum aestivum L. Seedlings Growth and Phytohormone Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kosakivska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of short-term heat and cold stresses on growth, accumulation and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in 7 and 14-day-old Triticum aestivum L. seedlings of the frost resistant cultivar Volodarka. A high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones in leaves and roots. Biometric analysis showed that at the early stage of vegetation (7 days seedlings were more resistant to temperature stresses, especially to cold, than at the later ones (14 and 21 days, that correlates with the frost resistance of cultivar. The results indicated that at the early stages of growth, after a short-term cold stress (2 h., +20C, the amount of free ABA substantially increased in roots, while at the later ones, it occurred after a short-term heat stress (2 h., +400C in leaves. After a heat stress the leaves of 7-day-old seedlings accumulated a conjugated form of IAA. Heat stress caused the accumulation of free IAA in roots of 14-day-old seedlings. Cross stress (cold+heat caused some increase in the pool of endogenous ABA both in roots and leaves while the amount of free IAA increased only in leaves. Сhanges in the accumulation of the free and conjugated forms of ABA and IAA depended both on the organs and the age of seedlings, and the type of stress and correlated with frost resistance of the cultivar Volodarka.

  16. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change.

  17. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the sixth and penultimate enzyme in the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. The EPSPS genes of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) have not been well characterized. Herein, the three homoeologous copies of the wheat EPSPS gen...

  18. NsLTP1 and NsLTP2 isoforms in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum Cv. Centauro) and farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saviozzi, Franco; Saletti, Rosaria; Lorenzi, Roberto; Foti, Salvatore; Galleschi, Luciano

    2005-10-05

    Isoforms of nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1) and nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 2 (nsLTP2) were investigated in bran tissues isolated from caryopses of two cereal crops quite relevant for the Italian market, the cultivar Centauro of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian emmer or farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank). By sequential separation of the bran extracts on cation-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, fractions containing only proteins belonging to the nsLTP1 and nsLTP2 classes were obtained. The proteins were roughly identified by SDS-PAGE and by immunoreactions in Western blotting experiments. By MALDI-MS and RP-HPLC/ESI-MS analyses we were able to show the presence of several LTP1 and LTP2 isoforms in the investigated species. Bioinformatic searches based on the determined Mr indicated that (i) two nsLTP1s already identified in T. aestivum have Mr and number of Cys residues identical to that of a 9.6 kDa protein present both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro; (ii) two isoforms of nsLTP2 detected in T. aestivum have the same Mr and number of Cys residues of two 7 kDa proteins found in Centauro; and (iii) a nsLTP1 detected in Ambrosia artemisiifolia has Mr and number of Cys residues coincident to that of a 9.9 kDa protein found both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro.

  19. Creation and functional analysis of new Puroindoline alleles in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, L; Martin, J M; Giroux, M J

    2009-01-01

    The Hardness (Ha) locus controls grain texture and affects many end-use properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The Ha locus is functionally comprised of the Puroindoline a and b genes, Pina and Pinb, respectively. The lack of Pin allelic diversity is a major factor limiting Ha functional analyses and wheat quality improvement. In order to create new Ha alleles, a 630 member M(2) population was produced in the soft white spring cultivar Alpowa using ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis. The M(2) population was screened to identify new alleles of Pina and Pinb. Eighteen new Pin alleles, including eight missense alleles, were identified. F(2) populations for four of the new Pin alleles were developed after crossing each back to non-mutant Alpowa. Grain hardness was then measured on F(2:3) seeds and the impact of each allele on grain hardness was quantified. The tested mutations were responsible for between 28 and 94% of the grain hardness variation and seed weight and vigor of all mutation lines was restored among the F(2) populations. Selection of new Pin alleles following direct phenotyping or direct sequencing is a successful approach to identify new Ha alleles useful in improving wheat product quality and understanding Ha locus function.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Triticum aestivum squamosa-promoter binding protein-box genes involved in ear development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; a Xia Liu; a Guangyao Zhao; Xinguo Mao; Ang Li; Ruilian Jing

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes play a critical role in regulating flower and fruit development. In this study, 10 novel SBP-box genes (TaSPL genes) were isolated from wheat ((Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Yanzhan 4110). Phylogenetic analysis classified the TaSPL genes into five groups (G1-G5). The motif combinations and expression patterns of the TaSPL genes varied among the five groups with each having own distinctive characteristics: TaSPL20/21 in G1 and TaSPL17 in G2 mainly expressed in the shoot apical meristem and the young ear, and their expression levels responded to development of the ear; TaSPL6/15 belonging to G3 were upregulated and TaSPL1/23 in G4 were downregulated during grain development; the gene in G5 (TaSPL3) expressed constitutively. Thus, the consistency of the phylogenetic analysis, motif compositions, and expression patterns of the TaSPL genes revealed specific gene structures and functions. On the other hand, the diverse gene structures and different expression patterns suggested that wheat SBP-box genes have a wide range of functions. The results also suggest a potential role for wheat SBP-box genes in ear development. This study provides a significant beginning of functional analysis of SBP-box genes in wheat.

  1. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Qiwei; Yao, Fangfang; Chen, Zhan; Feng, Zhaozhong; Manning, W J

    2007-07-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants.

  2. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves......, the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  3. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gao; Tiegui Nan; Guiyu Tan; Hongwei Zhao; Weiming Tan; Fanyun Meng; Zhaohu Li; Li, Qing X.; Baomin Wang

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanob...

  4. Distribution of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieczonka, K.; Rosopulo, A.

    1985-12-01

    Cadmium, copper, and zinc were quantitatively determined in the whole grain, the germ, the aleurone layer, the outer pericarp, and the endosperm from the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the methods of direct solid microsampling and flame-AAS, respectively. Metal concentrations markedly differed among the tissues investigated. Both methods used in this study produced almost identical heavy metal concentrations. However, the techniques dramatically differed in the amounts of grain material required for analysis.

  5. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  6. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  7. Effect of dissolved organic matter on the toxicity of chlorotoluron to Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ning-hui; YANG Zhi-min; ZHOU Li-xian; WU Xin; YANG Hong

    2006-01-01

    Response of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum cv. YM 158 and NM 9) to the herbicide chlorotoluron and the effect of two forms of dissolved organic matter on the chlorotoluron toxicity to the plants were characterized. Treatment with chlorotoluron at 10-50 μg/ml inhibited the seed germination and a dose-response was observed. The inhibition of seed germination was correlated to the depression of α-amylase activities. To identify whether chlorotoluron induced oxidative damage to wheat plants, the malondlaldehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage were measured. Results showed that both MDA content and electrolyte leakage in the chlorotoluron-treated roots significantly increased. Activities of several key enzymes were measured that operate in citric acid cycle and carbohydrate metabolic pathway. Inhibited activities of citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were observed in the chlorotoluron-treated roots as compared to control plants. We also examined malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in wheat roots exposed to 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron. However, none of the enzymes showed significant changes in activities. Application of 160 μg/ml dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from non-treated sludge(NTS)and heat-expanded sludge (HES) in the medium with 30 μg/ml chlorotoluron induced an additive inhibition of seed germination and plant growth. The inhibition of growth due to the DOM treatment was associated with the depression of activities of α-amylase, citrate synthase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, as well as the increase in malondlaldehyde content and electrolyte leakage. These results suggested that the presence of DOM might enhance the uptake and accumulation of chlorotoluron, and thus resulted in greater toxicity in wheat plants. The two forms of DOM exhibited differences in regulation of chlorotoluron toxicity to the wheat plants.Treatments with DOM-NTS induced greater toxicity to plants as compared to those with

  8. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of grains per main spike, main spike fertility and 1000-grain weight than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. The BC1F1 hybrid line was characterized by wheat-like fertility and phenotype. The F5 hybrid lines were characterized by much higher variability of the analysed morphological traits than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. Grains of the hybrid lines had higher protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc content than wheat grains. The presence of DNA fragments specific to Ae. kotschyi Boiss. in the genotypes of the hybrid lines was confirmed by seven ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats molecular markers. Two ISSR markers – ISSR23690 and ISSR33650 – were the most effective for germplasm analysis of the hybrid lines. The analysed lines can become a source material for improvement of common wheat T. aestivum L. in crossing programs.

  9. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements in Plants Ⅰ. Fractionation Patterns and Their Forming Mechanisms in Different Organs of Triticum Aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao; Ding Shiming; Zhang Chaosheng; Zhang Zili; Yan Juncai; Li Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the forming mechanisms in plants were studied using Triticum aestivum as plant material with application of exogenous REEs and hydroponic culture. REEs were significantly fractionated in different parts of Triticum aestivum. M-type tetrad effect could be observed in both root and shoot of Triticum aestivum, which might result from the different abilities of REEs to form phosphate precipitation. Middle REEs (MREEs), light REEs (LREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in root, stem and leaf of Triticum aestivum, respectively. REE speciation calculations using VMINTEQ program show REEs in simulated xylem solution mainly exist as REE-EDTA- and RE3+, but only HREEs are enriched in REE-EDTA-, while LREEs are enriched in the other REE species. It is suggested that the fractionation between LREEs and HREEs might be caused by the uptake of REE-EDTA- in Triticum aestivum leaves, but might result from the uptake of the other REE species in their stems.

  10. [Epigenetic variability induced by nicotinic acid in Triticum aestivum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, E D

    2003-09-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid (NA) on hereditary traits of spring common wheat cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 126 (K.126) were studied under the laboratory and field conditions. Treatment of seeds and vegetating plants with 0.01-0.1% NA (aqueous solution) induced heritable epigenetic changes in wheat. As a result, strong tall plants with the long productive spike, large seeds, and several quantitative and qualitative characters other than in the original cultivar were obtained in the second and further generations after treatment. Crosses of changed plants with each other did not result in segregation with respect to leaf downiness or anthocyan stem color in F2-F4, suggesting the same epigenetic state of genes responsible for changed characters. In crosses with the original cultivar, characters of the changed plants always dominated in F1. Basing on the current views, the changes were attributed to a transition of the hl1 and pc recessive marker genes into new, dominant epiallelic states Hl1 and Pc, which respectively determine downy leaves and the colored stem. The NA effect was specific, since only one type of the variation was observed. The changed characters were stable, and no reversion to the original phenotype was detected in 57 generations.

  11. Adaptation to rhizosphere acidification is a necessary prerequisite for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling resistance to ammonium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Tian, Zhongwei; Liu, Yang; Abid, Muhammad; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-11-01

    Because soil acidification accompanies ammonium (NH4(+)) stress, the tolerance of higher plants to ammonium is associated with their adaptation to root medium acidification. However, the underlying mechanisms of this adaptation have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was thus to elucidate the effect of rhizosphere pH on NH4(+) tolerance in different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were carried out on two wheat cultivars: AK58 (an NH4(+)-sensitive cultivar) and XM25 (an NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar). Four pH levels resembling acidified (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) were tested and 5 mM NH4(+) nitrogen (AN) was used as a stress treatment, with 5 mM nitrate nitrogen used as a control. The addition of AN led to a severe reduction in biomass and an increase in free NH4(+), amino acids, and the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the shoots and roots of the two wheat cultivars. Further decreases in growth medium pH led to further increases in free NH4(+), but decreases in total amino acids and the activities of GS and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GDH). However, there was less of an increase in free NH4(+) and less of a reduction in the activities of GS and NADH-GDH in the cultivar XM25 compared with AK58. In addition, total soluble sugar content and the root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratio were also decreased by AN treatment, except in the shoots of XM25. Decreasing pH resulted in lower root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratios with greater reductions in the AK58 cultivar. These results indicate that wheat growth was inhibited significantly by the addition of NH4(+) combined with low pH. Low medium pH reduced the capacity for nitrogen assimilation and interrupted carbohydrate transport between the shoot and root. The NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar XM25 was better adapted to low rhizosphere pH due to its increased capacity for assimilating NH4(+) efficiently and thereby avoiding toxic

  12. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

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    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  13. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

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    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

  14. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE GLUTENINAS Y GLIADINAS EN TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L.) MEXICANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Eliel Martínez-Cruz; Eduardo Espitia-Rangel; Héctor E. Villaseñor-Mir; José D. Molina-Galán; Ignacio Benítez-Riquelme; Amalio Santacruz-Varela; Roberto J. Peña-Bautista

    2010-01-01

    Las gluteninas y las gliadinas del trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L.) tienen una función fundamental en la definición de la calidad de panificación. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la composición de las subunidades de gluteninas de alto (G-APM) y bajo (G-BPM) peso molecular, y de las omega;-gliadinas, en 72 progenitores usados por el programa de fitomejoramiento de trigo harinero para temporal del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (CEVAMEX-INIFAP) y en...

  15. Physiological processes associated with genetic progress in yield potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aisawi, Khaled A. Boulgasem

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown of any crop and provides one-fifth of the total calories of the world's population. Since the 1960s, increases in productivity have been achieved as a result of wide-scale adoption of Green Revolution technologies. However, in spite of growing demand, the challenges of increasing production to feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050 are still considerable. Due to the increased demand, it is estimated that food production mu...

  16. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  17. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  18. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  19. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Carmina; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro- and mic...

  1. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  2. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  3. 小麦与野燕麦杂交后代品系光合特性的研究%Study on the Photosynthetic Performance of the New Lines Developed from the Cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咪咪; 何丽娜; 何觉民; 张红梅; 何仪; 周建伟

    2012-01-01

    The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.%The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.

  4. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Begonia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn

  5. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  6. Adult plant and seedling resistance to powdery mildew in a Triticum aestivum x Triticum militinae hybrid line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Irena; Peusha, Hilma; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Järve, Kadri

    2006-02-01

    In the progeny of a cross between the common wheat cultivar Tähti and Triticum militinae, a member of the timopheevii group of tetraploid wheats, several hybrid lines were selected that are characterized by improved seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew. An F2 single-seed descendant mapping population segregating for seedling resistance and APR to powdery mildew was analysed for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The main QTL responsible for APR was detected on the long arm of chromosome 4A tightly linked to the Xgwm160 locus on a T. militinae translocation explaining up to 54% of phenotypic variance. The same translocation influenced seedling resistance to powdery mildew upon inoculation of plants with a synthetic population of Blumeria graminis DC. f. sp. tritici, and explained 28-33% of the phenotypic variance.

  7. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  8. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour.

  9. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  10. The structure of the endodermis during the development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four stages of development in the process of differentiation of the root endodermis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Grana are described. The proendodermis cells have a meristematic nature. Their vacuoles accumulated an osmophilic material. In the next stage, Casparian strips arose in the walls of the endodermis. Dictyosomes and ER cisterns were numerous in the protoplasts of these cells. In the following stage, a suberin lamella was deposited over the entire internal surface of the primary cell wall. In the final stage, a secondary cell wall, thickened in the form of a letter U, was formed. In secondary wall simple pits arose. The endodermis of the wheat root developed asynchronously, more quickly over the phloem bundles.

  11. Intermediate fertile Triticum aestivum (+) Agropyron elongatum somatic hybrids are generated by low doses of UV irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Xia CHENG; Guang Min XIA; Da Ying ZHI; Hui Min CHEN

    2004-01-01

    We report the production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (the synonym is Thinopyrum ponticum). Asymmetric protoplast fusion was performed between Agropyron elongatum protoplasts irradiated with a low UV dose and protoplasts of wheat taken from nonregenerable suspension cultures. More than 40 green plantlets were obtained from 15 regenerated clones and one of them produced seeds. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants and seeds were intermediate between wheat and Agropyron elongatum. All of the regenerated calli and plants were verified as intergeneric hybrids on the basis of morphological observation and analysis of isozyme,cytological,5SrDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed evidence of random segregation and recombination of mtDNA.

  12. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. grown under two levels of chemical protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007-2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Science in Lublin. The studies comprised two cultivation lines of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.: STH 716 and STH 717, as well as the 'Tonacja' cultivar of common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L.. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation: minimal and complex protection. Infection of wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Tottman's scale, 1987. After three years of study, the mean disease indexes for the analyzed wheat genotypes in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 31.13, 30.43 and 38.83 for, respectively, the 'Tonacja' cultivar and the cultivation lines of T. durum STH 716 and STH 717. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after three years of study the disease indexes ranged from 25.26 (T. durum STH 716 to 30.83 (T. durum STH 717. The results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, F. avenaceum as well as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani, caused root rot and necrosis of wheat stem bases. The analyzed chemical protection levels did not significantly influence grain yield of the investigated genotypes of T. aestivum and T. durum.

  13. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  14. Isolation, chemical characterization, and free radical scavenging activity of phenolics from Triticum aestivum L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Iwona; Pecio, Lukasz; Ciesla, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-19

    Fourteen phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were isolated and 19 were identified in the aerial parts of Triticum aestivum L. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of the data obtained by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. T. aestivum L. was found to be rich in flavones, especially in luteolin derivatives. Three of the isolated compounds, including luteolin 6-C-[6Glc″-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], luteolin 6-C-[5Rib″-O-E-feruoyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], and 3',4',5'-O-trimethyltricetin 7-O-[β-D-glucuropyranosyl(1″→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside], have been reported for the first time in the plant kingdom. The amount of individual phenolics, in winter wheat, was also determined. Additionally, the free radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds was tested in a simple and rapid thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical test (TLC-DPPH•) with image processing.

  15. Polymorphism of microsatellite loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and related species

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    Kondić-Špika Ankica Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed polymorphism of 15 microsatellite loci in the col­lection comprising of 40 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 32 genotypes belonging to other species within Triticum genus and 3 genotypes from Aegilops genus. The results showed significant differences in the variability of the tested loci in bread wheat and related species. In the collection of bread wheat genotypes, 119 alleles were detected with the average number of 7.9 alleles per locus. In wild and cultivated related species 157 alleles were identified, with the average of 10.5 alleles per locus. All analysed parameters of micro­satellite loci variability (PIC value, gene diversity, heterozygosity, etc. indicated higher level of polymorphism in wild relatives than in the cultivated bread wheat. Analyses of individual genomes indicated that in the bread wheat genetic diversity of the B and D genomes was significantly reduced in relation to the A genome, while the differences in polymorphism between genomes in the wild relatives were significantly lower. The results showed that wild related species can be used as sources for new variability in wheat breeding. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development

  16. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Campbell Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM. Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and

  17. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329) Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Singh; Agrawal, S. B.; Dheeraj Rathore

    2003-01-01

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was ...

  18. Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia

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    M. M. Musienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied­. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions.

  19. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  20. Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18: cultivares de trigo para o estado de São Paulo Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18: wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. For the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    João Carlos Felício

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados em experimentos localizados nas principais regiões tritícolas do Estado de São Paulo, a produtividade e as reações aos agentes da ferrugem-do-colmo(³ e ferrugem-da-folha, bem como as qualidades de panificação de dois novos cultivares de trigo, Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais realizados no Instituto Agronômico e obtidos por seleção através do método de genealogia, comparados com os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC 5. Considerando a média de produção de grãos nos anos estudados, o 'Xavantes' foi superior estatisticamente 10 e 14% pelo teste de Duncan a 5% em relação, respectivamente, aos cultivares BH 1146 e IAC 5, utilizados como controles. O 'Maracaí' não apresentou diferença estatística significativa com relação as testemunhas: Relativamente à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, os cultivares apresentaram, nos anos estudados, graus de infecção inferiores aos registrados sobre a testemunha BH 1146. O 'Maracaí' apresentou resistência a um maior número de raças do patógeno ocorrentes em nossas condições. O comportamento desses cultivares com relação à ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita assemelhou-se às testemunhas com infecções de campo consideradas médias. Nos ensaios de panificação, os dois cultivares evidenciarem valores próximos, apresentando o Xavantes leve superioridade em algumas características, porém ambos demonstraram fraca capacidade panificadora quando comparados ao cultivar padrão Tobari 66.The new cultivars Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18 were selected in the wheat breeding program conducted at Instituto Agronômico. They were studied in the main wheat area of the State of São Paulo, compared with the commercial cultivars BH-1146 and IAC 5, in relation to yield, reactions to stem and leaf rusts and to bread quality. The results showed that the cultivar Xavantes yielded 10% and 14% more than BH-1146 and IAC 5

  1. Contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga al rendimiento de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum) en condiciones limitadas por la disponibilidad de asimilados post-antesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maydup, María Luján

    2013-01-01

    Las partes verdes de la espiga (e.g. brácteas, aristas) son fuente de asimilados en cereales C3. Sin embargo, la contribución de la fotosíntesis de la espiga en trigo pan (Triticum aestivum L.) es menos conocida que el resto de las fuentes de asimilados (v.g. fotosíntesis de la hoja bandera, retranslocados del tallo). En trigo es ampliamente aceptado que la limitación por fuente no está presente en cultivares antiguos (Kruk et al. 1997; Borrás et al. 2004). Sin embargo, en germoplasma moderno...

  2. Characterization of agronomic and quality traits and HSW-G5 compositions from the progenies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, M; Sun, D K; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2015-03-20

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play an essential role in wheat processing quality. In this study, we evaluated the genetic pattern with HMW-GS composition between generations and examined whether agronomic and quality traits were correlated with each other. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high protein content and 2 cultivars with low protein content were subjected to a reciprocal cross. Sixteen agronomic and 4 quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 216 seeds from each F2 generation were chosen randomly and analyzed for HMW-GS composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Agronomic and quality characteristics were not significantly different between reciprocal crosses, indicating no cytoplasmic effect on the characteristics studied. The separation ratio of 2 HMW-GS loci was 9:3:3:1, indicating no linkage between any 2 loci. The novel HMW-GS N was detected in cultivar R145, which did not follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. A Glu-A1a(1) band was not detected in 1 individual from Tian8901xR145. Average grain weight per spike was significantly correlated with quality characteristics and may be a suitable criterion for selecting high protein content in wheat breeding programs.

  3. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

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    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  4. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  5. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

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    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  6. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  7. Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor ( Gramineae )%Effect of 2,4-D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor (Gramineae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rashid Khan; Khawaja Muhammad Aslam

    2006-01-01

    Effects of 2,4-D on seedling growth and chromosomal abnormalities were studied in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor. Seeds were soaked at different concentrations of 2,4 -D (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0% ) for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. 2,4-D suppressed the germination more severely in P. minor than in T. aestivum. Shoot and root length was retarded with the increase of concentration and time of treatment in both species. Generally radical was more negatively affected than coleoptile and emergence of radical was not observed at 1.0% concentration at 8, 12, and 16 hours of treatment in T. aestivum while in P. minor there was a total lack of radical emergence at 1.0% concentration for all durations of treatment. Stiff and curled roots and undifferentiated callus like scutellar tissues were observed in T. aestivum, while in P. minor the coleoptile obtained was lean, pale green in colour and was lying flat on filter paper. Mitotic index decreased, while chromosomal abnormalities, bridges and laggards were increased with the increase of concentration and soaking time however, laggards were not observed in T. aestivum. Clumping and chain formation of chromosomes at metaphase was also noticed in P. minor.

  8. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  9. Characteristics of cadmium uptake and membrane transport in roots of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Zhen; Tu, Chen; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of several cereals that is capable of accumulating higher amounts of Cd in plant tissues. It is important to understand the Cd(2+) transport processes in roots that result in excess Cd accumulation. Traditional destructive technologies have limited capabilities in analyzing root samples due to methodological limitations, and sometimes may result in false conclusions. The mechanisms of Cd(2+) uptake into the roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by assessing the impact of various inhibitors and channel blockers on Cd accumulation as well as the real-time net Cd(2+) flux at roots with the non-destructive scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The P-type ATPase inhibitor Na3VO4 (500 μM) had little effect on Cd uptake (p wheat, suggesting that Cd(2+) uptake into wheat root cells is not directly dependent on H(+) gradients. While, the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol significantly limited Cd(2+) uptake (p wheat, suggesting the existence of metabolic mediation in the Cd(2+) uptake process by wheat. The Cd content at the whole-plant level in wheat was significantly (p wheat root via Ca(2+) channels. In addition, our results suggested a role for protein synthesis in mediating Cd(2+) uptake and transport by wheat. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg(-1)) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL(-1) of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg(-1)) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL(-1) of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants.

  11. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

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    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  12. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  13. Effects of Short-Term Hypergravity Exposure are Reversible in Triticum aestivum L. Caryopses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Vidyasagar, Pandit B.

    2017-07-01

    Short-term hypergravity exposure is shown to retard seed germination, growth and photosynthesis in wheat caryopses. This study investigates the reversibility of effects of short-term hypergravity on imbibed wheat (Triticum aestivum var L.) caryopses. After hypergravity exposure (500 × g - 2500 × g for 10 min) on a centrifuge, exposed caryopses were kept under normal gravity (1 × g) up to six days and then sown on agar. Results of the present study showed that percentage germination and growth were completely restored for DAY 6 compared to DAY 0. Restoration of germination and growth was accompanied by increased α-amylase activity. The specific activity of antioxidative enzyme viz. catalase and guaiacol peroxidase was lowered on DAY 6 compared to DAY 0 suggesting an alleviation of oxidative cellular damage against hypergravity stress. Chlorophyll pigment recovery along with chlorophyll fluorescence (PI and Fv/Fm) on DAY 6 indicates a transient rather than permanent damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. Thus, our findings demonstrate that short-term hypergravity effects are reversible in wheat caryopses. The metabolic cause of restoration of seed germination and growth upon transferring the caryopses to normal gravity is performed by a reactivation of carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes, α-amylase and alleviation of oxidative stress damage with subsequent recovery of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity.

  14. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  15. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  16. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A novel system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat( Triticum aestivum L.) cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYAO; BAOJIANLI; JINGFENJIA

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for transforming the cultured cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Ganmai 8)was developed vsing Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The features of the optimum procedure were:(a)both combined synthetic signal molecules and multiple natural extracts from susceptible plants were used to pretreat the primary vigorous Agrobacterium(PVA)cells for approximately 16h:(b)the gyratory magnetic field condition was used during cocultivation;(c)the cocultivating period and selecting condition were modified;(d)the recipient cells were at exuberant metabolism and active division while infected with Agrobacterium.Both neomycin phosphotransferase and nopaline synthase assays demonstrated the expression of NPT Ⅱ and NOS genes.located on the T-DNA segment of chimaeric plasmid pGV3850::1103neo.in transformed wheat cell colonies by adopting the techniques of dot blot ndPAGE or high voltage paper electrophoresis,Integration of the foreign genes into wheat genome was confirmed by Southerm blot hybridization.Moreover.a relatively rational method was described for the estimation of transformation frequencies from cultured cell levels.

  18. Insights Into Triticum aestivum Seedling Root Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Vera Buxa, Stefanie; Furch, Alexandra; Friedt, Wolfgang; Gottwald, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most common and potent fungal pathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum), known for causing devastating spike infections and grain yield damage. F. graminearum is a typical soil-borne pathogen that builds up during consecutive cereal cropping. Speculation on systemic colonization of cereals by F. graminearum root infection have long existed but have not been proven. We have assessed the Fusarium root rot disease macroscopically in a diverse set of 12 wheat genotypes and microscopically in a comparative study of two genotypes with diverging responses. Here, we show a 'new' aspect of the F. graminearum life cycle, i.e., the head blight fungus uses a unique root-infection strategy with an initial stage typical for root pathogens and a later stage typical for spike infection. Root colonization negatively affects seedling development and leads to systemic plant invasion by tissue-adapted fungal strategies. Another major outcome is the identification of partial resistance to root rot. Disease severity assessments and histological examinations both demonstrated three distinct disease phases that, however, proceeded differently in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Soil-borne inoculum and root infection are considered significant components of the F. graminearum life cycle with important implications for the development of new strategies of resistance breeding and disease control.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns Among Mitochondrion, Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes in Triticum aestivum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Juan Zhang; Jie Zhou; Zuo-Feng Li; Li Wang; Xun Gu; Yang Zhong

    2007-01-01

    In many organisms, the difference in codon usage patterns among genes reflects variation in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of codon bias and factors in shaping the codon usage patterns among mitochondrion,chloroplast and nuclear genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). GC contents in nuclear genes were higher than that in mitochondrion and chloroplast genes. The neutrality and correspondence analyses indicated that the codon usage in nuclear genes would be a result of relative strong mutational bias, while the codon usage patterns of rnitochondrion and chloroplast genes were more conserved in GC content and influenced by translation level.The Parity Rule 2 (PR2) plot analysis showed that pyrimidines were used more frequently than purines at the third codon position in the three genomes. In addition, using a new alterative strategy, 11, 12, and 24 triplets were defined as preferred codons in the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes, respectively. These findings suggested that the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes shared particularly different features of codon usage and evolutionary constraints.

  20. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  1. Conditional QTL mapping of three yield components in common wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhang; Jiansheng Chen; Ruyu Li; Zhiying Deng; Kunpu Zhang; Bin Liu; Jichun Tian

    2016-01-01

    Spike number per m~2(SN),kernel number per spike(KNPS) and thousand-kernel weight(TKW)are the three main components determining wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) yield.To evaluate the relationships among them a doubled haploid(DH) population consisting of 168 lines grown at three locations for three years was analyzed by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping.Thirty-three unconditional QTL and fifty-nine conditional QTL were detected.Among them,two QTL(QSN-DH-2B and QSN-DH-3A-1.1) improved SN,with no effect on KNPS.QKNPS-DH-2B-2.1 improved KNPS,with no effect on SN.QKNPS-DH-1A-1.1,QKNPS-DH-2D-1.1and QKNPS-DH-6A improved KNPS,with no effect on SN or TKW.QKNPS-DH-6B was associated with increased SN and TKW.In addition,QTKW-DH-4B,QTKW-DH-5B and QTKW-DH-7B increased TKW without decreasing KNPS.These results provide useful information for marker assisted selection(MAS) and improvement in wheat yield.

  2. Anticancer Effect of Rutin Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum aestivum Straw in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Dixit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a anthracene (DMBA and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

  3. Nitrogen and Photosynthesis in the Flag Leaf of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J R

    1983-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants were grown with various concentrations of nitrate nitrogen available to the roots. Sampling of flag leaves began after they had reached full expansion and continued throughout senescence. Rates of gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuP(2)) carboxylase activity, and the amounts of chlorophyll, soluble protein, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined for each flag leaf. Rate of CO(2) assimilation was uniquely related to total leaf nitrogen irrespective of nutrient treatment, season, and leaf age. Assimilation rate increased with leaf nitrogen, but the slope of the relationship declined markedly when leaf nitrogen exceeded 125 millimoles nitrogen per square meter. Chlorophyll content and RuP(2) carboxylase activity were approximately proportional to leaf nitrogen content. As leaves aged, RuP(2) carboxylase activity and calculated Hill activity declined in parallel. With normal ambient partial pressure of CO(2), the intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) was always such that rate of assimilation appeared colimited by RuP(2) carboxylation and RuP(2) regeneration capacity.The initial slope of rate of CO(2) assimilation against intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) varied nonlinearly with carboxylase activity. It is suggested that this was due to a finite conductance to CO(2) diffusion in the wall and liquid phase which causes a drop in CO(2) partial pressure between the intercellular spaces and the site of carboxylation. A double reciprocal plot was used to obtain an estimate of the transfer conductance.

  4. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  5. Toxicological effects of rare earth yttrium on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀娟; 朱国才; 李亚宁

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the stress of rare earth yttrium (Y) and showed that 25-100 mg/kg Y treatments evidently increased the biomass (root mass, shoot mass and leaf mass), accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) increase in the chlorophyll (CHL) content in wheat leaves. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were de-tected in wheat shoots (stem and leaf) and roots too, indicating the presence of poisoning active oxygen species (AOS). The MDA content in wheat roots increased with the augmentation of Y concentration. These results indicated that there was a dose-dependent effect of Y on the changes of MDA content in wheat roots. Although the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalases (CAT) in wheat shoots and roots irregularly fluctuated with the increase in Y concentration, 25-100 mg/kg Y significantly (p<0.01) increased the activities of SOD and POD. In general, the dose-dependent effects of Y on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes were insignificant. Our data also indicated that the increase in SOD and POD activities could be used as a good bio-marker for the stress induced by low concentrations of Y.

  6. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Dark-Induced Senescence in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Li; Fanyun Lin; Gui Wang; Ruilian Jing; Qi Zheng; Bin Li; Zhensheng Li

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the genetics of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),aquantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid population developed from across between the varieties Hanxuan 10 (HX) and Lumai 14 (LM).The senescence parameters chlorophyll content (Chl a+b,Chl a,and Chl b),original fluorescence (Fo),maximum fluorescence level (Fm),maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm),and ratio of variable fluorescence to original fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were evaluated in the second leaf of whole three-leaf seedlings subjected to 7 d of darkness.A total of 43 QTLs were identified that were associated with dark-induced senescence using composite interval mapping.These QTLs were mapped to 20 loci distributed on 11 chromosomes:1B,1D,2A,2B,3B,3D,5D,6A,6B,7A,and 7B.The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 7.5% to 19.4%.Eleven loci coincided with two or more of the analyzed parameters.In addition,14 loci co-located or were linked with previously reported QTLs regulating flag leaf senescence,tolerance to high light stress,and grain protein content (Gpc),separately.

  8. Nitric oxide mediates alginate oligosaccharides-induced root development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Hang; Yin, Heng; Wang, Wenxia; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg L(-1)) were found to induce the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in the root system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which promoted the formation and elongation of wheat roots in a dose-dependent manner. NO inhibitors suggested that nitrate reductase (NR), rather than nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was essential for AOS-induced root development. Further studies confirmed that AOS-induced NO generation in wheat roots by up-regulating the gene expression and enzyme activity of NR at the post-transcriptional level. The anatomy and RT-PCR results showed that AOS accelerated the division and growth of stele cells, leading to an increase in the ratio of stele area to root transverse area. This could be inhibited by the NR inhibitor, sodium tungstate, which indicated that NO catalyzed by the NR was involved in AOS regulation of root development. Taken together, in the early stage of AOS-induced root development, NO generation was a novel mechanism by which AOS regulated plant growth. The results also showed that this marine resource could be widely used for crop development.

  9. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  10. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1 Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins and phosphoproteins upon seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eDong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/ transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination.

  12. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  13. Cultivar identification in T. aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccino, P; Accerbi, M; Corbellini, M

    1993-08-01

    Two probes, specific for HMW-glutenins and γ-gliadins have been used to identify 50 common wheat Italian cultivars, most of which are closely related, and four common wheat cultivars originating outside Italy. The probes revealed complex polymorphic patterns; three probe/enzyme combinations had the necessary sensitivity for the identification of all 54 cultivars. As already shown for potato and barley, the use of four-cutter restriction enzymes and polyacrylamide gels proved particularly useful for detecting polymorphism.

  14. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  15. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H2O2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Ellen; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Beaugrand, Johnny; Volckaert, Guido; Van Campenhout, Steven; Proost, Paul; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2007-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI> or =9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6-kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a K(i) of approx. 60-nM. Except for zeamatin, an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins.

  17. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the selection criteria to obtain a superior mutant derived from the wheat plants of such varieties as Dewata, Selayar and Alibey, adaptive in medium land. The analysis of agronomic growth characters showed a significantly effect on a growth percentage of the initial growth (8 mutants, flowering time (1 mutant, panicle stem length (15 mutants, number of panicles (7 mutants, the number of grains per panicle (8 mutants, grain weight observed (8 mutants, grain weight per genotype (6 mutants, leaf area (2 mutants and leaf greenness (5 mutants. The effects on the characters of ripe time, harvest, panicle length and plant height were not significant. The mutants of Dewata, Selayar and Alibey could be selected based on the characters of panicle stem length, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per observation because these characters generated more mutants than the other characters. The correlation analysis between the characters of growth and yield components of wheat mutants showed that the number of grains per panicle was positively correlated with the grain weight observed, while the length of panicle stem was positively correlated with grain weight per genotype, number of panicles and leaf area. Hopefully some mutants produced could adapt to the tropical medium land, thus adding to the diversity of wheat germplasm in Indonesia, thereby reducing the import of wheat to Indonesia.How to CiteSari, L., Purwito, A., Sopandie, D., Purnamaningsih, R. & Sudarmonowati, E. (2016. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 353-361. 

  18. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development.

  19. ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM BY METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ISOFLAVONE PATHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Shehawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are large group of secondary metabolites produced in legumes such as soybeans. They have essential biological functions as nutraceutical and health functions for human. They are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing organisms and plant competition (allelopathy. In this report, isoflavonoids were expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum via introducing the key enzymes Isoflavone Synthase (IFS. Transgenic callli induced from wheat immature embryos were propagated and prepared for bombardment. Five gene constructs were prepared; the binary vector (plasmid pAHC25, 35S-CRC, 35S-IFS, Oleocin-IFS, Oleocin-IFS-CHI and were used for wheat calli transformation. Putative transgenic calli were used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants. Evaluation of recovered transgenic plants was carried out using PCR, southern bloting of PCR products and IFS-specific probe and HPLC analysis of transgenic plant tissue extracts. Genistein and naranigenin were detected in transgenic plants carrying IFS gene, indicating that the introduced IFS was able to use the endogenous substrate from wheat. IFS showed activity under 35S promoter as well as oleocin promoter. The activity of oleocin promoter in monocots provides a good tool to use plant promoters to drive plant gene expression in plants. This also represents promoter compatibility that the cis acting elements of the oleocin promoter represent binding targets for trans acting elements of wheat. Engineering the isoflavone pathway in wheat would lead to enhancement of nutraceutical value of wheat grains and improvement of wheat resistance to diseases.

  20. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  1. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarda, D.D.; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J. E.; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with a...

  2. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  3. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... increased plant height in both cultivars. AMF also increased biomass and grain yield in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. The results showed that the improvements in growth and yield were the results of AMF-mediated increases in photosynthesis during drought stress and that the alleviating effect of AMF depended...

  4. EFFICIENT CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM IMMATURE EMBRYO CULTURE OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.- THINOPYRUM INTERMEDIUM ALIEN DISOMIC ADDITION LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-mei; LI Xing-feng; GAO Ju-rong; WANG Hong-gang

    2005-01-01

    An efficient plant regeneration system was developed from the immature embryos of Triticum aestivum L. - Thinopyrum intermedium alien disomic addition lines, which resistant to powdery mildew. The protocol was based on a series of experiments involving the callus induction and differentiation. The experiment studied the effects of embryo size on callus induction and differentiation of the immature embryos. We found that the embryo size is critical for the establishment of embryogenic callus. Immature embryos (0.8~1.5 mm) showed high ability to produce embryogenic callus capable of regenerating green plants. The medium Murashige and Skoog's (MS) added with 2mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) gave the best embryogenic callus induction, maintenance and regeneration. The embryogenic callus maintained high regeneration during six subcultures in the callus induction medium. Suitable time of partial desiccation could effectively improve the regeneration capacity of the callus cultured for 3~4 month.Bud green spot and root green spot were observed during the differentiation of callus and the difference between them was described. Regenerated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.2 mg/L Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Plants were successfully transferred to soil and grew well. This efficient plant regeneration system provides a foundation for the study of somaclonal variation of Triticum aestivum L. - Thinopyrum intermedium alien disomic addition lines.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Carmina Falcato; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka;

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro- and mic......Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro......- and micronutrient concentrations in aboveground biomass; evaluation of AM fungal structures in roots and assessment of light-use efficiency of plants. Results AM increased grain number in wheat under heat-stress, and altered nutrient allocation and tiller nutrient composition. Heat increased number of arbuscules...... in wheat root, whereas number of vesicles and total colonization were unaffected. Heat increased photosystem II yield and the electron transfer rate, whereas non-photochemical quenching decreased during the first 2 days of heat-stress. Conclusions Nutrient allocation and –composition in wheat grown under...

  6. Genome-wide characterization of JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN transcription repressors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Qiao, Linyi; Bai, Jianfang; Wang, Peng; Duan, Wenjing; Yuan, Shaohua; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengting; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping

    2017-02-13

    The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome. Structural analysis revealed that the TaJAZ proteins in wheat were as conserved as those in other plants, but had structural characteristics. By phylogenetic analysis, all JAZ proteins from wheat and other plants were clustered into 11 sub-groups (G1-G11), and TaJAZ proteins shared a high degree of similarity with some JAZ proteins from Aegliops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa. The Ka/Ks ratios of TaJAZ genes ranged from 0.0016 to 0.6973, suggesting that the TaJAZ family had undergone purifying selection in wheat. Gene expression patterns obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed differential temporal and spatial regulation of TaJAZ genes under multifarious abiotic stress treatments of high salinity, drought, cold and phytohormone. Among these, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 were specifically expressed in the anther tissues of the thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) wheat line BS366 and normal control wheat line Jing411. Compared with the gene expression patterns in the normal wheat line Jing411, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 had different expression patterns in abnormally dehiscent anthers of BS366 at the heading stage 6, suggesting that specific up- or down-regulation of these genes might be associated with the abnormal anther dehiscence in TGMS wheat line. This study analyzed the size and composition of the JAZ gene family in wheat, and investigated stress responsive and differential tissue-specific expression profiles of each

  7. GENETIC DETERMINATION OF THE NITROGEN SUPPLY OF SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikov M.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Associated Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Long Yang; Rui-Lian Jing; Xiao-Ping Chang; Wei Li

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (PCFKs) under drought stress condition are generally used to characterize instincts for dehydration tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Therefore, it is important to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PCFKs in wheat genetic improvement for drought tolerance. A doubled haploid (DH)population with 150 lines, derived from a cross between two common wheat varieties, Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14,was used to analyze the correlation between PCFKs and chlorophyll content (ChlC) and to map QTLs at the grainfilling stage under conditions of both rainfed (drought stress, DS) and well-watered (WW), respectively. QTLs for these traits were detected by QTLMapper version 1.0 based on the composite interval mapping method of the mixed-linear model. The results showed a very significant positive correlation between Fy, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo.The correlation coefficients were generally higher under WW than under DS. Also, there was a significant or a highly significant positive correlation between Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and ChlC. The correlation coefficients were higher in the DS group than the WW group. A total of 14 additive QTLs (nine QTLs detected under DS and five QTLs under WW)and 25 pairs of eplstatic QTLs (15 pairs detected under DS and 10 pairs under WW) for PCFKs were mapped on chromosomes 6A, 7A, 1B, 3B, 4D and 7D. The contributions of additive QTLs for PCFKs to phenotype variation were from 8.40% to 72.72%. Four additive QTLs (two QTLs detected under DS and WW apiece) controlling ChlC were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 5A and 7A. The contributions of these QTLs for ChlC to phenotype variation were from 7.27% to 11.68%. Several QTL clusters were detected on chromosomes 1B, 7A and 7D, but no shared chromosomal regions for them were identified under different water regimes, indicating that these QTLs performed different expression patterns under rainfed and well-watered conditions.

  9. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  10. Characterization of a PDR type ABC transporter gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Yi; XIAO Jin; MA LuLin; WANG HaiYan; QI ZengJun; CHEN PeiDu; LIU DaJun; WANG XiuE

    2009-01-01

    DON,as a virulence factor,plays an important role in the infection of Fusarium graminearum in wheat.The infection ability of F. graminearum depends on its capacity of producing DON. The production of DON by F. graminearum is significantly decreased in the wheat varieties with scab resistance. In this study,GeneChip analysis indicated that an EST encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was up-regulated by 45 times in a wheat landrace Wangshuibai,which is resistant to DON accumulation.A pair of EST-derived primers were designed based on the EST sequence,and a clone was then isolated from a wheat genomic DNA TAC library. The TAC clone was sequenced using chromosome walking and gene prediction was conducted using Softberry. A cDNA clone of this gene was subsequently isolated from Wangshuibai induced by DON using gene-specific primers designed according to the untranslated sequence of the gene. The genome size of the gene is 7377 bp,consisting of 19 exons with coding sequences of 4308 bp. It encodes a protein with 1435 amino acid residues and the calculated molecular weight is about 161 kD. BLAST analysis indicated that the gene may belong to pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) sub-family,and hence designated as TaPDR1 (Triticum aestivum pleiotropic drug resistance). TaPDR1 was located on chromosome 5A of wheat using nulliaomic-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring. TaPDR1 was up-regulated by induction of both DON and F. graminearum. Expression patterns of TaPDR1 were different in wild-type Wangshuibai and the fast-neutron induced Wangshuibai mutant lacking FHB1,a major QTL of FHB resistance and DON resistance in chromosome arm 3BS. These results suggested that TaPDR1 might be a candidate gene responsible for DON accumulation resistance. The expression profile showed that TaPDR1 expression was neither induced by hormones typically involved in biotic stress,such as JA and SA,nor by abiotic stresses,such as heat,cold,wounding and NaCI. However,TaPDR1 expression was

  11. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  12. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  13. The effect of genes on A and B chromosomes of a number of Triticinae on meiotic behaviour in Triticum aestivum and its hybrids with related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained and hypotheses that have been put forward to integrate them, are summarized in this section.1. Studies of chromosome association in F 1 hybrids Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale with and without chromosome 5B and in the presence or in the absence o

  14. QTL Mapping for Drought Tolerance at Stages of Germination and Seedling in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Using a DH Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhuan-fang; CHANG Xiao-ping; GUO Xiao-jian; JING Rui-lian; LI Run-zhi; JIA Ji-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Drought is a major constraint in many wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) production regions. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conditioning drought tolerance at stages of germination and seedling in wheat were identified in a double haploid (DH) population derived from the cross, Hanxuan10×Lumai14, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Interval mapping analysis revealed that QTLs for drought tolerance at germination stage were located on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5A, 6B, 7A and 7B, respectively, and the most effective QTL was mapped on chromosome 2B, explaining 27.2% of phenotypic variance. The QTLs for drought tolerance at seedling stage were located on 1B, 3B and 7B, respectively, and the most effective QTL was mapped on chromosome 3B, explaining 21.6% of phenotypic variance. Their positions were different from those of QTLs conferring drought tolerance at germination stage, indicating that drought tolerance at germination stage and seedling stage was controlled by different loci. Most of the identified QTLs explained 18% or more of phenotypic variance for drought tolerance at germination and seedling stage, and would be useful in future for marker assisted selection programs and cultivar improvement.

  15. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, were determined. Heat and UV-B irradiation alone caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigment content, radical scavenging activity and super oxide radical scavenging activity in the two studied plants. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were stimulated in response to UV and/or heat stresses. The elevation of enzyme activities was higher under heat than under UV-B, especially in T. aestivum. According to our findings, it can be concluded that combined heat and UV-B provided cross-tolerance; otherwise, single stress was found to aggravate the responses.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and estimation of major bioactive compounds from Triticum aestivum L. grass with antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Anand; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Shukla, Shruti

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate phytochemical analysis, and qualitative and quantitative determination of major bioactive compound present in various organic extracts of T. aestivum L. grass. Soxhlet apparatus was used for the extraction purpose using hexane, chloroform, methanol and distilled water as a solvent system. All the extracts derived from T. aestivum showed qualitative presence of major phytochemicals including alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates. Further, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid in various organic extracts responsible for the reported maximum antimicrobial activity of T. aestivum grass against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. These findings confirm that T. aestivum grass containing medicinally important bioactive compounds may have significant potential to be used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of various diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  17. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at Glu-1 Loci in Chinese Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; PANG Bin-shuang; YOU Guang-xia; WANG Lan-fen; JIA Ji-zeng; DONG Yu-chen

    2002-01-01

    Wheat processing quality is greatly influenced by the seed proteins especially the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) components, the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) components and gliadin components. Genes encoding the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components were located on the long arms and the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, respectively. HMW-GS components in 5 129 accessions of wheat germplasms were analyzed systematically, including 3 459 landraces and 1 670 modern varieties. These accessions were chosen as candidate core collections to represent the genetic diversity of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) germplasms documented and conserved in the National Gene Bank. These candidate core collections covered the 10 wheat production regions in China. In the whole country, the dominating alleles at the three loci are Glu-A1b (null), Glu-B1b (7 + 8), and Glu- D1a (2 + 12), respectively. The obvious difference between the land race and the modern variety is the dramatic frequency increase of alleles Glu-A1a (1), Glu-B1c (7 + 9), Glu-B1h (14 + 15), Glu-D1d (5 + 10) and allele cording 5 + 12 subunits in the later ones. In the whole view, there is minor difference on the genetic(allelic)richness between the landrace and the modern variety at Glu-1, which is 28 and 30 respectively. However, the genetic dispersion index (Simpson index) based on allelic variation and frequencies at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 suggested that the modern varieties had much higher genetic diversity than the landraces. This revealed that various isolating mechanisms (such as auto-gamous nature, low migration because of undeveloped transposition system) limited the gene flow and exchange between populations of the landraces, which led up to some genotypes localized in very small areas. Modern breeding has strongly promoted gene exchanges and introgression between populations and previous isolated populations. In the three loci, Glu-B1 has the highest

  18. Protective effects of nitricoxide on salt stress-inducedoxidative damage to wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, plasma membrane permeability confirmed that 0.1 and 1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, could markedly alleviate the oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves induced by 150 and 300 mmol/L NaCl treatments, respectively. Further results proved that NO significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), both of which separately contributed to the delay of and H2O2 accumulation in wheat leaves under salt stress. Meanwhile, the accumulation of proline was apparently accelerated. Therefore, these results suggested that NO could strongly protect wheat leaves from oxidative damage caused by salt stress.

  19. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329 Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329 by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc. showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  20. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  1. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  2. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...... sheath cells. In situ localisation confirmed that GS1 transcripts were present in the perifascicular sheath cells whilst those for GSr were confined to the vascular cells. Studies of the expression and protein profiles showed that all GS sub-families were differentially expressed in the leaves, peduncle......, glumes and roots. Expression of GS genes in leaves was developmentally regulated, with both GS2 and GS1 assimilating or recycling ammonia in leaves during the period of grain development and filling. During leaf senescence the cytosolic isozymes, GS1 and GSr, were the predominant forms, suggesting major...

  3. Growth responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) exposed to ambient air pollution under varying fertility regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, S B; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2003-08-20

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc.) showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  4. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundam Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.. Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.. Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

  5. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  7. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease.

  8. Subgenome chromosome walking in wheat: A 450-kb physical contig in Triticum monococcum L. spans the Lr10 resistance locus in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nils; Feuillet, Catherine; Wicker, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Keller, Beat

    2000-01-01

    For many agronomically important plant genes, only their position on a genetic map is known. In the absence of an efficient transposon tagging system, such genes have to be isolated by map-based cloning. In bread wheat Triticum aestivum, the genome is hexaploid, has a size of 1.6 × 1010 bp, and contains more than 80% of repetitive sequences. So far, this genome complexity has not allowed chromosome walking and positional cloning. Here, we demonstrate that chromosome walking using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones is possible in the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (Am genome). BAC end sequences were mostly repetitive and could not be used for the first walking step. New probes corresponding to rare low-copy sequences were efficiently identified by low-pass DNA sequencing of the BACs. Two walking steps resulted in a physical contig of 450 kb on chromosome 1AmS. Genetic mapping of the probes derived from the BAC contig demonstrated perfect colinearity between the physical map of T. monococcum and the genetic map of bread wheat on chromosome 1AS. The contig genetically spans the Lr10 leaf rust disease resistance locus in bread wheat, with 0.13 centimorgans corresponding to 300 kb between the closest flanking markers. Comparison of the genetic to physical distances has shown large variations within 350 kb of the contig. The physical contig can now be used for the isolation of the orthologous regions in bread wheat. Thus, subgenome chromosome walking in wheat can produce large physical contigs and saturate genomic regions to support positional cloning. PMID:11078510

  9. Characterization of low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit genes from the D-genome of Triticum aestivum, Aegilops crassa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. tauschii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, M.R.; Ahmadi, S.; Shanejat-Boushehri, A.A.; Komaei, G.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) gene sequences from the D-genome from Aegilops crassa (2n ¼ 4x ¼ 28), Ae. cylindrica (2n ¼ 4x ¼ 28), Ae. tauschii (2n ¼ 2x ¼ 14) and Triticum aestivum (2n ¼ 6x ¼ 42) were obtained using five sets of specific allele primer pairs. Only the sequence

  10. UPLC-QTOF analysis reveals metabolomic changes in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under low-nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Ji-Hong; Huang, Bing-Yan; Guo, Xiao-Yang; Xiong, Shu-Ping; La, Gui-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of the most important grain crop plants worldwide. Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of wheat and exerts a marked influence on its metabolites. To investigate the influence of low nitrogen stress on various metabolites of the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a metabolomic analysis of two wheat cultivars under different induced nitrogen levels was conducted during two important growth periods based on large-scale untargeted metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF). Multivariate analyses-such as principle components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)-were used for data analysis. PCA yielded distinctive clustering information among the samples, classifying the wheat flag samples into two categories: those under normal N treatment and low N treatment. By processing OPLS-DA, eleven secondary metabolites were shown to be responsible for classifying the two groups. The secondary metabolites may be considered potential biomarkers of low nitrogen stress. Chemical analyses showed that most of the identified secondary metabolites were flavonoids and their related derivatives, such as iso-vitexin, iso-orientin and methylisoorientin-2″-O-rhamnoside, etc. This study confirmed the effect of low nitrogen stress on the metabolism of wheat, and revealed that the accumulation of secondary metabolites is a response to abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, we aimed to identify markers which could be used to monitor the nitrogen status of wheat crops, presumably to guide appropriate fertilization regimens. Furthermore, the UPLC-QTOF metabolic platform technology can be used to study metabolomic variations of wheat under abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. TaSCL14, a novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) GRAS gene, regulates plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunmei; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Yaofeng; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng

    2015-01-20

    Rates of photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence are all important physiological factors that affect plant development and thus agricultural productivity. GRAS proteins play essential roles in plant growth and development as well as in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far few GRAS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been characterized. A previous transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of a GRAS gene (TaSCL14) was induced by high-light stress in Xiaoyan 54 (XY54), a common wheat cultivar with strong tolerance to high-light stress. In this study, TaSCL14 gene was isolated from XY54 and mapped on chromosome 4A. TaSCL14 was expressed in various wheat organs, with high levels in stems and roots. Our results confirmed that TaSCL14 expression was indeed responsive to high-light stress. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of TaSCL14 in wheat was performed to help characterize its potential functions. Silencing of TaSCL14 resulted in inhibited plant growth, decreased photosynthetic capacity, and reduced tolerance to photooxidative stress. In addition, silencing of TaSCL14 in wheat promoted leaf senescence induced by darkness. These results suggest that TaSCL14 may act as a multifunctional regulator involved in plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  13. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  14. Low light intensity effects on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing energy consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. As a primary source of energy, light is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low light intensity at different stages on growth, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, biological production and antioxidant defence systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 3 intensity-controlled stages according to growth period (a total of 65 days): seedling stage (first 20 days), heading and flowering stage (middle 30 days) and grain filling stage (last 15 days). Initial light condition of the control was 420 μmol m-2 s-1 and the light intensity increased with the growth of wheat plants. The light intensities of group I and II at the first stage and the last stage were adjusted to the half level of the control respectively. For group III, the first and the last stage were both adjusted to half level of the control. During the middle 30 days, all treatments were kept the same intensity. The results indicated that low-light treatment at seedling stage, biomass, nutritional contents, components of inedible biomass and healthy index (including peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content) of wheat plants have no significant difference to the control. Furthermore, unit kilojoule yield of group I reached 0.591 × 10-3 g/kJ and induced the highest energy efficiency. However, low-light treatment at grain filling stage affected the final production significantly.

  15. Influence of biochar and seaweed extract applications on growth, yield and mineral composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under sandy soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa Badry Mosa Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two pot experiments were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 winter seasons to study the effect of biochar (BC as soil amendments at two rates 2% and 5%, seaweed extract (SWE as foliar applications at 1 and 2 g/l and the combination between BC 2% and SWE treatments on growth, yield attributes and some macro- and micronutrients concentration in roots, leaves and grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Sakha 93. Two samples were taken at 105 and 150 days after sowing. At the first sample date, plant height, leaves number per main tiller, number of tillers/plant, shoot fresh weight, root length, root fresh weight, chlorophyll reading, spikes number per plant, main spike length and N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations in roots and leaves were determined. At the second sample date (harvesting time, spike weight, number of grains per spike, weight of grains/spike and weight of 100 grains were recorded and nutrients concentrations in grains were determined. Obtained results revealed that, adding biochar, sprayed seaweed extract treatments individually or in combination have stimulating effect on the most of morphological characters and yield components as compared with control plants in both seasons. Generally, using the low level of BC at 2% individually or in combination with SWE treatments has more promotion effect on the most of growth parameters and yield components and achieved the highest concentrations on the most of macro- and micronutrients in roots, leaves and grains as compared with the control in both seasons.

  16. Effects of rhizobial bacteria on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S homayoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major agricultural problems and it is limiting crop productivity in many parts of the cultivated areas all over the world. Saline soils are differentiated by the presence of great ratios of Na/Ca, Na/K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl/NO3 (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 and high levels of neutral salts in the surface layers, which are resulting from the capillary action (Al-Falih, 2002. Osmotic stress occurs when soluble salts increase in the soils and then results in specific ion toxicity (Agarwal & Ahmad, 2010. Therefore, one of the most important side effects of salinity is nutritional disorders. High concentration of NaCl in the root medium usually reduces nutrients uptake and affects the transportation of potassium and calcium ions in plant. (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 reported that the salinity of soils changes ionic strength of the substrate and it can influence mineral nutrient uptake and translocation. Salinity also changes the mineral nutrient availability and disrupts the mineral relations of plants. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of rhizobial bacteria inoculation on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils. Material and methods Soil sample was collected from Astan Ghodse Razavi farm, Mashhad Iran, and then was dried and passed through a 12-mesh (approximately 2 mm screen. Soil sample was divided into three parts and then was placed into three containers. Each container was watered by a different proportion of saline water (EC= 10 dS.m-1. Salinity of soils was regularly monitored until three salinities (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 came out. Then, a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement was carried out in a greenhouse condition. The experimental factors included four levels of inoculation (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum and control and three levels of soil salinity (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 with

  17. Biochemical characterization and spatio-temporal expression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Alok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol into d-glucuronic acid. The present study demonstrates isolation of MIOX cDNA (TaMIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. with open reading frame of 912 bp encoding 303 amino acid polypeptides with a molecular mass of 35.2 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis of TaMIOX across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Secondary structure of TaMIOX consists of α-helixes (42.9%, β-turns (7.26% joined by extended strands (14.85%, and 37 random coils (34.94%. Three-dimensional structure of TaMIOX suggested its close functional and structural resemblance with known MIOX. Catalytic activity of the purified TaMIOX is 3.47 μkatal at pH 8.0 and 35 °C with Michaelis constant 5.6 mM. Differential expression pattern of TaMIOX was observed in leaves, root, stem, seed and seed developmental stages. Leaves showed a significantly higher transcript accumulation followed by root, stem and seed. Expression of TaMIOX during seed development stages showed higher expression at later stage and suggested that expression of TaMIOX was significantly higher in endosperm as compared with aleurone. The exogenous application of myo-inositol enhanced the expression of TaMIOX in leaves and roots suggested myo-inositol acts as an inducer for the TaMIOX expression. The present study reports molecular, structural and biochemical characterizations of MIOX in wheat which might play an important role in myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  18. Salt-Induced Tissue-Specific Cytosine Methylation Downregulates Expression of HKT Genes in Contrasting Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Beena, Ananda Sankara; Awana, Monika; Singh, Archana

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity. The differential expression of HKTs has been reported to confer tolerance to salt stress in plants. In this study, we investigated variations in cytosine methylation and their effects on the expression of HKT genes in contrasting wheat genotypes under salt stress. We observed a genotype- and tissue-specific increase in cytosine methylation induced by NaCl stress that downregulated the expression of TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;3 in the shoot and root tissues of Kharchia-65, thereby contributing to its improved salt-tolerance ability. Although TaHKT1;4 was expressed only in roots and was downregulated under the stress in salt-tolerant genotypes, it was not regulated through variations in cytosine methylation. Thus, understanding epigenetic regulation and the function of HKTs would enable an improvement in salt tolerance and the development of salt-tolerant crops.

  19. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat.

  20. Production of Powerful Antioxidant Supplements via Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuofa Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of fermented wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. extracted using acidified water, 70 % acetone and 70 % ethanol as compared to uninoculated control. Antioxidant activity, measured by the scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating ability was more effective in fermented than unfermented wheat. Furthermore, the extraction yield, total phenolic, total flavonoid and free phenolic acid content were significantly enhanced in fermented wheat. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of the fermented wheat had the highest content of antioxidant compounds (66.37 mg/g as gallic acid equivalent per mass of the extract for polyphenols and 32.27 mg/g as rutin equivalent per mass of flavonoid extract and antioxidant activity with the lowest EC50 values. Thus, fermentation with Cordyceps militaris can be used as a tool to develop wheat as a health food or ingredient with multi-functional properties which can be used in the food industry as a natural antioxidant.

  1. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum

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    Furkan Orhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%.Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.

  2. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  3. Effects of As on As uptake,speciation,and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quanji; HU Chengxiao; TAN Qiling; SUN Xuccheng; SU Jingjun; LIANG Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth,nutrition and As uptake,and spcciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Winter wheat has high tolerance to As.Most As is accumulated in the roots,and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As.Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots.Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species,although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues.Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue.Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K),nitrogen (N),and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots,particularly the concentration of P.Concentrations of iron,copper,and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates,with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93,0.94,and 0.97,respectively.

  4. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of As on As uptake, speciation, and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanji; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Su, Jingjun; Liang, Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth, nutrition and As uptake, and speciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Winter wheat has high tolerance to As. Most As is accumulated in the roots, and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As. Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots. Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species, although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue. Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots, particularly the concentration of P. Concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively.

  6. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  7. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  8. Effects of Interaction Between Cadmium and Plumbum on Phytochelatins and Glutathione Production in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin SUN; Xiao-Rong WANG; Shi-Ming DING; Xin-Fang YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) may function as a potential biomarker for metal toxicity. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of metal interactions on the production of PCs and glutathione (GSH),the most prominent cellular thiol. In the present study, the effects of interactions between cadmium (Cd) and plumbum (Pb) on the production of PCs and GSH were monitored over a period of 14 d in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues. The results showed that combination of Cd and Pb led to synergistic growth inhibition in wheat. Exposure to Cd or Pb increased levels of PCs in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. Cadmium was more effective that Pb in increasing PCs production. Compared with the effects of Cd or Pb alone on the production of PCs, the combination of Cd and Pb acted synergistically, resulting in an enhanced production of PCs. Cadmium also stimulated GSH production in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. However, Pb had no obvious effects on GSH levels. The combination of Pb and Cd antagonized GSH production over the course of the growth period. The results of the present study suggest that metal interactions should be considered in the application of PCs and GSH as potential biomarkers for the evaluation of metal toxicity.

  9. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  10. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong CHEN; Dong-fa SUN; De-fu RONG; Jun-hua PENG; Cheng-dao LI

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature.Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis.All F1's were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature.It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene,temporarily designated as wptms3.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population.The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM,respectively.The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

  11. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed.

  12. PI3K is involved in nucleolar structure and function on root-tip meristematic cells of Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaolin; Zhang, Feixiong

    2014-06-01

    In this study, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds were used to detect the effect of wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, on the nucleolar structure and function. When the germinated seeds were treated with wortmannin, it was shown that the root growth was suppressed and the mitotic index was decreased. The inhibition effects were positively correlated with the concentrations of the drug. The observations of light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nucleolar morphology became irregular and their fine structure disappeared. Some granules with a size range of 0.05-0.30 μm diffused from the nucleoli and gradually moved to the nucleoplasm between or around the chromatin. Indirect immunofluorescence staining indicated that B23 shuttled from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, or even, to the cytoplasm. RT-PCR technique demonstrated that the expression of C23 was severely down-regulated. Our results suggest, for the first time, that wortmannin treatment can not only damage nucleolar structure, but also inhibit its function, implying that PI3K is involved in nucleolar structure and function.

  13. Salicylic acid changes the properties of extracellular peroxidase activity secreted from wounded wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minibayeva, F; Mika, A; Lüthje, S

    2003-05-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) roots released proteins showing peroxidase activity in the apoplastic solution in response to wound stress. Preincubation of excised roots with 1 mM salicylic acid at pH 7.0 enhanced the guaiacol peroxidase activity of the extracellular solution (so-called extracellular peroxidase). The soluble enzymes were partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Despite an increase in the total activity of secreted peroxidase induced by pretreatment of excised roots with salicylic acid, the specific activity of the partially purified protein was significantly lower compared to that of the control. Purification of the corresponding proteins by ion exchange chromatography indicates that several isoforms of peroxidase occurred in both control and salicylic acid-treated samples. The activities of the extracellular peroxidases secreted by the salicylic acid-treated roots responded differently to calcium and lectins compared with those from untreated roots. Taken together, our data suggest that salicylic acid changes the isoforms of peroxidase secreted by wounded wheat roots.

  14. Association analysis of grain traits with SSR markers between Aegilops tauschii and hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-lan; WANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Xiao-cun; DU Xu-ye; LI An-fei; KONG Ling-rang

    2015-01-01

    Seven important grain traits, including grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), grain length/width ratio (GLW), roundness (GR), and thousand-grain weight (TGW), were analyzed using a set of 139 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in 130 hexaploid wheat varieties and 193Aegilops tauschiaccessions worldwide. In total, 1612 aleles inAe. tauschiand 1360 aleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) were detected throughout the D genome. 197 marker-trait associations inAe. tauschi were identiifed with 58 different SSR loci in 3 environments, and the average phenotypic variation value (R2) ranged from 0.68 to 15.12%. In contrast, 208 marker-trait associations were identiifed in wheat with 66 different SSR markers in 4 environments and the average phenotypicR2ranged from 0.90 to 19.92%. Further analysis indicated that there are 6 common SSR loci present in bothAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat, which are signiifcantly associated with the 5 investigated grain traits (i.e., GA, GP, GR, GL, and TGW) and in total, 16 aleles derived from the 6 aforementioned SSR loci were shared byAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. These preliminary data suggest the existence of common aleles may explain the evolutionary process and the selection betweenAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the genetic differentiation of grain shape and thousand-grain weight were observed in the evolutionary developmental process fromAe. tauschi to hexaploid wheat.

  15. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  16. Near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum with distinct modes of resistance exhibit dissimilar transcriptional regulation during Diuraphis noxia feeding

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    Anna-Maria Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death – symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1, tolerance (Dn2, and antixenosis (Dn5. However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response.

  17. RFLP patterns of gliadin alleles in Triticum aestivum L.: implications for analysis of the organization and evolution of complex loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccino, P; Metakovsky, E V

    1995-02-01

    A correspondence between RFLP patterns and gliadin alleles at the Gli-1 and Gli-2 loci was established in a set of 70 common wheat (T.aestivum L.) cultivars using γ-gliadin (K32) and α-gliadin (pTU1) specific probes. All Gli-B1 and Gli-D1 alleles which differed in encoded γ-gliadins showed definite RFLP patterns after hybridization with the K32 probe. Two groups of Gli-B1 alleles, Gli-B1b-like and Gli-B1e-like, were identified, and these could originate from distinct genotypes of the presumptive donor of the B-genome. Intralocus recombination and/or gene conversion as well as small deletions, gene silencing and gene amplification were assumed to be responsible for the origin of new gliadin alleles. Silent γ-gliadin sequences were shown to exist in all of the genotypes studied. K32 also differentiated Gli-A1a from all other Gli-A1 alleles as well as the Gli-B11 allele in cultivars carrying the 1B/1R (wheat/rye) translocation. PTU1 was shown to recognize several Gli-A2 alleles, but not the Gli-B2 or Gli-D2 alleles. Moreover, this probe hybridized to chromosome 1R sequences suggesting the existence of rye gene(s), probably silent, for α-gliadin-like proteins on chromosome 1R.

  18. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and 6 cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, beta-amylase, alpha-amylase inhibitor, dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of late grain development.

  19. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  20. Cultivo de embriões em retrocruzamentos entre Triticum aestivum Thell. e Agropyron elongatum host. & beauv. Embryo culture of backcrosses between hybrids of Triticum aestivum Thell. and Agropyron elongatum host. & beauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma Cristina Angra

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência a diversas moléstias fúngicas do trigo tem sido transferida de espécies perenes da tribo Triticeae, mas o híbrido produzido pelo cruzamento intergenérico apresenta embrião abortivo. Embora a técnica de resgate e cultivo in vitro destes embriões já seja amplamente utilizada, sua eficiência ainda é muito baixa. Este trabalho objetivou a obtenção de progênies de retrocruzamentos em híbrido F1 (2n=56, proveniente do cruzamento de trigo (Triticum aestivum (2n=42 com Agropyron elongatum (2n=70, utilizando-se a técnica de cultivo in vitro dos embriões imaturos. Partindo-se do material perene na geração F1, utilizou-se o trigo como parental recorrente nos retrocruzamentos. A eficiência da polinização foi de 6% no primeiro retrocruzamento (RC1 e de 12,4% no segundo (RC2. As plantas do RC1 foram viabilizadas pelo resgate e cultivo in vitro dos embriões imaturos utilizando- se o meio batata-regeneração, com adição de vitaminas. De 22 sementes, 18 embriões foram resgatados e cultivados in vitro, originando 12 plântulas. Desses embriões, 50% foram normais, 27,8% apresentaram tamanho reduzido, 16,7% foram deformados e 5,5% apresentaram desenvolvimento retardado. A eficiência do cultivo dos embriões na regeneração de plântulas foi de 66,6%. Tal resultado indica que a técnica de resgate e o meio de cultura utilizados foram eficientes para o cultivo e regeneração dos embriões híbridos, obtendo progênies viáveis de retrocruzamentos a partir de híbridos intergenéricos, nas condições realizadas.Resistance to fungal diseases of wheat has been transferred from perennial species of tribe Triticeae, but the hybrid so formed presents immature embryos. Although rescue and in vitro culture of these embryos has been widely utilized, its efficiency is still very low. This work aimed to obtain backcrossing progenies in hybrid F1 (2n=56, derived from crossing between wheat (Triticum aestivum (2n=42 and Agropyron

  1. Bffects of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of glumes of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1983-1984. the effect of three foliar fungicides, i.e.. Bayleton 25 WP. Dithane M-45 and Funaben K on the mycoflora associated with glumus of spring Tritieum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. During each vegetative period, glumes were collected in the milky ripe of seeds. Fungi species associated with glumes were determined based of colonies isolated from glumes incubated in Petri dishes with potato glucose agar. The fungicide which reduced the most the overall number of fungal isolates was Bayleton 25 WP. The number of species was most reduced following Dithane M-45 application. The mycoflora of glumes which had been untreated and treated with fungicides was compared with fungicides-treated and fungicide-untreated seeds and leaves. The highest similarity in the mycoflora of fungicide-untreated plant parts was found when glumes and seeds were compared. The mycoflora of fungicide-treated glumes, leaves, and seeds varied. depending on the year and fungicide applied.

  2. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

  3. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based on a physiologi...

  4. Genomic Dissection and Expression Profiling Revealed Functional Divergence in Triticum aestivum Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (TaLRRKs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumayla; Sharma, Shailesh; Kumar, Rohit; Mendu, Venugopal; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh K.

    2016-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK) constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK), which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains, and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought, and salt) stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  5. Efectos de la tecnología de siembra sobre el cultivo del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en condiciones tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar la influencia que sobre el rendimiento del cultivo del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y la asociación de malezas tiene la distancia entre surcos y la densidad de siembra, como vía posible para sustituir el uso de herbicidas. Este se desarrolló durante dos campañas (1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Estación Experimental "Vivian Alonso" del INCA, sobre un suelo Ferralítico rojo típico, empleándose la variedad Culiacán de origen mexicano en un diseño de bloques al azar con 12 tratamientos y tres réplicas. Los diferentes niveles de cada factor estudiado tuvieron una influencia significativa sobre el rendimiento del cultivo, alcanzándose los mayores valores en lamedida en que disminuyó la distancia entre surcos y aumentó la dosis de siembra, debido al incremento de los componentes del rendimiento, en especial el número de espigas por metro cuadrado. El efecto sobre la composición de especies demostróla posibilidad de desarrollar el cultivo sin uso de herbicidas al mantener los niveles de enmalezamiento por debajo de los 50 individuos/m2 (inferior al umbral de daños y ejercer un fuerte efecto depresivo sobre especies muy agresivas en condiciones del trópico húmedo, como fue el Cyperus rotundus yalgunas dicotiledóneas de importancia económica, contribuyendo así a la disminución de efectos agresivos sobre el medio.

  6. Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899 × Rmada, A899 × Wifak, and A1135 × Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901 × Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899 × Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. σgca2/σsca2,  (σD2/σA21/2 low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation.

  7. Flavonoids from Triticum aestivum inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by upregulating the insig pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Barun; Nepali, Sarmila; Xin, Mingjie; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Dae-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to compare the potential anti-adipogenic effects and underlying mechanisms of the luteolin, isoscoparin and isoorientin flavonoids, purified from Triticum aestivum sprout (TA) in 3T3-L1 cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of flavonoids for 8 days and the lipid accumulation was assessed using Oil-Red-O staining. The expression levels of the transcription factors and the genes involved in adipogenesis in the cells were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results demonstrated that 10 μM luteolin, isoscoparin or isoorientin inhibited lipid deposition in the cells by 74, 63 and 65%, respectively. The flavonoids also significantly inhibited the transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, compared with the control cells. Similarly, there was a significant downregulation of the adipocyte specific markers associated with lipid metabolism, including activating protein-2, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase, in the flavonoid treated cells. Notably, the cells treated with the flavonoids demonstrated increased expression levels of the insulin-induced genes, insig-1 and insig-2, which may have inhibited the activation of the adipogenic transcription factor, SREBP, eventually leading to the inhibition of adipogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed that the flavonoids from TA possessed an inhibitory effect on adipogenesis through downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and genes associated with lipid metabolism, and the upregulation of insig 1 and 2, suggesting that the flavonoids from TA may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  8. Genomic Dissection and Expression Profiling Revealed Functional Divergence in Triticum aestivum Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (TaLRRKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumayla; Sharma, Shailesh; Kumar, Rohit; Mendu, Venugopal; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK) constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK), which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains, and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought, and salt) stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  9. Genomic dissection and expression profiling revealed functional divergence in Triticum aestivum leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (TaLRRKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumayla .

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK, which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat, which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought and salt stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  10. Identification of Kernel Proteins Associated with the Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous potential components involved in the resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals have been indicated, however, our knowledge regarding this process is still limited and further work is required. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in their levels of resistance to FHB were analyzed to identify the most crucial proteins associated with resistance in this species. The presented work involved analysis of protein abundance in the kernel bulks of more resistant and more susceptible wheat lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines, after inoculation with F. culmorum under field conditions. All the obtained two-dimensional patterns were demonstrated to be well-resolved protein maps of kernel proteomes. Although, 11 proteins were shown to have significantly different abundance between these two groups of plants, only two are likely to be crucial and have a potential role in resistance to FHB. Monomeric alpha-amylase and dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both highly accumulated in the more resistant line, after inoculation and in the control conditions. Fusarium pathogens can use hydrolytic enzymes, including amylases to colonize kernels and acquire nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm and we suggest that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress in the analyzed wheat line with a higher resistance. Alpha-amylase activity assays confirmed this suggestion as it revealed the highest level of enzyme activity, after F. culmorum infection, in the line more susceptible to FHB. PMID:25340555

  11. An internal part of the chloroplast atpA gene sequence is present in the mitochondrial genome of Triticum aestivum: molecular organisation and evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubier, M F; Lucas, H; Delcher, E; Hartmann, C; Quétier, F; Lejeune, B

    1990-06-01

    An internal part of the chloroplast atpA gene has been identified in the mitochondrial DNA of Triticum aestivum. It is located near the 18S-5S ribosomal genes and partially contained within a repeated sequence. Comparison of the transferred sequence with the original ct sequence reveals several nucleotide changes and shows that neither 5' nor 3' ends are present in the mt genome. No transcript of this region could be detected by Northern analysis. This sequence is present in mitochondrial genomes of other tetraploid and diploid species of Triticum, also in the vicinity of the 18S-5S ribosomal genes, suggesting a unique transfer event. The date of this event is discussed.

  12. Estudio molecular de gluteninas de alto y bajo peso molecular en Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. y su relación con la calidad panadera

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El trigo blando (Triticum aestivum ssp vulgare L., AABBDD, 2n=6x=42) presenta propiedades viscoélasticas únicas debidas a la presencia en la harina de las prolaminas: gluteninas y gliadinas. Ambos tipos de proteínas forman parte de la red de gluten. Basándose en la movilidad en SDS-PAGE, las gluteninas se clasifican en dos grupos: gluteninas de alto peso molecular (HMW-GS) y gluteninas de bajo peso molecular (LMW-GS). Los genes que codifican para las HMW-GS se encuentran en tres loci del gru...

  13. Phytotoxic effects of herbicide Attribut and surfactant BioPower on the root, stem, and leaf anatomy of Triticum aestivum 'Pehlivan'

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Gülden; DANE, Feruzan

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine toxic effects of different doses of Attribut (propoxycarbazone-sodium) used in wheat fields and BioPower (sodium alkyl ether sulphate) surfactant added to Attribut on Triticum aestivum L. 'Pehlivan'. The doses used in the study were 0.42 mM Attribut, 0.82 mM Attribut, and 1.68 mM Attribut with or without 0.25% BioPower. Laboratory studies showed that the effective concentration value corresponded to the farmer dose, 0.42...

  14. Effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on growth of Triticum aestivum seedling%Cu2+和Zn2+对普通小麦幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进学; 曹虎; 张芬琴; 李彩霞

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on growth and physiological characters of Triticum aestivum Linn. seedling were studied. The resultsindicatedthat the higherconcentration ofCu2+ andZn2+ hadobvious inhibition, showing that the content of chlorophyll was reduced, the content of MDA and electrical conductivity increased, the vigor of root reduced. It showed that the effect of Cu2+ on T. aestivum was more poisonous than that of Zn2+.

  15. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  16. Ecophysiological responses and hyperspectral characteristics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress%干旱胁迫下冬小麦(Triticum aestivum)高光谱特征和生理生态响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷艳芳; 丁圣彦; 陈海生; 高志英; 邢倩

    2008-01-01

    2006年于冬小麦(Triticum aestivum)孕穗期、开花期和灌浆期,采用ASD Fieldspec HH光谱仪测定了不同水分胁迫下冬小麦高光谱反射率、红边参数和对应的冬小麦生理生态参数叶绿素a(Chla)、叶绿素b(Chlb)、叶绿素a+b(Chla+b),叶片水分含量(LWC),叶面积指数(LAI).结果表明,冬小麦生理生态参数随生长发育呈现先上升后下降趋势,Chla、Chlb和Chla+b开花期达最大值;LWC和LAI孕穗期达最大值.随干旱胁迫程度增加,Chla、Chlb和Chla+b、LWC和LAI减少.不同水分处理下冬小麦高光谱反射率具有绿色植物特征.用红边一阶微分光谱特征参数分析,冬小麦孕穗期和开花期红边(λred)位于728~730nm,灌浆期红边(λred)移到734nm.Chla、Chlb和Chla+b与Dλ730:Dλ702、Dλ730:Dλ718,LWC与Dλred、Dλ718以及LAI与Dλ718、Dλred、Sred均呈正相关,相关系数大于0.5(p<0.05).经回归分析,Chl与Dλ730:Dλ702、LWC与Dλred呈线性关系(R2=0.87),LAI与Sred呈二次关系(R2=0.68).因此,用冬小麦高光谱特征及红边参数能判断冬小麦生育后期长势和农田水分胁迫程度.

  17. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  18. Yield stability of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasul Tahir

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten promising wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield stability under varied environments at nine locations in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The interaction between genotypes and environments (G x E was found significant in this study. None of the regression coefficients (bi was significantly different from variety; therefore, stable performance of the genotypes could not be predicted on ‘bi’ alone. In this study, deviations from regression (S2d and average grain yields were used to identify the superior genotypes. Above average grain yields were observed in genotypes, CT-99022, SAW-98063, CT- 99155 and Saleem-2000. Although cultivar Saleem-2000 produced high yield, on the basis of high S2d value seemed to be sensitive upon environmental changes. Based on grain yield performance, low deviation from regression and bi values the genotype CT-99022 is more suitable for favourable and CT-99155 for unfavourable environments. Stable performance was expressed by SAW-98063 because of higher grain yield, regression coefficient (bi = .983 and low deviation from regression (S2d = 0.065.

  19. Comparison Study On In Vitro morphogenesis of Mature and Immature Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Al. A. Almobasher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study comparedthe in vitro performance of two stages of wheat embryos;mature and immature embryos explantswere cultured in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dfor callus induction,mature embryosgenerally showed ostensibly preference to the immature embryo and achieved the highest fresh weight value (62.0±0.01a at 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses derived were transferred to regeneration mediasupplemented with different levels of activated charcoal, sucrose and silver nitrate. Mature embryo derived calluses achieved the highestpercentages (50-100% of nodular callus at all types of regeneration mediatested compared to immature embryo derived callusespercentages (8-66%.Shootregenerationfrequencies obtained were better in the mature embryo derived callus cultures, where it achieved 25% regeneration percentage at 3.0mg/l activated charcoal;16% regeneration percentage at 60.0 g/l sucrose and 25% regeneration percentage at 10.0 ml/l silver nitrate, while immature embryo derived callus cultures achieved 8% regeneration percentage at all activated charcoal concentrations, failed to regenerate shoots in sucrose concentrations and the highest regeneration percentage obtained was 8% at silver nitrate treatments. The present study showed the mature embryo culturespreference to immature embryo culturesfor callus induction, embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in Elnileen wheat cultivar.

  20. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.S.; Saleem, M.F.; Shah, G.M.; Jamil, M.; Khan, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in

  1. SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF SOME COMMERCIAL WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed borne mycoflora associated with ten commercial varieties of wheat viz. Blue silver, Faisalabad 85, Manthar-3, Pak 81, Parwaz 94, Pirsabaq 2005, Punjnad-1, Sariab-92, Sh-2002 and Wafaq-2001 was investigated through standard blotter paper and agar plate method by using Mann-Whitney U test. At least eleven fungal genera were recovered from seeds. The most frequently isolated fungi were Bipolaris sorokiniana (11.125%, Aspergillus flavus (9.825%, Alternaria alternata (7.15% and Aspergillus niger (6.225%. It is apparent from the present investigation that all commercial wheat verities tested were contaminated by fungi. The rolled paper method was used to find out the effect of seed borne fungi on seed germination. Seeds of Pak 81, Wafaq-2001 and Blue silver were germinated in high proportion with variable number of normal and abnormal seedlings than the seeds of other varieties tested. The fungi associated with seeds of wheat cause dire diseases in wheat reducing the germination capacity.

  2. Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Haleem Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (Ct content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil salinity and fertilizer dose at three levels. Results showed that higher doses of fertilizer increased the content of leaf pigments across all levels of soil salinity. Likewise, increasing the level of soil salinity significantly increased the chlorophyll and Ct content per leaf area at all levels of applied fertilizer. However, as an adaptation process and defense mechanism under salinity stress, leaves were found to be thicker and narrower. Thus, on a per-plant basis, increasing salinity significantly reduced the chlorophyll (Chlt and Ct produced under each fertilizer treatment. In addition, interaction effects of soil salinity and fertilizer application on the photosynthetic pigment content were found to be significant, as the higher amounts of fertilizer augmented the detrimental effects of salinity. A strong positive (R2 = 0.93 and statistically significant (p < 0.001 relationship between SPAD-502 values and Chlt and between SPAD-502 values and Ct content

  3. Weed suppression and yield of thirteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties grown in an organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between morphological features, canopy parameters, weed infestation, and grain yield of spring wheat varieties. The study was conducted in the period 2011–2013, on fields managed organically at the Experimental Station of The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, Osiny, Poland. Thirteen spring wheat varieties were sown in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Weed density and dry matter production were estimated as well biometric features of the wheat varieties at tillering (BBCH 22–24 and dough (BBCH 85–87 stages. The analyses of variance showed that the year had a stronger effect than varieties on the level of weed infestation. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that weed number was influenced by the height of wheat plants and their aboveground biomass at the tillering stage and additionally by number of tillers at the dough stage. A significant correlation (r = −0.328, siginfficant at p < 0.05 was shown between the number of weeds and wheat grain yield. Different morphological features and canopy parameters influenced the competitive abilities of the spring wheat varieties tested. A cluster analysis detected one set of varieties with the largest (‘Bombona’, ‘Brawura’, ‘Hewilla’, ‘Kandela’, ‘Katoda’, ‘Łagwa’, and ‘Żura’ and another with the smallest (‘Monsun’, ‘Ostka Smolicka’, and ‘Parabola’ competitive abilities against weeds. The main outcome of the research is information for farmers as to which varieties are highly competitive against weeds and also high yielding. Among the varieties with the highest competitiveness, Triticum aestivum ‘Żura’ was the highest yielder (3.82 t ha−1 on average, whereas ‘Bombona’ yielded only at an average level (3.03 t ha−1. The suppressive ability of spring wheat varieties against weeds and yield potential should be both

  4. Inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenotype and biomass of Triticum aestivum var. Nana-F2007 at 50% of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaime Hernández-Escareño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L consuming requires of nitrogen fertilizer (NF, as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, which one in excess causes lost soil productivity. An alternative to reduce and optimize NF to wheat is to inoculate with endophytic promoting growth bacteria (EPGB, as genus Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus able to improve radical uptake of NF, its suggesting by inducing synthesis of growth promoting vegetal substances (GPVS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenology and biomass of T.aestivum at 50% dose of NF. A trial in greenhouse condition wasconducted inoculating seed T.aestivum´s with both EPGB by measuring its phenology: (PH plant height, (RL root length and biomass: total fresh weight (TFW and dry (TDW at seedling and flowering stages. Results showed a positive effect of B. cepacia in wheat on its TDW with 0.61g value statistically significant compared to 0.53g TDW of wheat used as relative control fed with NF 100% dose (RC. B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus inoculated to wheat had a positive increased on its TDW with 4.23 g value statistically significant compared to 1.13 g TDW of wheat used as RC. Conclusion suggested that B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus by synthetized GPVS had a positive effect on wheat growth at reduced dose of NF.

  5. GENOTYPE SPECIFICITY OF WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN CADMIUM, ZINC AND IRON ACCUMULATION IN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijana Eđed

    2012-06-01

    contamination. The tested genotypes differed significantly in the Cd, Zn and Fe plant uptake factor as well as in the coefficient of translocation from roots to stems and from roots to the flag leaf. According to correlation coefficient between the concentrations of Cd, Zn and Fe in the grain, the tested cultivars were divided into six groups which differ in the interrelation of these elements. Obtained results may serve as a starting point for investigation of the mechanisms of uptake, translocation and accumulation of Cd, Zn and Fe in winter wheat as well as for the selection of genotypes with increased concentrations of Zn and Fe and decreased Cd concentration in the grain.

  6. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  7. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed wei...... harvest for green grain resulted in a decreased 1000-seed weight, and a high seed protein and ash content....

  8. Intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) por la citocinina bap

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Martínez-Gutiérrez; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda A.; Lucero del Mar Ruíz-Posadas; Adriana Delgado-Alvarado; Rocío Vaca-Paulín

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la citocinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP) en el intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas de Triticum aestivum L. durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar en invernadero. Plántulas de 21 días después de la siembra (DDS) fueron asperjadas con BAP 0,1mM o agua (testigo) cada 3 días por 20 días. El retraso de senescencia foliar en las plantas tratadas con BAP fue monitoreado mediante cuantificación de clorofila y proteína soluble total. El intercambio de gases se estimó...

  9. Confocal Raman microscopic characterization of the molecular species responsible for the grain cohesion of Triticum aestivum wheat: effect of chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, Olivier; Saadi, Abdelbasset; Autran, Jean-Claude; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is a very well appropriate technique for the characterization of the molecules responsible of the wheat grain cohesion, since it is non-destructive and can be readily applied in-situ. The cohesion of the kernel or starchy endosperm depends on a protein content located at the interstices of starch granules. The separation between the kernel and the envelope depends on the composition of the aleurone cells layer, in phenolic acids and pentosans. Confocal Raman microscopy has been performed on kernel sections of various Triticum aestivum samples. Raman spectra recorded at different parts of such sections are very specific, such as spectra of the starchy endosperm protein. The technique has been also used to study the effect of chemical treatment on the binding of the constituents of the aleurone cells walls. In addition, certain marker bands of starch and proteins have been used to construct spectral images.

  10. Development of EMS-induced mutation population for amylose and resistant starch variation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and identification of candidate genes responsible for amylose variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Singh, Anuradha; Sharma, Monica; Kumar, Pankaj; Roy, Joy

    2016-10-06

    Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions. The topic of nutrition security is currently receiving much attention and consumer demand for food products with improved nutritional qualities has increased. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variation in amylose content is narrow, hence its limited improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to produce wheat lines or populations showing wide variation in amylose/resistant starch content. In this study, a set of EMS-induced M4 mutant lines showing dynamic variation in amylose/resistant starch content were produced. Furthermore, two diverse mutant lines for amylose content were used to study quantitative expression patterns of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes and to identify candidate genes for amylose biosynthesis. A population comprising 101 EMS-induced mutation lines (M4 generation) was produced in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety. Two methods of amylose measurement in grain starch showed variation in amylose content ranging from ~3 to 76 % in the population. The method of in vitro digestion showed variation in resistant starch content from 1 to 41 %. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variation (p wheat. It is also useful for the study of the genetic and molecular basis of amylose/resistant starch variation in wheat. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of 20 starch metabolic genes in the two diverse mutant lines (low and high amylose mutants) indicates that in addition to key genes, several other genes (such as phosphorylases, isoamylases, and

  11. Adubação do trigo: I - Experiências com N, P, K e S em Latossolo roxo do vale do Paranapanema Fertilizer experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.: I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios de adubação N, P, K e S em cultura de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. foram realizados no município de Maracaí, Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1970 e 1971, em Latossolo Roxo com teores altos de potássio, médios de carbono, baixos de fósforo e ligeiramente ácidos. Utilizou-se delineamento Central Composto. Os resultados mostraram elevado efeito do fósforo, médio do nitrogênio, pequeno do enxofre e nulo do potássio.Two N, P, K, S mineral fertilizer trials on wheat (Triticum aestivum L., were carried out in 1970 and 1971 on a latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soil. The results showed good response to phosphorus, medium to nitrogen, poor to sulphur and no response to potassium.

  12. Growth traits and nitrogen assimilation-associated physiological parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under low and high N conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei-fei; GAO Si; ZHAO Yuan-yuan; ZHAO Xiao-lei; LIU Xiao-man; XIAO Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 14 wheat cultivars with contrasting yield and N use efifciency (NUE) were used to investigate the agronomic and NUE-related traits, and the N assimilation-associated enzyme activities under low and high N conditions. Under deifcient-N, the cultivars with high N uptake efifciency (UpE) and high N utilization efifciency (UtE) exhibited higher plant biomass, yields, and N contents than those with medium and low NUEs. The high UpE cultivars accumulated more N than other NUE type cultivars. Under sufifcient-N, the tested cultivars showed similar patterns in biomass, yield, and N content to those under deifcient-N, but the varietal variations in above traits were smal er. In addition, the high UpE cultivars displayed much more of root biomass and larger of root length, surface area, and volume than other NUE type cultivars, indicating that the root morphological traits under N deprivation are closely associated with the plant biomass through its improvement of the N acquisition. The high UtE cultivars showed higher activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR), and gluta-mine synthetase (GS) at stages of seediling, heading and ifl ing than other NUE type cultivars under both low and high N conditions. Moreover, the high UpE and UtE cultivars also displayed higher photosynthetic rate under deifcient-N than the medium and low NUE cultivars. Together, our results indicated that the tested wheat cultivars possess dramatical y genetic variations in biomass, yield, and NUE. The root morphological traits and the N assimilation enzymatic acitivities play critical roles in regulating N accumulation and internal N translocation under the N-starvation stress, respectively. They can be used as morphological and biochemical references for evaluation of UpE and UtE in wheat.

  13. Response of two wheat cultivars to supplemental nitrogen under different salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of supplemental nitrogen (N), as either farmyard manure (FYM) or urea, on response of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (a salt sensitive ‘Sakha 69’ and a salt tolerant ‘Sakha 93’) were investigated in a green house experiment under various salinity levels (control, 6, 9, or 12 dS m-1)...

  14. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. derivative ‘Selection G12’

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH; JAI BHAGWAN SHARMA; VINOD; PRADEEP KUMAR SINGH; ANUPAM SINGH; NIHARIKA MALLICK

    2017-06-01

    A Triticum timopheevii-derived bread wheat line, Selection G12, was screened with 40 pathotypes of leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia triticina at seedling stage and with two most commonly prevalent pathotypes 77-5 and 104-2 at adult plant stage. Selection G12 showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Genetic analysis in F1, F2 and F2.3 families at the seedling stage revealed that leaf rust resistance in Selection G12 is conditioned by a single incompletely dominant gene. The leaf rust resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 3BL with SSR markers Xgwm114 and Xgwm547 flanking the gene at a distance of 28.3 cM and 6 cM, respectively. Based on the nature of resistance and chromosomal location, it is inferred that Selection G12 carries a new gene for leaf rust resistance, tentatively named as LrSelG12.

  15. RÉGIMEN HÍDRICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN VARIEDADES CUBANAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum Y T. durum CULTIVADAS EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 variedades cubanas de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum y Triticum durum cultivadas en condiciones de salinidad fueron evaluados, siguiendo las metodologías para tales fines. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía a un nivel de salinidad de 8 dS.m -1 , como control se montó un tratamiento con una conductividad eléctrica de 0,36 dS.m -1 . Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Como resultado se obtuvo una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de las variedades en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Las variedades que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todas las variedades y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todas las variedades realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en las variedades INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre variedades y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  16. Genome-wide quantitative trait locus mapping identifies multiple major loci for brittle rachis and threshability in Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Jiang

    Full Text Available Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023 with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat.

  17. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  18. Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. UP 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P

    1996-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) at graded levels when added in sand culture of wheat (T. aestivum L. cv. UP2003) under glasshouse conditions resulted in reduction in biomass, chlorophyll and activities of catalase and peroxidase while enhanced acid phosphatase and ribonuclease activities. Elevated levels of Cr supply significantly reduced the concentration of inorganic phosphorus. With an increase in Cr supply the uptake of chromium also increased significantly in different plant parts especially in roots. Above metabolic lesions due to Cr in wheat provided evidence that the element in nutrient medium if present in excess may be inhibitory to plant growth and development.

  19. Uptake and metabolism of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite. Accumulation of initial 10:2 FTOH and its metabolites were observed in the wheat and earthworms, suggesting that 10:2 FTOH could be bioaccumulated in wheat and earthworms and biotransformed to the highly stable PFCAs. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and PFDA were detected in wheat root, while PFDA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were detected in shoot. PFNA and PFDA were determined in earthworms and the concentration of PFDA was much higher. The presence of earthworms and/or plant stimulated the microbial degradation of 10:2 FTOH in soil. The results supplied important evidence that degradation of 10:2 FTOH was an important potential source of PFCAs in the environment and in biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Impact of Low-Energy Ion Beam Implantation on the Expression of Tyl-copia-like Retrotransposons in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA Huiyuan; JIAO Zhen; GU Yunhong; WANG Weidong; QIN Guangyong; HUO Yuping

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposon-like elements are major constituents of most eukaryotic genomes. For example, they account for roughly 90% of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome. Previous study on a wheat strain treated by low-energy N+ ions indicated the variations in AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ) markers. One such variation was caused by the re-activation of Tyl-copia-like retrotransposons, implying that the mutagenic effects of low-energy ions might work through elevated activation of retrotransposons. In this paper an expression profile of Tyl-copia-like retrotransposons in wheat treated by low-energy N+ ions is reported. The reverse transcriptase (RT) domains of these retrotransposons were amplified by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequentially cloned. 42 and 65 clones were obtained from the treated (CL) and control materials (CK), respectively. Sequence analysis of each clone was performed by software. Phylogeny and classification were calculated responding to the sequences of the RT domains. All the results show that there is much difference in the RT domain between the control sample and the treated sample. Especially, the RT domains from the treated group encode significantly more functional ORF (open reading frames) than those from the control sample. This observation suggests that the treated sample has higher activation of retrotransposons, possibly as a consequence of low-energy ion beam irradiation. It also suggests that retrotransposons in the two groups impact the host gene expression in two different ways and carry out different functions in wheat cells.

  3. ESTUDIO DE ALGUNOS GÉNEROS MICROBIANOS ASOCIADOS A DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. EN SUELO FERRALÍTICO ROJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los géneros bacterianos predominantes en la rizosfera de cuatro variedades de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. crecido en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo. También se evaluó la quimioatracción de algunas rizobacterias hacia los exudados radicales de este cultivo. Se utilizó el Modelo Espermosférico para el aislamiento y los tubos colectores y la cámara de quimiotaxis modificada para la evaluación del efecto quimiotáctico de los exudados radicales. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que en las variedades Gang y Caeté, Pseudomonas es la población dominante, siendo Pseudomonas (Burkholderia cepacia la especie más fuertemente atraída por los exudados radicales a los 14 días y 40 minutos de exposición. En las variedades Culiacam y Antisama, es el género Azospirillum el predominante en la rizosfera, siendo esta especie la más fuertemente atraída por los exudados radicales a los 14 días y 60 minutos de exposición. Esta investigación permite la aplicación de biofertilizantes a base de los géneros microbianos predominantes en la rizosfera del trigo, potenciando su actividad sin alterar la biología del suelo.

  4. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pónya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation.

  5. Investigation of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Azar 2 plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza like fungi under different levels of drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yaghoubian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomuss mossea and mycorrhiza-like (Piriformospora indica effects on yield, yield components and some morphological (cv. Azar 2 traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was conducted as factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were drought stress at three levels (FC, -5 and -10 bar and fungi inoculation at four levels (mycorrhiza (AM, mycorrhiza-like (MLF and co-inoculation of AM+MLF and control. Results showed that the water stress significantly decreased 1000-grain weight, spike harvest index, fertility percent of spike, plant height, peduncle and extrusion length and colonization percent while grain density per spike markedly increased. Fungi inoculation significantly improved all studied traits except harvest index, 1000-grain weight and root colonization. Co-inoculation of AM and MLF had the best performance in terms of all mentioned parameters. Interaction effects of fungi and water stress was significant on grain and biological yield, spike and grain number and positively affected by fungi inoculation. Among fungi treatments, however, co-inoculation of AM+MLF had the best performance and recommended for both stress and non stress conditions.

  6. Silicon availability modifies nutrient use efficiency and content, C:N:P stoichiometry, and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Silke; Schaller, Jörg; Dudel, E. Gert

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is known as beneficial element for graminaceous plants. The importance of Si for plant functioning of cereals was recently emphasized. However, about the effect of Si availability on biomass production, grain yield, nutrient status and nutrient use efficiency for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), as one of the most important crop plants worldwide, less is known so far. Consequently, we assessed the effect of a broad range of supply levels of amorphous SiO2 on wheat plant performance. Our results revealed that Si is readily taken up and accumulated basically in aboveground vegetative organs. Carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) status of plants were altered in response to varying Si supply. In bulk straw biomass C concentration decreased with increasing Si supply, while P concentration increased from slight limitation towards optimal nutrition. Thereby, aboveground biomass production increased at low to medium supply levels of silica whereas grain yield increased at medium supply level only. Nutrient use efficiency was improved by Si insofar that biomass production was enhanced at constant nitrogen (N) status of substrate and plants. Consequently, our findings imply fundamental influences of Si on C turnover, P availability and nitrogen use efficiency for wheat as a major staple crop.

  7. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, T B; Gardner, J S; Anderson, N

    1999-11-01

    Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Triticum monoccocum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum, and two species of barley, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum, were analyzed using computer-assisted image and statistical analysis with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key based on significant differences among the mean morphometries of the inflorescence phytoliths produced by each species was created and tested. Discriminant analysis of the morphometries of several morphotypes of phytoliths was also conducted to determine whether this computer-assisted statistical procedure could be used as another method to classify the taxa and to determine which morphotypes have measurements that can best be used in discriminant functions. Test results indicated that, at the genus level, both the classification key and discriminant analysis of certain morphotypes of phytoliths were relatively reliable tools for distinguishing among phytoliths produced in the inflorescence bracts of the taxa considered. For distinguishing among the taxa at the species level, the classification key was most reliable. Of the discriminant analyses tested, that based on all the phytolith morphotypes combined was more reliable than those based on only one morphotype.

  8. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  9. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure.

  10. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  11. Effects of zinc on cadmium uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.): long-time hydroponic study and short-time 109Cd tracing study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHU Yong-guan; CAI Yun-long

    2005-01-01

    To investigate effects of Zn on Cd uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in solution culture, long-time hydroponic experiment (1 month) (Experiment 1) and short-time Cd isotope (109Cd) tracing experiment (24 h) (Experiment 2) were conducted. In Experiment 1, spring wheat (cv. Brookton) was grown in nutrient solution at uniform cadmium concentration of 20μ mol/L and 10 zinc concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, spring wheat seedlings,pre-cultivated in complete nutrient solution, were treated with 109Cd of uniform activity and the same series of Zn concentrations as those in Experiment 1 for 24 h. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots in Experiment 1 increased marginally but not consistently with Zn increasing at Zn rates of 1~200 μmol/L, and then decreased significantly at high rates (>200 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, the response of 109Cd activities in shoots and roots to increasing Zn was greatly similar to the response of Cd concentrations to Zn increasing in Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that the short-time and long-time exposure of spring wheat to Zn had similar effects on Cd accumulation.

  12. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed.

  13. Nitrate reductase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates oxidative damage induced by aluminum through enhancement of antioxidant defenses in roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Wenjing; Yu, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2014-03-01

    • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in the physiological processes of plants. The role of NO release in the tolerance strategies of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under aluminum (Al) stress was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistances. • An early NO burst at 3 h was observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864, whereas the Al-sensitive genotype Yang-5 showed no NO accumulation at 3 h but an extremely high NO concentration after 12 h. Stimulating NO production at 3 h in the root tips of Yang-5 with the NO donor relieved Al-induced root inhibition and callose production, as well as oxidative damage and ROS accumulation, while elimination of the early NO burst by NO scavenger aggravated root inhibition in Jian-864. • Synthesis of early NO in roots of Jian-864 was mediated through nitrate reductase (NR) but not through NO synthase. Elevated antioxidant enzyme activities were induced by Al stress in both wheat genotypes and significantly enhanced by NO donor, but suppressed by NO scavenger or NR inhibitor. • These results suggest that an NR-mediated early NO burst plays an important role in Al resistance of wheat through modulating enhanced antioxidant defense to adapt to Al stress.

  14. Genome-specific granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) influences starch biochemical and functional characteristics in near-isogenic wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Geetika; Jaiswal, Sarita; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2013-12-11

    Near-isogenic wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing at the Waxy locus were studied for the influence of genome-specific granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI/Waxy; Wx-A, Wx-B, Wx-D) on starch composition, structure, and in vitro starch enzymatic hydrolysis. Grain composition, amylose concentration, amylopectin unit-chain length distribution, and starch granule size distribution varied with the loss of functional GBSSI. Amylose concentration was more severely affected in genotypes with GBSSI missing from two genomes (double nulls) than from one genome (single nulls). Unit glucan chains (DP 6-8) of amylopectin were reduced with the complete loss of GBSSI as compared to wheat starch with a full complement of GBSSI. Wx-A and Wx-B had an additive effect toward short-chain phenotype of waxy amylopectin. Loss of Wx-D isoprotein alone significantly (p starch hydrolysis as it increased the large A-type starch granule content (volume %) and reduced short chains (DP 6-8) in amylopectin. Factors such as small C-type starch granules, amylose concentration, and long chains of amylopectin (DP 23-45) also influenced wheat starch hydrolysis.

  15. Combining Phytate/Ca2+Fractionation with Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Improved Separation of Low-Abundant Proteins of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Leaf for Proteomic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad A R F Sultan; LIU Hui; CHENG Yu-Feng; ZHANG Pei-pei; ZHAO Hui-xian

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic assessment of low-abundance leaf proteins is hindered by the large quantity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) present within plant leaf tissues. In the present study, total proteins were extracted from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves by a conventional trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone method and a protocol first developed in this work. Phytate/Ca2+fractionation and TCA/acetone precipitation were combined to design an improved TCA/acetone method. The extracted proteins were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The resulting 2-DE images were compared to reveal major differences. The results showed that large quantities of Rubisco were deleted from wheat leaf proteins prepared by the improved method. As many as (758±4) protein spots were detected from 2-DE images of protein extracts obtained by the improved method, 130 more than those detected by the TCA/acetone method. Further analysis indicated that more protein spots could be detected at regions of pI 4.00-4.99 and 6.50-7.00 in the improved method-based 2-DE images. Our findings indicated that the improved method is an efficient protein preparation protocol for separating low-abundance proteins in wheat leaf tissues by 2-DE analysis. The proposed protocol is simple, fast, inexpensive and also applicable to protein preparations of other plants.

  16. Effect of 2,4-D and isoproturon on chromosomal disturbances during mitotic division in root tip cells of Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of the herbicides for weed control and crop productivity in modern agriculture exert a threat on economically important crops by way of cytological damage to the cells of the crop plant or side effects, if any, induced by the herbicides. In the present communication, author describes the effects of 2,4-D and Isoproturon on chromosomal morphology in mitotic cells of Triticum aestivum L. The wheat seedlings were treated with range of concentrations (50-1200 ppm) of 2,4-D and Isoproturon for 72 h at room temperature. In the mitotic cells, twelve distinct chromosome structure abnormalities were observed over control. The observed irregularities were stickiness, c-mitosis, multipolar chromosomes with or without spindles, fragments and bridges, lagging chromosomes, unequal distribution of chromosomes, over contracted chromosomes, unoriented chromosomes, star shaped arrangement of the chromosomes, increased cell size and failure of cell plate formation. The abnormalities like stickiness, fragments, bridges, lagging or dysjunction, unequal distribution and over contracted chromosomes meet frequently.

  17. Measurement of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate in plant leaves by isotope dilution. [Spinacea oleracea; Triticum aestivum; Arabidopsis thaliana; Maize; Phaseolus vulgaris; Petunia hybrida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.

  18. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-08-16

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat.

  19. Production, morphology, and cytogenetics of Triticum aestivum (L.) Thell × Elymus scabrus (R. Br.) Love intergeneric hybrids obtained by in ovulo embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F; Comeau, A

    1991-06-01

    Intergeneric hybrids were produced between common wheat, Triticum aestivum (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), and an apomictic Triticeae species, Elymus scabrus (syn. Agropyron scabrum) (2n=6x=42, HHSSSS), the first successful report of this cross. Nine tiny, underdeveloped, and structureless embryos were obtained in vitro only by in ovulo embryo culture at 4 days after pollination, which gave rise to five mature hybrid plants. All the hybrid plants were vigorous and possessed a phenotype intermediate to the two parents. There were 2n=6x=42 (ABDHSS) somatic chromosomes in the hybrids. There was little or no homology between the parental genomes, as shown by an overall meiotic chromosome association of 32.83 I + 4.08 rod II + 0.21 ring II + 0.18 III + 0.02 IV. The hybrids were completely sterile and so far backcrosses to wheat parent have not been successful. Alternate approaches to induce gene transfer(s) from E. scabrus to wheat are being attempted.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Juan

    Short- and long-term effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. While a short-term exposure to elevated CO2 induces a large increase in photosynthesis in wheat plants, long-term growth in elevated CO2 often results in a smaller increase due to reduced photosynthetic capacity. In this study, it was also shown that, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area was raised at an increased CO2 concentration partly due to a decrease in photorespiration, partly due to an increased substrate supply. Transpiration was reduced due to a lower stomatal conductance. The growth response of whole plants to a high CO2 concentration will be the main subject of this paper. Firstly, an estimation is made to what extent a doubling in CO2 concentration affects wheat plant growth in Lunar Palace 1. Secondly, the mechanisms behind this growth stimulation will be assessed. Finally, in those cases where wheat plants are grown over a range of environmental conditions, we select that condition where control plants are growing fastest. Thus, this study may be a matter of interest for researchers in both space and unban agriculture fields.

  1. Molecular Mapping of Two Novel Stripe Rust Resistant Genes YrTp1 and YrTp2 in A-3 Derived from Triticum aestivum × Thinopyrum ponticum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-gui; SHANG Xun-wu; PANG Bin-shuang; SONG Jian-rong; CAO Shi-qin; LI Jin-chang; ZHANG Xue-yong

    2006-01-01

    Loss of variety resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) is an important factor causing massive periodical epidemic of rust in wheat production. Creation and development of new races of rust pathogen have led to serious crisis of resistance loss in widely planted varieties. This has quickened the search for new resistance resources.Molecular marker could facilitate the identification of the location of novel genes. A line A-3 with high resistance(immune) to currently epidemic yellow rust races (CY29, 31, 32) was screened out in offspring of Triticum aestivum ×Thinopyrum ponticum. Segregation in F2 and BC1 populations indicated that the resistance was controlled by two independent genes: one dominant and one recessive. SSR markers were employed to map the two resistant genes in the F2 and BC1 populations. A marker WMC477-167bp located on 2BS was linked to the dominant gene with genetic distance of 0.4 cM. Another marker WMC364-208bp located on 7BS was linked to the recessive-resistant gene with genetic distance of 5.8 cM. The two genes identified in this paper might be two novel stripe rust resistant genes, which were temporarily designated as YrTpl and YrTp2, respectively. The tightly linking markers facilitate transfer of the two resistant genes into the new varieties to control epidemic of yellow rust.

  2. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  3. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed.

  4. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on the dynamics of some phytohormone content in the callus tissues of wheat Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, L. V.; Rudikovskaya, E. G.; Shmakov, V. N.; Rudikovskii, A. V.; Salyaev, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    We carried out an analysis of the influence of low-intensity He-Ne laser radiation on the dynamics of changes observed in the content of the phytohormones abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic, and indoleacetic acids in wheat calluses of Triticum aestivum L. using chromatography-mass spectrometry. He-Ne laser irradiation (λ  =  632.8 nm) in its stimulant dose (3.5 J cm-2) was proved to cause a decrease in jasmonic and indoleacetic acid content and, simultaneously, a significant (2.5-3 times) increase in ‘stress’ abscisic and salicylic acids. The response of jasmonic acid to He-Cd laser irradiation (λ  =  441 nm) was specific, which is probably due to the blue-light-induced biosynthesis of the acid. This article discusses a possible connection between substantial changes in growth regulator content within the plant tissue under the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation and the stress character of this type of radiation.

  5. Molecular characterization of LMW-GS genes from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum in relation to quick evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to exploit the evolution and find novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit(LMW-GS)for improvement of common wheat quality,thirteen variants from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum cv.Jinan 177(JN177)and Agropyron elongatum were characterized via genomic PCR.Four clones were pseudogenes because they contained an internal stop codon.The remaining nine variants contained intact open reading frames(ORFs).Sequence alignment indicates that the proteins deduced from the nine ORFs have similar primary structure with LMW-GS cloned from its parents previously.However,they have some unique modifications in the structures.For example,EU292737 contains not only an extra Cys residue in the C-terminal domain but also a long repetitive domain.Both EU159511 and EU292738 start their first Cys residue in the N-terminal repetitive domain,but not in the N-conserved domain traditionally.These structural alterations may have positive contributions to wheat flour quality.The results of phylogeny showed that most LMW-GS variances from Ⅱ-12 were homologous to those from parent JN 177 and other wheat lines.The reason for quick evolution of LMW-GS in Ⅱ-12 was discussed.

  6. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature.......e. the HRP-type of glycan. Complex-type glycans with one or two additional GlcNAc were observed, however in trace amount only. The mature protein is ca. 500 residues in size and appears to be truncated at the N- and C-termini (Dionisio G. et al., 2011b). References: Brejnholt S., Dionisio G., Glitsoe V......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a...

  7. COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW (TRITICUM AESTIVUM PBW-343 L. EMEND. FIORI & PAOL. – A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF FIBRES FOR PULP AND PAPER MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Triticum aestivum PBW-343 is grown in most of the regions of India, and it is one of the renewable sources most suitable for papermaking. Anatomical studies illustrate that vascular bundles near the periphery contain a strong sheath of sclerenchyma cells, which constitutes about 80% of the fibers. The total fibers in wheat straw are about 39.20%, and parenchyma and epidermal cells account for 32.10, and 23.56%, respectively, of the total cells. The dimensions of wheat straw fibers are: average fiber length 1.18 mm, fiber width 13.60 µm, lumen diameter 5.68 µm, and cell wall thickness 3.96 µm. The dimensions of non-fibrous cells are: parenchyma 445x124 µm, vessels 96x57 µm, and epidermal cells 390x38 µm, which lie between the corresponding values for rice straw, and bagasse. Flexibility coefficients and Runkel ratio of wheat straw fires are quite comparable to bamboo. The low lignin contents of wheat straw reflect that it requires mild cooking conditions; however, hemicelluloses are on higher side. Addition of AQ under optimum soda cooking conditions improves pulp yield by 0.75%, and lowers kappa number by 26.1%. Optimum strength properties are obtained at 45±1 oSR except tear index, which declines with increased refining. The fine contents are much higher, and relatively comparable to Eucalyptus tereticornis in terms of curl index and kinks per mm.

  8. Plant water uptake by hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes at 2°C and low light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Fedora

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard red winter wheat (HRWW; Triticum aestivm L. plants from genotypes selected in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. have less tissue water after exposure to cool autumn temperatures than plants from the Southern Great Plains. It is generally assumed that the reduced tissue water content of northern compared to southern cultivars is due to an impedance to water uptake by northern plants as a result of the low autumn temperatures. We hypothesize that if low temperature impedes water uptake then less soil water would be removed by northern than by southern-selected cultivars. This hypothesis was tested by comparing plant water uptake of a northern (FR and a southern (FS cultivar in relation to their foliage water content at 2°C. Results At 2°C foliage water content of FR plants decreased more rapidly than that of FS plants, similar to field results in the fall. During 6 wk, foliage water content of FR plants decreased 20 to 25% of the pre-treatment value, compared to only 5 to 10% by FS plants. Plant water uptake was about 60 g H2O·g FDW-1 by FS plants, while FR plants maintained plant water uptake in excess of 100 g H2O·g FDW-1 during the 6 wk period at 2°C. When four other northern genotypes of equal freeze resistance were studied, foliage water content and plant water uptake change were similar to FR plants. Conclusion In these northern-selected HRWW cultivars foliage water content reduction resulting from cold acclimation is not due to impedance to plant water uptake.

  9. The physiological significance of HKT1, a Na{sup +} - coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter in `Triticum aestivum`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, S.; Schachtman, D.P. [University of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Botany

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Several mechanisms for high affinity K{sup +} uptake by higher plants have been proposed:-an ATP-energised K:+ pump, a K{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport and a H{sup +}coupled carrier. Recently, a Na{sup +}--coupled high affinity K{sup +} transporter, HKT1, was isolated from wheat roots. Whilst Na{sup +}K{sup +} symports have been described in charophyte algae, the cloning of HKT1 from wheat is the first, evidence that this type d transport mechanism may function in higher plants. Is the activity of HKT1 an important mechanism involved in K{sup +} acquisition by wheat? The aim of this study was to assess the physiological significance of Na{sup +}- coupled high affinity K{sup +} uptake in T. aestivum. To determine whether HKT1 plays a significant role in wheat growth, we measured the dry weights and ion content of plants grown in a range of [K{sup +}], with and without Na{sup +}. To directly assess the activity of Na{sup +}- coupled K{sup +} transport, {sup 86}Rb{sup +} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} flux analyses were performed on the elongation zones and whole roots of intact seedlings, expressing a high affinity K{sup +} uptake system. The results of these growth and tracer flux studies will be discussed in relation to the expression of the gene encoding HKT1 in T. aestivum

  10. NOVOS GENÓTlPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTIDOS POR IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA

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    C.E. de O. CAMARGO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezesseis linhagens mutantes tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio em solução nutritiva, uma linhagem mutante sensível e os cultivares Anahuac, IAC-60 e IAC-24, de trigo. As linhagens mutantes foram originárias de seleções realizadas em populações do cultivar Anahuac (sensível ao Al3+ cujas sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento de irradiação gama com as doses de 260 e 310 Gy. As comparações foram realizadas em dois locais através de seis experimentos em épocas diferentes, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância a solos ácidos. Quinze linhagens mutantes foram mais produtivas que o cultivar Anahuac e a linhagem mutante sensível ao Al3+, em Capão Bonito, em solo ácido e em condição de sequeiro. Nestas condições, o cultivar IAC-60 foi o que exibiu a maior produtividade, diferindo dos demais. Todos os genótipos estudados não diferiram entre si, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Tatuí, em solo corrigido e com irrigação por aspersão. Irradiação gama no cultivar Anahuac foi eficiente possibilitando a seleção de linhagens mutantes com características agronômicas (altura de planta, ciclo da emergência ao florescimento, comprimento da espiga, número de espiguetas por espiga, número de grãos por espiga e espigueta e peso de 100 grãos similares às do cultivar original, porém com tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, tornando possível o seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Sixteen mutant lines tolerant to Al3+ toxicity in nutrient solutions, and a mutant line, sensitive to Al3+ originated from selections of a population of the cultivar Anahuac (sensitive to Al3+ previously submitted to gamma irradiation (260 and 310Gy, and the check cultivars Anahuac, IAC-24 and IAC-60, were evaluated in two locations and six trials, for grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to acid soils. ln Capão Bonito, in an acid soil and upland conditions, fifteen mutant lines

  11. Cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m) chromosomes of Triticum monococcum and the A chromosomes of Triticum aestivum using microsatellite DNA repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Mária; Mikó, Péter; Farkas, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Molnár, István

    2017-02-01

    The cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m)- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the A(m) and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the A(m) and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes. These showed that T. monococcum chromosomes have fewer, generally weaker, simple sequence repeat (SSR) signals than the A-genome chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. A differential hybridisation pattern was observed on 6A(m) and 6A chromosomes with all the SSR probes tested except for the (ACT)n probe. The 2A(m) and 2A chromosomes were differentiated by the signals given by the (GAA)n, (CAG)n and (AAC)n repeats, while only (GAA)n discriminated the chromosomes 3A(m) and 3A. Chromosomes 7A(m) and 7A could be differentiated by the lack of (GAA)n and (AGG)n signals on 7A. As potential landmarks for identifying the A(m) chromosomes, SSR repeats will facilitate the introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into wheat.

  12. Standardization of protocols to test wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for reaction to blast in a biocontainment laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth medium, spore age, and inoculum density are essential factors for determining host responses to a plant pathogen. The standardization of these factors is important to obtain adequate and reproducible disease assessments. We are testing US wheat cultivars for reaction to the exotic disease bla...

  13. Molecular mapping of QTLs for root response to phosphorus deficiency at seedling stage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in the soil is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit plant growth and crop productivity throughout the world. Development of cultivars with improved P-deficiency tolerance is an efficient strategy for sustainable agriculture.Plant roots play an important role in crop growth and development, especially in nutrient uptake and improvement of P-efficiency. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root traits and their response to low P stress at seedling stage will facilitate the development of P-efficient wheat cultivars. In this study, 30 QTLs (LOD>2.0) were mapped for the three root traits, such as root length, root number and root dry matter under different P supply conditions and their response to P-stress. These QTLs were distributed on 14 chromosomes, with each of the 5 QTLs explaining more than 10% phenotype variance. Analyses showed that root traits and their response to P-deficiency were controlled by different QTLs. In addition, alleles with positive effects were separated on both parents, and wheat cultivars with improved P-efficiency could be developed by accumulating these positive effect alleles together.

  14. Investigation of cell wall composition related to stem lodging resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhu, Jinmao; Huang, RuZhu; Yang, YuSheng

    2012-07-01

    We explored the rapid qualitative analysis of wheat cultivars with good lodging resistances by Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. FTIR imaging showing that wheat stem cell walls were mainly composed of cellulose, pectin, protein, and lignin. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to eliminate multicollinearity among multiple peak absorptions. PCA revealed the developmental internodes of wheat stems could be distributed from low to high along the load of the second principal component, which was consistent with the corresponding bands of cellulose in the FTIR spectra of the cell walls. Furthermore, four distinct stem populations could also be identified by spectral features related to their corresponding mechanical properties via PCA and cluster analysis. Histochemical staining of four types of wheat stems with various abilities to resist lodging revealed that cellulose contributed more than lignin to the ability to resist lodging. These results strongly suggested that the main cell wall component responsible for these differences was cellulose. Therefore, the combination of multivariate analysis and FTIR could rapidly screen wheat cultivars with good lodging resistance. Furthermore, the application of these methods to a much wider range of cultivars of unknown mechanical properties promises to be of interest.

  15. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S(7A) with resistance to wheat scab and its meiotic behavior analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LinSheng; CHEN PeiDu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus racemosus is highly resistant to wheat scab (Fusarum head bright). The transfer of scab re-sistant gene from L. racemosus to Triticum aestivum is of great significance for broadening the base of wheat resistance. In the present study, the pollen of T. aestivum-L, racemosus monosomic addition linewith scab resistance was treated by irradiation with 1200 R 60Co-γ-rays prior to pollinating to emasculated wheat cv. Mianyang 85-45. Nine plants with a telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S were observed in M1,and one ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S was selected from selfcrossing progenies and confirmed by chromosome C-banding and GISH. Furthermore, a co-dominant EST-SSR marker CINAU 31 was em-ployed to identify this substitution line. A pair of chromosome 7A of common wheat were found to be replaced by a pair of telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S, and further investigation showed that chromo-some configuration of the substitution line at MI of PMCs after GISH was 17.50(Ⅱ) w + 2.19 (Ⅱ)w +0.42 (Ⅱ)7Lr#1S + 1.08 Ⅰ7Lr#1S + 0.69 Ⅰw. Two telocentric chromosomes paired as a bivalent in 59.7% of PMCs.Abnormal chromosome behaviors of telocentric chromosomes were observed in part of PMCs at ana-phase Ⅰ and telophase Ⅰ, including the moving of two telocentric chromosomes to the same pole, lag-ging and earlier separation of their sister chromatid. All these abnormal behaviors can be grouped into three distinct types of tetrads according to different numbers of 7Lr#1S in their daughter cells and various micronucieus in some tetrads. However, due to the high transmission frequency of the female and male gametes with a 7Lr#1S, 84% of the selfcrossing progeny plants had ditelosomic substitution. The substitution line showed high resistance to wheat scab in a successive two-year test both in the greenhouse and field; hence, the line will be particularly valuable for alien gene mapping, small frag-ment translocation induction and telosomic cytological behavior analysis.

  16. Uncovering leaf rust responsive miRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-throughput sequencing and prediction of their targets through degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Dutta, Summi; Singh, Dharmendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression. High-throughput sequencing was used for transcriptome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profiling in retort to leaf rust using mock and pathogen-inoculated resistant and susceptible near-isogenic wheat plants. A total of 1056 mature miRNAs were identified, of which 497 miRNAs were conserved and 559 miRNAs were novel. The pathogen-inoculated resistant plants manifested more miRNAs compared with the pathogen infected susceptible plants. The miRNA counts increased in susceptible isoline due to leaf rust, conversely, the counts decreased in the resistant isoline in response to pathogenesis illustrating precise spatial tuning of miRNAs during compatible and incompatible interaction. Stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR was used to profile 10 highly differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high-throughput sequencing data. The spatio-temporal profiling validated the differential expression of miRNAs between the isolines as well as in retort to pathogen infection. Degradome analysis provided 701 predicted target genes associated with defense response, signal transduction, development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. The obtained results indicate that wheat isolines employ diverse arrays of miRNAs that modulate their target genes during compatible and incompatible interaction. Our findings contribute to increase knowledge on roles of microRNA in wheat-leaf rust interactions and could help in rust

  17. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  18. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  19. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. OVER LAST 25 YEARS IN THE TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khet Raj Dahal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  A study on the effect of climate change and associated factors on the production and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. over last 25 years in the Terai region of Nepal was conducted. Three major wheat growing districts of Nepal (Kanchanpur, Rupandehi and Dhanusha were focused. Climate and wheat management data were deployed. Farmers' feedback was taken through a set of semi-structured questionnaire followed by one day workshop cum seminar. Focus Group Discussion (FGD was also conducted in the field. Comparison over 25 years showed that rainfall during wheat season declined significantly while maximum temperature increased by over 10C. Mean minimum temperature showed slight decline. Farmers' interaction indicated that growth period of wheat appeared to reduce over years, while new diseases/races and weeds have emerged. This led to increase in use of chemical pesticides. Use of inputs such as chemical fertilizers increased significantly leading to increased production cost by many folds. Despite limitations, wheat farming area and production has increased significantly in the past 25 years. The major issues for farmers were found to be a deficit of inorganic fertilizers, insufficient supply of quality seeds and an unsystematic market. The coping mechanism for climate change in wheat farming in all the three districts was not applied due to lack of knowledge, facilities and access to improved technologies. The farmers expected advanced technological know-how along with other facilities for climate resilient wheat farming.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page:

  20. Integrated analysis of seed proteome and mRNA oxidation reveals distinct post-transcriptional features regulating dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Chitnis, Vijaya R; Humphreys, Gavin D; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2013-10-01

    Wheat seeds can be released from a dormant state by after-ripening; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We previously identified transcriptional programmes involved in the regulation of after-ripening-mediated seed dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that seed dormancy maintenance and its release by dry after-ripening in wheat is associated with oxidative modification of distinct seed-stored mRNAs that mainly correspond to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient reservoir and α-amylase inhibitor activities, suggesting the significance of post-transcriptional repression of these biological processes in regulating seed dormancy. We further show that after-ripening induced seed dormancy release in wheat is mediated by differential expression of specific proteins in both dry and hydrated states, including those involved in proteolysis, cellular signalling, translation and energy metabolism. Among the genes corresponding to these proteins, the expression of those encoding α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor and starch synthase appears to be regulated by mRNA oxidation. Co-expression analysis of the probesets differentially expressed and oxidized during dry after-ripening along with those corresponding to proteins differentially regulated between dormant and after-ripened seeds produced three co-expressed gene clusters containing more candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Two of the three clusters are enriched with elements that are either abscisic acid (ABA) responsive or recognized by ABA-regulated transcription factors, indicating the association between wheat seed dormancy and ABA sensitivity.

  1. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade.

  2. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil Amended with Roadside Pond Sediment and Uptake by Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Karak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  4. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001 and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days.

  5. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Jiahuan; Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days.

  6. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

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    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  7. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

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    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  8. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Zhengyong Cui; Yingli Ni; Mengjing Zheng; Dongqing Yang; Min Jin; Jin Chen; Zhenlin Wang; Yanping Yin

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  9. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  10. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

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    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  11. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  12. 污泥施用对土壤及小麦生理特性的影响%Effects of Sewage Sludge Application on Soil and Physiological Property of Triticum Aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮; 任珺; 陶玲; 李华

    2012-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge on agricultural soils is a promising disposal and utilizable method and this has been shown to improve soil properties and increase plant productivity. This paper took the sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plant of Anning District in Lanzhou as research subject and studied the effects of land utilization on pH value, the heavy metal content in soil, chlorophyll and proline content in Triticum aestivum leaves by using pot scale experiments. The results showed that pH value in the soil declined significantly with the increase of the sewage sludge application. The content of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil was far below the national standard of environmental quality standards for soils for Grade II (GB 1518-1995). The amount of total chlorophyll in these three kinds of Triticum aestivum increased with the increase of sewage sludge application, rose to the maximum as the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight becomes 15%, and decreased with a further increase of sewage sludge. Compared with the control, the a/b value in chlorophyll showed little change, whereas the content of proline in Triticum aestivum leaves showed significant increase after the application of sewage sludge. While the content of proline in Triticum aestivum increased with the increase of sewage sludge in low land application of sewage sludge(the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight was 5%, 10% and 15%), there was no significant increase in the content in high land application of sewage sludge(the ratio of sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight was 25% and 35%). The physiological metabolism of Triticum aestivum showed abnormality as the stress of pollutants from sludge was beyond the tolerance of Triticum aestivum. The content of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil had significantly positive correlation with the content of proline in the three kinds of Triticum aestivum leaves, whereas pH value in the soil was negatively correlated with the content of chlorophyll

  13. Identification of Bipolaris bicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. in Brazil Identificação de Bipolaris bicolor e Bipolaris sorokiniana sobre sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no Brasil

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    Kendra R. Morejon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused in wheat by Helminthosporium spp. have led to considerable yield and production losses. Different species in this genus are associated with wheat seeds. In Brazil, spot blotch in wheat is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. The fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolated from wheat seeds cultivar IAPAR, was identified by taxonomic methods and compared with the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem., in relation to growth characteristics on the seeds, as well as to growth characteristics in PDA and morphology of the structures. Type of colony observed on the seeds is important for the differentiation between the fungus species. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented black colonies, which were well-adherent to the seeds, whereas B. bicolor presented grayish, aerial, cotton-like colonies. The size of the conidia also differed in length and width, and B. bicolor presented the smallest dimensions. In relation to septa, B. bicolor conidia presented deep ones, with dark color bases, but seldom presented dark apex. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented homogenous color.Doenças causadas por Helminthosporium spp. em trigo, causam consideráveis perdas na produção. Diferentes espécies do gênero do fungo podem ser encontradas em sementes. No caso do Brasil, a mancha foliar do trigo tem sido causada por Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, entretanto, outro fungo como Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem tem sido isolado de sementes do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar as espécies de fungo que normalmente infectam sementes de trigo e comparar com a mais comum B. sorokiniana. O fungo Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolado de sementes de trigo var. IAPAR, foi identificado por

  14. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H (2) = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  17. Mapping QTLs associated with agronomic and physiological traits under terminal drought and heat stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Sirous; Heidari, Bahram; Pakniyat, Hassan; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Wheat crops frequently experience a combination of abiotic stresses in the field, but most quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have focused on the identification of QTLs for traits under single stress field conditions. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from SeriM82 × Babax was used to map QTLs under well-irrigated, heat, drought, and a combination of heat and drought stress conditions in two years. A total of 477 DNA markers were used to construct linkage groups that covered 1619.6 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.39 cM between adjacent markers. Moderate to relatively high heritability estimates (0.60-0.70) were observed for plant height (PHE), grain yield (YLD), and grain per square meter (GM2). The most important QTLs for days to heading (DHE), thousand grain weight (TGW), and YLD were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D-a, and 7D-b. The prominent QTLs related to canopy temperature were on 3B. Results showed that common QTLs for DHE, YLD, and TGW on 7D-b were validated in heat and drought trials. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content in SPAD unit (on 1A/6B), leaf rolling (ROL) (on 3B/4A), and GM2 (on 1B/7D-b) showed significant epistasis × environment interaction. Six heat- or drought-specific QTLs (linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, 1B-agc/cta-9, 1A-aag/cta-8, 4A-acg/cta-3, 1B-aca/caa-3, and 1B-agc/cta-9 for day to maturity (DMA), SPAD, spikelet compactness (SCOM), TGW, GM2, and GM2, respectively) were stable and validated over two years. The major DHE QTL linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, with no QTL × environment (QE) interaction increased TGW and YLD. This QTL (5.68 ≤ LOD ≤ 10.5) explained up to 19.6% variation in YLD in drought, heat, and combined stress trials. This marker as a candidate could be used for verification in other populations and identifying superior allelic variations in wheat cultivars or its wild progenitors to increase the efficiency of selection of high yielding lines adapted to end-season heat and drought stress conditions.

  18. Analysis of main effect QTL for thousand grain weight in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by genome-wide association mapping

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    Christine Désirée Zanke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and at the same time markedly influenced by the environment. Genetic analysis of the thousand grain weight (TGW by genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties using phenotypic data of field tests in eight environments. Wide phenotypic variations were indicated for the TGW with BLUEs (best linear unbiased estimations values ranging from 35.9 g to 58.2 g with a mean value of 45.4 g and a heritability of H2=0.89. A total of 12 candidate genes for plant height, photoperiodism and grain weight were genotyped on all varieties. Only three candidates, the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, dwarfing gene Rht-B1and the TaGW-6A gene were significant explaining up to 14.4%, 2.3% and 3.4% of phenotypic variation, respectively. For a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TGW-QTL genotyping data from 732 microsatellite markers and a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90k iSELECT array were analyzed. In total, 342 significant (-log10 (P-value > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected for SSR markers and 1195 MTAs (-log10P-value > 3.0 for SNP markers in all single environments plus the BLUEs. After Bonferroni correction, 28 MTAs remained significant for SSR markers (-log10 (P-value > 4.82 and 58 MTAs for SNP markers (-log10 (P value > 5.89. Apart from chromosomes 4B and 6B for SSR markers and chromosomes 4D and 5D for SNP markers, MTAs were detected on all chromosomes. The highest number of significant SNP markers was found on chromosomes 3B and 1B, while for the SSRs most markers were significant on chromosomes 6D and 3D. Overall, TGW was determined by many markers with small effects. Only three SNP-markers had R2 values above 6%.

  19. Comparative analysis of phenolic compound characterization and their biosynthesis genes between two diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum varieties differing for chapatti (unleavened flat bread quality

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    Monica Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhenolic compounds (PCs affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread, now globally recognised wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, ‘C 306’ and a poor chapatti variety, ‘Sonalika’. About 80% (69/87 of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2’-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be ‘variety or genotype’ specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of forty-four phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and seventeen of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of twelve genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches

  20. Genetic Analysis and Molecular Mapping of an All-Stage Stripe Rust Resistance Gene inTriticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Translocation Line V3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lu; MA Dong-fang; HU Mao-lin; HE Miao-miao; LU Yan; JING Jin-xue

    2013-01-01

    Triticum aestivum-Hayaldia villosa translocation line V3 has shown effective all-stage resistance to the seven dominant pathotypes ofPuccinia striiformsf. sp.tritici prevalent in China. To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, the segregating populations were developed from the cross between V3 and susceptible genotype Mingxian 169, seedlings of the parents and F2 progeny were tested with six prevalent pathotypes, including CYR29, CYR31, CYR32-6, CYR33, Sun11-4, and Sun11-11, F1plants and F3lines were also inoculated with Sun11-11 to conifrm the result further. The genetic studied results showed that the resistance of V3 against CYR29 was conferred by two dominant genes, independently, one dominant gene and one recessive gene conferring independently or a single dominant gene to confer resistance to CYR31, two complementary dominant genes conferring resistance to both CYR32-6 and Sun11-4, two independently dominant genes or three dominant genes (two of the genes show cumulative effect) conferring resistance to CYR33, a single dominant gene for resistance to Sun11-11. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple-sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to the single dominant gene (temporarily designated asYrV3) for resistance to Sun11-11. A linkage map of 2 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the dominant gene using data from 221 F2 plants and their derived F2:3 lines tested with Sun11-11 in the greenhouse. Ampliifcation of the complete set of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring with a RGAP marker RG1 mapped the gene on the chromosome 1B, and then the linked 7 SSR markers located this gene on the long arm of chromosome 1B. The linkage map spanned a genetic distance of 25.0 cM, the SSR markersXgwm124 andXcfa2147closely linked toYrV3 with genetic distances of 3.0 and 3.8 cM, respectively. Based on the linkage map, it concluded that the resistance geneYrV3was located on chromosome arm 1BL. Given

  1. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  2. Inoculación de Burkholderia cepacia y Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus sobre la fenología y biomasa de Triticum aestivum var. Nana F2007 a 50% de fertilizante nitrogenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaime Hernández-Escareño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento en el consumo de Triticum aestivum (trigo var Nana-F2007 requiere de la aplicación de fertilizante nitrogenado (FN, como NH4NO3 (nitrato de amonio, él que en exceso causa la pérdida de fertilidad del suelo. Una alternativa para reducir y optimizar la dosis de FN en T. aestivum, es inocular su semilla con géneros de bacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal endófitas (BPCVE. Se sugiere que cuando éstas invaden internamente su raíz inducen la síntesis de sustancias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (SPCV, que mejoran la absorción radical del FN. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de inoculación de Burkholderia cepacia y Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en la fenología y biomasa de T. aestivum a dosis 50% del FN. En invernadero la semilla de trigo se trató con ambos géneros de BPCVE. Con las variables respuesta: fenología: altura de planta, longitud de raíz y biomasa peso fresco/seco total aéreo y radical a plántula y floración. Los resultados mostraron que B. cepacia en T. aestivum causó un incremento en su peso seco total (PST con 0,61 g, valor estadísticamente significativo comparado con los 0,53 g del PST del trigo control relativo (CR con el FN al 100%. La combinación B. cepacia.-G. diazotrophicus en T. aestivum incrementó su PST con 4,23g, valor estadísticamente significativo comparado con los 1,13 g de PST del T. aestivum (CR. Lo anterior sugiere que B. cepacia y G. diazotrophicus mediante SPCV ejercieron un efecto positivo en la fenología y biomasa de T. aestivum a la dosis 50% del FN para esta variedad.

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Three Defensin Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)%三个小麦防御素基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史灵敏; 张斌; 丁汉凤; 李娜娜; 高文伟; 彭振英

    2016-01-01

    Three Triticum aestivum defensin (TaPDF)genes,TaPDF32,TaPDF33 and TaPDF34 (GenBank accession No.BT009185,BT009167 and BT009022),were cloned from the young leaves of Jimai 22 cultivar.Sequence analysis showed that each had an open reading frame of 243,249 bp and 225 bp, which encoded the proteins with 80,82 and 74 amino acids respectively.The mature proteins,with the esti-mated molecular masses of all about 5.5 kD and the isoelectric points all higher than 7,each contained eight conservative cysteine residues.Conserved domain analysis found that TaPDF32 contained a strictly conserved gamma -thionin domain,while TaPDF33 and TaPDF34 each had a Knot1 function domain.Both of the do-mains are the typical characteristics of plant defensin.Thus,the three TaPDFs all belong to typical plant de-fensin proteins.Study of the three dimensional structure using SWISS -MODEL showed that all of them con-tained a triple -stranded anti -parallel β-sheet and an α-helix stabilized by four disulfide bridges.Phyloge-netic analysis showed that TaPDF32 and TaPDF33 were close to defensins of Zea mays and Setaria italica,while TaPDF34 was close to Clycine max defensin.But they all owned low similarities with the other reported wheat defensins,which indicated that TaPDF32,TaPDF33 and TaPDF34 were three new wheat defensins.Real -time PCR analysis revealed that TaPDF32 and TaPDF33 genes had the highest expression level in leaves,followed by seeds,and the lowest level in roots.Whereas TaPDF34 expressed basically consistent in all tissues.%本试验从济麦22幼叶中克隆得到三个小麦防御素基因 TaPDF(Triticum aestivum defensin),分别命名为 TaPDF32、TaPDF33和 TaPDF34(GenBank 登录号分别为 BT009185、BT009167和 BT009022)。序列分析发现,三个防御素基因各自含有一个长度为243、249 bp 和225 bp 的开放阅读框(open reading frame, ORF),依次编码长度为80、82个和74个氨基酸的蛋白。成熟蛋白的分子量均约为5.5 k

  4. Soil zinc and cadmium availability and uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by long-term organic matter management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Roman; Costerousse, Benjamin; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile; Frossard, Emmanuel; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human mineral nutrition. It is mainly caused by imbalanced diets with low contents of bioavailable Zn. This is in particular a problem in populations depending on cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a major source of this essential micronutrient element. Increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification) is therefore an important challenge. At the same time, increased uptake of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) must be prevented. Agronomic practises influence soil properties such as pH and soil organic carbon and thus also have an indirect effect on phytoavailable soil Zn and Cd concentrations and the uptake of these metals by wheat in addition to direct inputs with fertilizers and other amendments. This study investigated the effects of long-term organic matter management on the phytoavailability of soil Zn and Cd and their uptake by wheat on plots of two Swiss long-term field trials. In one trial (DOK), a farming system comparison trial established in 1978, we compared plots under conventional management with mineral fertilization either in combination or not with farmyard manure application to plots under biodynamic organic management and control plots with no fertilizer application. In the second trial (ZOFE), established in 1949, we compared different fertilizer regimes on conventionally managed plots, including plots with application of mineral fertilizers only, farmyard manure, or compost and control plots with no fertilizer application. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties were determined at the beginning of the growing season. Soil Zn and Cd availabilities were assessed by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) method and by DTPA extraction before and after wheat cultivation. Additionally, various wheat yield components and element concentrations in shoots and grains were measured at harvest. In the ZOFE trial, soil Zn and Cd concentrations were lowest in the mineral

  5. Effets de modifications du génome D et d'un choc osmotique sur les paramètres hydriques et sur le comportement stomatique de Triticum aestivum cv. " Chinese Spring "

    OpenAIRE

    Coudret, A; Cauderon, Y.

    1984-01-01

    L’analyse du comportement stomatique et hydrique d’ancuploïdes du blé tendre (Triticum aestivum) cv. « Chinese Spring » montre que l’absence de certains chromosomes ou bras de chromosomes entraîne une diminution de la potentialité d’ouverture des stomates, soit, pour le génome D, les bras de chromosomes 2DL, 2DS, 3DL, 3DS, 4DS, 6DS, 7DS et probablement aussi 1DL. Les chromosomes 7A et 7B sont capables de compenser l’effet du chromosome 7D ; les chromosomes 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B interviennent éga...

  6. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  7. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  8. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...

  9. Vitrovariation et régénération par embryogenèse somatique à partir d'embryons mûrs de blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L. var. 'Nesma' 149 : effet du borate de sodium, de la fragmentation et du scutellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitrovariation and regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from mature embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Var. 'Nesma' 149: effect of the borate of sodium, the fragmentation and the scutellum. The combined effects of the scutellum, the fragmentation and sodium borate, on the embryogenic capacity of ripe zygotic embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. 'Nesma' 149 were studied. The morphological characters and yield of the regenerated plants differ from control plants and indicate somaclonales variations. The mediums containing borax (0.75 g.l-1 and comprising explants resulting from the longitudinal fragmentation of the zygotic embryos with scutellum, initiated high percentages of embryogenic callus and of regeneration over one long period of culture, with large size somatic embryos as well as a weak somaclonale variation and one very low necrosis of callus. Whereas the mediums containing less or no borax and explants resulting from transversely cut zygotic embryos and without scutellum show opposite results.

  10. Occurrences of Yttrium in Soil and Its Potential Impacts on Paddy Rice Triticum aestivum%稀土钇对水稻的潜在生物效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀娟; 张素贞; 朱易春; 马彩云; 潘阳; 高咪

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过研究土壤中硝酸钇对水稻生物量和生物酶活的影响,探索富钇稀土矿区植物疯长但不结果的原因。[方法]将不同浓度的硝酸钇溶液喷洒于土样之上,充分混合土样后置于培养皿,培养稻种以便后续检测。[结果]当土壤 Y含量在25~100 mg/kg范围内,生物量(总重量,根重,茎重、叶重)、生长绿素(CHL)含量与水稻的蛋白质含量显著增长;土壤 Y含量在200~800 mg/kg 范围内,芽和水稻根中的抗氧化系统如超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)受到抑制,均呈现下降趋势。丙二醛(MDA)的含量增加,当土壤 Y含量在25-100 mg/kg 、100~800 mg/kg范围内,芽和水稻根中的丙二醛(MDA)浓度下降。这表明,低浓度的Y可促进植物生长,相对较高的浓度抑制生长。[结论]从矿区采矿区、农田和脐橙园采集的土壤中 Y的含量分别为641±49,328±16和473±40 mg/kg,研究区的 Y含量均高于效益水平100 mg/kg,这可能是导致植物疯狂生长但不结果的原因。因此,矿区的谨慎管理是必要的。%[Objective] The effects of yttrium nitrate (YNO3) on biomass and antioxi-dant systems of paddy rice (Yttrium (Y); Oxidative stress; Dismutases (SOD); Per-oxidases (POD); Catalases (CAT); Paddy rice (Triticum aestivum)) together with the occurrences of Y in soils were investigated to assess its ecotoxicological effects on plant. [Method]Y solutions with various concentrations were sprinkled on soil sam-ples, which were wel mixed and then put into culture dishes to culture paddy rice seeds for further evaluation. [Result] The results indicated that 25-100 mg/kg Y treatments significantly increased the biomass (total weight, root weight, shoot weight and leaf weight), chlorophyl (CHL) content and protein content of paddy rice, whereas 200-800 mg/kg Y treatments had a converse effect. Similarly, biomarker for the

  11. Improvement Fe Content of Wheat(Triticum aestivum)Grain by Soybean Ferritin Expression Cassette without Vector Backbone Sequence%无载体框架结构的大豆铁蛋白线性表达盒提高小麦籽粒铁含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋晓燕; 赵琰; 王树彬; 段晓亮; 许兰杰; 梁荣奇; 李保云

    2012-01-01

    培育和推广铁强化型小麦品种对于经济有效地解决贫困人口的铁营养不良问题具有重要意义.本研究通过RT-PCR得到了大豆(Glycine max)铁蛋白基因,构建了无载体框架的大豆铁蛋白线性表达盒(即小麦籽粒特异的高分子量谷蛋白亚基1Dx5的启动子-大豆铁蛋白基因-NOS终止子酶切片段);用基因枪法转化“京花1号”小麦(Triticum aestivum)幼胚愈伤组织,经草胺膦筛选和分化后,得到276株转基因T0植株,通过PCR筛选出阳性植株65株;RT-PCR检测发现29个株系的大豆铁蛋白基因在灌浆期籽粒中表达;与对照相比,对8031个T1代株系所结的T2代籽粒进行了铁含量测定,有265个株系成熟籽粒的铁含量均比对照有不同幅度提高,增幅在4.93%~64.03%之间,其中22个株系的籽粒铁含量显著或极显著提高.结果提示,利用无载体框架的大豆铁蛋白线性表达盒可以有效地培育出籽粒铁含量显著提高的转基因小麦.%Iron (Fe) is important and indispensable element for the normal physiological processes in the human body, and iron deficiency is a serious nutritional problem in the world, so it is economical and effective to breed and grow wheat cultivars with high grain iron content, especially for those population in poor-developed areas. In this paper, the soybean (Glycine max) ferritin gene was obtained by RT-PCR, and cloned into the pBAC47P vector. The soybean ferritin expression cassette without vector backbone sequence but including wheat endosperm-specific HMW-GS 1Dx5 promoter and NOS terminator was constructed by digestion and purification, and has been transformed through particle bombardment of PDS1000/He system into winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, Jinghua No.1. After phosphinothricin (PPT) selection, differentiation and regeneration, 276 plants were regenerated from immature embryos callus. By PCR screening and PCR-Southern blot using specific primers for soybean

  12. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  13. Determinación del impacto de competencia de diferentes cohortes de avena silvestre (Avena fatua sobre los rendimientos en un cultivo comercial de trigo (Triticum aestivum Assessment of competition impact from different cohorts of wild oats (Avena fatua on the yields of a commercial wheat crop (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez M. Javier

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de la avena silvestre (Avena fatua L. sobre el cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestívum LO.. Estainvestigaciónfue desarrollada en el Centro Agropecuario , Universidad Nacional de Colombia del municipio de Mosquera, Cundinamarca, principalmente para determinar la variación de las poblaciones de la avena silvestre mediante el establecimiento de 8 cohortes a intervalos de 15 días cada una. Se evaluaron los cambios fenológicos en cada cohorte dos veces por semana. También, fue evaluado el impacto de la competencia a través del peso seco de las plantas. El trabajo se desarrolló
    con diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro replicas y cada tratamiento se acompañó con dos testigos: una parcela siempre limpia y otra siempre enmalezada. Se realizó la prueba de Duncan para las variables significativas. La emergencia de plantas de avena se presentó durante todo el ciclo del cultivo. Las plantas de las primeras cohortes de avena fueron tan altas como las plantas de cultivo. La densidad de plantas y el peso seco de estas primeras 5 cohortes fueron superiores a los de las
    3 cohortes finales. Las plantas de las cohortes 6 a, 7 a y e-. presentaron menor número de tallos y menor peso seco por planta. Estas diferencias hacen que las plantas de las primerascohortes presentaran mayor capacidad de competencia.The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of wild oats (Avena fatua L. in a wheat crop (Tritícum aestivum LO.. This research was conducted at the Centro Agropecuario "Marengo" , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, near the town of Mosquera, Cundinamarca. In order to determine the variation of Avena fatua populations, 8 succesive cohorts were established with intervals of 15 days. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with tour replications. In addition to the the eight treatments (cohorts there were two check plots

  14. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ORTIZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros hídricos foliares ys (potencial de solutos, CRA (contenido relativo de agua y AO (ajuste osmótico permiten caracterizar la respuesta de las plantas frente al estrés hídrico e identificar aquellos genotipos mejor adaptados. Sin embargo, estos parámetros presentan una gran influencia del medioambiente lo que dificulta su análisis. En este trabajo se planteó la hipótesis de que es posible caracterizar y seleccionar genotipos resistentes a sequía en base a la evolución de los parámetros hídricos foliares en campo. Se cultivaron 31 genotipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en dos ensayos de campo, uno regado y otro no regado que recibió sólo 218,3 mm de lluvia invernal. El diseño fue de bloques al azar con dos repeticiones. Entre los 77 y 121 días después de la emergencia (DC 41 a DC 77 se realizaron cinco muestreos de CRA y psis en hojas bandera hidratadas (psish en cada repetición de cada ensayo (con un total de 10 observaciones por ensayo. Las repeticiones se muestrearon en días alternos, con un intervalo de 24 h entre las 12:00 y las 14:00 h. A la cosecha se midió biomasa, rendimiento y componentes de rendimiento. Las observaciones de CRA y ysh fueron altamente afectadas por factores ambientales (ca. 80 % de la suma de cuadrados y no estuvieron correlacionadas entre repeticiones de un mismo ensayo. Con fines de análisis se consideró cada observación como independiente (10 observaciones de cada parámetro hídrico foliar por genotipo y se realizaron regresiones lineales del valor de cada parámetro hídrico foliar de cada genotipo sobre el promedio de todos los genotipos en el momento de muestreo. Cada genotipo se caracterizó por el valor medio del parámetro hídrico foliar y la pendiente de la regresión. Además se estimó el ajuste osmótico (AO de cada genotipo utilizando tres métodos propuestos en la literatura. Se hicieron dos selecciones de genotipos, una consideró la pendiente y el promedio de ysh

  15. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (Pphytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  16. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P

    2014-11-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  17. The influence of silane coupling agent and poplar particles on the wet-tability, surface roughness, and hardness of UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.)/poplar wood particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyedeh Masoumeh Hafezi; Kazem Doosthoseini

    2014-01-01

    We used silane coupling agents to improve the bonding ability between wheat straw particles and UF resin, and investigated surface properties (wettability and surface roughness) and hardness of parti-cleboard made from UF-bonded wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) combined with poplar wood as affected by silane coupling agent content and straw/poplar wood particle ratios. We manufactured one-layered particleboard panels at four different ratios of straw to poplar wood par-ticles (0%, 15%, 30% and 45% wheat straw) and silane coupling agent content at three levels of 0, 5% and 10%. Roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and root mean square roughness (Rq) were measured on unsanded samples by using a fine stylus tracing technique. We obtained contact angle measurements by using a goniometer connected to a digital camera and computer sys-tem. Boards containing greater amounts of poplar particles had superior hardness compared to control samples and had lower wettability. Panels made with higher amounts of silane had lower Rq values.

  18. Cloning of a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene from a Triticum aestivum-Elytrigia elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daoyi; WANG Honggang

    2005-01-01

    Shannong 551, a T. aestivum-E. elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew, was inoculated with pathogenic spores of powdery mildew. The leaf samples were prepared 48 h after inoculation for scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that germination of spores and growth of young mycelia on leaves of Shannong 551 were suppressed at the early stage of infection. At the same time, RNAs were prepared from the leaves for the cloning of WRP1 and RPW2 by cDNA RDA and RACE technology. BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated that both WRP1 and RPW2 were novel genes. WRP1 contains no complete ORF. RPW2 contains the conserved structure domain of aminotransferase, and its DNA sequence shares high homology with genes of phosphateserine aminotransferase in many organisms. Therefore, it is speculated as a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene. The results of Northern blot suggested that expression of RPW2 occurred at the early stage of infection by powdery mildew. Southern blot using the probe of RPW2, in which there was strong hybridizing signals in both genome of Shannong 551 and E. elongatum, but not in those of Jinan 13 and Lumai No.5, indicated that RPW2 derived from the genome of E. elongatum.

  19. Diversity of low-molecular-weight-glutenin subunit genes associated with D-genome in Triticum aestivum, Aegilops crassa, A. cylindrica and A. tauschii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vafadar Shamasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40% of endosperm protein of common wheat is composed of Low Molecular Weight (LMW Glutenin Subunits. To examine variation in the D genome of wheat, 98 accessions from different areas of Iran were studied using the five Glu-D3-specific pair primers. The amplification percentages of all primer pair sets were 80.61%, 92.86%, 79.59%, 90.82% and 67.35%, respectively. In comparison of the four species, the most observed bands of the first primer pair were found in Ae. tauschii samples. For the second primer pair, the most frequency of the amplified product was found in the T. aestivum samples. For the third primer pair, the Ae. cylindrical samples had the most amplified band. For the fourth primer pair, the most amplified band was found in the T. aestivum samples. The Ae. cylindrica samples had the most frequency band for the fifth primer pair. Based on dendrogram analysis, the accessions were divided in to 18 categories; and also 42 accessions had a bond for any PCR reaction. It is hoped that the result will be effective in molecular analysis and breeding of native landrace plants.

  20. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in

  1. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR mar...

  2. 兰州市城市污泥施用对小麦生长和重金属富集的影响%Effects of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Lanzhou Application on Growth of Triticum Aestivum and Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮; 任琚; 陶玲; 未碧贵

    2012-01-01

    以兰州市安宁区污水处理厂污泥为研究对象,采用盆栽的方法研究污泥土地利用后对土壤中重金属含量以及对3种小麦生长和重金属富集的影响。结果表明,污泥施用后使污泥混合土壤中重金属Ph、Cu、Zn含量显著增加,但3种重金属含量均未超过我国土壤环境质量二级标准(GBl5618—1995)中的限制性标准值。污泥土地施用后,小麦获得了良好的生长响应。污泥低施入量(污泥在混配土壤中的干重比为5%、10%、15%)时不同程度的促进了小麦的生长发育,使3种小麦出苗率提高,植株更高,生物量增加。污泥高施人量(污泥在混配土壤中的干重比为25%、35%)时,小麦的出苗率和根长受抑制明显。污泥的施用使小麦籽实中的Pb、Cu、Zn的含量显著升高,呈现递增趋势,污泥在混配土壤中的干重比超过25%时,籽实中Cu和Ph含量相对国家无公害食品标准有超标现象。综合考虑污泥对小麦生长和重金属富集的影响及土壤中重金属含量的变化,对小麦的耕种土壤中一次性施用污泥时,污泥在混配土壤中的干重比应限量在25%以下。%Effects of land utilization of An-ning District of Lanzhou Wastewater Treatment Plant on the heavy metal content in soil, Triticum aestivum growth and accumulation of heavy metals were carried out by using pot scale experiments. The experimental results showed that the contents of Ph, Cu, Zn in the soil were increased significantly after sewage sludge application, Contents of Pb, Cu, Zn in the soil did not exceed stringent Chinese environmental quality standard for soil (GB-1518-1995). Triticum aestivum obtained good growth activities after sewage sludge application. Low land application of sewage sludge (sludge in the mixed soil of dry weight ratio is 5%, 10%, 15%) promoted growth and development of the three kinds of Triticum aestivum in varying degrees

  3. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): role of the binary vector system and selection cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińka, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The influence of two binary vector systems, pGreen and pCAMBIA, on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation ability of wheat and triticale was studied. Both vectors carried selection cassettes with bar or nptII driven by different promoters. Two cultivars of wheat, Kontesa and Torka, and one cultivar of triticale, Wanad, were tested. The transformation rates for the wheat cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 3.58% and from 0.00 to 6.79% for triticale. The best values for wheat were 3.58% for Kontesa and 3.14% for Torka, and these were obtained after transformation with the pGreen vector carrying the nptII selection gene under the control of 35S promoter. In the case of the bar selection system, the best transformation rates were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.79%. Such rates were obtained when the 35S::bar cassette was carried by the pCAMBIA vector; they were significantly lower with the pGreen vector. The triticale cultivar Wanad had its highest transformation rate after transformation with nptII driven by 35S in pCAMBIA. The bar selection system for the same triticale cultivar was better when the gene was driven by nos and the selection cassette was carried by pGreen. The integration of the transgenes was confirmed with at least three pairs of specific starters amplifying the fragments of nptII, bar, or gus. The expression of selection genes, measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in relation to the actin gene, was low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.63 for nptII and from 0.00 to 0.33 for bar. The highest relative transcript accumulation was observed for nptII driven by 35S and expressed in Kontesa that had been transformed with pGreen.

  4. Genetic transformation of mature embryos of bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A; Youssef, Sawsan S; Soliman, Mohamed H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop an efficient protocol for regeneration of transgenic wheat plants using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of mature embryos of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tetraploid pasta wheat (Triticum durum). The data indicated that embryogenic calli were formed within 7 days in the presence of 2 mgl-1 2,4-D. Adventitious shoots emerged from the embryonic calli in the presence of 2 mgl-1 BA. Shoot regeneration frequency varied between wheat cultivars according to their genetic background differences. Regeneration frequency was higher in the cultivar Gemmiza 10 (95 %) compared with the other cultivars tested. Mature embryos derived callus of the cultivars Gemmiza 10 and Gemmiza 9 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI-121 containing the neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene (npt-II). The resulted putative transgenic plantlets were able to grow on kanamycin containing medium. A successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by analyzing the T0 plantlets using Southern hybridization and PCR amplification. The gus gene expression can be detected only in the transgenic plants. The reported protocol is reproducible and can be used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants expressing the genes present in A. tumifaciens binary vectors.

  5. 小麦-冰草异源衍生系淀粉物理特性的研究%Physical properties of starch from intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron cristatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Physical properties of Starch from 35 wheat-Agropyron cristatum alien derivatives and their parents (Fukuho:Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n=6x=42,AABBDD,as female parent;Z559:Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,as male parent.) were investigated using RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia),TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England),DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland) et al.The main physical properties of starch were significant difference between A.Cristatum (Z559) and wheat (Fukuho),but their trends of RVA pasting curves were quite similar.Among the 35 wheat A.cristatum alien derivatives,variation range was very big for the same starch character,some of variables were higher,and another variables were lower than wheat parent (Fukuho).The mean hot paste viscosity (HPV),cool paste viscosity (CPV),and breakdown of the 35 alien derivatives were significant difference to compare with parents,respectively.Moreover,the mean hardness of the 35 alien derivatives was only significant difference to wheat,but was not difference to A.Cristatum.In addition,there were significantly positive correlation or negative correlation among the most of traits studied.These results will play a major role in further evaluation and utilization intergeneric hybrids between wheat and A.Cristatum for wheat improvement and wheat breeding.%利用RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia)、TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England)、DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland)等分析仪,对已被染色体组原位杂交(GISH)检测过的35份小麦-冰草异源衍生系及其亲本Fukuho(Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n = 6x = 42,AABBDD,母本)和Z559 (Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,父本)进行了淀粉糊化特性、淀粉胶结构特性、淀粉糊化过程中的热量变化、淀粉膨胀体积及直链淀粉含量等主要物理特性的研究.结果发现:①冰草(Z559)和小麦(Fukuho)淀粉的主要物理

  6. The Application of ISSR Markers to Identify the Fertility Restorer Gene Rf6 in T.timopheevii Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Wheat(Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Rong-xia; GUO Xiao-li; LIU Dong-cheng; CAO Shuang-he; ZHANG Ai-min

    2002-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was carried out on a F2 population of 147 plants derived from a cross between a wheat male fertility restorer line 2114 and a male sterile line ND44A. Out of 43 primers examined, 18 primers produced distinguishable, polymorphic bands between the two parents. Linkage analysis in the mapping population showed that two markers UBC-808 and UBC-848 were closely linked with the restorer gene R f6 of the Triticum timopheevii CMS system. The distance between the two markers and the restorer gene was 7.9 cM and 4.9 cM, respectively. Also two parents were screened with 181 pairs of SSR primers, of which, 34.3% showed polymorphisms. But no locus was found linked with the restorer gene.Compared with the SSR technique, the ISSR approach used in the experiment provided more information and proved to be a valuable method to identify alien fragments.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Two Silenced y-type Genes for Glu-B1 in Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese and ssp. tibetanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Wei Yuan; Qi-Jiao Chen; Lian-Quan Zhang; Ze-Hong Yan; You-Liang Zheng; Deng-Cai Liu

    2009-01-01

    The high molecular weight glutenln subunits (HMW-GSs) are a major class of common wheat storage proteins. The bread-making quality of common wheat flour is influenced by the composition of HMW-GSs. In the present study, two unexpressed 1By genes from Triticum aesitvum L.ssp.yunnanese AS332 and T. aesitvum sep.tibetanum AS908 were respectively cloned and characterized. The results indicated that both of the silenced 1By genes in AS332 and AS908 were 1By9. in contrast to previously reported mechanisms for silenced genes 1Ax and 1Ay, which was due to the insertion of transposon elements or the presence of premature stop codon via base substitution of C→T transition in tdnucleotides CAA or CAG, the silence of 1By9 genes was caused by premature stop codons via the deletion of base A in tdnucleotide CAA, which lead to frameshift mutation and indirectly produced several premature stop codons (TAG) downstream of the coding sequence.

  8. Identification of putative RuBisCo activase (TaRca1 ˗ the catalytic chaperone regulating carbon assimilatory pathway in wheat (Triticum aestivum under the heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJEET RANJAN KUMAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RuBisCo activase (Rca is a catalytic chaperone involved in modulating the activity of RuBisCo (key enzyme of photosynthetic pathway. Here, we identified eight novel transcripts from wheat through data mining predicted to be Rca and cloned a transcript of 1.4 kb from cv. HD2985, named as TaRca1 (GenBank acc. no. KC776912. Single copy number of TaRca1 was observed in wheat genome. Expression analysis in diverse wheat genotypes (HD2985, Halna, PBW621 and HD2329 showed very high relative expression of TaRca1 in Halna under control and HS-treated, as compared to other cultivars at different stages of growth. TaRca1 protein was predicted to be chloroplast-localized with numerous potential phosphorylation sites. Nothern blot analysis showed maximum accumulation of TaRca1 transcript in thermotolerant cv. during mealy-ripe stage, as compared to thermosusceptible. Decrease in the photosynthetic parameters was observed in all the cultivars, except PBW621 in response to HS. We observed significant increase in the Rca activity in all the cultivars under HS at different stages of growth. HS causes decrease in the RuBisCo activity; maximum reduction was observed during pollination stage in thermosusceptible cvs. as validated through immunoblotting. We observed uniform carbon distribution in different tissues of thermotolerant cvs., as compared to thermosusceptible. Similarly, tolerance level of leaf was observed maximum in Halna having high Rca activity under HS. A positive correlation was observed between the transcript and activity of TaRca1 in HS-treated Halna. Similarly, TaRca1 enzyme showed positive correlation with the activity of RuBisCo. There is, however, need to manipulate the thermal stability of TaRca1 enzyme through protein engineering for sustaining the photosynthetic rate under HS – a novel approach towards development of ‘climate-smart’ crop.

  9. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. grown under two levels of chemical protection and harmfulness of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe to seedlings of selected genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cegiełko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale. After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3 to 26.90 (STH 715. The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4 to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species.

  10. Colonization and nitrogenase activity of Triticum aestivum (cv. Baccross and Mahdavi) to the dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium meliloti plus 2,4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehry, Askary; Akbar, Mostajeran; Giti, Emtiazi

    2008-06-15

    The potential enhancement of root colonization and nitrogenase activity of wheat cultivars (Baccross and Mahdavi) was studied with application of two Azospirillum brasilense strains (native and Sp7) co-inoculated with two Rhizobium meliloti strains (native and DSMZ 30135). The results indicated that the colonization was different due to the strains and cultivars of wheat were used. Native A. brasilense colonized wheat root better than Sp7 strain. However, Baccross cv. reacted better with native Azospirillum compared to Mahdavi cv. which reacted better with Sp7. When plants inoculated with dual inoculants (SP7 with standard Rhizobium), the colonization of Azospirillum were increased significantly (from 1.67 x 10(5) to 22 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) FW for Baccras cv. and 3.67 x 10(5) to 26 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) FW for Mahdavi cultivar). When the standard Rhizobium as co-inoculants changed to the native Rhizobium, the colonization of Azospirillum was higher when compared to the single inoculants but was almost the same when compared to the standard Rhizobium. When the standard or native strains of Rhizobium used as single inoculation of wheat roots, the number of Rhizobium in the wheat roots were not changed significantly. However, when plants co-inoculated with Rhizobium and Azospirillum, the colonization of Rhizobium was increased. Co-inoculation of standard strain of R. melilot with A. brasilense Sp7 showed that the colonization of Rhizobium were increased from 0.67 x 10(5) to 21 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) FW for Baccross cv. and 0.33 x 10(5) to 18 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) FW for Mahdavi cv. This behavior was the same when inoculation of Rhizobium was happened with the native one. In dual inoculation, the highest nitrogenase activity was measured in combination of the local strains (native A. brasilense with the native R. meliloti) and the lower one belongs to the combination of standard strains (Sp7 with standard R. meliloti). The difference in nirtogenase activity for different cultivars of

  11. Comparison of Several Models for Calculating Ozone Stomatal Fluxes on a Mediterranean Wheat Cultivar (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de la Torre Llorente

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone stomatal fluxes were modeled for a 3-year period following different approaches for a commercial variety of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho at the phenological stage of anthesis. All models performed in the same range, although not all of them afforded equally significant results. Nevertheless, all of them suggest that stomatal conductance would account for the main percentage of ozone deposition fluxes. A new modeling approach was tested, based on a 3-D architectural model of the wheat canopy, and fairly accurate results were obtained. Plant species-specific measurements, as well as measurements of stomatal conductance and environmental parameters, were required. The method proposed for calculating ozone stomatal fluxes (FO3_3-D from experimental gs data and modeling them as a function of certain environmental parameters in conjunction with the use of the YPLANT model seems to be adequate, providing realistic estimates of the canopy FO3_3-D, integrating and not neglecting the contribution of the lower leaves with respect to the flag leaf, although a further development of this model is needed.

  12. Histological and microarray analysis of the direct effect of water shortage alone or combined with heat on early grain development in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Attila; Jäger, Katalin; Jurca, Manuela E; Fábián, Attila; Bottka, Sándor; Zvara, Agnes; Barnabás, Beáta; Fehér, Attila

    2010-10-01

    Based on the in silico analysis of the representation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in wheat grain-related cDNA libraries, a specific 15k oligonucleotide microarray has been developed in order to monitor environmental stress-dependent gene expression changes in the wheat caryopses. Using this array, the effect of water withdrawal, with and without additional heat stress, has been investigated during the first five days of kernel development on two wheat cultivars differing in their drought sensitivity. Water shortage affected (more than twofold change) the expression of only 0.5% of the investigated genes. A parallel heat treatment increased the ratio of responding genes to 5-7% because of the temperature stress and/or the increased water deficit because of enhanced evaporation. It could be established that the two cultivars, differing in their long-term adaptation capabilities to drought, responded to the short and direct stress treatments on the same way. In response to the combined drought and heat treatment, the coordinately altered expression of genes coding for storage proteins, enzymes involved in sugar/starch metabolism, histone proteins, heat shock proteins, proteases, tonoplast aquaporins as well as several transcription factors has been observed. These gene expression changes were in agreement with histological data that demonstrated the accelerated development of the embryo as well as the endosperm. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  13. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat...

  14. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-01-01

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O(3) under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant(-1)) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O(3). EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O(3).

  15. (15)N allocation into wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) influenced by sowing rate and water supply at flowering under a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Klaus-Peter; Erekul, Osman; Wutzke, Klaus Dieter; Koca, Yakup Onur; Aksu, Tuğçe

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a reduced wheat sowing rate (250 vs. 500 grains m(-2)) on grain yield, uptake of (15)N into grains, and the incorporation into gluten and non-gluten proteins of wheat under field conditions in the Aegean region. A single (15)N application was applied at stem elongation, at flowering, or at both developmental stages. Each (15)N treatment included either additional water supply, or no additional water supply at flowering. Sowing rate (either 250 or 500 grains m(-2)) had no impact on grain yield. Grain yield increased with additional water supply, but at the expense of protein quality, because of a decrease in the protein content of gluten. The (15)N content of the gluten and non-gluten proteins at grain maturity was not different among cultivars. (15)N applied at both stem elongation and flowering was found in comparable amounts in grains and protein fractions, irrespective of sowing rate.

  16. Genetic Transformation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L):A Review%小麦遗传转化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Razzaq; 马峙英; 王海波

    2004-01-01

    Gradual progress made in genetic transformation of wheat is presented in this paper. Information on promoters, antibiotic, herbicide and auxotrophic markers, and various traits of wheat modified through genetic transformation, is provided. In addition the methods used for wheat transformation are discussed. Though significant efforts have been made for genetic transformation of wheat mainly through particle bombardment method but transformation efficiency is still low for mass production of fertile transgenic plants. Studies on the inheritance of transgenes and its incorporation into commercial elite cultivars are not significant. Agrobacterium mediated transformation seems to have better prospects for wheat transformation in future due to its advantages over particle bombardment. In planta transformation of wheat tissues seems possible only with A grobacterium.

  17. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  18. QTL Analysis of Spike Morphological Traits and Plant Height in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Using a High-Density SNP and SSR-Based Linkage Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Zhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat yield can be enhanced by modifying the spike morphology and the plant height. In this study, a population of 191 F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was developed from a cross between two winter cultivars Yumai 8679 and Jing 411. A dense genetic linkage map with 10,816 markers was constructed by incorporating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR marker information. Five spike morphological traits and plant height were evaluated under nine environments for the RILs and parental lines, and the number of detected environmentally stable QTLs were 18 and 3, respectively. The 1RS/1BL (rye translocation increased both spike length and spikelet number with constant spikelet compactness. The QPht.cau-2D.1 was identical to gene Rht8, which decreased spike length without modifying spikelet number. Notably, four novel QTLs locating on chromosomes 1AS (QSc.cau-1A.1, 2DS (QSc.cau-2D.1 and 7BS (QSl.cau-7B.1 and QSl.cau-7B.2 were firstly identified in this study, which provide further insights into the genetic factors that shaped the spike morphology in wheat. Moreover, SNP markers tightly linked to previously reported QTLs will eventually facilitate future studies including their positional cloning or marker-assisted selection.

  19. Stem carbohydrate dynamics and expression of genes involved in fructan accumulation and remobilization during grain growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with contrasting tolerance to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Alejandra; Tapia, Gerardo; Guerra, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and water stress tolerance are scarcely known. This study aimed to evaluate the main WSC in stems, and the expression of genes involved in fructan metabolism in wheat genotypes growing in a glasshouse with water stress (WS; 50% field capacity from heading) and full irrigation (FI; 100% field capacity). Eight wheat genotypes (five tolerant and three susceptible to water stress) were evaluated initially (experiment 1) and the two most contrasting genotypes in terms of WSC accumulation were evaluated in a subsequent experiment (experiment 2). Maximum accumulation of WSC occurred 10–20 days after anthesis. Under WS, the stress-tolerant genotype exhibited higher concentrations of WSC, glucose, fructose and fructan in the stems, compared to FI. In addition, the stress-tolerant genotype exhibited higher up-regulation of the fructan 1-fructosyltransferase B (1-FFTB) and fructan 1-exohydrolase w2 (1-FEHw2) genes, whereas the susceptible cultivar presented an up-regulation of the fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) and fructan 1-exohydrolase w3 (1-FEHw3) genes. Our results indicated clear differences in the pattern of WSC accumulation and the expression of genes regulating fructan metabolism between the tolerant and susceptible genotypes under WS. PMID:28552955

  20. The Dıfferences of Spike Development on Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Em Thell. in the Tekirdağ Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Atılgan Helvacıoğlu , S. Şehirali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in experiment fields of Field Crop Department of Tekirdağ Ağricultural Faculty at Trakya University in growing seasons of 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 based on random block of experiment desing with four replications. Two bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan and Sana were used as the material in this research. The main stem length, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were measured as physical properties. In the physical properties the difference of bread wheat varieties on main stem development, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were significant. Achived data evince that earlyriser and mid-riser wheat varieties which complete apex growing more faster, are more convenient for Trakya Region. However, it is determined that wheat varieties which completes apex growing more later, are not convenient for this region. In apex growing the exess number of circles on apex shows that spikelet numbers will be more.

  1. 冬小麦植物铁载体分泌的杂种效应%Hybrid Effects on the Release of Phytosiderophores in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于福同; 张福锁; 张爱民

    2002-01-01

    缺铁是石灰性土壤常见的植物营养问题之一.禾本科植物种或基因型的植物铁载体分泌能力与耐缺铁有关,提高植物铁载体分泌能力是改良缺铁的土壤上植物铁aestivum L.) 3个杂交种及其4个亲本在缺铁营养液中植物铁载体的分泌及杂种的效应.植物铁载体的分泌率通过根分泌物对新形成的Fe(OH)3的活化能力进行测定, 在缺铁症出现时每隔2、3天测定1次.在缺铁条件下,所有基因型都分泌较多的植物铁载体,并且随缺铁症状的发展分泌量增加.杂交种具有对缺铁更敏感的反馈系统,在缺铁条件下,杂交种比亲本分泌铁载体的速度更快、量更高.通过分析杂交种和亲本的关系,认为可以通过对亲本分泌植物铁载体能力和配合力的选择,利用杂种优势来提高小麦铁的利用效率.%Fe (iron) deficiency is an important nutritional problem particularly in crop plants grown on calcareous soils. Phytosiderophore (PS) release has been suggested to be linked to the ability of graminaceous species and genotypes to overcome Fe-deficiency chlorosis. Thus, enhancing PS release is a critical step to improve Fe nutrition of plants grown on Fe stressed soils. The heterosis of PS release rate in common wheat was studied by analyzing PS release from roots of three hybrids and their four parents grown in Fe-deficiency nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. PS release rates were determined at two or three day intervals after onset of Fe-deficiency symptoms by the measurement of Fe mobilizing capacity of root exudates from freshly precipitated FeⅢ hydroxide. High amounts of phytosiderophores were released from the roots of all wheat genotypes under Fe-deficiency, and the amount progressively increased with the development of Fe-deficiency chlorosis. The results revealed that the hybrids had more sensitive feedback systems which secreted more phytosiderophores under Fe-deficiency than

  2. A systematic review of rye (Secale cereale L.) as a source of resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Åhman, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years. With new devastating stem and yellow rust pathotypes invading wheat at large acreage globally, along with new biotypes of pest insects, there is renewed interest in using rye as a source of resistance. Currently the proportion of wheat cultivars with rye chromatin varies between countries, with examples of up to 34%. There is mainly one rye source, Petkus, that has been widely exploited and that has contributed considerably to raise yields and increase disease resistance in wheat. Successively, the multiple disease resistances conferred by this source has been overcome by new pathotypes of leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. However, there are several other rye sources reported to make wheat more resistant to various biotic constraints when their rye chromatin has been transferred to wheat. There is also development of knowledge on how to produce new rye translocation, substitution and addition lines. Here we compile information that may facilitate decision making for wheat breeders aiming to transfer resistance to biotic constraints from rye to elite wheat germplasm.

  3. Overexpression of VP, a vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), improves tobacco plant growth under Pi and N deprivation, high salinity, and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Guo, Chengjin; Gu, Juntao; Duan, Weiwei; Zhao, Miao; Ma, Chunying; Du, Xiaoming; Lu, Wenjing; Xiao, Kai

    2014-02-01

    Establishing crop cultivars with strong tolerance to P and N deprivation, high salinity, and drought is an effective way to improve crop yield and promote sustainable agriculture worldwide. A vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) gene in wheat (TaVP) was functionally characterized in this study. TaVP cDNA is 2586-bp long and encodes a 775-amino-acid polypeptide that contains 10 conserved membrane-spanning domains. Transcription of TaVP was upregulated by inorganic phosphate (Pi) and N deprivation, high salinity, and drought. Transgene analysis revealed that TaVP overexpression improved plant growth under normal conditions and specifically under Pi and N deprivation stresses, high salinity, and drought. The improvement of growth of the transgenic plants was found to be closely related to elevated V-H+-PPase activities in their tonoplasts and enlarged root systems, which possibly resulted from elevated expression of auxin transport-associated genes. TaVP-overexpressing plants showed high dry mass, photosynthetic efficiencies, antioxidant enzyme activities, and P, N, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations under various growth conditions, particularly under the stress conditions. The transcription of phosphate and nitrate transporter genes was not altered in TaVP-overexpressing plants compared with the wild type, suggesting that high P and N concentrations regulated by TaVP were caused by increased root absorption area instead of alteration of Pi and NO3- acquisition kinetics. TaVP is important in the tolerance of multiple stresses and can serve as a useful genetic resource to improve plant P- and N-use efficiencies and to increase tolerance to high salinity and drought.

  4. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm.

  5. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  6. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

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    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  7. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh

    2011-04-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  8. The distal portion of the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Beecher, Brian S

    2012-07-01

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its developmental control is not completely known. We developed back-cross seven (BC(7)) near-isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. From the final back-cross, 46 BC(7)F(2) plants were isolated. These plants exhibited a complete and perfect association between kernel vitreosity (i.e. vitreous, non-vitreous or mixed) and Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness. Observed segregation of 10:28:7 fit a 1:2:1 Chi-square. BC(7)F(2) plants classified as heterozygous for both SKCS hardness and kernel vitreosity (n = 29) were selected and a single vitreous and non-vitreous kernel were selected, and grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. The resultant phenotypic ratios were, from non-vitreous kernels, 23:6:0, and from vitreous kernels, 0:1:28, soft:heterozygous:hard, respectively. Three of these BC(7)F(2) heterozygous plants were selected and 40 kernels each drawn at random, grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. Phenotypic segregation ratios were 7:27:6, 11:20:9, and 3:28:9, soft:heterozygous:hard. Chi-square analysis supported a 1:2:1 segregation for one plant but not the other two, in which cases the two homozygous classes were under-represented. Twenty-two paired BC(7)F(2):F(3) full sibs were compared for kernel hardness, weight, size, density and protein content. SKCS hardness index differed markedly, 29.4 for the lines with a complete 5DS, and 88.6 for the lines possessing the deletion. The soft non-vitreous kernels were on average significantly heavier, by nearly 20%, and were slightly larger. Density and protein contents were similar, however. The results provide strong genetic evidence that gene(s) on distal 5DS control not only kernel hardness but also the manner in which the endosperm develops, viz. whether it is vitreous or non-vitreous.

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Related Gene in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)Albinism Line%小麦返白系相关基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯典云; 胥华伟; 杜光源; 郭蔼光; 徐虹

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of the " albino-after green" in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) albinism line, we have designed the PCR primer with the LSC of Chloroplasts genome sequence in Chinese spring wheat. We have amplified the related gene segment in chinese spring wheat, albinism line and Aibian 1 and get the specific gene fragment WFC01 in albinism line. The total RNA has been extracted from leaves in Chinese spring wheat, Aibian 1 and albinism line. WFC01 was the probe for northern blot. The results show that the expression of gene WFC01 has been inhibition along with the leaves albinism in albinism line compared with albinism line and Chinese spring wheat. The gene WFC01 expression was back to normal with the leaves get green.%为研究小麦返白系阶段性“白化-复绿”的分子机制,以中国春小麦叶绿体基因组序列的LSC区为参考序列,分段设计引物,PCR扩增中国春、矮变1号、返白系的相应基因片段,在返白系中获得特异基因片段WFC01.提取中国春、矮变1号幼嫩叶片和返白系白化及复绿叶片总RNA,毛细管法转膜,WFC01为探针进行Northern杂交.结果表明,与对照矮变1号和中国春相比,返白系随着叶片的白化,WFC01基因片段的表达受到明显抑制,几乎无表达,随着叶片的复绿,WFC01基因片段的表达恢复正常,与对照表达量一致,表明该基因的表达与返白系的阶段性白化、复绿有关.

  10. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  11. Tıbbi İlaçlar ve Kişisel Bakım Ürünlerinin (PPCPs Triticum aestivum L. Üzerinde Antioksidan Enzim Aktivitelerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem OSMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma tıbbi ilaç ve kişisel bakım ürünlerinin ekmeklik buğday (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostaja bitkisi üzerindeki antioksidan enzim aktiviteleri hakkındadır. Araştırmada günlük hayatta sıklıkla tüketilen Acetaminophen, Caffein, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol olmak üzere dört farklı tıbbi ilaç etken maddesi kullanılmıştır. Ekim yapılacak toprağa 15 mg, 50 mg, 200 mg Acetaminophen, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol ile bunun yanı sıra 50 mg, 100 mg, 300 mg şeklinde farklı konsantrasyonlarda Caffein karıştırılmıştır. Daha sonra, hazırlanan 650 g toprağın üzerine 7 g buğday tohumu ekilmiş, bunun üzeri ise 100 g toprak ile kaplanmıştır. Çimlenen buğdaylar, 15 gün sonra hasat edilmiştir. Hasat edilen örneklere ekstraksiyon işlemi uygulandıktan sonra, örneklerde katalaz (CAT, peroksidaz (POD, süperoksit dismutaz (SOD gibi antioksidan enzim aktiviteleri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar incelendiğinde buğdayda; CAT değerlerinin 1.525-2.350 EU g¯¹ FW, POD değerlerinin 37.200-59.600EU g¯¹ FW, SOD değerlerinin de 38-52,8 EU g¯¹ FW arasında olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kontrol örnekleri ile farklı konsantrasyonlarda yetiştirilen örnekler arasındaki ilişki %95 güven aralığında istatistiksel olarak değerlendirilmiş, anlamlı farklılıklar belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada, Acetaminophen, Caffein, Gemfibrozil ve β-estradiol uygulanan örneklerde konsantrasyon artışına bağlı olarak kontrol grubuna kıyasla antioksidan enzim aktivitelerinde artış olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

  12. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  13. The Alleviating Effect of Elevated CO2 on Heat Stress Susceptibility of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, Sindhuja; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2013-01-01

    /night temperature of 15/10 °C. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates...

  14. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Deeper plant root systems are desired for improved water and nitrogen uptake in leaching environments. However, phenotyping for deep roots requires methods that enable plants to develop deep roots under realistic conditions. Winter cereals raise further complications as early growth occurs under ...

  15. 不同施氮水平对冬小麦生长期土壤呼吸的影响%Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金皖豫; 李铭; 何杨辉; 杜正刚; 邵钧炯; 张国栋; 周灵燕; 周旭辉

    2015-01-01

    在目前全球氮沉降不断增加的背景下,研究农田土壤呼吸对氮沉降的响应有助于理解未来生态系统碳循环对全球变暖的潜在影响。为探讨不同施氮浓度对华东地区冬小麦(Triticum aestivum)生长期土壤呼吸的影响,该实验设计了对照组(不施加氮肥)和3种浓度施氮处理组(低浓度施氮15 g·m–2·a–1,中等浓度施氮30 g·m–2·a–1,高浓度施氮45 g·m–2·a–1)。使用便携式土壤CO2通量观测仪LI-8100测定不同施氮浓度处理下冬小麦生长期(2013年12月至2014年5月)的土壤呼吸速率,并探讨土壤呼吸与土壤温度、湿度等环境因素的关系。结果表明:低、中、高3种浓度施氮处理的土壤呼吸速率平均值分别为5.29、6.17和6.75μmol·m–2·s–1,与对照组(土壤呼吸速率平均值为4.90μmol·m–2·s–1)相比,分别增加了7.8%、23.6%和37.8%;地上生物量分别增加39.9%、104.4%和200.2%,并与冬小麦生长季的总土壤呼吸正相关。5 cm深度土壤的温度与土壤呼吸速率呈指数关系(p <0.05),土壤呼吸季节变化的65%–75%由土壤温度引起,其温度敏感性为2.09–2.32。结果表明,添加氮肥促进了植物的生长,增加了生物量,从而增加了冬小麦农田的土壤呼吸速率。%Aims Our objective was to explore the effects of different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in East China. Methods Three levels of N fertilization, N1 (15 g·m–2·a–1), N2 (30 g·m–2·a–1), and N3 (45 g·m–2·a–1), and the control group (CK) were set up in winter wheat fields. The LI-8100 Automated Soil CO2 Flux System was used to measure soil respiration rate during the growing season (December 2013 to May 2014) of winter wheat. Important findings During the growing season of winter wheat, mean soil respiration rates of N1, N2 and N3 treatments were 5.29, 6

  16. Landrace groups of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Bread wheat was introduced in the Old World some 8000 years ago. Owing to local specific natural and human selection a landrace spread over a large area fragmented into locally adapted landraces. These related landraces can be grouped again in a landrace group indicating their evolution from a commo

  17. 核桃凋落叶分解对小麦生长及生理特性的影响%Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Juglans regia on growth and physiological characteristics of Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建贝; 胡庭兴; 吴张磊; 胡红玲; 陈洪; 王茜

    2014-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,研究了核桃(Juglans regia)凋落叶分解对小麦(Triticum aestivum)生长及抗氧化酶系统、渗透调节物质含量的影响.试验设置A1(30 g/盆)、A2(60g/盆)、A3(90 g/盆)和对照(CK)4个凋落叶水平,将各处理的凋落叶分别与8 kg土壤混合后装盆.同时设置补充试验,将称好的核桃凋落叶蒸煮12h,先后用80%丙酮和乙醇充分浸泡24h,再蒸煮12h,其他处理方法和条件相同,观测分析浸提蒸煮后的核桃凋落叶在施入土壤后对受体植物的影响.结果表明:核桃凋落叶分解(0-160 d)明显抑制了小麦茎秆地径、茎高、株高、地上部分干重,并随凋落叶量的增加抑制作用增强;随凋落叶量的增加,75-115 d小麦叶片超氧化物歧化酶SOD活性增强,但过氧化氢酶CAT和过氧化物酶POD活性显著低于CK但各凋落叶处理之间变化不明显;75-95 d小麦叶片丙二醛MDA含量变化不明显,115 d时随凋落叶量增加MDA含量显著增加;75-115 d随凋落叶量的增加可溶性糖含量显著增加,但可溶性蛋白含量呈现出下降的趋势;各处理凋落叶对小麦的化感综合效应CE均表现为抑制效应,0-115 d抑制效应增强,115 d后抑制效应减弱,这是由于核桃凋落叶在土壤中分解释放的有害次生代谢物质已明显减少;在补充试验中,各处理间无明显形态差别,CK、B1(30 g/盆)和B2(60 g/盆)水平下各生长指标差异不显著(P>0.05),B3(90 g/盆)水平下化感效应指数RI的绝对值与A3相比明显减小,表明在一定的凋落叶施入量范围内,其对土壤物理性质的影响和对小麦根系生长的物理阻隔不会显著抑制小麦的生长.综合各项指标,表明核桃凋落叶分解过程中释放的次生代谢物质显著抑制了小麦生长和生理特性.

  18. BUĞDAY SAPLARINDAN (Triticum aestivum L. VE SAMAN-ODUN KARIŞIMI LİFLERDEN ORTA YOĞUNLUKTA LİF LEVHA (MDF ÜRETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi EROĞLU

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, hammadde olarak Ankara ilinden temin edilen buğday (Triticum aestivum L. sapları kullanılmıştır. Kuru yöntemle MDF üretiminde % 8, 10 ve 12 oranında üre formaldehit tutkalı yapıştırıcı, sulu amonyum klorürün % 30'luk çözeltisinden % 1 oranında sertleştirici olarak kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, 5, 6 ve 7 dk'lık presleme süreleri denenmiştir. Buğday saplarının alkol-benzen, soğuk su, sıcak su ve % 1'lik NaOH çözünürlüğü sırasıyla; % 5.15, % 7.31, % 9.84 ve % 40.79 olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, holoselüloz, selüloz, lignin ve kül miktarları sırasıyla; % 74.79, % 52.67, % 20.17 ve % 4.21 olarak belirlenmiştir. Yapılan lif morfolojisiyle ilgili çalışmalarda kullanılan buğday saplarının lif uzunluğu 1.2-1.5 mm, lif genişliği 12-16 µm, lümen çapı 4-6 µm ve çift çeper kalınlığı 7.5-11.5 µm bulunmuştur. Buğday saplarından MDF eldesi için en uygun lif üretim şartları; buhar basıncı 10.5 atm, buharlama süresi 4 dk ve liflendirme süresi 2 dk olarak belirlenmiş ve uygulanmıştır. Saman liflerinden 0.700 g/cm 3 ve 0.800 g/cm 3 , odun ve saman-odun karışımı (% 30 saman + % 70 odun, % 50 saman + % 50 odun, % 70 saman + % 30 odun liflerden ise 0.800 g/cm 3 özgül kütleli MDF levhaları üretilmiştir. Tüm levhaların elastikiyet modülü, eğilme direnci, yüzeye dik çekme direnci ile 24 saatteki su alma ve kalınlığına şişme değerleri belirlenmiştir. Laboratuar koşullarında elde edilen MDF levhaların fiziksel ve mekanik özellikleri üzerinde yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda buğday saplarından en uygun MDF üretim koşulları; tutkal miktarı % 12, pres süresi 6 dakika, pres sıcaklığı 150 °C, pres basıncı 200-220 kp/cm 2 , sertleştirici miktarı % 1 ve saman/odun oranı % 50 -% 50 şeklinde belirlenmiştir.

  19. Effects of CuO Nanoparticles on Physiological and Biochemical Behaviors of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root%纳米氧化铜对小麦根系生理生化行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金盛杨; 王玉军; 汪鹏; 翁南燕; 周东美

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effects of metal nanoparticles on plant growth, agar culture simulating soil was used to characterize the root elongation and relative physiological and biochemical behavior of wheat (Trilicum aesttvum L.) under stress of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). The results showed that the inhibition of root elongation in agar was exponentially correlated with the concentration of CuO NPs, which was increased slightly at a lower concentration (10 mg/L) of CuO NPs but decreased greatly at a higher concentration (100 mg/L). It should be noted that the variation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity shared the same trend as the inhibition of root elongation under CuO NPs exposure. Furthermore, with increasing of CuO NPs from 1 to 100 mg/L, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) continuously increased while the protein content sharply decreased in roots. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of root elongation could be mainly attributed to the peroxide injury of plant cell membrane under CuO NPs exposure. Interestingly, wheat root may exhibit the adaptive response through enhancing the root vitality to alleviate the phytotoxicity induced by CuO NPs.%为阐明纳米金属材料暴露对植物生长的影响及其作用机制,采用模拟土壤的琼脂培养方法研究了纳米氧化铜(CuONPs)对小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)根伸长及相关生理生化行为的影响.结果表明:小麦根伸长与CuO NPs暴露浓度之间存在指数相关关系,在低浓度CuO NPs (10 mg/L)暴露下得到一定程度促进,而在高浓度(100 mg/L)下受到强烈抑制.小麦根内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性随CuO NPs暴露浓度的变化趋势与小麦根伸长具有一致性.另外,在1~100mg/L范围内,随着CuO NPs暴露浓度的升高,小麦根内丙二醛(MDA)含量不断增加,但植物蛋白含量急剧降低.以上结果说明CuO NPs对根伸长抑制主要是由于纳米材料暴露造成植物细胞膜氧化损伤,小麦能通

  20. 普通小麦与非洲黑麦双二倍体中随体、醇溶蛋白%Intergenomic Interaction of Nucleolus, Gliadin and Disease Resistance in a Triticum Aestivum-Secale Africanum Amphiploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨足君; 李光蓉; 蒋华仁; 任正隆

    2001-01-01

    An amphiploid between Triticum aestivum native to Sichuan, China, and Secale africanum was evaluated by cytological observatio n, seed storage protein electrophoresis analysis and diseases resistance surveys . Feulgen staining of somatic metaphases indicates that the nucleolus from S.africanum is partially expressed in the amphiploid. The S.africanum chromosomes can be identified in amphiploid backgrou nd by Giemsa-C banding. APAGE shows that most gliadin of both parents is observ ed in the endosperm of the amphiploid with codominant expression, except the agg regation secalin of S.africanum. By inoculating the stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, it is found that diseases resistance from S .africanum are not totally expressed in the amphiploid. In addition, the wheat-alien intergenomic interaction and the utilization of the amphiploid to triticale and wheat breeding are discussed in the present paper.%利用细胞学方法、种子储藏蛋白电泳技术和抗病接种鉴定对四川小麦地方品种与非洲黑麦(S.africanum)人工合成双二倍体进行了研究,结果表明: ①根尖细胞的染色体计数发现,来自非洲黑麦的随体在双二倍体中仅得到部分表达;Giemsa-C带分析能准确鉴定双二倍体中的非洲黑麦染色体,发现非洲黑麦与栽培黑麦的染色体C带有较大的区别;②种子醇溶蛋白电泳发现除非洲黑麦的聚集黑麦碱蛋白在双二倍体中不表达外,其余来自普通小麦和非洲黑麦的相应蛋白带能够在双二倍体中正常表达;③双二倍体及其亲本的苗期抗白粉病性和成株期抗条锈性分析表明,非洲黑麦对这两种病害的优良抗性在双二倍体中并不表达,抗性受到普通小麦背景的抑制.另外本文对小麦-外源染色体组的相互作用和该双二倍体在小麦与八倍体小黑麦育种中的应用进行了讨论.

  1. 小麦TaCRF2基因的克隆及其在烟草中的初步功能验证%TaCRF2 Gene Isolation from Triticum aestivum and Primary Function Validation in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽香; 高世庆; 唐益苗; 王永波; 刘美英; 张朝; 徐蓓; 赵昌平

    2011-01-01

    通过RT-PCR方法从小麦cDNA中扩增获得1个锌指蛋白基因TaCRF2,该基因的cDNA长度为843 bp,序列分析表明它编码1个含有280个氨基酸的蛋白质.在线软件预测该蛋白质的相对分子质量为30.97 kD,等电点为7.03,且在C-末端含有1个典型的RING-H2型锌指蛋白结构域,在N-末端含有2个跨膜结构域.氨基酸序列比对发现,TaCRF2与水稻中1个RING型锌指蛋白(ABF95226)的相似度为82%.亚细胞定位分析显示,该蛋白分布在细胞核和细胞膜上.real-time RT-PCR表达特性分析显示,TaCRF2基因的表达受干旱、高盐和外源ABA的强烈诱导,低温对该基因的表达量影响不明显.初步功能验证发现过表达TaCRF2基因增强了转基因烟草对干旱和高盐胁迫的耐性.%Wheat, like other crops, suffers from drought, salt, low-temperature and other abiotic stresses, seriously resulting in yield decline. It is an effective way for crop breeding to improve resistance via molecular biology techniques. Zinc finger protein, an important transcription factor commonly found in plant, can regulate the expression of multiple stress-inducible genes and enhance comprehensive resistances effectively. In this study, a RING-H2 zinc finger protein gene, designated as TaCRF2, was isolated from Triticum aestivum by RT-PCR. Its cDN A was 843 bp and encoded a putative protein of 280 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 30.97 kD and an isoelectric point (PI) of 7.03. A typical RING-H2 finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of TaCRF2 protein, and two transmembrane domains were found at the N-terminal region. Alignment of amino acid sequence showed that TaCRF2 was 82% identical to Oryza saliva putative RING zinc finger protein ABF95226. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the TaCRF2 was expressed in both nuclear and cytoplasm membrane, real-time PCR showed that the transcript of TaCRF2 was strongly induced by drought, salinity and cold to some extent. The Ta

  2. The 2NS Translocation from Aegilops ventricosa Confers Resistance to the Triticum Pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C.D.; Peterson, G.L.; Bockus, W.W.; Kankanala, P.; Dubcovsky, J.; Jordan, K.W.; Akhunov, E.; Chumley, F.; Baldelomar, F.D.; Valent, B.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat blast is a serious disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype) (MoT). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the 2NS translocation from Aegilops ventricosa (Zhuk.) Chennav on wheat head and leaf blast resistance. Disease phenotyping experiments were conducted in growth chamber, greenhouse, and field environments. Among 418 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), those with 2NS had 50.4 to 72.3% less head blast than those without 2NS when inoculated with an older MoT isolate under growth chamber conditions. When inoculated with recently collected isolates, cultivars with 2NS had 64.0 to 80.5% less head blast. Under greenhouse conditions when lines were inoculated with an older MoT isolate, those with 2NS had a significant head blast reduction. With newer isolates, not all lines with 2NS showed a significant reduction in head blast, suggesting that the genetic background and/or environment may influence the expression of any resistance conferred by 2NS. However, when near-isogenic lines (NILs) with and without 2NS were planted in the field, there was strong evidence that 2NS conferred resistance to head blast. Results from foliar inoculations suggest that the resistance to head infection that is imparted by the 2NS translocation does not confer resistance to foliar disease. In conclusion, the 2NS translocation was associated with significant reductions in head blast in both spring and winter wheat.

  3. Analysis on the Soil Fungal Community Structure in Melia azedarach-Triticum aestivum Agroforestry Ecosystem%苦楝-小麦农林复合生态系统土壤真菌群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 周鹏; 季永华

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To explore the influence of tree species on rhizosphere-associated fungal community in an agroforestry ecosystem, and to provide new insights into agroforestry practice, the fungal community structure in rhizosphere and bulk soil in Melia azedarach-Triticum aestivum agroforestry ecosystem was investigated by 18S rDNA PCR-DGGE.[Method]After the fungal DNA was extracted from extraction of nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere-associated soil, and the targeted fungal 18 S rDNA was amplified using universal primers GC-FR1 and FF390 . And then the amplified DNA fragments were analyzed by density gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) . Similarity among different groups was analyzed using the UPGMA ( unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) method,and the fungal diversity was evaluated with species richness ( S ) ,Shannon-Wiener index ( H ) and the equitability index ( E ) . Finally,dominant DGGE bands were excised,sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. [Result]Results showed that the structure and diversity of rhizosphere-associated fungi community were much more complex than that of the bulk soil,and more dominant bands were observed in DGGE profiles of rhizosphere soil samples. The DGGE profiles were further investigated by cluster analysis using the UPGAMA method,revealing that the similarity among the three replicates of each treatment was more than 70% except for the rhizosphere soil of M. azedarach. In clustering diagram,all the samples were grouped into three clusters with a similarity of 51%. The highest similarity ( 72%) was found between the rhizosphere-associated fungal community from wheat and wheat grown under M. azedarach,which indicated that M. azedarach had minor influence on the rhizosphere-associated fungal community of wheat. In addition,only 51% similarity was noticed between the rhizosphere-associated fungal community of M. azedarach and the other groups. The principal-component analysis ( PCA) also demonstrated that all

  4. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  6. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... during grain filling. There is in particular a need to model how heat and other stresses, including interacting effects of heat and drought, affect duration of GLA after flowering and how this affects source–sink relations during grain filling....... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...

  7. Variation in Salt Tolerance of Wheat Cultivars: Role of Glycinebetaine and Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.I.R.KHAN; N.IQBAL; A.MASOOD; N.A.KHAN

    2012-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars 711,PBW343,3765 and WH542 were screened for studying variations in glycinebetaine (GB) content and plant dry mass under 100 mmol L-1 NaCl stress.A tolerance index was calculated using plant dry mass data to select salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive types and find association between tolerance index and GB content.Tolerance index has been used as a good criterion to select the tolerant types under high salinity stress.Further,physiological differences in salt-tolerant cultivar 711 and salt-sensitive cultivar WH542 were examined.The salt-tolerant cultivar exhibited greater GB content,which was found correlative with ethylene.The cultivar also showed higher nitrogen (N) content and nitrate reductase activity,reduced glutathione and higher redox state resulting in maximal protection of plant dry mass than the salt-sensitive type.Thus,the content of GB may be considered as important physiological criteria for selecting salt-tolerant wheat types.

  8. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em condições de sequeiro no estado de São Paulo Behaviour of wheat cultivars in different regions of the state of São Paulo without irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios de competição regional de cultivares de trigo em condição de sequeiro, efetuados no ano de 1971, no Estado de São Paulo, destacaram-se os seguintes, na ordem decrescente de produtividade: S-12, IRN-526-63, Pitic-62, BH-1146, IAC-5 e 1AC-7. As diferenças de produções desses cultivares não foram significativas (Tukey a 5%. O cultivar IRN-526-63, de origem mexicana, apresentou também resistência à ferrugem do colmo e ausência de acamamento, aliados a boa adaptação às diferentes regiões tritícolas paulistas em condição de sequeiro.Competition trials of nine cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were carried out without irrigation in nine different areas of the State of São Paulo, in 1971. The new CIMMYT cultivar IRN-526-63, created in Mexico, proved to be the best one. This cultivar presented high yield, straight and low type of plants, early maturation, resistance to lay, to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici, and a wide adaptation range in the State.

  9. The ozone-like syndrome in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): Mechanisms underlying the different symptomatic responses of two sensitive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Valentina; Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Faoro, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Colombo and Sculptur are two modern durum wheat cultivars that, in previous studies, proved to be very sensitive to ozone injury in terms of eco-physiological parameters and significant grain yield loss. Nevertheless, their response regarding leaf visible symptoms was very different; Sculptur showed almost no symptoms, even after several weeks of ozone exposure, whereas Colombo showed in a few weeks typical ozone-like symptoms (chlorotic/necrotic spots). The mechanisms underlying this different response has been studied with a biochemical and microscopical approach. Plants were grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) and exposed to charcoal filtered and ozone enriched air. Flag leaves were analyzed at two phenological stages (pre- and post-anthesis). At pre-anthesis the ascorbate pool was significantly lower in Colombo, which also underwent an increase in the oxidized glutathione content and abundant H2O2 deposition in mesophyll cells around the substomatal chamber. No or scarce H2O2 was found at both phenological stages in ozone exposed leaf tissues of Sculptur, where stomata appeared often closed. In this cultivar, transmission electron microscopy showed that chloroplasts in apparently undamaged mesophyll cells were slightly swollen and presented numerous plastoglobuli, as a result of a mild oxidative stress. These results suggest that Sculptur leaves remains symptomless as a consequence of the higher content of constitutive ascorbate pool and the synergistic effect of stomata closure. Instead, Colombo shows chlorotic/necrotic symptoms because of the lower ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) scavenging capacity and the less efficient stomata closure that lead to severe damages of groups of the mesophyll cells, however leaving the surrounding photosynthetic tissue functional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid N and S fertilizer solutions effects on the mass, chemical, and shear strength properties of winter wheat (Triticum aestuvum) residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve stand establishment in high crop residue situations, the utility of fertilizer to stimulate microbial decomposition of residue has been debated. Field experiments assessed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw decomposition under different fertilizer rates and application timings at thre...

  11. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Manning, William J

    2005-11-01

    Three rates of ethylenediurea were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars "Malviya 533" (M 533) and "Malviya 234" (M 234) at a suburban site near Varanasi, India, beginning in December. Wheat plants were treated with EDU at 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm as soil drenches at 10-day intervals. EDU treatment affected plant growth, with effects varying with cultivar, age, and EDU concentration. Seed yield was improved for M 533 at 150 ppm EDU, while yield improved for M 234 at 300 and 450 ppm EDU. M 533 appears to be more resistant to ozone than M 234. Overall results confirmed that EDU is very useful in assessing the effect of ambient ozone in India.

  12. 小麦叶绿体蛋白质编码基因RNA编辑位点的测定及与返白现象的关系%RNA Editing Sites in Chloroplast Protein-coding Genes in Leaf White Mutant of Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓李坤; 李妍; 俞嘉宁

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process and mainly occurs in higher plant organelles. Lacking RNA editing in some plants can cause albino or yellow leaves. We investigated RNA editing in 14 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genome of Triticum aestivum Aibian 1 and the wheat leaf-stage albino mutant FA85. We found 26 editing sites in these genes. The two plants significantly differed in editing efficiency of 5 partial editing events. The 5 sites include the phosphoenylpyruvate (PEP) genes rpoC2, rpoA and rpoB, and 3 of them are predicted to change the secondary protein structure. We further analyzed the transcriptional pattern of chloroplast genes that depend on PEP, on nuclear export protein (NEP) and on both PEP and NEP. The mRNA levels of chloroplast genes, except for psbA and clpP, were lower in the mutant than wild-type leaves. The wheat leaf-stage albino phenotype may be attributed to a decrease in efficiency of the 5 editing sites and alteration of transcript level of some chloroplast genes.%摘要 RNA编辑是一种转录后基因加工修饰现象,广泛存在于高等植物细胞器中.已有研究表明,RNA编辑与植物发生白化或者黄化有关.通过PCR、RT-PCR及测序的方法,对具有阶段性白化特性的小麦(Triticum aestivum)返白系FA85及其野生型矮变一号(Aibian 1)的叶绿体蛋白质编码基因RNA编辑位点进行了测定,在14个基因上发现了26个编辑位点.有5个编辑位点在2个株系之间存在编辑效率的差异,且这些差异的位点均位于编码叶绿体RNA聚合酶的基因上,其中3个位点编辑前后对应的蛋白质二级结构可能有差异.对2个株系叶绿体中PEP、NEP及PEP、NEP共同依赖基因转录水平的检测显示,除psbA和clpP外,其它基因在小麦返白系中的转录水平均有不同程度的下降.这种转录水平的显著下降及叶绿体RNA聚合酶基因上RNA编辑位点编辑效率的改变,可能与小麦返白系叶片的返白有关.

  13. Identification of Putative RuBisCo Activase (TaRca1)—The Catalytic Chaperone Regulating Carbon Assimilatory Pathway in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) under the Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Singh, Khushboo; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Renu; Verma, Neeraj; Kala, Yugal K.; Rai, Gyanendra K.; Grover, Monendra; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Singh, Bhupinder; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    RuBisCo activase (Rca) is a catalytic chaperone involved in modulating the activity of RuBisCo (key enzyme of photosynthetic pathway). Here, we identified eight novel transcripts from wheat through data mining predicted to be Rca and cloned a transcript of 1.4 kb from cv. HD2985, named as TaRca1 (GenBank acc. no. KC776912). Single copy number of TaRca1 was observed in wheat genome. Expression analysis in diverse wheat genotypes (HD2985, Halna, PBW621, and HD2329) showed very high relative expression of TaRca1 in Halna under control and HS-treated, as compared to other cultivars at different stages of growth. TaRca1 protein was predicted to be chloroplast-localized with numerous potential phosphorylation sites. Northern blot analysis showed maximum accumulation of TaRca1 transcript in thermotolerant cv. during mealy-ripe stage, as compared to thermosusceptible. Decrease in the photosynthetic parameters was observed in all the cultivars, except PBW621 in response to HS. We observed significant increase in the Rca activity in all the cultivars under HS at different stages of growth. HS causes decrease in the RuBisCo activity; maximum reduction was observed during pollination stage in thermosusceptible cvs. as validated through immunoblotting. We observed uniform carbon distribution in different tissues of thermotolerant cvs., as compared to thermosusceptible. Similarly, tolerance level of leaf was observed maximum in Halna having high Rca activity under HS. A positive correlation was observed between the transcript and activity of TaRca1 in HS-treated Halna. Similarly, TaRca1 enzyme showed positive correlation with the activity of RuBisCo. There is, however, need to manipulate the thermal stability of TaRca1 enzyme through protein engineering for sustaining the photosynthetic rate under HS—a novel approach toward development of “climate-smart” crop. PMID:27462325

  14. Evaluation of plant resistance inducers on different winter soft wheat cultivars against Septoria leaf blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, M; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Selim, S; Boizet, F; Couleaud, G; Maumene, C; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the emergence of fungal strains highly resistant to mainly used fungicides and the deleterious impacts of these fungicides on the environment, development of alternative control strategies to protect wheat crops against STB is needed. The induction of plant resistance by elicitors is likely to be a helpful alternative. Our study aims at characterizing the efficiency of potential resistance inducers towards STB in three bread wheat cultivars differing in their resistance levels to the pathogen: Alixan (susceptible), Premio (moderately resistant) and Altigo (resistant). These cultivars were inoculated under controlled and semi-controlled conditions with the pathogenic M. graminicolo strain T01193 in order to assess the protective effect of three potential resistance inducers against the disease. Moreover, the direct antifungal effect bf these products was evaluated in vitro at different concentrations in order to verify their potential biocide activity. Furthermore, cytological analyses were performed in order to determine the effects of these products on the fungal infection process and to compare these effects among the three wheat cultivars. Finally, reactive oxygen species metabolism was investigated in the three cultivars during their interaction with T01193 by measuring peroxidase activity.

  15. Using simulation models to investigate the cumulative effects of sowing rate, sowing date and cultivar choice on weed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Izzadora K S; Storkey, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption. In this article, the INTERCOM simulation model of crop/weed competition was used to examine the combined impact of crop density, sowing date and cultivar choice on the outcomes of competition between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Alopecurus myosuroides. Alopecurus myosuroides is a problematic weed of cereal crops in North-Western Europe and the primary target for IWM in the UK because it has evolved resistance to a range of herbicides. The model was parameterised for two cultivars with contrasting competitive ability, and simulations run across 10 years at different crop densities and two sowing dates. The results suggest that sowing date, sowing density and cultivar choice largely work in a complementary fashion, allowing enhanced competitive ability against weeds when used in combination. However, the relative benefit of choosing a more competitive cultivar decreases at later sowing dates and higher crop densities. Modeling approaches could be further employed to examine the effectiveness of IWM, reducing the need for more expensive and cumbersome long-term in situ experimentation.

  16. Presowing Seed Treatment with Cytokinins and Its Effect on Growth,Photosynthetic Rate, Ionic Levels and Yield of Two Wheat Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad IQBAL; Muhammad ASHRAF

    2005-01-01

    The effects of presowing seed treatment with different concentrations of cytokinins (kinetin and benzylaminopurine; 100, 150, and 200 mg/L) on growth, photosynthetic capacity, and ion homeostasis were investigated in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely MH-97 (salt sensitive) and Inqlab91 (salt tolerant). Primed and non-primed seeds were sown in a field in which NaCl salinity of 15 dS/m was developed. Of the different concentrations of priming agents tested, the effect of a moderate concentration of kinetin (150 mg/L) was very pronounced, particularly in improving growth and grain yield, in both cultivars. In addition, priming with kinetin alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on gaseous exchange characteristics (net CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency) in both cultivars. Seed priming with a moderate concentration of kinetin also altered the pattern of accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in the shoots,irrespective of the wheat cultivar, under conditions of salt stress. However, all other priming agents at the different concentrations tested did not show any consistent effect on ion levels, except hydropriming,which increased K+ levels in the shoots of both cultivars under salt stress. In conclusion, a moderate concentration of kinetin showed a consistent effect in altering the growth and grain yield of both wheat cultivars, which was related to the beneficial effects of kinetin priming on water use efficiency and photosynthetic rate under conditions of salt stress.

  17. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, cultivar Senatore Cappelli) production systems effects on grain and flours functional properties under Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Chami, Ziad Al

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of organic farming is the "production of high quality products". Integrity and vital quality of products should be preserved along the entire production chain. In order to evaluate the effect of organic vs. conventional production systems on durum wheat phenolic acids and antioxidant activity open field experiment has been carried out. During the whole process chain from field to fork, there are various factors influencing the quality of the end product. Organic production should rely on genotypes with high nitrogen use efficiency, disease and pest resistance, weed competitiveness and tolerance especially under Mediterranean conditions. In this study, production systems differed according to the practices and inputs applied to manage the soil fertility and plant protection. In conventional system, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were used. Whereas, in the two organic systems, cow manure with fertilizers and temporary intercropping with fava bean (Vicia faba) and fertilizers were used to manage soil fertility. Biopesticides were used for plant protection for organic systems. One treatment without inputs was used as a control in order to evaluate environmental site and cultivar effect. Quantity of free, free and conjugated and bounded phenolic acids were evaluated in relation to overall quality and production systems. In addition, antioxidant capacities of each fraction by different assays were assessed. The organic production method assured higher overall quality in paricular functional properties compared to the conventional one. Therefore, understanding the functional links between production systems variables and physiological responses is essential to improve and standardize the quality of organic durum wheat products. Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility management, phenolic acids, antioxidant activity.

  18. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  19. 小麦类发芽素蛋白3启动子序列(登录号:AY864922)%Nucleotide Sequence of Promoter of Triticum aestivum Germin-like Protein 3 (AY864922)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军营; 温付喜; 陈新建; 程西永; 许海霞

    2005-01-01

    In germinating wheat embryos, gl-OXO accumulation is localized in cell wall. It has been confirmed that this enzyme locally provides H2O2 to catalyze peroxide-mediated cross-linking of cell wall components in terminal cellular differentiation and plays an important role in enabling cells to retain their meristematicand organogenic capacity. Using tail-PCR and DNA sequencing techniques, we isolated Germin-like Protein 3promoter sequence(1 654 bp), from common wheat cultivar (yumai 18) genome. No GGGCGGG sequence exiting in promoter implies that germin-like protein 3 is not "house-keeping" protein. The presence of TGTCTC, an auxin response element and localizing at upstream -258, indicates that this promoter is auxin-inducible. The TATA box situates in upstream -27~-32 and 5'-UTR consists of 95 bp.

  20. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  1. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em dois solos do estado de São Paulo A Comparative study of wheat cultivars on two types of soil in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados dois ensaios de cultivares de trigo, sendo um na Estação Experimental de Tietê, e o outro, na Fazenda Santa Isabel, município de Itaberá. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, Pitic-62 e IRN-152-63, de origem mexicana, não se adaptaram às condições adversas do sul do Estado (Itaberá, entre as quais destacaram-se: baixa saturação em bases, baixíssimo teor de fósforo e principalmente a influência do Al3+ trocável ocasionando "crestamento" nas plantas. Os cultivares IAC-10, IAC-7, BH-1146, IAC-9, S-33, IAC-11 e IAC-8 apresentaram tolerância a essa condição adversa. No ensaio de Tietê, onde o solo mostrou altos teores de K+ e PO4³ , bom teor de Ca2+ 4- Mg2+ , não apresentando alumínio livre, os cultivares IRN-526-63 e Pitic-62 desenvolveram-se normalmente, apresentando produções superiores às dos demais cultivares estudados.This paper presents the results of two cultivar trials on wheat (Triticum aestivum L., carried out at the Tietê Experiment Station and at Santa Isabel Farm, Itaberá. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IRN-152-63 e Pitic-62, Mexican germoplasms, were very susceptible to "crestamento" at Itaberá soil, giving small yields. The Brazilian germoplasms showed tolerance to Al3+ , with average yields. At Tietê trial, IRN-526 and Pitic-62 cultivars showed good performance, having the most yield in this condition.

  2. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoja R. Basnet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  3. QTL Analysis of Kernel Characteristics Using a Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) Population Derived from the Cross of Tiriticum polonicum L. and Triticum aestivum L. Line “Zhong 13”%波兰小麦×普通小麦品系“中13”RIL群体籽粒特性的QTL定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美霞; 杨睿; 李有梅; 崔桂宾; 王竹林; 奚亚军; 刘曙东

    2012-01-01

    小麦籽粒特性与籽粒产量和品质密切相关。本研究以波兰小麦(Tiriticum polonicum L.)×普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)品系“中13”杂交组合衍生的99个F8重组自交系(Recombinant inbred lines, RIL)群体为材料,利用SSR分子标记构建连锁遗传图谱。根据两年实验数据,利用复合区间作图法对粒重、粒长和粒宽3个籽粒特性相关性状进行了QTL定位分析,共检测到12个与籽粒特性相关的加性QTL位点。其中,3个粒重QTL,1个位于1A染色体上,另外2个都在2A染色体上,单个QTL可解释表型变异的13.35%~20.04%;5个粒长QTL,其中2个位于2A染色体上,其余3个分别位于3A、5A和2B染色体上,单个QTL可解释表型变异的 8.53%~21.03%;4个粒宽QTL,分别位于1A、2A、3B和 5B染色体上,单个QTL可解释表型变异的9.76%~40.79%。在2A染色体上共检测到5个籽粒特性相关性状的QTL,表明2A染色体与籽粒特性关系密切。%Wheat kernel characteristics are associated with kernel yield and quality. In this study, the QTLs of grain weight, grain length and grain width were analyzed using SSR markers in a population which consisted of 99 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Poland wheat (Triticum polonicum L.) and Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Zhong 13. The ANOVA showed that there was highly significant difference between Poland Wheat and Zhong 13 in all three traits in 2010 and 2011. It was clear that the hereditary basis between two parents on grain weight, grain length and grain width was very different. A significant difference among recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was found in grain weight in two years, a highly significant difference among recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was found in grain length and grain width in two years. Of 355 pairs of polymorphic SSR primers between parents, there were 173 pairs of SSR primers with polymorphism among recombinant

  4. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  5. Adaptação, estabilidade e potencial produtivo de genótipos de Triticum durum L., irrigados por aspersão, no Estado de São Paulo Adaptability, stability and yield potential of Triticum durum L. genotypes under sprinkler irrigation in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 17 linhagens e duas cultivares de Triticum durum L. tendo como testemunha a cultivar IAC 24 de T. aestivum L., em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão nas localidades de Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto e Mococa, no período de 1998 a 2002, no Estado de São Paulo. Foram determinados os rendimentos de grãos e o comportamento de cada genótipo diante das variações ambientais. Análises de adaptação e estabilidade permitiram a identificação de genótipos com comportamento previsível a essas condições ambientais. Foram observados efeitos significativos para anos, locais e genótipos, destacando-se na média dos três locais quanto ao rendimento de grãos a linhagem de T. durum L. 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S". O melhor rendimento de grãos foi observado em Ribeirão Preto e o pior em Votuporanga. Observou-se nas linhagens 9 e 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S, 12 e 19 (GYS"S"/3/ STN"S"// HUI"S"/SOMOS"S" e 3 (STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79// HUI"S" adaptabilidade específica, portanto, responsivas ao emprego de alta tecnologia. A incidência da ferrugem-da- folha somente foi constatada na cultivar IAC 24 da espécie de T. aestivum.In order to evaluate Triticum durum L. genotypes having as control the T. aestivum L. cultivar IAC, 24 experiments were carried out, under sprinkler irrigation, at Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto and Mococa locations, in the period 1998 to 2002, in the State of São Paulo. Grain yield and performance of each genotype in relation to the environment variation were evaluated. Adaptability and stability analysis were made identify genotypes with predictable performance in these environment conditions. Significant effects were observed for years, locations and genotypes. Considering the three locations, Triticum durum inbred line 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S" presented the highest yield. The highest grain yields were observed in Ribeirão Preto and

  6. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels=Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N on the agronomic performance of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos

  7. Molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and expression analysis of upstream genes involved in organic acid transport under Al stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Tolrá, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tarquis, Marta; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Benito, César

    2014-11-01

    In bread wheat, besides malate, the importance of citrate efflux for Al tolerance has also been reported. For better understanding the Al tolerance mechanism in bread wheat, here, we performed both a molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and an investigation on the upstream variations in citrate and malate transporter genes. TaMATE1 belong to multidrug transporter protein family, which are located on the long arm of homoeologous group 4 chromosomes (TaMATE1-4A, TaMATE1-4B TaMATE1-4D). TaMATE1 homoeologues transcript expression study exhibited the preponderance of homoeologue TaMATE1-4B followed by TaMATE1-4D whereas homoeologue TaMATE1-4A seemed to be silenced. TaMATE1, particularly homoeologue TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 transcripts were much more expressed in the root apices than in shoots of Al tolerant genotype Barbela 7/72/92 under both control and Al stress conditions. In addition, in both tissues of Barbela 7/72/92, higher basal levels of these gene transcripts were observed than in Anahuac (Al sensitive). Noticeably, the presence of a transposon in the upstream of TaMATE1-4B in Barbela 7/72/92 seems to be responsible for its higher transcript expression where it may confer citrate efflux. Thus, promoter variations (transposon in TaMATE1-4B upstream and type VI promoter in TaALMT1) associated with higher basal transcript expression of TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 clearly show how different mechanisms for Al tolerance operate simultaneously in a single genotype. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Barbela 7/72/92 has favorable alleles for these organic acids transporter genes which could be utilized through genomic assisted selection to develop improved cultivars for acidic soils.

  8. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  9. (N-[2-(2-氧-1-咪唑烷基)乙基]-N '-苯基脲(EDU)对环境臭氧胁迫下的水稻和小麦生长的影响%Effect of Ethylenediurea (EDU) on Growth of Ozone-stressed Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟磊; 王效科; 郑飞翔; 耿春梅; 王玮; 殷宝辉; 隋立华; 王琼; 冯宗炜

    2011-01-01

    通过对作物定期喷施不同浓度(0、150、300和450 mg·L-1)的N-[2-(2-氧-1-咪唑烷基)乙基]-N'-苯基脲(ethy lenediurea,EDU)溶液,研究EDU对环境O3胁迫下水稻“粤晶丝苗2号”(Oryza sativa L.Yuejingsi 2)和小麦“北农9549”(Triticum aestivum L.Beinong 9549)生长的影响.结果表明:EDU的作用效果随观测时期和处理水平的变化而变化.水稻实验前期,300 mg·L-1 EDU处理的植株地上生物量明显高于对照;但实验末期,各EDU处理下的水稻地上生物量、各器官生物量和单株粒重均低于对照,其中450 mg·L-1 EDU处理和对照稻穗生物量的差异达到了显著水平.在小麦实验中,除实验中期150mg·L-1 EDU处理外,各观测时期EDU处理下的植株地上生物量均低于对照,尤其在实验末期,300 mg·L-1EDU处理下的小麦地上生物量和穗生物量的下降程度达到了显著水平.由此可知:两个作物品种对环境O3可能具有一定的耐性,因此,EDU的保护作用未能体现;高浓度EDU溶液对作物可能具有一定的毒性,O3胁迫下EDU对植物体的作用效果可能是其抗氧化性和毒性的综合体现.

  10. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  11. Tiller emission and dry mass accumulation of wheat cultivars under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Milton Luiz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillers are important structures for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. because they contribute to increase the number of spikes per area, enhancing grain yield. Stresses during plants early growth have a sizable effect on tiller production. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of stresses induced by unevenness in sowing depth, defoliation and differences in soil pH on tiller emission and dry mass accumulation of wheat cultivars. The experiments were carried out in Lages, Southern Brazil, during the winter growing seasons of 2000 and 2001. They were performed in square boxes, under natural conditions of radiation and irrigation. In the first experiment, five types of sowing depths were tested to simulate different systems of unevenness in plant emergence of cultivar Embrapa 16. In the second experiment, two wheat cultivars (BRS 177 and BRS 179 were submitted to four types of main stem defoliation. The third experiment assessed the effects of three levels of soil acidity correction on the tillering pattern of Fundacep 29. Unevenness in sowing depth, alternating pairs of seeds at 3 cm and 5 cm deep, reduced tiller emission and dry mass accumulation. The removal of the first and second main stem leaves reduced significantly BRS 179 tiller dry mass and number and did not affect the tillering pattern of BRS 177. The lack of liming restricted tiller emission and reduced plant dry mass accumulation.

  12. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  13. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Tao Zhang; Chenglai Wu; Chunqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP) and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s) without significantly decreasing the germination rate was...

  14. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s without significantly decreasing the germination rate was obtained at initial moisture content≤ 20.3% along with 20% MOTP. While, if initial moisture content of seeds was ≤ 16.7%, the seeds can be dried more rapidly using MOTP 30% without affecting germination capacity. The results obtained from this study would provide technical basis to select optimal wheat seed processing and design seed drying equipments.

  15. Analysis of Seed-expressed Sequence Tags in Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJia-Rui; WANGFang; ZHAOXiang-Yu; DONGYu-Xiu; ZHANGLi-Yuan; ZHANGXian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    To isolate seed-expressed sequences, a cDNA library was constructed using wheat ( Triticumaest/vum L) seed tissues at 12 d after pollination. Plasmid DNAs of 10 000 clones randomly picked out fromthe library were prepared. The preparation of high density filters were made with the Biomek 2000 HDRTsystem, and then hybridized separately with three probes prepared by reverse transcription of RNA ofunpollinated ovary, embryo and endosperm. Based on the hybridization results, 800 clones expressed inembryo and/or endosperm were chosen for further analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Finally,216 different genes were identified preliminarily. Of them, 24 (11.5%) were considered identical to knownwheat genes, 122 (56%) were identified as putative new plant genes which may be involved in seed storageproteins, biochemical metabolisms, development, and other biological processes of seeds, while 70 (32.5%)sequence identities could not be determined.

  16. Paenibacillus hispanicus sp. nov. isolated from Triticum aestivum roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Esther; Carro, Lorena; Tejedor, Carmen; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-11-01

    A bacterial strain designated AMTAE16T was isolated from a root of wheat in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacilluswith its closest relative being Paenibacillus daejeonensis AP-20T with 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed a mean of 30 % DNADNA relatedness between strain AMTAE16T and the type strain of P. daejeonensis. The isolate was a Gram-stainvariable, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase and oxidase activities were positive. Gelatin and starch were hydrolysed but not casein. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon source. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, four unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 55.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain AMTAE16T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus hispanicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AMTAE16T(=LMG 29501T=CECT 9124T).

  17. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... There were thirteen wheat genotypes, two irrigation levels and two replications of each. .... other cellular component from the adverse effects of drought in a manner .... Sugar-induced signal transduction in plants. Ann. Rev.

  18. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... It contributes 13.1% to the value added in agriculture and 2.8% to gross domestic product. (GDP) in Pakistan (Government of ... weeds of wheat in Pakistan causing huge economic losses are canarygrass (Phalaris minor R.), ...

  19. 土壤高砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长影响的比较研究%Effects of high arsenic pollution in soil on growth of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全吉; 郑床木; 谭启玲; 孙学成; 胡承孝

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of high soil arsenic pollution on the growth, bio-mass accumulation and productivity in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) and rape (Brassica napus) . The accumulation pattern of phosphorus and arsenic in different parts of plant was also studied in the two species. The results indicated that arsenic significantly inhibited wheat height, root biomass, shoot biomass and yield compared with the control, with reductions of 17% , 52. 2% , 60. 6% and 46. 8% , respectively. However, arsenic did not affect the growth and biomass in rape, and the yield was only decreased by 15. 4% compared with the control. Arsenic concentration in different parts of wheat and rape showed the same pattern; roots > shoots > husk (legumen) > seeds. Arsenic in roots of wheat and rape were 74. 86 mg· kg-1 and 57. 76 mg·kg-1 , respectively when soil arsenic concentration was 200 mg·kg-1 . However, there was no difference of arsenic content in the shoot between wheat and rape. Seeds of winter wheat contained more arsenic than rape seed, however, arsenic contents of both seeds did not exceed the maximum levels of contaminants in foods (0. 7 mg·kg-1 total arsenic). Arsenic did not significantly affect P concentration of roots and shoots in both wheat and rape, but significantly decreased P concentration of husk or pod peel.Therefore, winter wheat was more sensitive to arsenic compared with rape and it is more suitable for rape growth inarsenic contaminated soil in winter.%采用盆栽试验研究了土壤高浓度砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长、生物量、产最的影响及磷、砷在此2种作物各个部位的累积规律.结果表明,200 mg? kg-1土壤砷污染显著抑制了冬小麦的生长,收获时冬小麦株高较对照降低17%;冬小麦地上部分、根系的生物量和产量较对照分别降低了52.2%,60.6%和46.8%.但土壤砷污染对油菜株高、生物量影响均不

  20. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  1. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  2. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  3. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  4. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  5. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana Paramjit; Patnaik Debasis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic tra...

  6. Effects of Sowing Quantity and Additional Quantity of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth and Development, Yield and Quality of Wheat(Triticum aestivum Linn.)%播量·追氮量互作对小麦生长发育·产量·性状和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕康开

    2012-01-01

    [目的]主要研究播种量与追氮量互作对小麦(Triticum aestivum Linn.)生长发育、产量和品质的影响,探索小麦高产优质生产的播种量与追氮量的最优组合.[方法]试验设播种量和追氮量2个因素,施入的氮肥为尿素(N 46%),播种量分3个水平(60、120、180kg/hm2),追氮量分4个水平(0、56、112、168 kg/hm2),随机区组设计.[结果]追氮量相同时,播量增大,茎蘖数越多,叶面积指数越大,干物质积累越大.播量相同时,追氮量对茎蘖动态、叶面积指数、干物质积累的影响辕大,追氮量168 kg/hm2处理的茎蘖动态、叶面积指数、干物质积累均高于对应播量的其他3个基追比例处理;不同播量条件下,追氮量对小麦各群体结构指标影响规律不一致,播量与追氮量之间存在互作效应.另外,播量、追氮量对小麦容重、蛋白质含量、出粉率均有显著影响,而对含水量影响不大;播量、追氮量对小麦面粉品质有一定影响.播量180 kg/hm2、追氮量168 kg/hm2时最有利于产量提高;播量120 kg/hm2、追氮量168 kg/hm2的籽粒品质协调且最优.[结论]播量、追氮量对小麦产量和品质的调控效应显著,且播量与追氮量之间存在互作效应.%[Objective] The purpose was to mainly study the effects of sowing quantity and additional quantity of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and development, yield and quality, and discuss the best combination of sowing quantity and additional quantity of nitrogen fertilizer to obtain high yield and good quality production of wheat. [ Method ] Two factors, sowing and additional quantity of nitrogen fertilizer, were designed by randomized block design, thereinto, nitrogen fertilizer was urea containing 46% nitrogen, sowing quantity was three levels(60, 120, 180 kg/hm2 ) and additional quantity of nitrogen fertilizer was four levels(0, 56, 112, 168 kg/hm2). [ Result] When additional quantity of nitrogen fertilizer was same, bigger sowing

  7. Effects of long-term fertilization on soil water and nutrient with Triticum aestivum L.succession in dryland of Loess Plateau%黄土旱塬长期施肥对小麦连作土壤养分和水分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危锋; 郝明德

    2011-01-01

    To provide reference for reasonable use of water and fertilizer resources in dry-land of Loess Plateau,the study on the change of soil nutrient and water was conducted under the condition of 22-year Triticum aestivum L. succession based on the long-term fertilizer experiment. The six treatments were no fertilizer (CK) , nitrogen fertilizer (N) , phosphate fertilizer (P) , manure fertilizer (M) , nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers ( NP) , nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers with manure ( NPM ). Nutrient in tilth soils (0 -20 cm) , and water contents and water storage in soil profiles (0 -300 cm) were measured. The results showed that for the contents of soil organic matter, total N, total P, available N, available P, and available K in tilth soils, they increased by 55.44% , 45.24% , 29.63% , 67. 16% , 186.96% and 123.65% , respectively, after long-time M application. For contents of soil organ matter, total N, total P, available N, available P, and available K in tilth soils, they increased by 65.67% , 50.00% , 40. 74% , 72. 37% , 324. 58% and 191. 17% , respectively, after long-time NPM application. The water contents in tilth soils were 18. 19% , 17. 99% , 17. 66% , 17. 42% , 16. 96% and 16. 29% after longtime NPM, M, P, CK, N and NP treatments, respectively. The distribution characteristics of water contents in soil profile were similar for long-time NPM, M and NP treatments. The water storage of 0 - 300 cm soil layers were 666. 73, 656. 23, 629. 41, 536. 88, 504. 26 and 488. 47 mm in the P, CK, N, NP, M and NPM treatments, respectively. Compared to the CK, the wate storage in the P treatment increased by 1.60% , but decreased by 4.09% in the N treatment, 18. 19% in the NP treatment, 23. 16% in the M treatment and 25. 56% in the NPM treatment. The long-term application of single manure and chemical fertilizer combined with manure could increase nutrient and water contents in tilth soils. The water storage in 0 - 300 cm soil layers significantly decreased by the

  8. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

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    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  9. Variação nos níveis de prolina, diamina e poliaminas em cultivares de trigo submetidas a déficits hídricos Proline, diamine and polyamines accumulation in wheat cultivars submitted to water deficits

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    Terezinha de Fátima Fumis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar duas cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. Anahuac e IAC-24, cultivadas em solo arenoso, sob três regimes de umidade do solo (-0,027 a -0,1 MPa; -0,027 a -0,045 MPa; e -0,027 MPa -- irrigação constante. Foram analisadas as variações nos níveis de prolina, da diamina (putrescina e das poliaminas (espermina e espermidina e o teor relativo de água (TRA durante o perfilhamento, emborrachamento, floração e no enchimento dos grãos. Nas plantas submetidas a déficits hídricos foi verificada menor TRA e acúmulo de prolina e putrescina; em relação às poliaminas não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos. Nos tratamentos sob déficit hídrico, a cultivar IAC-24 apresentou teores mais elevados de prolina e putrescina, o mesmo sendo verificado com a cultivar Anahuac quando submetida a tratamento sem déficit hídrico.The objective of this work was to evaluate two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, Anahuac and IAC-24, developed in sandy texture soil, under three levels of soil humidity (-0.027 to -0.1 MPa; -0.027 to -0.045 MPa; and -0.027 MPa constantly irrigated. The variation in the levels of proline, diamine (putrescine and polyamines (spermine and spermidine content and the relative water content (RWC during the tillering, booting, flowering and grain-filling was determined. The plants under water deficits presented smaller RWC and higher levels of proline and putrescine. In relation to the polyamines it wasn't observed difference among the treatments. The cv. IAC-24 under water deficit presented a higher content of proline and putrescine while the Anahuac showed the same results in the treatments without water deficit.

  10. Responese of Two Cultivars of Winter Wheat Differing In Sensitivity to Aluminum Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZHEN-GUO; LIANCHUN-LAN; 等

    1994-01-01

    A experiment was carried to evaluate the effects of Al on growth,accumulations of free proline and amino acid in 2 wheat cultivars(Triticum aestivum L.),Yangmai No.5 and Jian 864,differing in Al Sensitivity.Plants grew initially in a nutrient solution without Al for 13 days before the addition of Al and finally in a nutrient solution containing 0.5mmol Al(L-1)for 19 days,the results showed that there were marked deceases in dry weight,relative growth rate(RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR)of Al-treated seedlings compared with control plants.The Al effects were more evident in Yangmai No.5 than Jian 864.Leaf area ratio(LAR) was little affected by Al.RGR was highly correlated with NAR rather than LAR.Aluminum increased the concentrations of free proline and total free amino acid in shoots of both the cultivars.The increases were greater in Yangmai No.5 than in Jian 864.The percentage of free proline in total amino acid in shoots was not affected by Al treatment.It was possible that accumulation of proline was merely a symptom of Al injury.The concentrations of total nitrogen in Al-treated plants did not significantly differ from those of control plants.Nitrate reductase activity(NRA),in leaves was severely decreased by Al,and a greater decrease was noted in Yangmai No.5 than in Jian 864,but NRA in roots of both the cultivars was not affected.The decreases in NRA might be and indirect(accumulation of amino acid) rather than a direct result of Al toxicity.

  11. 普通小麦-大赖草易位系T7BS·7Lr#1S和T2AS·2AL-7Lr#1S的分子细胞遗传学鉴定%Molecular and Cytogenetic Identification of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemo-sus Translocation Lines T7BS·7Lr#1S and T2AS·2AL-7Lr#1S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔承齐; 王林生; 陈佩度

    2013-01-01

    A resistance gene against wheat scab is located on chromosome 7Lr#1S of Leymus racemosus, which is propitious to enriching scab resistance resources and resistant breeding in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The translocation lines NAU639 (T7BS·7Lr#1S) and NAU640 (T2AS·2AL-7Lr#1S) were selected from the plant progenies of irradiated pollens of monosomic alien addition line MA7Lr#1 and confirmed through chromosome FISH-GISH, C-banding, and molecular markers analyses. The two translocation lines had higher resistance to wheat scab than the susceptible parent “Chinese Spring” and the susceptible controls “Mianyang 8545” and “Shimai 4185” in a successive three-year test both in the greenhouse and field. These results showed the stable scab resistance in translocation lines NAU639 and NAU640 and feasibility to be used as a new source in wheat breeding resistant to scab disease.%  大赖草7Lr#1S染色体上携带赤霉病抗性基因,将其导入普通小麦有助于增加赤霉病抗源多样性和选育抗赤霉病品种。利用染色体 C-分带、荧光原位杂交和分子标记技术从普通小麦–大赖草7Lr#1单体异附加系的花粉辐射后代中,选育出易位系T7BS·7Lr#1S (NAU639)和T2AS·2AL-7Lr#1S (NAU640)。经连续3年大田、温室赤霉病接种鉴定,这2个易位系的赤霉病抗性均显著高于感病亲本中国春、感病对照绵阳8545和石麦4185,为赤霉病抗病育种提供了新的种质资源。

  12. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of two argentine wheat cultivars Características anatômicas e fisiológicas de dois cultivares argentinos de trigo

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    Raúl Roberto Filgueira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Argentine field grown wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L., Buck Cencerro (BC with traditional germoplasm, and Buck Pucará (BP with Mexican germoplasm, have been investigated in order to compare anatomical and physiological characteristics of the flag leaf measured in heading (stage E59, anthesis (stage E69 and kernel water ripe (stage 71. In both cultivars, photosynthetic rate was not different for the same phenological stage, except for E71. Averages in stage E59 were higher than stages E69 and E71 for both cultivars (22.70, 18.40 and 10.40 µmol m-2 s-1 for BP and 23.82, 18.41 and 8.28 µmol m-2 s-1 for BC, respectively. Transpiration rates were higher in BP (5.0, 5.6 and 4.89 mmol m-2 s-1 than BC (3.3, 4.4 and 2.57 mmol m-2 s-1 for stages E59, E69 and E71, respectively. Consequently, instantaneous water use efficiencies were higher in BC than in BP. No difference between cultivars and phenological stages was observed in specific surface area (mesophyll area per unit mass determined by physical adsorption of nitrogen at low temperature (78° K; the mean was 8.9 m² g-1. It was similar as values found in previous works, in others T. aestivum L. and greater than the values found for Ligustrum lucidum Aiton, by the same technique. Differences could be attributed to the roughness of the cell wall and the dimensions of the cell itself. No positive correlation between specific surface and photosynthetic rate was observed neither for cultivars nor for phenological stages.Dois cultivares argentinos de trigo (Triticum aestivium L, Buck Cencerro (BC, com germoplasma tradicional e Buck Pucará (BP, com germoplasma mexicano, foram pesquisados para comparar as características anatômicas e fisiológicas da folha bandeira medida no espigamento (estádio E59, na antese (estádio E69 e na fase de grão aquoso completo (estádio E71. Nos dois cultivares, a taxa fotossintética foi semelhante no mesmo estágio fenológico, exceto no E71. As médias no

  13. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  14. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Kandler, Wolfang; Sulyok, Michael; Wachowska, Urszula; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut. PMID:27092526

  15. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wiwart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%, number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8% and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%. T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  16. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  17. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  18. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

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    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  19. Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin-Induced Osmotic and Antioxidant Regulation in Two Drought-Tolerant and Drought-Sensitive Cultivars of Wheat During Grain Filling Under Water Deficit in Field Conditions

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    Mohammad-Reza SARAFRAZ-ARDAKANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play critical roles in regulating plant responses to stress. The present study investigates the effect of cytokinin, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction on some osmoprotectants and antioxidant parameters induced by drought stress in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. of ‘Pishgam’ and ‘MV-17’ as tolerant and sensitive to drought during post-anthesis phase, respectively grown in field conditions. The most considerable effect of the treatments was exhibited 21 days after anthesis. Under drought conditions, the flag leaf soluble carbohydrate content increased in both cultivars while starch content was remarkably decreased in ‘Pishgam’ as compared to ‘MV-17’. Abscisic acid increased total soluble sugar and reduced starch more than other hormonal treatments, although it decreased studied monosaccharaides in ‘Pishgam’, especially. Drought stress induced high proportion of gylycinebetain and free proline in ‘Pishgam’ cultivar. Application of abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction increased gylycinebetain and proline content in both cultivars under irrigation and drought conditions. The tolerant cultivar exhibited less accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in relation to significant increase of catalase and peroxidase activities and α-tocpherol content under drought conditions. All hormonal treatments increased the named enzyme activities under both irrigation and drought conditions, while higher accumulation of α-tocopherol was only showed in case of cytokinin application. Also, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid could decrease drought-induced hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde level to some extent, although abscisic acid increased both of hydrogen peroxide andmalondialdehyde content in irrigation phase, especially.

  20. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  1. Evolutionary history of Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch. inferred from the sequences of the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene.

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    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available Single- and low-copy genes are less likely to be subject to concerted evolution. Thus, they are appropriate tools to study the origin and evolution of polyploidy plant taxa. The plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene (Pgk-1 sequences from 44 accessions of Triticum and Aegilops, representing diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats, were used to estimate the origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi. Our phylogenetic analysis was carried out on exon+intron, exon and intron sequences, using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and haplotype networking. We found the D genome sequences of Pgk-1 genes from T. petropavlovskyi are similar to the D genome orthologs in T. aestivum, while their relationship with Ae. tauschii is more distant. The A genome sequences of T. petropavlovskyi group with those of T. polonicum, but its Pgk-1 B genome sequences to some extent diverge from those of other species of Triticum. Our data do not support for the origin of T. petropavlovskyi either as an independent allopolyploidization event between Ae. tauschii and T. polonicum, or as a monomendelian mutation in T. aestivum. We suggest that T. petropavlovskyi originated via spontaneous introgression from T. polonicum into T. aestivum. The dating of divergence among T. polonicum, T. petropavlovskyi, T. carthlicum, T. turgidum, and T. compactum indicates an age of 0.78 million years [corrected].

  2. Novel QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosomes 4A and 6B in soft white winter wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a devastating disease in temperate regions when susceptible varieties are grown and environmental conditions sustain high disease pressures. With frequent and severe outbreaks, disease resistance is a key too...

  3. Characterization of resistance to stripe rust in contemporary cultivars and lines of winter wheat from the eastern United States

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    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has been an important disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the eastern United States since 2000, when a new strain of the pathogen emerged. The new strain overcame the widely used resistance gene, Yr9, and was more aggressive and...

  4. Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Efecto del Aluminio del Suelo en la Colonización Temprana por Micorrizas Arbusculares en Cultivares de Trigo y Cebada Creciendo en un Andisol

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    Alex Seguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%. At 20 d after sowing (DAS 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27% than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower Al-saturation. Moreover, roots of 'Aurora' were colonized 28 and 51% at 20 and 66 DAS, respectively, and also decreased at lower Al-saturation. In soil with 60% Al-saturation a great spore production was observed at 41 DAS, 'Aurora' had the highest spore density at 66 DAS. At 20 DAS a negative relationship (r = -0.37; p La fitotoxicidad por Al en suelos ácidos es un importante estrés que afecta negativamente la producción de cultivos, pero la actividad de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (MA permitiría que las plantas soporten mejor esta condición ambiental. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el efecto del Al en la colonización MA temprana de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.. Cultivares de trigo Crac, Invento, y Porfiado, y de cebada Sebastián y Aurora fueron sembrados en macetas en un suelo ácido con tres niveles de saturación de Al (60, 34, y 11%. A los 20 días después de la siembra (DDS 'Crac' presentó la mayor colonización MA (27%; sin embargo, 'Invento' tuvo la más rápida colonización a los 41 DDS, la cual fue inhibida a corto plazo a una menor saturación de Al. Por otra parte, las raíces de 'Aurora' fueron colonizadas 28 y 51% a los

  5. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Borzouei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Therefore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan' and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam' of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during three growth stages (tillering, 50% anthesis, and 10 d after anthesis. Plants were irrigated by different saline waters with electrical conductivities of 1.3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 dS m-1, which were obtained by adding NaCl:CaCl2 in 10:1 molar ratio to fresh water. Differences in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and proline accumulation were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of cultivars. Results indicated that both parameters differ according to the cultivar's ability in coping oxidative stress caused by salinity. We observed a greater decline in the growth parameters and grain yield under salt stress in 'Tajan' than in 'Bam'. Malondialdehyde content was also higher in 'Tajan'. The improved performance of the 'Bam' under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in SOD (EC 1.15.1.1 activity and proline content at all growth stages. Growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation results are also in good correlation with supporting this cultivar is being relatively tolerant.La salinidad es un problema del medio radical ampliamente distribuido que limita la productividad de los cultivos de cereal en todo el mundo. La capacidad de las plantas para tolerar la sal está determinada por multiples vías bioquímicas que facilitan la retención y/o adquisición de agua, protegen las funciones del cloroplasto, y mantienen la homeostasis iónica. Por lo tanto, se

  6. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  7. BARLEY CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-13

    Jun 13, 1993 ... models were each based on several parametric statistics: 1. Thevarianceofacultivaracrossenvironments. This approach uses the variance of a cultivar ... The predicted yield values areadjusted ... Subsistence farmers risks.

  8. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  9. Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2008-12-10

    To evaluate the effect of storage temperature, the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in wholemeal and white flour of einkorn cv. Monlis and bread wheat cv. Serio, stored at -20, 5, 20, 30, and 38 degrees C, was assessed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Monlis, the carotenoids content (8.1 and 9.8 mg/kg for wholemeal and white flour, respectively) was 8-fold higher than in Serio (1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg). Only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in bread wheat, while significant quantities of (alpha and beta)-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in einkorn. Carotenoids degradation was influenced by temperature and time, following first-order kinetics. The degradation rate was similar in wholemeal and white flour; however, loss of lutein and total carotenoids was faster in Serio than in Monlis. The activation energy E(a) ranged from 35.2 to 52.5 kJ/mol. Temperatures not exceeding 20 degrees C better preserve carotenoids content and are recommended for long-term storage.

  10. Calidad física de grano de trigos harineros (Triticum aestivum L.mexicanos de temporal Physical quality from rainfall Mexican bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela de la O Olán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La pureza genética, sanidad y calidad física del grano son importantes para la comercialización de trigo harinero. Se sabe que el ambiente afecta algunos de los parámetros físicos de este cereal; por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia del ambiente en algunos parámetros de calidad física de tres poblaciones de trigo harinero desarrolladas por descendencia de una sola semilla de F2 a F6, el primer grupo estuvo constituido por 69 líneas de la cruza Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75, el segundo formado por 98 genotipos de la cruza Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92, y el tercero formado por 98 genotipos de la cruza Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000, más los progenitores. Los genotipos del primer grupo se sembraron en Roque, Guanajuato (otoño-invierno 2006-2007 con riego normal (cinco riegos y restringido (tres riegos. Los genotipos de la segunda y tercer cruza fueron sembradas en Santa Lucía de Prías y Chapingo, Estado de México (primavera-verano, 2006. Se evaluaron las variables peso hectolítrico (kg hL-¹, dureza del grano (% y contenido de proteína en grano (%. Se realizó análisis de varianza, histogramas de frecuencias y las medias se compararon con la diferencia mínima significativa. Los genotipos mostraron diferencias altamente significativas para todas las variables de calidad física evaluadas, y también se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas para peso hectolítrico y proteína en grano para los niveles de humedad y localidades. En los histogramas de frecuencia del peso hectolítrico los tres grupos de poblaciones muestran tendencia hacia una distribución normal lo que sugiere que dicha variable involucra un alto número de genes y es fuertemente influenciada por el ambiente. Se identificaron genotipos superiores a los progenitores en peso hectolítrico, por lo que se tienen materiales disponibles para realizar selección.Genetic purity, health and physical quality of grain are important characteristics for marketing bread wheat. It is well known that environment affects some of its physical parameters; therefore the aim of this study was to determine environment influence in some physical quality parameters of three bread wheat populations developed by progenies from one single F2 to F6 seed, the first group was comprised by 69 lines of Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75 breed, the second was formed by 98 genotypes of Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92 breed, and the third was formed by 98 genotypes of Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000 breed, plus parents. The genotypes from the first group were sown at Roque, Guanajuato (autumn-winter 2006-2007 with normal (five irrigations and restricted (three irrigations irrigation. The genotypes of second and third breeds were sown at Santa Lucía de Prías and Chapingo, State of Mexico (2006 spring-summer. The following variables were assessed: hectolitre weight (kg hL-¹, grain hardness (%, and protein content in grain (%. An analysis of variance and frequencies histogram were made and means with least significant difference were compared. The genotypes showed highly significant differences for all physical quality variables assessed, and this also occurred for hectolitre weight and protein content in grain for humidity levels and localities. In the hectolitre weight frequency histograms the three population groups show trend towards normal distribution which sugge sts that such variable involves high amount of genes and it is strongly affected by environment. Genotypes with better hectolitre weight than parents were identified; therefore materials are available to make selection.

  11. Establishment of phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in the rhizosphere and their effect on wheat cultivars under green house conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Behl, R K; Narula, N

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the green house to investigate the establishment of phosphate solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum, including soil isolates and their mutants, in the rhizosphere and their effect on growth parameters and root biomass of three genetically divergent wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Five fertilizer treatments were performed: Control, 90 kg N ha(-1), 90 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha(-1), 120 kg N ha(-1) and 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha(-1). Phosphate solubilizing and phytohormone producing parent soil isolates and mutant strains of A. chroococcum were isolated and selected by an enrichment method. In vitro phosphate solubilization and growth hormone production by mutant strains was increased compared with soil isolates. Seed inoculation of wheat varieties with P solubilizing and phytohormone producing A. chroococcum showed better response compared with controls. Mutant strains of A. chroococcum showed higher increase in grain (12.6%) and straw (11.4%) yield over control and their survival (12-14%) in the rhizosphere as compared to their parent soil isolate (P4). Mutant strain M37 performed better in all three varieties in terms of increase in grain yield (14.0%) and root biomass (11.4%) over control.

  12. Changes in the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Starch Synthesis in the Kernel During Grain Filling in Winter Wheat Cultivars of Different Spike Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song-jie; WANG Wen-jing; GUO Tian-cai; HAN Jin-feng

    2003-01-01

    Two winter wheat(Triticum aestivum L. ) cultivars, large-spike type Yumai66 amd small-spike type Yumai49, were used to study the activities of enzymes involved in starch synthesis in the kernel during grain filling. Starch accumulated faster in the kernel of Yumai49 than Yumai66 up to 25 d after anthesis,thereafter starch accumulated faster in the kernel of Yumai66. Starch accumulation in Yumai66 peaked at 20 -25 d after anthesis, while in Yumai49 starch accumulation peaked at 15 -20 d after anthesis and 25 -30 d after anthesis. The first peak was much higher than that of the second. Sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity peaked at 20 and 15 d after anthesis in Yumai66 and Yumai49, respectively. The sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity in Yumai66 were higher than that in Yunai49 during grain filling. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch branching enzyme activity in the kernel of Yumai66 peaked at 20 d after anthesis,while soluble starch synthase activity peaked at 10 and 20 d after anthesis. The second peak was much higher than that of the first.

  13. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  14. Chromosome substitutions in progeny of hybrids Triticum aestivum x Triticum timopheevii resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaeva, E.D. [Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Badaev, N.S. [Bioengineering Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Enno, T.M.; Peusha, H.O. [Institute of Experimental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeller, F.J. [Institut fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    By the C-banding technique, chromosome analysis of introgressive wheat lines derived from the tetraploid species T. timopheevii and T. militinae, with complex immunity to pathogens, was performed. It is shown that all hybrid lines possess genetic material of T. timopheevii and are stable in chromosome number (2n = 6x = 42) and composition. In the lines studied, the number of substitutions per genome varied from one to three; variation in the spectrum of chromosome substitutions was observed. Karyotypes of lines 146-155-T, SMT 30, SMT 34, SMT 37, and SMT 45, resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew, had one common chromosome substitution 6B(6G). It is suggested that the resistance to pathogens of these lines is determined by chromosome 6G of T. timopheevii.

  15. Effects of Silicon Fertilizer in Different Application Ways on Powdery Mildew Control, Starch Content and Farinographical Properties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)%硅肥施用方式对小麦白粉病防治效果及籽粒淀粉含量与粉质特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东勇; 杨习文; 贺德先; 吴寅

    2014-01-01

    以西农979和周麦18为材料,在大田条件下研究了硅肥不同施用方式对小麦白粉病防控效果及籽粒淀粉含量和粉质特性的影响。结果表明,增施硅肥能显著降低白粉病感病植株的病情指数,提高抗病能力,尤其是底施硅肥+挑旗期喷施硅肥处理的防控效果为最佳,灌浆中后期效果最为明显。硅肥不同施用方式均能提高籽粒总淀粉和支链淀粉的含量,其中底施硅肥+挑旗期喷施硅肥处理增幅分别达到10.4%和24.7%,降低直链淀粉的含量;同时可延长面团形成时间和稳定时间,提高面粉吸水率,降低弱化度。%Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of silicon fertilizer in various appli-cation ways on prevention and control of wheat powdery mildew , grain starch content and farinographical prop-erties with the cultivars Xinong 979 and Zhoumai 18 as experimental materials .The results showed that the disease index was decreased and the disease resistance was increased significantly under the silicon fertilization treatments, especially the treatment of bottom fertilization +foliar application at flag stage;the control effect of powdery mildew at late grain -filling stage was the best .The silicon fertilization treatments could increase the contents of total starch and amylopectin , and water absorption of flour , prolong the time of dough development and stability , but decrease the amylose content and weakening degree .The contents of total starch and amyl-opectin increased by 10 .4%and 24 .7%respectively under the treatment of bottom fertilization +foliar appli-cation at flag stage .

  16. Cloning and Expression Profiles of TaWRKY46,a WRKY Type Transcription Factor Gene in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)%小麦转录因子基因TaWRKY46的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长欢; 孙昭华; 李小娟; 肖凯

    2012-01-01

    在富集低磷胁迫特异表达基因的小麦根系cDNA差减杂交文库中,鉴定了1个小麦WRKY型转录因子基因(TaWRKY46).依据该基因的cDNA序列,在石新828中克隆了该基因.TaWRKY46的cDNA长度为872 bp,开放阅读框为669 bp,编码222个氨基酸残基,氨基酸组成上含有保守的WRKY基序和C2H2基序.系统进化分析表明,TaWRKY46与大麦WRKY34可能来自相同的祖先.与对照供磷水平(2 mmol/L Pi)相比,低磷处理(20 μmol/L Pi)使根系中TaWRKY46的转录本数量明显增多,表明TaWRK46对低磷胁迫逆境产生了明显应答.此外,TaWRKY46对氮、钾、锌和钙养分胁迫也表现明显的上调表达特征.表明该基因编码蛋白在介导上述养分逆境信号的转导中具有重要作用.此外,TaWRKY46对干旱、盐分等非生物逆境和脱落酸(ABA)也产生明显应答.因此,TaWRKY46是小麦种属中应答多种非生物逆境的重要调控转录因子,在增强小麦抵御养分胁迫和非生物逆境的能力中可能具有重要作用.%One WRKY type transcription factor gene designated as TaWRKY46 was identified in a root subtrae-tive cDNA library in which the differential expressed genes responding to the low-Pi stress were enriched. Based on the eDNA sequence of TaWRKY46, this gene was cloned in wheat cultivar Shixin828. The cDNA of TaWRKY46 was 872 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 669 bp and an encoded polypeptide of 222 aa. TaWRKY46 contains a conserved WRKY motif and a C2H2 conserved domain. Phylogenetic analysis displays a high similarity between TaWRKY46 and HvWRKY34, a WRKY transcription family gene in barley , suggesting them to be possibly derived from a same ancestor. Compared with those in sufficient-P (2 mmol/L Pi) condition,the transcripts of TaWRKY46 in roots under the deficient-P (20 |x"mol/L Pi) condition were dramatically increased, suggesting that TaWRKY46 gene was involved in the response to low P stress in the plants. In the meantime, TaWRKY46 was

  17. Intraspecific Polymorphisms of Cytogenetic Markers Mapped on Chromosomes of Triticum polonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kwiatek

    Full Text Available Triticum genus encloses several tetraploid species that are used as genetic stocks for expanding the genetic variability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the T. aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and T. durum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB karyotypes were well examined by chromosome staining, Giemsa C-banding and FISH markers, other tetraploids are still poorly characterized. Here, we established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH patterns on chromosomes of 20 accessions of T. polonicum species using different repetitive sequences from BAC library of wheat 'Chinese Spring'. The chromosome patterns of Polish wheat were compared to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB Triticum species: T. durum, T. diccocon and T. turanicum, as well. A combination of pTa-86, pTa-535 and pTa-713 probes was the most informative among 6 DNA probes tested. Probe pTa-k374, which is similar to 28S rDNA sequence enabled to distinguish signal size and location differences, as well as rDNA loci elimination. Furthermore, pTa-465 and pTa-k566 probes are helpful for the detection of similar organized chromosomes. The polymorphisms of signals distribution were observed in 2A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A and 7B chromosomes. Telomeric region of the short arm of 6B chromosome was the most polymorphic. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of T. polonicum genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for wheat. Collection and characterization of this germplasm can contribute to the wheat biodiversity safeguard.

  18. Genetics and Molecular Mapping of a High-Temperature Resistance Gene to Stripe Rust in Seeding-Stage in Winter Wheat Cultivar Lantian 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-fang; JING Jin-xue; HOU Dong-yuan; LI Qiang; ZHOU Xin-li; DU Jiu-yuan; and LU Qing-lin

    2013-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a severe foliar disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the world. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. The winter wheat cultivar Lantian 1 has high-temperature resistance to stripe rust. To determing the gene(s) for the stripe rust resistance, Lantian 1 was crossed with Mingxian 169 (M169). Seedlings of the parents, and F1, F2 and F2-3 progenies were tested with races CYR32 of Pst under controlled greenhouse conditions. Lantian 1 has a single partially dominant gene conferred resistance to race CYR32, designated as YrLT1. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to YrLT1. A linkage group of five SSR markers was constructed for YrLT1 using 166 F2 plants. Based on the SSR marker consensus map and the position on wheat chromosome, the resistance gene was assigned on chromosome 2DL. Amplification of a set of nulli-tetrasomic Chinese Spring lines with SSR marker Xwmc797 confirmed that the resistance gene was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D. Because of its chromosomal location and the high-temperature resistance, this gene is different from previously described genes. The molecular map spanned 29.9 cM, and the genetic distance of two close markers Xbarc228 and Xcfd16 to resistance gene locus was 4.0 and 5.7 cM, respectively. The polymorphism rates of the flanking markers in 46 wheat lines were 2.1 and 2.1%, respectively;and the two markers in combination could distinguish the alleles at the resistance locus in 97.9%of tested genotypes. This new gene and flanking markers should be useful in developing wheat cultivars with high level and possible durable resistance to stripe rust.

  19. Preliminary Study on the Influence of Mesosulfuron and Mefenpyr-diethyl to the Tolerance of the Various Cultivars of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)%甲基二磺隆及吡唑解草酯对不同品种小麦ALS酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳红; 邱立红; 蒋家珍; 王成菊; 由振国

    2004-01-01

    采用温室盆栽茎叶喷雾处理,研究了3%甲基二磺隆油悬浮剂以及安全剂吡唑解草酯对不同品种小麦的耐药性及其对靶标酶乙酰乳酸合成酶(ALS)的影响.结果表明,甲基二磺隆对敏18号小麦株高抑制程度明显高于抗6号.离体ALS酶含量和活力测定结果表明,抗6号ALS含量高于敏18号,在200和400 μmol/L的吡唑解草酯溶液中黑暗培养7 d,抗6号小麦ALS比活力比对照分别增加1.29和1.58倍,敏18号比对照分别增加0.25和0.15倍.抗6号小麦品种对甲基二磺隆耐药性较强.小麦自身ALS含量和比活力差异以及安全剂吡唑解草酯对它们的诱导差异可能是小麦品种对甲基二磺隆耐药性不同的原因之一.

  20. Study on Drug Resistance of the Main Cultivars of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)in Shanxi to the Mesosulfuron and Sigma Broad%山西主栽小麦品种对世玛和阔世玛的耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克功; 任瑞兰; 刘玲玲; 王睿; 郭亮虎

    2015-01-01

    采用温室盆栽茎叶喷雾处理方法,研究了不同小麦品种植株对世玛(甲基二磺隆油悬浮剂30 g/L+ 280 g/L烷基乙基磺酸盐)和阔世玛(1.2%二磺·甲碘隆可分散油悬浮剂)的耐药性.结果表明,不同小麦品种植株对世玛和阔世玛的敏感性存在差异,在10个供试小麦品种中,对世玛耐药性最好的是良星99,最敏感的是临丰3号,其余品种位于二者之间;对阔世玛耐药性最好的是尧麦16,最敏感的是临丰3号.在对除草剂敏感的麦田选用世玛、阔世玛防除节节麦杂草时,一定要先小面积试验确定无危害后再进行大面积推广.

  1. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of ω-gliadin Genes from Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Yumai 34 and Zhengfeng 5%普通小麦品种豫麦34和郑丰5号ω-醇溶蛋白基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎; 刘凌云; 李锁平; 李玉阁

    2014-01-01

    ω-醇溶蛋白是影响小麦加工品质和诱发乳糜泻(celiac disease,CD)的面筋蛋白之一.为给小麦加工品质的分子改良和预防乳糜泻提供参考依据,利用3对特异引物,采用基因组PCR法,从优质小麦品种豫麦34和郑丰5号中克隆获得41个ω-醇溶蛋白序列.NCBIBLAST分析表明,克隆序列与已知序列的相似度均在91%~99%之间,推断其为ω-醇溶蛋白基因家族的基因.开放阅读框识别分析表明,11个序列(Y34W-1~Y34W-7,ZFW-1~ZFW-4)具有完整的开放阅读框,可编码203~377个氨基酸残基.ZFW-4和Y34W-1在重复区的插入片段中存在1个额外的半胱氨酸残基.CD免疫肽识别分析表明,11个基因中均分布有3种.醇溶蛋白的T细胞免疫肽,且肽段PQQPFPQQ存在多个拷贝.聚类分析显示,一醇溶蛋白具有-定的基因组特异性,11个克隆的基因与尾状山羊草(Aegilops markgra fii)和粗山羊草(Aegilops tauchii)的一醇溶蛋白基因序列具有相对较高的同源性.

  2. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data from a single wheat cultivar provides new tools for understanding the roles of individual alpha gliadin proteins in flour quality and celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-hundred-thirty-six expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding alpha gliadins from Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were identified in public databases and assembled into 19 contigs. Consensus sequences for 12 of the contigs encoded complete alpha gliadin proteins, but only two were identical to protei...

  3. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat.

  4. Possible origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi based on cytological analyses of crosses between T. petropavlovskyi and tetraploid, hexaploid, and synthetic hexaploid (SHW-DPW wheat accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific hybridization between Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch., synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW-DPW, and tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was performed to collect data on seed set, fertility of F1 hybrid, and meiotic pairing configuration, aiming to evaluate the possible origin of T. petropavlovskyi. Our data showed that (1 seed set of crosses T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring was significantly high; (2 fertility of hybrids T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense was higher than that of the other hybrids; (3 fertility of F1 hybrids SHW-DPW × T. dicoccoides and SHW-DPW×T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was significantly high; and (4 c-value of T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Changning white wheat was also significantly high. The results indicate that the probable origin of T. petropavlovskyi is divergence from a natural cross between T. aestivum and T. polonicum, via either spontaneous introgression or breeding effort.

  5. Identifying genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, though differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor was examined using a two-choice feeding system and the Student’s t statistic. To eliminate the confounding effect of processin...

  6. Genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse (Mus musculus) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor preference and discrimination were examined using a two-choice feeding system and 24-h trials and the Student’s t statistic. To elimi...

  7. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversi...

  8. Reduction of fluoranthene of copper and lead accumulation in Triticum aestivum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, A.; Alexander, T.; Brandt, S.; Haas, R.; Werner, D. (Univ. of Marburg (Germany))

    1994-12-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the most important representatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Coaltar production alone yields about 30000 t of fluoranthene per year. In spite of its abundance, however, very little is known about its effects on the environment. Groenewegen and Stolp investigated the half-life of this substance in soil and found values between 44 and 182 days, depending on the soil matrix. PAHs may migrate into soil organic matter, representing less accessible sites within the soil matrix. Such sorbed PAHs are suggested to be non-bioavailable and thus non-biodegradable. Fluoranthene has long been classified as non-carcinogenic and largely non-hazardous. The oral toxicity rating is indeed low, being only 2000 mg [center dot] kg[sup [minus]1] for rats and mice (LD[sub 50]), but there are also reports of mutagenic and toxic effects of fluoranthene on animals and plants. Fluoranthene has been reported to be synthesized by spermatophytes. However, accumulation of fluoranthene and other PAHs in plants is generally attributed to contamination by airborne particulate matter. Lettuce, soya, rye and tobacco plants grown in air-filtered chambers failed to synthesize PAHs, but accumulation of such substances was observed in a normal greenhouse. Transfer of fluoranthene from polluted soil via roots to shoots is probably limited due to the high n-octanol/water partition coefficient log P[sub OW] of fluoranthene: 5.33. However, there seems to be a stimulation of PAH uptake by mosses and spermatophytes in heavy metal-stressed soils. The aim of the present study was to determine toxic effects of fluoranthene on wheat and whether there were any interactions between toxicity and uptake of fluoranthene, lead and copper in hydroponic culture systems. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots identifies novel, dehydration-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kav, Nat N V; Deyholos, Michael K

    2007-05-01

    We used a long-oligonucleotide microarray to identify transcripts that increased or decreased in abundance in roots of dehydration-tolerant hexaploid bread wheat, in response to withholding of water. We observed that the major classes of dehydration-responsive genes (e.g. osmoprotectants, compatible solutes, proteases, glycosyltransferases/hydrolases, signal transducers components, ion transporters) were generally similar to those observed previously in other species and osmotic stresses. More specifically, we highlighted increases in transcript expression for specific genes including those putatively related to the synthesis of asparagine, trehalose, oligopeptide transporters, metal-binding proteins, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and transcription factors. Conversely, we noted a decrease in transcript abundance for diverse classes of glutathione and sulphur-related enzymes, specific amino acids, as well as MATE-efflux carrier proteins. From these data, we identified a novel, dehydration-induced putative AP2/ERF transcription factor, which we predict to function as a transcriptional repressor. We also identified a dehydration-induced 'little protein' (LitP; predicted mass: 8 kDa) that is highly conserved across spermatophytes. Using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression patterns of selected genes between two related wheat genotypes that differed in their susceptibility to dehydration, and confirmed that these novel genes were highly inducible by water limitation in both genotypes, although the magnitude of induction differed.

  10. ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS IN DIFFERENT CROSSES OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMTA SINGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report some of the heterotic wheat crosses produced by crossing fifteen parents in a line x tester mating scheme. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance among the genotypes. Manifestation of heterosis was done over mid parent, better parent and the two standard checks i.e. UP 2684 and PBW 343. The generated data registered JUPIBJY/URES X UP 2572 as the best heterotic hybrid for harvest index against the checks UP 2684 and PBW 343 with the values of 27.39% and 50.54% respectively. Likewise HP 1749 X UP 2572 showed maximum heterosis (18.66% over the check PBW 343. The data provides information on heterotic advantage of important yield and associated components. The highest heterotic genotypes can be exploited in future breeding programs to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. However, comprehensive field evaluation over locations and years is advocated for the crosses having significant heterosis before their commercial exploitation.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  12. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  13. Phytotoxicity and uptake of roxarsone by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), the primary aromatic arsenical additive (AAA) used in animal feeding operations, is of increasing concern to environmental and human health due to land application of ROX-laden animal manure. Few studies have investigated the phytotoxicity, uptake mechanisms, and speciation of AAA in crop plants. In this study, wheat seedlings were employed to address these issues under hydroponic conditions. Compared to inorganic arsenic, ROX was less toxic to wheat root elongation. Wheat roots were more sensitive to ROX stress than shoots. For the first time, metabolized inorganic arsenic was detected in plants, although ROX was the predominant detected arsenic species in wheat seedlings. ROX uptake and toxicity to roots were inhibited by humic acid at concentrations higher than 50 mg/L due to interaction with ROX. Phosphate enhanced ROX uptake, but no trends were observed for ROX uptake in the presence of glycerol at concentrations lower than 250 mM. In addition, ROX uptake was significantly decreased by silicate (Si(IV), 0.5-10 mM) and the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (0.5-2 mM), indicating that ROX transport into wheat roots was actively mediated by Si(IV)-sensitive transporters. These findings provide important insights into the fate and speciation of AAA in soil-water-plant systems relevant to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Yin, Ruochun; Chen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lifang; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-04-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation. The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1, 3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla. The seeds were germinated at 23oC after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field. The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method. The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs. Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups, a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome, triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla, respectively. The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration, but no linear relationship was observed. Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T.

  15. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  16. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  17. Decay of enteric microorganisms in biosolids-amended soil under wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K R; Sidhu, J P S; Pritchard, D L; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing need for better assessment of health risks associated with land-applied biosolids. This study investigated in-situ decay of seeded human adenovirus (HAdV), Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage (MS2) in biosolids-amended soil under wheat cultivation. The biosolids seeded with microorganisms were placed in decay chambers which were then placed in the topsoil (10 cm depth) at three different sites. Sites were selected in arid wheat-growing regions of Australia with loamy-sand soil type (Western Australia) and sandy soil (South Australia). Seeded E. coli and S. enterica had a relatively short decay time (T90 = 4-56 days) in biosolids-amended soil compared to un-amended soil (T90 = 8-83 days). The decreasing soil moisture over the wheat-growing season significantly (P soils. Increasing soil temperature also significantly (P soils at all three sites. The HAdV decay time (T90 ≥ 180 days) in biosolids-amended and un-amended soils was significantly higher than MS2 (T90 = 22-108 days). The results of this study suggest that adenovirus could survive for a longer period of time (>180 days) during the winter in biosolids-amended soil. The stability of adenovirus suggests that consideration towards biosolids amendment frequency, time, rates and appropriate withholding periods are necessary for risk mitigation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Glycerol for Induced Powdery Mildew Resistance in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Song, Na; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Li, Feng; Geng, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, Wanhui; Xie, Chaojie; Sun, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (18:1) are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase) and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase), two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA) pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5), induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  19. Effects of Short-term Hypergravity Exposure on Germination, Growth and Photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Pandit B.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Dhepe, Aarti P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the hypergravity effect on plants, where seedlings (4-5 days old) were continuously exposed and grown under hypergravity condition. Here, we have used a novel `shortterm hypergravity exposure experimental method' where imbibed caryopses (instead of seedlings) were exposed to higher hypergravity values ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for a short interval time of 10 minutes and post short-term hypergravity treated caryopses were grown under 1 g conditions for five days. Changing patterns in caryopsis germination and growth, along with various photosynthetic and biochemical parameters were studied. Results revealed the significant inhibition of caryopsis germination and growth in short-term hypergravity treated seeds over control. Photosynthesis parameters such as chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis (PN), transpiration rate (Evap) and stomatal conductance (Gs), along with intracellular CO2 concentration (Cint) were found to be affected significantly in 5 days old seedlings exposed to short-term hypergravity treatment. In order to investigate the cause of observed inhibition, we examined the α-amylase activity and antioxidative enzyme activities. α-amylase activity was found to be inhibited, along with the reduction of sugars necessary for germination and earlier growth in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and guaiacol peroxidase were increased in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses, suggesting that caryopses might have experienced oxidative stress upon short-term hypergravity exposure.

  20. Effects of heavy-ion beams on chromosomes of common wheat, Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Saito, Yoshinaka [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Hisashi, E-mail: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    To investigate the nature of plant chromosomes irradiated by heavy-ion beams, the effects of nitrogen (N) and neon (Ne) ion beams on hexaploid wheat chromosomes were compared with those of X-ray. Chromosome aberrations, such as short, ring and dicentric chromosomes appeared in high frequency. The average numbers of chromosome breaks at LD-50 by irradiation with X-ray, N and Ne ion beams were 32, 20 and 20, respectively. These values may be underestimated because chromosome rearrangement without change in chromosome morphology was not counted. Thus, we subsequently used a wheat line with a pair of extra chromosomes from an alien species (Leymus racemosus) and observed the fate of the irradiated marker chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that 50 Gy of neon beam induced about eight times more breaks than those induced by X-ray. This result suggests that heavy-ion beams induce chromosome rearrangement in high frequency rather than loss of gene function. This suggests further that most of the novel mutations produced by ion beam irradiation, which have been used in plant breeding, may not be caused by ordinary gene disruption but by chromosome rearrangements.

  1. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIAN ABDUR REHMAN ARIF; MANUELA NAGEL; ULRIKE LOHWASSER; ANDREAS BÖRNER

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical andchemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over somedecades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageingprocedures. A phenotype–genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observedvariation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait.Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implyingsome non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevityappear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  2. [Transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L H; Wang, X W; Zhang, W J; Zhang, X D; Hu, D F; Liu, G T

    1999-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant EPSPs (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene was transformed into about 1,000 young spikes and 800 young embryos of wheat variety, Jinghua 1, with gene gun. Thirty-eight and four regenerated plants were obtained respectively screened with glyphosate. All regenerated plants were analysed by PCR and/or Southern blotting. The results indicated that EPSPs gene was integrated stably into the genome of Jinghua 1, and some of the transformants showed fertile. So herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene could be used as selective marker in the transformation of monocotyledon cereal crops, such as wheat.

  3. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  4. Gibberellins and heterosis of plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhongfu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis in internode elongation and plant height are commonly observed in hybrid plants, and higher GAs contents were found to be correlated with the heterosis in plant height. However, the molecular basis for the increased internode elongation in hybrids is unknown. Results In this study, heterosis in plant height was determined in two wheat hybrids, and it was found that the increased elongation of the uppermost internode contributed mostly to the heterosis in plant height. Higher GA4 level was also observed in a wheat hybrid. By using the uppermost internode tissues of wheat, we examined expression patterns of genes participating in both GA biosynthesis and GA response pathways between a hybrid and its parental inbreds. Our results indicated that among the 18 genes analyzed, genes encoding enzymes that promote synthesis of bioactive GAs, and genes that act as positive components in the GA response pathways were up-regulated in hybrid, whereas genes encoding enzymes that deactivate bioactive GAs, and genes that act as negative components of GA response pathways were down-regulated in hybrid. Moreover, the putative wheat GA receptor gene TaGID1, and two GA responsive genes participating in internode elongation, GIP and XET, were also up-regulated in hybrid. A model for GA and heterosis in wheat plant height was proposed. Conclusion Our results provided molecular evidences not only for the higher GA levels and more active GA biosynthesis in hybrid, but also for the heterosis in plant height of wheat and possibly other cereal crops.

  5. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional and valuable. Therefore, it is possible to breed wheat varieties, the γ-gliadins of which are less, even non-toxic and more nutritional.

  6. Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Minerals in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong-li; TONG Yi-ping; JING Rui-lian; ZHANG Fu-suo; ZOU Chun-qin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is an important source of essential minerals for human body. Breeding wheat with high grain mineral concentration thus benefits human health. The objective of present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain mineral concentration and to evaluate the relation between nitrogen (N) and other essential minerals in winter wheat. Wheat grains were harvested from field experiment which conducted in China and analyzed for this purpose. Forty-three QTLs controlling grain mineral concentration and nitrogen-related traits were detected by using a double haploid (DH) population derived from winter wheat varieties Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. Chromosomes 4D and 5A might be very important in controlling mineral status in wheat grains. Significant positive correlations were found between grain nitrogen concentration (GNC) and nutrients Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg concentrations (FeGC, MnGC, CuGC, MgGC). Flag leaf N concentration at anthesis (FLNC) significantly and positively correlated with GNC, FeGC, MnGC, and CuGC. The study extended our knowledge on minerals in wheat grains and suggested which interactions between minerals should be considered in future breeding program.

  7. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  8. Mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in Triticum aestivum roots in response to rotenone and antimycin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Daniya; Ponomareva, Anastasiya; Gazizova, Natalia; Minibayeva, Farida

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable of fusion and fission as a part of cellular responses to various signals, such as the shifts in the redox status of a cell. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) is involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with complexes I and III contributing the most to this process. Disruptions of ETC. can lead to increased ROS generation. Here, we demonstrate the appearance of giant mitochondria in wheat roots in response to simultaneous application of the respiratory inhibitors rotenone (complex I of mitochondrial ETC.) and antimycin A (complex III of mitochondrial ETC.). The existence of such megamitochondria was temporary, and following longer treatment with inhibitors mitochondria resumed their conventional size and oval shape. Changes in mitochondrial morphology were accompanied with a decrease in mitochondrial potential and an unexpected increase in oxygen consumption. Changes in mitochondrial morphology and activity may result from the fusion and fission of mitochondria induced by the disruption of mitochondrial ETC. Results from experiments with the inhibitor of mitochondrial fission Mdivi-1 suggest that the retarded fission may facilitate plant mitochondria to appear in a fused shape. The processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission are involved in the regulation of the efficacy of the functions of the respiratory chain complexes and ROS metabolism during stresses. The changes in morphology of mitochondria, along with the changes in their functional activity, can be a part of the strategy of the plant adaptation to stresses.

  9. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  10. Drought-Induced Responses of Physiology, Metabolites, and PR Proteins in Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Zuzana; Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Maglovski, Marína; Kuna, Roman; Hauptvogel, Pavol; Matušíková, Ildikó

    2015-09-23

    The impact of severe drought stress (13% soil moisture) on the physiological responses, metabolic profile, and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in wheat above- and below-ground biomass after 20 days of treatment was studied. Drought depleted growth, assimilation pigments, and majority of free amino acids in the shoots (but proline increased considerably, +160%). On the contrary, root growth parameters were elevated, and free amino acids did not decrease, indicating investment of metabolites into the growth of roots under water deficiency. Mineral nutrients were only slightly influenced. Profiling of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins revealed that chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39) were activated in wheat by drought. Individual isoforms and their activity were rather stimulated under drought, especially in shoots. The expression of selected genes is in agreement with enzymatic data and suggests an organ (tissue) specific- and opposing behavior of these two types of defense components in drought-stressed wheat. Metabolic analyses at the level of phenolics showed an increase in the free and bound fraction of phenolic acids almost exclusively in the shoots and flavonoid isoorientin increased considerably: protective action against oxidative stress and dehydration of the leaves seems to be the main reason for this finding. The role of PR proteins and phenolics in drought-stressed tissue is discussed.

  11. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant fracti

  12. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  13. The identification of foam-forming soluble proteins from wheat (Triticum aestivum) dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Louise J; Robertson, James A; Jenkins, John A; Mulholland, Francis; Mills, E N Clare

    2005-04-01

    Proteomic methods have been used to identify foam-forming soluble proteins from dough that may play an important role in stabilising gas bubbles in dough, and hence influence the crumb structure of bread. Proteins from a soluble fraction of dough (dough liquor) or dough liquor foam have been separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 42 identified using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and quadrupole-time of flight analyses. Major polypeptide components included beta-amylase, tritin and serpins, with members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family being particularly abundant. Neither prolamin seed storage proteins nor the surface-active protein puroindoline were found. Commonly used dough ingredients (NaCl, Na L-ascorbate) had only a minor effect on the 2-DE protein profiles of dough liquor, of which one of the more significant was the loss of 9 kDa nonspecific lipid transfer protein. Many proteins were lost in dough liquor foam, particularly tritin, whilst a number of alpha-amylase inhibitors were more dominant, suggesting that these are amongst the most strongly surface-active proteins in dough liquor. Such proteins may play a role determining the ability of the aqueous phase of doughs, as represented by dough liquor, to form an elastic interface lining the bubbles, and hence maintain their integrity during dough proving.

  14. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YouSheng; LUAN FuLei; ZHU HongLiang; SHAO Yi; CHEN AnJun; LU ChengWen; LUO YunBo; ZHU BenZhong

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs)are a class of endogenous,non-coding,short (-21 nt)RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.Previous reports have noted that plant miRNAs in the plant kingdom are highly conserved,which provides the foundation for identification of conserved miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment.Conserved miRNAs in wheat are identified using EST (Expressed Sequence Tags)and GSS analysis.All previously known miRNAs in other plant species were blasted against wheat EST and GSS sequences to select novel miRNAs in wheat by a series of filtering criteria.From a total of 37 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families 10 conserved miRNAs comprising 4 families were reported in wheat.MiR395 is found to be a special family,because three members belonging to the same miR395 family are clustered together,similar to animal miRNAs.MiRNA targets are transcription factors involved in wheat growth and development,metabolism,and stress responses.

  15. Stable chloroplast transformation of immature scutella and inflorescences in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiju Cui; Guangxiao Yang; Guangyuan He; Fei Song; Yi Tan; Xuan Zhou; Wen Zhao; Fengyun Ma; Yunyi Liu; Javeed Hussain; Yuesheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in wheat was achieved by bombardment of scutella from immature embryos and immature inflorescences. respectively. A wheat chloroplast sitespecific expression vector, pBAGNRK, was constructed by placing an expression cassette containing neomycin phosphotransferase Ⅱ (nptⅡ) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) as selection and reporter genes, respectively, in the intergenic spacer between atpB and rbcL of wheat chloroplast genome. Integration of gfp gene in the plastome was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern blotting using gfp gene as a probe. Expression of GFP protein was examined by western blot. Three positive transformants were obtained and the Southern blot of partial fragment of atpB and rbcL (targeting site) probes verified that one of them was homoplasmic. Stable expression of GFP fluorescence was confirmed by confocal microscopy in the leaf tissues from T progeny seedlings. PCR analysis of gfp gene also confirmed the inheritance of transgene in the T progeny. These results strengthen the feasibility of wheat chloroplast transformation and also give a novel method for the introduction of important agronomic traits in wheat through chloroplast transformation.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  17. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Ahmed

    Full Text Available The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10 and location (Talagang with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP and grain ash (GA than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing. However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  18. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant fracti

  19. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding, short (~21 nt) RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Previous reports have noted that plant miRNAs in the plant kingdom are highly conserved, which provides the foundation for identification of conserved miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Conserved miRNAs in wheat are identified using EST (Expressed Sequence Tags) and GSS analysis. All previously known miRNAs in other plant species were blasted against wheat EST and GSS sequences to select novel miRNAs in wheat by a series of filtering criteria. From a total of 37 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families 10 conserved miRNAs comprising 4 families were reported in wheat. MiR395 is found to be a special family, because three members belonging to the same miR395 family are clustered together, similar to animal miRNAs. MiRNA targets are transcription factors involved in wheat growth and development, metabolism,and stress responses.

  20. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  1. Effect of Sulfated Chitooligosaccharides on Wheat Seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; He, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Ronge; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-04-13

    In this study, sulfated chitooligosaccharide (SCOS) was applied to wheat seedlings to investigate its effect on the plants' defense response under salt stress. The antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, and fluorescence characters of wheat seedlings were determined at a certain time. The results showed that treatment with exogenous SCOS could decrease the content of malondialdehyde, increase the chlorophyll contents, and modulate fluorescence characters in wheat seedlings under salt stress. In addition, SCOS was able to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of several antioxidant enzymes were efficiently modulated by SCOS. The results indicated that SCOS could alleviate the damage of salt stress by adjusting the antioxidant enzyme activities of plant. The effect of SCOS on the photochemical efficiency of wheat seedlings was associated with its enhanced capacity for antioxidant enzymes, which prevented structure degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus under NaCl stress. Furthermore, the effective activities of alleviating salt stress indicated the activities of SCOS were closely related with the sulfate group.

  2. The Meiotic Behavior of an Alien Chromosome in Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Monosomic Addition Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-fen; LIANG Hong-xia; ZHAO Mao-lin

    2002-01-01

    By the combination of cytological analysis and using genomic in situ hybridization technique to identify an alien chromosome in wheat-Haynaldia villosa monosomic addition lines, we studied the meiotic behavior of the alien chromosome. The results indicated that the frequency of bivalent pairing was lower than the value expected in PMCs of two monosomic addition lines, the frequency of wheat chromosomes unpairing increased, and the wheat homologous chromosome pairing was interfered with by the added chromosome 6V at metaphase I. The chromosome 6V lagged in 20.3% -29.3% of PMCs, sister chromatids 6V early divided in 29.0% - 34.1% of PMCs, the single chromosome 6V in 18.2% - 26.1% of PMCs went to a pole randomly,the breakage frequency of chromosome 6V was 1.2% - 2.9%. Meanwhile, it was also found that several wheat chromosomes showed earlier division, lagging and breakage in a few PMCs. It revealed that the added chromosome 6V influenced the behavior of wheat chromosomes at anaphase. It was also found that the translocation was produced between 6V and wheat chromosomes in 1.2% of PMCs. It offered evidence for translocation between wheat and Haynaldia villosa 6V chromosomes.

  3. Selenium promotes sulfur accumulation and plant growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Paulo F; de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Yang, Yong; Luo, Hongmei; Giri, Shree; Hart, Jonathan J; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Thannhauser, Theorodore W; Li, Li

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and a target for biofortification in crops. Sulfur (S) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth. To gain better understanding of Se and S nutrition and interaction in plants, the effects of Se dosages and forms on plant growth as well as on S level in seven wheat lines were examined. Low dosages of both selenate and selenite supplements were found to enhance wheat shoot biomass and show no inhibitory effect on grain production. The stimulation on plant growth was correlated with increased APX antioxidant enzyme activity. Se forms were found to exert different effects on S metabolism in wheat plants. Selenate treatment promoted S accumulation, which was not observed with selenite supplement. An over threefold increase of S levels following selenate treatment at low dosages was observed in shoots of all wheat lines. Analysis of the sulfate transporter gene expression revealed an increased transcription of SULTR1;1, SULTR1;3 and SULTR4;1 in roots following 10 μM Na2 SeO4 treatment. Mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantification confirmed the gene expression results and showed enhanced protein levels. The results suggest that Se treatment mimics S deficiency to activate specific sulfate transporter expression to stimulate S uptake, resulting in the selenate-induced S accumulation. This study supports that plant growth and nutrition benefit from low dosages of Se fertilization and provides information on the basis underlying Se-induced S accumulation in plants.

  4. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress.

  5. Effects of moulds on the safety and processing quality of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Marija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and wheat products are frequently subjected to mould infestations. Many of them are potential producers of various mycotoxins. Some of the consequences, due to the infestations by genus Fusarium and Alternaria, are mostly: yield loss, decrease of biological and technological quality, and unacceptable quality of infected kernels for the production and processing into human food because of the possible presence of mycotoxins. It is unknown whether and how the contaminated grains are distributed during milling into various flour streams and finished products. Wholegrain flours and related products contain all anatomic parts of kernels, including mycotoxins. It is a known fact that mycotoxins are resistant to thermal degradation, so they do not loose their toxicity during processing. Moulds from genus Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. synthesize mycotoxins, mostly zearalenon and ochratoxin A. The aim of the investigation was to examine mould contamination of wheat grain, as well as to identify the isolated species, especially those capable of producing toxins, and to determine their impact on technological quality, safety and sanitary condition of wheat. Six varieties of wheat, contaminated with moulds, were investigated. Each sample was separated manually into four fractions: sound kernels, black germ kernels, kernels infected slightly and those infected severely with Fusarium spp.

  6. RFLP Tagging of a Gene Pm12 for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾继增; T.E.Miller; S.M.Reader; M.D.Gale

    1994-01-01

    A dominant gene, Pml2, conferring the resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) has been transferred to wheat from Aegilops speltoides. Sixteen RFLP probes were used to test Line 31 and its parents, showing that Line 31 is a 6B/6S translocation lines. The linkage analysis by five probes indicates that Pm12 is located on the chromosome 6B/6S, and tightly flanked by an RFLP marker α-Amy-1 (1.1 cM), identified by RFLP and isozyme analysis. This approach is equally applicable to the identification of other transferred alien genes and the segments of alien chromosome introgressed into wheat.

  7. The contribution of yield components in determining the productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different growth regulator rates and nitrogen fertilization levels on yield components and to evaluate their influence on winter wheat productivity. A field experiment with winter wheat ‘Muza’ was conducted at the Czesławice Experimental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland over the period 2004–2007. In this experiment, the effect of the studied factors on yield and its components was primarily dependent on weather conditions during the study period. An increase in nitrogen rate from 100 to 150 kg ha−1 in 2005 and 2007 had a significant effect on the increase in grain yield per unit area. In 2005, the grain yield rose through increased spike density (by 6.3% and a higher number of grains per spike (by 1.6%. The 1000-grain weight decreased the grain yield per unit area (by 0.04 t ha−1. In 2007, the higher yield of wheat fertilized with nitrogen at a rate of 150 kg N ha−1 was positively affected by all the three yield components. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the winter wheat grain yields were also significantly affected by the retardant rates applied depending on the year.

  8. Expression Pattern Analysis of Zinc Finger Protein Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Phosphorus Deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-juan; GUO Cheng-jin; LU Wen-jing; DUAN Wei-wei; ZHAO Miao; MA Chun-ying; GU Jun-tao; XIAO Kai

    2014-01-01

    Zinc ifnger protein (ZFP) genes comprise a large and diverse gene family, and are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. In this study, a total of 126 ZFP genes classiifed into various types in wheat were characterized and subjected to expression pattern analysis under inorganic phosphate (Pi) deprivation. The wheat ZFP genes and their corresponding GenBank numbers were obtained from the information of a 4×44K wheat gene expression microarray chip. They were conifrmed by sequence similarity analysis and named based on their homologs in Brachypodium distachyon or Oriza sativa. Expression analysis based on the microarray chip revealed that these ZFP genes are categorized into 11 classes according to their gene expression patterns in a 24-h of Pi deprivation regime. Among them, ten genes were differentially up-regulated, ten genes differentially down-regulated, and two genes both differentially up-and down-regulated by Pi deprivation. The differentially up-or down-regulated genes exhibited signiifcantly more or less transcripts at one, two, or all of the checking time points (1, 6, and 24 h) of Pi stress in comparison with those of normal growth, respectively. The both differentially up-and down-regulated genes exhibited contrasting expression patterns, of these, TaWRKY70;5 showed significantly up-regulated at 1 and 6 h and down-regulated at 24 h whereas TaAN1AN20-8;2 displayed signiifcantly upregulated at 1 h and downregulated at 6 h under deprivation Pi condition. Real time PCR analysis conifrmed the expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes obtained by the microarray chip. Our results indicate that numerous ZFP genes in wheat respond to Pi deprivation and have provided further insight into the molecular basis that plants respond to Pi deprivation mediated by the ZFP gene family.

  9. Physiological and antioxidant response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings to fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Luqman; Mahmood, Tariq; Coyne, Mark S; Khalid, Azeem; Rashid, Audil; Hayat, Malik Tahir; Gulzar, Asim; Amjad, Muhammad

    2017-06-01<