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Sample records for cultivars phaseolus vulgaris

  1. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

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    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  2. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  3. Constraints to hydraulic acclimation under reduced light in two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

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    Matzner, Steven L; Rettedal, David D; Harmon, Derek A; Beukelman, MacKenzie R

    2014-08-01

    Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were grown under three light levels to determine if hydraulic acclimation to light occurs in herbaceous annuals and whether intraspecific trade-offs constrain hydraulic traits. Acclimation occurred in response to reduced light and included decreased stomatal density (SD) and increased specific leaf area (SLA). Reduced light resulted in lower wood density (WD); decreased cavitation resistance, measured as the xylem pressure causing a 50 % reduction in stem conductivity (P50); and increased hydraulic capacity, measured as average leaf mass specific transpiration (E(LM)). Significant or marginally significant trade-offs between P50 and WD, WD and E(LM), and E(LM) and P50 reflected variation due to both genotype and environmental effects. A trade-off between WD and P50 within one cultivar indicated that morphological adjustment was constrained. Coordinated changes in WD, P50, and E(LM) within each cultivar in response to light were consistent with trade-offs constraining plasticity. A water-use efficiency (WUE, measured as δ(13)C) versus hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) trade-off was observed within each cultivar, further indicating that hydraulic trade-offs can constrain acclimation. Larger plants had lower hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) but greater cavitation resistance, WD, and WUE. Distinct hydraulic strategies were observed with the cultivar adapted to irrigated conditions having higher stomatal conductance and stem flow rates. The cultivar adapted to rain-fed conditions had higher leaf area and greater cavitation resistance. Hydraulic trade-offs were observed within the herbaceous P. vulgaris resulting from both genotype and environmental effects. Trade-offs within a cultivar reflected constraints to hydraulic acclimation in response to changing light.

  4. Effect of Salt Stress on Three Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

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    Anna ASSIMAKOPOULOU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is increasingly forced to utilize marginal waters to meet its increasing demands, which in turn increases the risks of soil salinization and yield reduction in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean basin. Given that the bean is an extremely salt sensitive species, the purpose of the present work was to study the effect of 0 and 75 mM sodium chloride (NaCl on leaf characteristics, growth, pod yield and ion accumulation of three green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (‘Corallo Nano’, ‘Romano Bush Plaja’ and ‘Starazagorski’, widely used in Greece. Plants were grown in a greenhouse of Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese in Messinia, Southern Greece, from April to June 2014, in hydroponics. The experimental design was the factorial completely randomized one with five replications; each replication consisted of the three plants grown on the same rockwool slab. The results of the majority of growth and yield parameters determined showed the superiority of ‘Corallo’ over ‘Romano’ whereas ‘Starazagorski’ tolerance was found to be intermediate. ‘Corallo’ tolerated NaCl salinity better due to its capacity for Na retention in the roots and maintaining appropriate K/Na and Ca/Na ratios, limiting the accumulation of toxic ions into actively growing shoots. The salt sensitivity of ‘Romano’ was related to its higher concentration of Na in the leaves and lower in the roots, to the greater decrease of the leaf number and leaf water content, as well as to the specific leaf area increase compared to the other two cultivars under saline conditions.

  5. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

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    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development.

  6. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sensory profile and acceptability of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil a recomendação de novos cultivares de feijão tem sido feita em função de suas características agronômicas. Porém, nos últimos anos os pesquisadores do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Feijoeiro têm reconhecido a importância das características tecnológicas, principalmente o perfil sensorial, dos grãos de cultivares de feijão na sua aceitação pelos consumidores. Assim, fica evidente a necessidade da caracterização sensorial dos grãos de cultivares de feijão que já são recomendados para o cultivo e daqueles que estão para serem recomendados. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação sensorial dos grãos de sete variedades de feijão recomendadas para o Estado de Minas Gerais (Ouro Negro, Meia Noite, Carioca, Aporé, Rudá, Pérola e Vermelhinho e de três linhagens promissoras para lançamento (MA733327, Vermelho2157 e CB733812. Estas variedades e linhagens foram produzidas pela UFV. Todas as amostras foram cozidas em panela de pressão por 23 minutos e servidas aos provadores. Análise descritiva quantitativa foi aplicada para verificar similaridades e diferenças na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura dos grãos de feijão. As amostras de feijão foram avaliadas por uma equipe composta por oito provadores previamente selecionados e treinados. Foi avaliada também a aceitabilidade das dez amostras, onde cada uma foi degustada por 30 consumidores de feijão, em condições laboratoriais, tomados ao acaso nas proximidades do laboratório de análise sensorial (DTA/UFV. Para o teste afetivo, as amostras foram temperadas. Os dez cultivares de feijão diferiram significativamente (p0,05 na aceitação dos cultivares. Todos tiveram boa aceitação e situaram-se entre os termos hedônicos "gostei moderadamente e gostei muito".In Brazil the recommendation of new cultivars of beans has been done according to the grains agronomic characteristics. However, in the last years researchers of the Genetic

  7. 蔓生型菜豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Climbing Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰梅; 张丽琴; 钟利

    2014-01-01

    对10个露地栽培的蔓生菜豆品种的抗性、产量及商品特性等进行考察比较,旨在筛选出适于昆明地区栽培的菜豆品种,为该地区菜豆的种植和推广提供依据。试验结果表明,泰国架豆王(黑皮、桂林天宇)、特级泰国架豆王和泰国架豆王(重庆华渝)3个品种的综合性状表现较好,产量较高,每667 m2分别达到了4148.7,3957.9,3891.3 kg,比较适宜昆明地区种植推广。%In this paper, we investigated and compared the resistance, yield and commercial characteristics of ten climbing kidney bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) planted in open field in Kunming, in order to screen out suitable kidney bean cultivars for Kunming and provide basis for kidney bean cultivation and extension in Kunming. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Thailand King Pole Bean (with black seed coat, from Guilin Tianyu Seed Co., Ltd.), Super Thailand King Pole Bean and Thailand King Pole Bean (from Chongqing Huayu Seed Co., Ltd.), had better comprehensive characters, and their yields were 4 148.7, 3 957.9 and 3 891.3 kg/667 m2 respectively, thus they were suitable to be planted in Kunming area.

  8. Physiological analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars uncovers characteristics related to terminal drought resistance.

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    Rosales, Miguel A; Ocampo, Edilia; Rodríguez-Valentín, Rocío; Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2012-07-01

    Terminal drought is a major problem for common bean production because it occurs during the reproductive stage, importantly affecting seed yield. Diverse common bean cultivars with different drought susceptibility have been selected from different gene pools in several drought environments. To better understand the mechanisms associated with terminal drought resistance in a particular common bean race (Durango) and growth habit (type-III), we evaluated several metabolic and physiological parameters using two cultivars, Bayo Madero and Pinto Saltillo, with contrasting drought susceptibility. The common bean cultivars were submitted to moderate and severe terminal drought treatments under greenhouse conditions. We analyzed the following traits: relative growth rate, photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency, relative water content, proline accumulation, glycolate oxidase activity and their antioxidant response. Our results indicate that the competence of the drought-resistant cultivar (Pinto Saltillo) to maintain seed production upon terminal drought relies on an early response and fine-tuning of stomatal conductance, CO₂ diffusion and fixation, and by an increased water use and avoidance of ROS accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical and cooking characteristics of some Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

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    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulses are an essential component of our diet especially in developing world, information on their physical properties is needed for designing the machines, while cooking quality is important for consumer acceptance. Four kidney bean cultivars were evaluated for their composition, physical, cooking and textural properties. Protein, ash and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 in the range of 22.3–26.7%, 3.5–3.8% and 62.1–65.9%, respectively. Physical properties determined at 10.0% moisture revealed that the length, breadth, thickness and equivalent diameter of seeds varied significantly in the range of 11.45–16.45 mm, 6.65–7.00 mm, 4.70–6.13 mm and 7.31–9.24 mm, respectively. Bulk density varied from 0.78 to 0.81 g/mL and angle of repose from 15.20° to 18.67°. Hydration capacity and swelling capacity of the seeds varied significantly in the range of 0.12–0.42 g/seed and 0.09–0.28 mL/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds differed significantly from 68.67 to 86.67 min. Soaking of seeds reduced cooking time by 15.33–30.67 min.

  10. Perfil químico de cultivares de feijão (phaseolus vulgaris pela técnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS Chemical profile of beans cultivars (phaseolus vulgaris by ¹h nmr - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS

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    Luciano Morais Lião

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (¹H HR-MAS NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris developed and in development by Embrapa - Arroz e Feijão were analyzed by ¹H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques.

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Protein and Peptide Profiles and their Biological Activities of Improved Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil.

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    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-06-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates. The objective was to compare protein profile, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of improved common bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. Bean protein isolates (BPI) were prepared from 15 common bean cultivars and hydrolyzed using pepsin/pancreatin. Thirteen proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and protein in-gel tryptic-digestion-LC/MS. Protein profile was similar among common bean cultivars with high concentrations of defense-related proteins. Major identified proteins were phaseolin, lectin, protease and α-amylase inhibitors. Lectin (159.2 to 357.9 mg lectin/g BPI), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (inh) (4.3 to 75.5 mg trypsin inh/g BPI), Bowman-Birk inhibitor (5.4 to 14.3 μg trypsin-chymotrypsin inh/g BPI) and α-amylase inhibitor activity (2.5 to 14.9% inhibition relative to acarbose/mg BPI) were higher in Mexican beans compared to Brazilian beans. Abundant peptides were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with molecular masses ranging from 300 to 1500 Da and significant sequences were SGAM, DSSG, LLAH, YVAT, EPTE and KPKL. Potential bioactivities of sequenced peptides were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) and antioxidant capacity. Peptides from common bean proteins presented potential biological activities related to control of hypertension and type-2 diabetes.

  12. Allelic relationships of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite and the proposal of a new anthracnose resistance gene, Co-11

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    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite to races 8 and 64 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose, was characterized. Crosses were made between Michelite and Mexico 222 cultivars and the F2 population was inoculated with race 64 in order to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in Michelite. The segregation of F2 population fitted in a ratio of 3R:1S, showing the presence of a dominant gene in Michelite gene conditioning resistance to race 64. Allelism tests were conducted with F2 populations derived from crosses between Michelite and AB 136, AND 277, BAT 93, Cornell 49-242, G 2333, Kaboon, Mexico 222, Michigan Dark Red Kidney (MRDK, Ouro Negro, Perry Marrow, PI 207262, TO, TU, and Widusa. All the cultivars (except Mexico 222 were resistant to race 64. While F2 derived from the Michelite x Mexico 222 was inoculated with race 8. Additionally, allelism tests indicated that the gene present in Michelite is independent from Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-7, Co-9 and Co-10 genes. The monogenic inheritance observed in Michelite and the independence of this gene from those previously characterized allow the authors to propose that the anthracnose resistant gene in Michelite should be named Co-11.

  13. Effect of salicylic acid and structurally related compounds in the accumulation of phytoalexins in cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

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    Durango, Diego; Pulgarin, Natalia; Echeverri, Fernando; Escobar, Gustavo; Quiñones, Winston

    2013-09-02

    In the present work, isoflavonoid phytoalexin production in response to the application of salicylic acid in cotyledons of four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (SA) was evaluated. The time-course and dose-response profiles of the induction process were established by quantifying the isoflavonoids by HPLC. Cotyledons of anthracnose-resistant cultivars induced by SA produced substantially higher phytoalexin contents as compared to the susceptible ones. In addition, maximum levels of phytoalexins (50-100 fold increases) were reached between 96 and 144 h, and when a concentration of SA from 3.62 to 14.50 mM was used. The observations also indicate that there was a relatively good correlation between the phytoalexin contents and the inhibitory effect against C. lindemuthianum; the higher antifungal activity was observed during the first 48 hours for extracts from cotyledons treated with SA at 1.45 and 3.62 mM, and between 96 and 144 h after induction. Finally, compounds structurally related to SA (dihydro-quinazolinones and some imines) showed a strong elicitor effect. Moreover, induced extracts from cotyledons treated with these potential elicitors, besides the properly elicitors, displayed a weak to moderated antifungal activity. These compounds may be considered good candidates for developing of new phytoprotectants. Furthermore, phytoalexin-eliciting substances may contribute for selecting disease resistant cultivars.

  14. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Structurally Related Compounds in the Accumulation of Phytoalexins in Cotyledons of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

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    Winston Quiñones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, isoflavonoid phytoalexin production in response to the application of salicylic acid in cotyledons of four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars (SA was evaluated. The time-course and dose-response profiles of the induction process were established by quantifying the isoflavonoids by HPLC. Cotyledons of anthracnose-resistant cultivars induced by SA produced substantially higher phytoalexin contents as compared to the susceptible ones. In addition, maximum levels of phytoalexins (50–100 fold increases were reached between 96 and 144 h, and when a concentration of SA from 3.62 to 14.50 mM was used. The observations also indicate that there was a relatively good correlation between the phytoalexin contents and the inhibitory effect against C. lindemuthianum; the higher antifungal activity was observed during the first 48 hours for extracts from cotyledons treated with SA at 1.45 and 3.62 mM, and between 96 and 144 h after induction. Finally, compounds structurally related to SA (dihydro-quinazolinones and some imines showed a strong elicitor effect. Moreover, induced extracts from cotyledons treated with these potential elicitors, besides the properly elicitors, displayed a weak to moderated antifungal activity. These compounds may be considered good candidates for developing of new phytoprotectants. Furthermore, phytoalexin-eliciting substances may contribute for selecting disease resistant cultivars.

  15. Response of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) plants exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation under mountain ecosystem.

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    Raghuvanshi, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance resulting from depletion in the ozone layer has the potential to cause detrimental effects on plants. Higher altitudes tend to receive higher doses of ambient UV-B radiation. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of enhanced UV-B (ambient + 10.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) radiation on two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati) at growth, physiological, and biochemical levels grown under mountain ecosystem. The magnitudes of negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were found more in Pusa Parvati as compared to Pusa Himlata. Non-enzymatic (total phenolics and flavonoids content) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased in both cultivars at both the ages of growth but increase was found more in Pusa Himlata as compared to Pusa Parvati. The study further showed that the economic yield of Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati was decreased by 14 and 44%, respectively, due to enhanced UV-B radiation. The higher decrease in the economic yield of Pusa Parvati depicted that increased amounts of total flavonoids content and stimulation of their antioxidant defense mechanism via increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were not able to completely detoxify the produced reactive oxygen species under enhanced UV-B radiation and made it more sensitive to applied stress. From the present study, it can be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation in the mountain areas of the Indian Himalayan Regions could be one of the environmental causes for lower yields of agricultural crops. Cultivation of P. vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Himlata should be promoted at higher altitudes of the Indian Himalayan Regions.

  16. Yield and yield components in six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under drought soil conditions in Río Cauto municipality, Granma

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    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was done from January through March 2013 in areas of the Estación Territorial de Investigaciones de Granos ‘Jucarito’, in the municipality of Rio Cauto in Granma. The objective was to determine the effect of soil drought condition on the yield and yield components of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars. The variety were evaluated in two conditions of humidity: irrigation in all vegetative growth and three establishment period irrigation and irrigation withholding at the beginning of flowering phases till the end of vegetative growth (Terminal drought. A split plot design in randomized blocks was used with 3 replications under 2 irrigation treatments and 6 subtreatments corresponding to the varieties used. Several indicators were evaluated: average number of grains per pods, average weight of the grains per plants, weight of 100 grains, average number of grains per plant, average number of pods per plants, average of width and length of pods and the yield. The data were analyzed using the Statistica version 8.0 to perform analysis of variance (ANOVA, and where the indicators used showed significant differences, a Tukey’s multiple comparison tests was applied to p d” 0.05. The results showed that yield and yield components significantly decreased in soils under drought stress conditions, associated with the production of grain and pods in the six varieties of common beans.

  17. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc...

  18. Galactooligosaccharides of seeds during growth of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans

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    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative changes of raffinose and stachyose in seeds of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. during their growth and maturation in a two year experiment were investigated. Trace amounts of raffinose were found in Ph. vulgaris seeds during their vegeta tive growth in 1990. Time of raffinose accumulation in seeds in 1991 began not earlier than on 33rd day since inflorescence. Stachyose started to accumulate in seeds between 33rd and 47th day after inflorescence of all tested cultivars. It was noticed that stachyose and raffinose contents in seeds of most tested cultivars after ten years of storage did not differ significantly when compared to not stored ones.

  19. Variation in glutathione and ascorbic acid content among selected cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris prior to and after exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guri, A.

    1983-07-01

    Measurements of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations in the primary leaves of of four bean cultivars, two ozone-insensitive (S) and two ozone-sensitive (I), have revealed that GSH concentrations were not significantly different in all four cultivars prior to the exposure to ozone (0.28-0.32 ppm for 8 h); however, after ozone exposure GSH concentrations were significantly lower in the two sensitive cultivars, PHR and 0669, while in the two insensitive tolerants, FH and Nep-2, the drop in GSH concentrations was slight. The assay of glutathione reductase(GR), the enzyme which catalyzed the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to its reduced form, namely GSH, indicated that its specific activity in the two insensitive cultivars was almost twice as high as in the two sensitive cultivars. The drop in AA concentration after 8 h of fumigation was moderate (although significant) in all four cultivars, whereas the concentrations of AA in all four cultivars prior to ozone fumigation were not significantly different. From the data it is suggested that differences in GR-specific activity, probably due to different isozymes, could be the reason for insensitivity or sensitivity to ozone among bean cultivars. 21 references, 3 tables.

  20. Avaliação de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris para o plantio em sistema orgânico no Distrito Federeal Field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars evaluation for crop in organic system in the state of Distrito Federal

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    Wellington Pereira de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo se propôs a indicar cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris que tenham melhor desempenho no sistema orgânico, além de mostrar que o rendimento ótimo sustentável conseguido pela agricultura orgânica, pode estar muito próximo do rendimento potencial conseguido pela agricultura convencional. No ano de 2003, foram instalados dois ensaios, um irrigado e outro no período das águas, em uma área de pastagem de baixa fertilidade, situação semelhante à encontrada pelos produtores que se iniciam na produção orgânica sem passar pelo período de conversão, utilizando áreas que se encontram em descanso há alguns anos ou pastagens que não receberam aplicações de agrotóxicos ou adubos de alta solubilidade. No ano seguinte, os mesmos ensaios foram instalados em outra área com fertilidade corrigida e equilibrada, situação em que se encontram produtores já enquadrados na atividade orgânica. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Diamante Negro, Talismã, Xamego, Marfim, Jalo Precoce, Pérola, Timbó, Radiante, Aporé, Valente e Vereda. Dentre as cultivares empregadas destacaram-se as dos grupos comerciais preto e carioca, os tipos de maior demanda na região do Distrito Federal.This study objectified indicate field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars that have better performance in organic system, besides to show that the optimum sustainable yield, that can be managed by organic agriculture can be close to potential yield managed by the conventional agriculture. Two experiments were established during the year 2003, one under irrigation system in the dry season and the other in the wet season, in an area with brachiaria pasture with low fertility, the same situation of growers who choose to join the organic system without the necessity of passing through the conversion period, using areas that have been in rest for few years or pastures that

  1. Determination Of Yield And Yield Components In Some Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars Under Giresun Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine yield and yield components under Giresun ecological conditions in 2011. As the material of the research 6 registered cultivars (Balkız, Akman 98, Önceler 98, Yunus 90, Göynük 98, Karacaşehir 90), which were supplied from the Institute of Transitional Zone Agricultural Research- Eskişehir, and other cultivars as Çelik strimax and Alman Ayşe were utilized. The experiment was arranged in complete randomize blocks design with three replication. At the end o...

  2. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Carolina Gallego G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333. Aquellos que mostraron un buen comportamiento en componentes de rendimiento fueron: 3164, 3159, 3176 y Radical. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como posibles candidatos parentales ó sobresalientes en el programa de mejoramiento de fríjol. También se realizó análisis de dos marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR ligados a los genes Co-4 y Co-5 que confieren resistencia a C. lindemuthianum, ninguno de los materiales de evaluación a excepción del testigo resistente G-2333, amplificó los marcadores SCAR, asociados a los genes de resistencia de interés.Under Bogotá plateau (Colombia conditions, 32 cultivars of climbing bean were evaluated by components of yield and by reaction with a mixture of isolations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum coming from Boyacá and Cundinamarca. The cultivars that presented a good behavior in yield and resistance reaction to the disease were: D. Moreno and 3198. Those that expressed a resistant reaction to the anthracnose were: 3180, 3182, 3177 and G-2333. Finally those that showed a good behavior in yield components were 3164, 3159, 3176 and Radical. These genotypes could be used as excellent candidates in the breeding program of common bean. It was also carried out a test for each cultivar, by means of two markers molecular type SCAR tried to resistance genes to anthracnose Co-4 and Co-5. Any of the evaluation materials amplified for the couple of genes, except for the resistant control G-2333.

  3. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Gallego G.; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto Moreno; Luz Nayibe Garzón Gutiérrez; Óscar Arturo Oliveros Garay; Linda Jeimmy Rincón Rivera

    2010-01-01

    Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia), se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333....

  4. Effects of Plant Density and Cow Manure Levels on Growth Criteria of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars under Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    2016-11-01

    important factor determining growth indices is manure. Integrated supply of nutrient to plants through planned combinations of organic and inorganic sources is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound agriculture. There are reports which show that the application of manure on bean has improved yield and growth indices. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of plant density and cow manure levels on four common bean cultivars an experiment was conducted as a factorial arrangement based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during two growing seasons of 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. The experimental treatments were plant density in three levels (13.13, 20 and 40 plants.m-2, three cow manure levels (0, 15 and 30 kg.ha-1 and four common bean cultivars (Gholi, Akhtar, Naz and D-81083. The plot size was 5×2 meter and the spacing between rows was 50 cm and the seeds were planted in four rows. In order to measure the growth indices, the destructive samplings were carried out every 10 days from 50 cm of row in each plot. All common bean plants were harvested by cutting at the soil surface. Dry matter (DM, leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR, relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were measured and calculated accordingly. Plants were then divided into leaf and stem. The areas of green leaves were measured using a Delta-T leaf area meter (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, England. Then the samples, including stems and leaves were dried in a forced-air oven at 80 ˚C for 48 h and after witch total dry matter (TDM was measured. The leaf area data was divided to ground area and the leaf area index (LAI was obtained. The LAI data was fitted to the Gaussian equation (Equation 1 to predict the LAI of common bean in growth season: x (t= a . Exp {-0.5((x-x0/b ^2} (Equation 1 Where is the time (day, x (t: predicted LAI

  5. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  6. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  7. Rendimiento y reacción a colletotrichum lindemuathianum en cultivares de fríjol voluble (phaseolus vulgaris l.).

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego G, Carolina; Ligarreto Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo; Garzón Gutiérrez, Luz Nayibe; Oliveros Garay, Óscar Arturo; Rincón Rivera, Linda Jeimmy

    2011-01-01

    Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia), se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333....

  8. The Effect of Bio-fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizers (Phosphate and Zinc on Yield and Yield Components of Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    and 30. They reported that dual inoculation increases plant productivity. In this study, phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused an increase in yield, yield component and shoot nutrient by increasing nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, growth hormones and creating favorable growth conditions. Also results showed that the consume of P fertilizers were decreased (50 percent with proper integration of chemical and bio-fertilizers. These results correspond with the results of other researchers (17, 22, 23, 24 and 27. Conclusion: In this research proper integration of bio- and chemical fertilizers was shown to increase yield and yield components with increasing and improving P and other nutrients’ uptake in both bean cultivars. The result also indicated that combining bio and chemical phosphate fertilizers increased the efficiency of phosphate fertilizers by 50 percent. Sadri cultivar is a suitable cultivar for Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari province and regions with a similar climate. Keywords: Phosphorus, Zinc, Mycorrhizal fungi, Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Insoluble phosphorus and zinc solubilizers

  9. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  10. Comportamento de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. no Vale do Paraíba, SP Behavior of dry bean lines and cultivars in the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Pompeu

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar cultivares mais adequados para plantio nas condições do Vale do Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, foram instalados experimentos de competição de linhagens e cultivares em três locais no município de Pindamonhangaba. Durante o período de 1973 a 1976, notou-se a ocorrência de granizo em 1974, prejudicando um dos ensaios, e de geada em 1975, a qual destruiu dois dos três ensaios plantados. Entre as moléstias que ocorrem no feijoeiro, observaram-se a antracnose e a ferrugem. As melhores produções médias foram obtidas pelas linhagens H38C1727 (Mulatinho, H38C1723 (Bico-de-ouro, H40C1722 (Chumbinho e H40C1725 (Preto, e pelos cultivares piratã-2 e piratã-1, com 2.475, 2.308, 2.218, 2.195, 2.177 e 2.164 kg/ha respectivamente. Os cultivares carioca (Diversos e rosinha G-2 (Rosinha tiveram produções de 2.094 e 1.677 kg/ha. Levando-se em consideração a alta capacidade produtiva demonstrada nesses experimentos e em outras regiões do Estado, bem como a disponibilidade de sementes, os cultivares aroana (H40C1722, moruna (H40C1725, piratã-1 e carioca podem ser indicados para plantio em larga escala na região do Vale do Paraíba.With the objective of indicating the best dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars for the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo State, trials were planted in three localities in the country of Pindamonhangaba, from 1973 to 1976. From 1973 to 1976 were observed the occurrence of hail in 1974 causing damage in one of the trials, and frost in 1975 that destroyed two of the three experiments planted. Among the pathogens of dry beans, it was noticed the presence of those causing the anthracnose and rust diseases. The best mean yields were observed for H38C1727, H38C1723, H40C1722, H40C1725, 'Piratã-2', and 'Piratã-1' with 2,475, 2,308, 2,218, 2,195, 2,178 and 2,164 kg/ha, respectively. The cultivars Moruna (H4001725, Aroana (H40C1722, Piratã-1 and Carioca can be pointed out for cultivation in

  11. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 co-segregates with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, M; Lund, O Søgaard; Larsen, R

    2008-01-01

    In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and bc-u control resistance to potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). To identify candidates for the bc-genes, we cloned and sequenced homologues of genes encoding cap......-binding proteins, eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E and nCBP. In cultivars reported to carry bc-3 resistance, eIF4E was found to display non-silent mutations at codons 53, 65, 76 and 111 closely resembling a pattern of eIF4E mutations determining potyvirus resistance in other plant species. By application of a molecular marker...

  12. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  13. Transcriptional profile of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 in response to tissue extracts from a susceptible Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar

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    Martínez-Antonio Agustino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is a Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes "halo blight" disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. This disease affects both foliage and pods, and is a major problem in temperate areas of the world. Although several bacterial genes have been determined as participants in pathogenesis, the overall process still remains poorly understood, mainly because the identity and function of many of the genes are largely unknown. In this work, a genomic library of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 was constructed and PCR amplification of individual fragments was carried out in order to print a DNA microarray. This microarray was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when bean leaf extracts, pod extracts or apoplastic fluid were added to the growth medium. Results Transcription profiles show that 224 genes were differentially expressed, the majority under the effect of bean leaf extract and apoplastic fluid. Some of the induced genes were previously known to be involved in the first stages of the bacterial-plant interaction and virulence. These include genes encoding type III secretion system proteins and genes involved in cell-wall degradation, phaseolotoxin synthesis and aerobic metabolism. On the other hand, most repressed genes were found to be involved in the uptake and metabolism of iron. Conclusion This study furthers the understanding of the mechanisms involved, responses and the metabolic adaptation that occurs during the interaction of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola with a susceptible host plant.

  14. Injury response of Phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Gillespie, T. J.; Thurtell, G. W.

    This study describes a quantitative relationship between mean O 3 flux density and the length of exposure needed for the occurrence of visual injury to Phaseolus vulgaris L. Similar relationships were found for 14 day old and 6 week old plants using a whole leaf gas exchange cuvette system. Cultivars Seafarer (O 3 sensitive) and Gold Crop (O 3 resistant) exhibited similar responses at flux densities > 3 mg m -2 h -1 but only Seafarer was injured below this flux density. O 3 concentration and length of exposure period alone did not contain sufficient information to describe the onset of visual foliar injury. The use of O 3 concentrations in excess of normal ambient conditions compensated for low leaf conductances so that flux densities in the cuvette were similar to those found in the field.

  15. Phenotypic Diversity among Croatian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Landraces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monika Vidak; Sara Malešević; Martina Grdiša; Zlatko Šatović; Boris Lazarević; Klaudija Carović-Stanko

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity among Croatian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces was assessed by analysing 12 qualitative and six quantitative traits in 338 accessions collected from all production areas in Croatia...

  16. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  17. Effect of sulphite ions on the proline and polyamine content in the bean Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Karolewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sulphite (0.0125-0.2% on changes in the levels of free proline, protein bound proline and hydroxyproline and of free polyamines in the roots and leaves of two cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris differing in sensitivity to these ions was investigated. It was found that both cultivars reacted similarily, the response of the seedlings of the more sensitive cultivar occuring at lower concentrations of sulphite.The observed changes in the content of imino acids and polyamines are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  19. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  20. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp.

  1. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of vitamin C in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are usually consumed when physiologically mature, as dry seeds, however, flageolet beans seeds are also consumed immature. They are harvested when dry matter content is about 40%, pods are filled, grown, seeds succulent, showing green or light green colour and do not require lengthy thermal processing when prepared for consumption. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin C content in immature seeds of five bean cultivars harvested when dry matter content was 40%. The analysis included raw, blanched and cooked fresh seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage: frozen products obtained using the traditional method (blanching–freezing–frozen storage–cooking, frozen products obtained using a modified method (cooking–freezing–frozen storage–thawing and heating in a microwave oven, a ready-to-eat product to consumption at ambient temperature, and canned products obtained by sterilization. Results. The application of technological processes, frozen and sterilized products storage, and the preparation for consumption had a cumulative effect in retention vitamin C content on final products. Conclusion. Comparing frozen seeds obtained by modified method with seeds treated by traditional method, generally, this one could retain more vitamin C. Canned seeds retained significantly less vitamin C than other frozen products.  

  2. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  3. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Borges, Aline; Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST) to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to develop a model of the molecular components of the bean innate immune system regulated upon

  4. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  5. Standardization of phaseolus vulgaris valves by macro- and microscopic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market a tendency to increase the range of the national herbal remedies is observed. Native flora herbs, having a sufficient resource base, deserve special attention and are characterized by a number of economic benefits for manufacturers. The implementation of herbal remedies in medical practice is accompanied by the necessity to improve the quality control of herbal material and to develop normative documents. Macro- and microscopy analysis becomes important at standardization of herbal material especially cut and powdered.Aim. The aim of our work was to carry out macro- and microscopy research of Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine its diagnostic morphologic and anatomic features.Methods. The conventional research methods in pharmacognosy have been used; photomicrography has been taken by using microscope MC-10 and Samsung PL 50 camera.Results. As a result of research, the microscopic diagnostic characteristics for Phaseolus vulgaris valves have been proposed, e.g.: the valves are elongated, straight, navicular or grooved, twisted to some extent; the external surface is smooth or slightly undulating, mat, pale yellow or yellow; the internal surface is shiny, white or yellowish-white. Sometimes carpophore (stalk may occur. The microscopic diagnostic features have been determined and offered, e.g.: cells of outer epidermis are pentagonal and hexagonal, with plicated cuticle; stomata are surrounded by 3–4 subsidiary narrow cells, additionally surrounded by 5–6 narrow cells; cover trichomes and glandular trichomes are elongated, pointed and unbranched; xylem vessels and tracheids; non-bundled structure stalk fragments with pericyclic sclerenchyma and secretory cells in the phloem.Conclusion. Research on determination of the macro- and microscopic characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris valves has been carried out. The diagnostic morphological and anatomic elements in herbal material have

  6. Correlation of protein content to flatulent galactooligosaccharides and exogenous amino acids in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the possible correlations among constituents of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds, the contents of protein, exogenous amino acids and flatulent galactooligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose were analyzed in 16 Polish bean cultivars for dry seeds. A negative correlation coefficient (r =-0.9490 was found between protein and methionine contents. High positive correlations among exogenous amino acids, such as lysine and isoleucine, valine and isoleucine, lysine and tyrosine, were observed indicating a chance of selecting far more than one at a time. The small-seeded bean cultivars contained higher contents of protein and galactooligosaccharides than the large-seeded ones.

  7. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    MENDONÇA, H. A. de.; dos Santos, J.B.; Ramalho,M.A.P.; FERREIRA, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susce...

  8. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  9. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  10. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris. PMID:23221754

  11. Interação de polifenóis e proteínas e o efeito na digestibilidade proteica de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Pérola Polyphenol and protein interaction and the effect on protein digestibility in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Perola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Araújo Delfino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um alimento de importância na dieta dos brasileiros, sendo consumido com frequência. Além de sua importância proteica e de carboidratos contém também compostos bioativos que são essenciais para a manutenção da saúde dos indivíduos. Esses compostos podem se alterar com a estocagem e com a cocção, resultando em modificações de suas propriedades de ligação. A pesquisa teve por objetivos medir a capacidade de hidratação e o tempo de cocção antes e após o armazenamento e avaliar os teores de taninos em feijão comum, cultivar Pérola e a interferência desses compostos na digestibilidade de proteínas, estes parâmetros foram avaliados em feijões recém-colhidos e armazenados durante 3 e 6 meses, antes e após cocção. Para tanto, foram avaliados absorção de água, tempo de cocção em grãos de feijão antes e após armazenamento e composição centesimal dos grãos antes e após cocção. O teor de taninos diminuiu com a cocção e com o tempo de armazenamento; a digestibilidade aumentou com o tempo de armazenamento; a absorção de água diminuiu com o tempo de armazenamento; o tempo de cocção aumentou; e a composição centesimal apresentou diferença em relação à umidade e ao teor de fibra alimentar. Portanto foram obtidas alterações significativas para os parâmetros avaliados tanto para a cocção como para o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de feijão comum, cultivar Pérola.Bean is one of the most important components of the Brazilian diet, and it is consumed frequently. It has been proven to be source of protein and carbohydrates and contains bioactive compounds that are essential for people´s heath. These compounds can undergo changes as a result of storage and cooking leading to modifications in their bonding properties. The objectives of this research are to determine the common bean cultivar Perola's water absorption capacity and its cooking time before and after storage and to evaluate

  12. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  13. Genetic control of orange hilum corona of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pires Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of orange corona color in carioca common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. We made four crosses between carioca group cultivars that differed in respect to the presence or absence of an orange hilum corona color. The F2, F3, F1BC11, F1BC21, F2BC11 and F2BC21 phenotypic segregations were evaluated with a chi-square test which fitted with the hypothesis that one gene with a dominant allele is responsible for the orange corona color. All generations resulting from the four different crosses showed segregation patterns which agreed with the expected proportions. Our results show that the dominant G allele controls orange corona color in the carioca bean group.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    .... Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce...

  15. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  16. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE A DIGESTIBILIDADE PROTÉICA IN VITRO E IN VIVO DE DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ARMAZENADOS POR 30 DIAS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. D. R. CRUZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O feijão comum é uma leguminosa que vem sendo estudada extensivamente na América Latina por ser uma das principais fontes de proteínas além de fazer parte dos hábitos alimentares da população. Entretanto, um dos maiores problemas do feijão é representado pela baixa digestibilidade de suas proteínas. Assim, esse trabalho foi delineado para correlacionar quatro metodologias de determinação de digestibilidade protéica in vitro com os valores da digestibilidade in vivo, obtidos para onze variedades Brasileiras de feijão (P. vulgaris. Um sistema multi-enzimático contendo tripsina, quimotripsina e pepsina foi utilizado para o experimento in vitro, enquanto que os valores da digestibilidade verdadeira e aparente foram obtidos de ensaios biológicos com ratos desmamados. A equação obtida para os métodos in vivo e in vitro foram usadas para determinar a correlação e predizer a digestibilidade. Os resultados mostraram que o método in vitro que obteve maior valor de R2 e coeficiente de correlação, foi o método desenvolvido por Cruz.9 com valores de 0,83 para R2 e 0,91 para o coeficiente de correlação. A diferença entre os valores de digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro, calculados a partir desse método, variou de – 9,65 a +1,09 para a digestibilidade verdadeira e de – 7,75 a + 3,12 para a aparente. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro; proteína; armazenamento; Phaseolus vulgaris.

  17. EFEITOS DA ÉPOCA DE SEMEADURA SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE GRÃOS DE CULTIVARES DE Phaseolus Vulgaris L., Phaseolus angularis (willd Wright E Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO LAM-SANCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Sementes de nove cultivares de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. (‘Rio Piquiri’, ‘Rio Tibaji’, ‘Paraná-1’, ‘Catu’, ‘Aysó’, ‘Carioca-80’, ‘Aeté-3’, ‘Moruna-80’ e ‘Aroana-80’, duas de feijão-adzuki (Phaseolus angularis (Willd (Wright (‘Adzuki 1’ – vermelha e ‘Adzuki 2’ – verde e cinco de caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (‘Epace-1’, ‘Epace-6’, ‘Epace-8’, ‘V-76’ ‘V-245’ foram obtidas de 3 épocas de plantio (“águas I” – 26/11/82; “seca” – 07/04/83; “águas II” – 27/09/83 e avaliadas quanto à composição química e características de hidratação e cozimento. As características foram significativamente influenciadas pela época de semeadura. Os feijões produzidos na época “águas II” apresentaram valores protéicos significativamente mais elevados do que os das outras duas, e o teor médio foi de 20,75; 16,45 e 23,10 g/100g para o feijão-comum, o adzuki e o caupi, respectivamente. O conteúdo de óleo de feijão comum (1,38 g/100g correlacionou-se negativamente com o de proteína (-0,64. O de cinzas apresentou o mesmo comportamento que o de proteína quanto às épocas de cultivo, o que não aconteceu com o de carboidratos. As maiores sementes foram produzidas pela época “águas II” e pelo feijoeiro-comum (20,38 g/100 sementes com destaque para os cvs, Moruna-80, Paraná-1, e Carioca-80. Para o caupi este valor foi de 19,48g e para o adzuki, de 7,79g. Os grãos cultivados nas épocas “águas I” e “águas II” apresentaram melhor hidratação (RH = 1,94, e estes os maiores conteúdos de grãos

  18. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  19. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro polysaccharide fermentation of different beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vega, R; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Pedraza-Aboytes, G; Acosta-Gallegos, J A; Guzman-Maldonado, S H; Paredes-Lopez, O; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2009-09-01

    The composition of bioactives including polysaccharide yield and resistant starch (RS) content of 4 raw and cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was evaluated. Polysaccharide was fermented in vitro by incubation with human gut flora under anaerobic conditions and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production was compared at 6, 12, and 24 h by gas chromatography. Polysaccharide and soluble fiber contents increased upon cooking with stachyose as the major oligosaccharide. Cooked bean of cultivar Bayo Madero had the highest yield of polysaccharides (55%) and resistant starch (37%), followed by those of Negro 8025 (48% and 32%, respectively). Acetate was the most abundant SCFAs formed in all bean varieties. The concentration of SCFAs was cultivar-dependent; Bayo Madero and Negro 8025 displayed the highest concentration of butyrate (15 mmol/L), while Azufrado Higuera had the lowest and highest concentrations of acetate (39 mmol/L) and propionate (14 mmol/L), respectively. The results suggest that the common bean is an excellent source of polysaccharides that can be fermented in the colon and produce SCFAs, compounds previously reported to exert health benefits.

  1. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris and Runner (P. coccineus Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl; one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−, osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars, and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl− transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus.

  2. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  3. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  4. Aluminium-phosphate interactions in the rhizosphere of two bean species: Phaseolus lunatus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Cesco, Stefano; Tomasi, Nicola; Pinton, Roberto; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants differ in their response to high aluminium (Al) concentrations, which typically cause toxicity in plants grown on acidic soils. The response depends on plant species and environmental conditions such as substrate and cultivation system. The present study aimed to assess Al-phosphate (P) dynamics in the rhizosphere of two bean species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L., in rhizobox experiments. Root activity of the bean species induced up to a sevenfold increase in exchangeable Al and up to a 30-fold decrease in extractable P. High soluble Al concentrations triggered the release of plant-specific carboxylates, which differed between soil type and plant species. The results suggest that P. vulgaris L. mitigates Al stress by an internal defence mechanism and P. lunatus L. by an external one, both mechanisms involving organic acids. Rhizosphere mechanisms involved in Al detoxification were found to be different for P. vulgaris L. and P. lunatus L., suggesting that these processes are plant species-specific. Phaseolus vulgaris L. accumulates Al in the shoots (internal tolerance mechanism), while P. lunatus L. prevents Al uptake by releasing organic acids (exclusion mechanism) into the growth media. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of the Phaseolus vulgaris - Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Awale, Halima E; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) anthracnose caused by the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a major factor limiting production worldwide. Although sources of resistance have been identified and characterized, the early molecular events in the host-pathogen interface have not been investigated. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome analysis using Illumina sequencing of two near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of the Co-1 gene on chromosome Pv01 during a time course following infection with race 73 of C. lindemuthianum. From this, we identified 3,250 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within and between the NILs over the time course of infection. During the biotrophic phase the majority of DEGs were up regulated in the susceptible NIL, whereas more DEGs were up-regulated in the resistant NIL during the necrotrophic phase. Various defense related genes, such as those encoding PR proteins, peroxidases, lipoxygenases were up regulated in the resistant NIL. Conversely, genes encoding sugar transporters were up-regulated in the susceptible NIL during the later stages of infection. Additionally, numerous transcription factors (TFs) and candidate genes within the vicinity of the Co-1 locus were differentially expressed, suggesting a global reprogramming of gene expression in and around the Co-1 locus. Through this analysis, we reduced the previous number of candidate genes reported at the Co-1 locus from eight to three. These results suggest the dynamic nature of P. vulgaris-C. lindemuthianum interaction at the transcriptomic level and reflect the role of both pathogen and effector triggered immunity on changes in plant gene expression.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the Three Centers of Diversity of Its Host, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, D; Michalakis, Y; Dron, M; Neema, C

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT Population subdivision of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose, was studied in three regions located in three centers of diversity of its host, Phaseolus vulgaris. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, restriction endonuclease analysis of the amplified ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, and virulence on a set of 12 cultivars were used to assess the genetic diversity of C. lindemuthianum strains isolated in Mexican, Ecuadorian, and Argentinean wild common bean populations. The three regions were significantly differentiated for molecular markers. For these markers, Mexico was the most polymorphic and the most distant from Ecuador and Argentina. The majority of the RAPD alleles present in Ecuador and Argentina were found in Mexico, suggesting that Andean populations have been derived from the Mesoamerican center. Pathogenicity tests on a set of 12 cultivars showed that all but one of the Mexican strains were virulent exclusively on Mesoamerican cultivars. Argentinean strains were virulent preferentially on southern Andes cultivars, and the Ecuadorian strains, except for one strain, were avirulent on all cultivars. These results suggest an adaptation of strains on cultivars of the same geographic origin. Thus, based on molecular and virulence markers, C. lindemuthianum strains isolated from wild common bean populations were divided into three groups corresponding to host gene pools.

  7. An antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Cloud Bean'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-15

    An antifungal peptide with a defensin-like sequence and exhibiting a molecular mass of 7.3kDa was purified from dried seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris 'Cloud Bean'. The isolation procedure entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography an Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Although the antifungal peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, it was adsorbed on both Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. The antifungal peptide exerted antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) value of 1.8 μM. It was also active against Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 2.2 μM. It had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when tested up to 100 μM. Proliferation of L1210 mouse leukemia cells and MBL2 lymphoma cells was inhibited by the antifungal peptide with an IC(50) of 10 μM and 40 μM, respectively.

  8. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  9. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  10. Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Biagetti, Eleonora; Carboni, Andrea; Gepts, Paul; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2016-03-01

    Here we studied the organization of genetic variation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in its centres of domestication. We used 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate 417 wild common bean accessions and a representative sample of 160 domesticated genotypes, including Mesoamerican and Andean genotypes, for a total of 577 accessions. By analysing the genetic spatial patterns of the wild common bean, we documented the existence of several genetic groups and the occurrence of variable degrees of diversity in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Moreover, using a landscape genetics approach, we demonstrated that both demographic processes and selection for adaptation were responsible for the observed genetic structure. We showed that the study of correlations between markers and ecological variables at a continental scale can help in identifying local adaptation genes. We also located putative areas of common bean domestication in Mesoamerica, in the Oaxaca Valley, and the Andes, in southern Bolivia-northern Argentina. These observations are of paramount importance for the conservation and exploitation of the genetic diversity preserved within this species and other plant genetic resources.

  11. Diversity in the rhizobia associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Ecuador, and comparisons with Mexican bean rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G; Graham, P H

    2001-06-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have centers of origin in both Mesoamerica and Andean South America, and have been domesticated in each region for perhaps 5000 years. A third major gene pool may exist in Ecuador and Northern Peru. The diversity of the rhizobia associated with beans has also been studied, but to date with an emphasis on the Mesoamerican center of origin. In this study we compared bean rhizobia from Mexico and Andean South America using both phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. When differences between the rhizobia of these two regions were shown, we then examined the influence of bean cultivar on the most probable number (MPN) count and biodiversity of rhizobia recovered from different soils. Three clusters of bean rhizobia were distinguished using phenotypic analysis and principal-component analysis of Box AIR-PCR banding patterns. They corresponded principally to isolates from Mexico, and the northern and southern Andean regions, with isolates from southern Ecuador exhibiting significant genetic diversity. Rhizobia from Dalea spp., which are infective and effective on beans, may have contributed to the apparent diversity of rhizobia recovered from the Mesoamerican region, while the rhizobia of wild Phaseolus aborigineus from Argentina showed only limited similarity to the other bean rhizobia tested. Use of P. vulgaris cultivars from the Mesoamerican and Andean Phaseolus gene pools as trap hosts did not significantly affect MPN counts of bean rhizobia from the soils of each region, but did influence the diversity of the rhizobia recovered. Such differences in compatibility of host and Rhizobium could be a factor in the poor reputation for nodulation and N2 fixation in this crop.

  12. Inhibition of the catalase activity from Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa by sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera García, Noel A; Iribarne, Carmen; Palma, Francisco; Lluch, Carmen

    2007-08-01

    Changes in catalase activity during the development of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis as well as its response in salinized plants of Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa, was studied. Besides, it was examined the behavior of the enzyme, isolated from leaves and root nodules, during in vitro incubation with NaCl doses. Nodule catalase activities of both legumes were assayed with several enzyme inhibitors and also purified. Leaf catalase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa decreased and increased respectively throughout the ontogeny, but root nodule catalase kept a high and stable value. This last result suggests that both legumes require the maintenance of high nodule catalase in nitrogen-fixing nodules. Under salt stress conditions leaf and nodule catalase activity decreased in both, grain and pasture legumes. Because catalase from leaf of Medicago sativa and nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris were relatively sensitive to NaCl during in vitro experiments, the detoxifying role of this enzyme for H(2)O(2) should be limited in such conditions. Both catalases, from determinate and indeterminate nodules, were affected neither by oxygen nor superoxide radicals but showed a strong (Phaseolus vulgaris) or partial (Medicago sativa) inhibition with dithiothreitol, dithionite and beta-mercaptoethanol. Besides, cyanide was the most potent inhibitor of nodule catalases. Finally, catalases partially purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography migrated at 42 (Phaseolus vulgaris) and 46kDa (Medicago sativa) on SDS-PAGE, whereas native forms on sephacryl S-300 columns exhibited a molecular mass of 59 and 48kDa (Phaseolus vulgaris) and 88 and 53kDa (Medicago sativa).

  13. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  14. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  15. Inheritance of resistance to ozone in Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, L.K.; Tibbitts, T.W.; Bliss, F.A.

    1979-03-01

    Ozone sensitivity was compared in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ populations from crosses between 2 ozone-sensitive bean cultivars, Spurt and Blue Lake Stringless, and 2 ozone-resistant cultivars, Black Turtle Soup and French's Horticultural, under controlled environmental conditions. F/sub 1/ plants were as sensitive as the sensitive parent. About 10% of the F/sub 2/ progeny obtained by selfing F/sub 1/ plants appeared to be as resistant as the resistant parent and 90% of the progeny could be divided equally between a group as sensitive as the sensitive parent and a group intermediate in sensitivity between the parent plants. However, precise separation of F/sub 2/ progeny was not possible because of the variability in injury expression. The average injury on the F/sub 2/ plants was greater than the parental midpoint value and the variance in injury on the F/sub 2/ plants was about 3.5x greater than that for the parents. The heritability of resistance to ozone was estimated to be 0.83. It was concluded that ozone resistance is recessive in P. vulgaris and appears to be regulated by a few major genes. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  17. Extended map for the phaseolin linkage group ofPhaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, C E; Chase, C D

    1991-09-01

    The linkage relationship of 11 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed proteins (including phaseolin), 9 enzyme loci, and theP locus were analyzed in backcross and F2 progenies by use of the software package "Mapmaker." The progenies were obtained by crossing the breeding line 'XR-235-1' and the cultivar 'Calima'. Allelic differences for seed protein loci were detected with SDS-PAGE and those for enzyme loci with starch gel electrophoresis and activity stains. The seed coat color of 'Calima' is a red/beige mottled pattern and that of 'XR-235-1' is white. Segregation at theP locus was followed by recording the phenotype of the BC1S1 and F3 seed. A linkage group comprising ca. 90 cM was detected with the following gene order:Est-2 - 11 -Pha - 8 - (Spe/Spg) - 24 - P - 9 - (Spa/Spv) - 16 -Spba - 22 -Mdh-1. In addition, another linkage group was detected: (Spd/Spf/Sph) - 5 -Spca. Therefore, the seed proteins appear to be organized in clusters in the bean genome.

  18. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  19. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  20. Diallel analysis to choose parents for black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L M; Carneiro, P C S; Vale, N M; Barili, L D; Silva, L C; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2016-08-29

    In this study, conducted in two different seasons, we aimed to choose parents to obtain promising segregating populations for the extraction of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines that are superior in terms of disease resistance, plant architecture, and grain yield. Twelve parents were arranged in two groups to compose a partial diallel in a 5 x 7 scheme. Group 1 was composed of parents with black grains and erect plant architecture, while group 2 was composed of parents that had carioca grains and were resistant to the main fungal diseases that occur in the common bean. The following traits were evaluated: severity of angular leaf spot (ALS), plant architecture (PAG), and grain yield (YIELD). The data were analyzed according to a partial diallel model using parents and F1 hybrids. In the genetic control of ALS and PAG, additive effects were predominant, while for YIELD, additive effects were predominant in one season and dominance effects were in another season, because it is a more complex trait than ALS and PAG. For YIELD, we observed an interaction between general combining ability and specific combining ability between seasons. The genes that control ALS, PAG, and YIELD were in eight of the 12 parents evaluated in the diallel. The cultivar 'BRS Estilo' is suitable to use as a parent in common bean breeding in terms of ALS, PAG and YIELD. Recurrent selection is the most recommended option for simultaneously breeding for PAG, YIELD, and resistance to angular leaf spot in bean culture.

  1. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  2. Identifying genes involved in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Phaseolus vulgaris using RNAseq technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. Legumes form a unique symbiotic relationship with rhizob...

  3. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  4. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  5. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  6. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  7. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  8. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  9. Transcriptome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) through RNA-seq: nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We have performed next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) o...

  10. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117 Du

  11. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention

  12. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Mantequilla to inoculation of Rhizobium native strains of the Ecuador in greenhouse native races of the Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.

  13. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  14. Cloning of theOAT gene and the correlation between its expression and drought tolerance inPhaseolus vulgaris L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-bao; CAO Yuan-nan; ZHANG Zhao-yuan; WANG Shu-min; WU Jing; WANG Lan-fen

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is a major abiotic stress of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Increasing the proline accumulation contributes to enhance crop drought tolerance. A cDNA for δ-ornithine aminotransferase (δ-OAT), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline, was isolated fromPhaseolus vulgaris (PvOAT).PvOAT exhibits 87.4 and 39.8% similarity of the deduced amino acid sequences withδ-OAT fromGlycine maxandVigna aconitifolia, respectively. The transcriptional analysis revealed thatPvOAT was strongly induced by drought stress. And the expression ofPvOAT was higher in leaves than that in the root and stem of common bean by drought stress. Similar increase of the proline accumulation was observed in leaves and roots of common bean by drought stress. Furthermore, the proline content, the PvOAT expression and the PvOAT enzyme activity in cultivar F5575 was signiifcantly (P<0.01) higher than that in cultivar F4851 under drought-stress conditions. Interestingly, it had been observed that, in the later stage of drought stress, the proline steadily maintained at the maximum level maybe result from the PvOAT enzyme activity increasing steadily. These results indicated that the expression ofPvOAT and the accumulation of proline induced by drought stress treatment were related to the degree of common bean drought tolerance. So our results support the view that δ-OAT is associated with proline synthesis under drought stress conditions.

  15. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  16. Co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C L; Bell, J N; Ryder, T B; Bailey, J A; Schuch, W; Bolwell, G P; Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J

    1985-02-01

    Changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (dwarf French bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [S]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. Elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accumulation of phenyl-propanoid-derived phytoalexin antibiotics in suspension cultures of P. vulgaris. Co-ordinate induction of enzyme synthesis is also observed in hypocotyl tissue during race:cultivar-specific interactions with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose. In an incompatible interaction (host resistant) there are early increases apparently localized to the initial site of infection prior to the onset of phytoalexin accumulation and expression of hypersensitive resistance. In contrast, in a compatible interaction (host susceptible) there is no induction of synthesis in the early stages of infection, but a delayed widespread response at the onset of lesion formation associated with attempted lesion limitation. It is concluded that expression of the phytoalexin defense response in biologically stressed cells of P. vulgaris characteristically involves co-ordinate induction of synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes.

  17. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  18. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  1. Effects of copper on reserve mobilization in embryo of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; Bellani, Lorenza M; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2015-07-01

    The present research reports a biochemical and micro-submicroscopic analysis of copper effect on reserve mobilization during germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif seeds. Dry embryonic cells are rich in protein bodies and little starch grains. In Cu-treated embryos copper inhibited 50% of albumin and globulin mobilization after 72 h imbibition. The severe alterations in treated embryo cells, observed by electron microscope, were probably the cause of the inability to utilize the amino acids freed by protein mobilization and so possibly the cause of the inhibition of P. vulgaris embryonic axis elongation.

  2. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Mauro A M Carai; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially tr...

  3. A PHASEOLUS VULGARIS EXTRACT REDUCES CUE-INDUCED REINSTATEMENT OF CHOCOLATE SEEKING IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Irene eLorrai; Valentina ePiga; Mauro Antonio Maria Carai; Antonella eRiva; Paolo eMorazzoni; Gian Luigi eGessa; Giancarlo eColombo; Paola eMaccioni

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a reinstatement procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trai...

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. LEAVES, INFECTED BY THE MOST IMPORTANT BEAN DISEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALGOJATA BEROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas-exchange, plastid pigments and some other physiological parameters were determined in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. local populations leaves naturally infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli (Smith Dye, and Pseudomonas syringae pv.phaseolicola (Bukholder Young, Dye et Wilkie, and in healthy leaves (control. It was established that infected leaves had lower both plastid pigments content and photosynthetic activity as well as lower yield and quality of produce.

  5. Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Spores to Phaseolus vulgaris Hypocotyls and to Polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Young, David H.; Kauss, Heinrich

    1984-01-01

    Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors sodium azide and antimycin A, indicating a requirement for metabolic activity in adhesion. Various commercial proteins and Tween 80 also reduced adhesion to both surfaces. Binding was enhanced by the presence of salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides were equally effective. The removal of surface wax from hypocotyls by chloroform ...

  6. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  7. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are lim

  8. Histological anomalies in stems of common and runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Ph. coccineus L. treated with pendimenthalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' and runner beans (Ph. coccineus L. 'Blanka' and 'Eureka' were seeded on loess-like soil containing 1.6% of organic matter, and sprayed with pendimethalin at the dose of 1650 g•ha-1 ' immediately after seeding in the middle of May. The herbicide inhibited shoot growth and caused enlargement of the stem at the soil level. Observations made in light and scanning electron microscope showed that in the swollen parts of the stem, the diameter of cortical parenchyma cells was bigger, the thickness of phloem layer was irregular, phloem fibers were less lignified, and the xylem cylinder was asymmetrical. In stems of 'Augustynka', 'Złota Saxa' and 'Eureka' cultivars, the thickness of secondary xylem and the diameter of vessels were reduced. Some vessels and tracheids were positioned transversely and obliquely to the stem axis and had an arched shape. Cell walls were less lignified and had a smaller number of pits. The largest number of histological anomalies was found in stems of the 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' cultivars.

  9. Moderate water stress causes different stomatal and non-stomatal changes in the photosynthetic functioning of Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, J C; Zlatev, Z S; Leitão, A E; Pais, I P; Fortunato, A S; Lidon, F C

    2014-01-01

    The impact of moderate water deficit on the photosynthetic apparatus of three Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars, Plovdiv 10 (P10), Dobrudjanski Ran (DR) and Prelom (Prel), was investigated. Water shortage had less impact on leaf hydration, RWC (predawn and midday) and predawn water potential in Prel. RWC and Ψ(p) were more reduced in P10, while there was no osmotic adjustment in any cultivar. Although drought drastically reduced stomatal opening in P10 and DR, reduced A(max) indicated non-stomatal limitations that contributed to the negligible P(n). These limitations were on potential thylakoid electron transport rates of PSI and II, pointing to photosystem functioning as a major limiting step in photosynthesis. This agrees with decreases in actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)'/F(m)'), quantum yield of photosynthetic non-cyclic electron transport (ϕ(e)) and energy-driven photochemical events (q(P)), although the impact on these parameters would also include down-regulation processes. When compared to DR, Prel retained a higher functional state of the photosynthetic machinery, justifying reduced need for photoprotective mechanisms (non-photochemical quenching, zeaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene) and maintenance of the balance between energy capture and dissipative pigments. The highest increases in fructose, glucose, arabinose and sorbitol in Prel might be related to tolerance to a lower oxidative state. All cultivars had reduced A(max) due to daytime stomatal closure in well-watered conditions. Under moderate drought, Prel had highest tolerance, higher leaf hydration and maintenance of important photochemical use of energy. However, water shortage caused appreciable non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis linked to regulation/imbalance at the metabolic level (and growth) in all cultivars. This included damage, as reflected in decreased potential photosystem functioning, pointing to higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to drought than is commonly assumed

  10. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  11. Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

    2000-07-01

    In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production.

  12. Respuesta de Phaseolus vulgaris a microorganismos promotores de crecimiento vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Edith Romero - García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigaci ón fue analizar la respuesta de P. vulgaris a la inoculación individual y consorcio de MPCV a dosis reducida al 50% del FN. Para ello se inoculó P. vulgaris individualmente con: B. cereus, R. etli y T. harzianum y en consorcio de M PCV en jarras de Leonard tratada c on NH 4 NO 3 al 50 %, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar; con variables respuestas: porcentaje y días a germinación, altura de planta y longitud radical, peso fresco/seco aéreo y radical (PFA/PSA/PFR/PSR a plántula y floración; los datos experimentales se analizaron por Tukey , p ≤ 0 , 05. Los resultados mostraron que P. vulgaris inoculado con R. etli y T. harzianum tuvo un 100 % y 95,8% de germinación o emergencia en 4,8 y 4 , 5 días, respectivamente, valores con diferencia estadística en comparación con el 91,7% en 7,17 días en P. vu lgaris sin inocular con el 100% de FN o testigo fertilizado (TF. En la etapa de plántula de P. vulgaris con T. harzianum y R. etli fue de 1,12 g y 0,72 g PSA, así como de 0,31 g y 0,21 de PSR, respectivamente , superior a P. vulgaris (TF de 0,52 g de PSA y 0,19 g de PSR. Lo anterior apoya el potencial de R. etli y T. harzianum para la producción de P. vulgaris a dosis reducida de FN, comparado con el efecto positivo individual de B. cereus y en consorcio en la misma leguminosa .

  13. INDUCED CYTOMICTIC VARIATIONS AND SYNCYTE FORMATION DURING MICROSPOROGENESIS IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Chaudhary, N

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular translocation of chromatin material along with other cytoplasmic contents among the proximate meiocytes lying in close contact with each other commonly referred as cytomixis was reported during microsporogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L., a member of the family Fabaceae. The phenomenon of cytomixis was observed at three administered doses of gamma rays viz. 100, 200, 300 Gy respectively in the diploid plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The gamma rays irradiated plants showed the characteristic feature of inter-meiocyte chromatin/chromosomes transmigration through various means.such as channel formation, beak formation or by direct adhesion between the PMC's (Pollen mother cells). The present study also reports the first instance of syncyte formation induced via cytomictic transmigration in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Though the frequency of syncyteformation was rather low yet these could play a significant role in plant evolution. It is speculated that syncyte enhances the ploidy level of plants by forming 2n gametes and may lead to the production ofpolyploid plants. The phenomenon of cytomixis shows a gradual inclination along with the increasing treatment doses of gamma rays. The preponderance of cytomixis was more frequent during meiosis I as compared to meiosis II. An interesting feature noticed during the present study was the channel formation among the microspores and fusion among the tetrads due to cell wall dissolution. The impact of this phenomenon is also visible on the development of post-meiotic products. The formation of heterosized pollen grains; a deviation from the normal pollen grains has also been reported. The production of gametes with unbalanced chromosomes is of utmost importance and should be given more attention in future studies as they possess the capability of inducing variations at the genomic level and can be further utilized in the improvement of germplasm.

  14. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oblessuc Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%. This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4% under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b

  15. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...... breaking strains for further studies, BCMV RU1 was tagged with the sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was visualized directly without destruction of the tissue. In this paper we present details of the construction of the infectious clone and discuss its application in studies of BCMV...

  16. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress /

    OpenAIRE

    Polania Perdomo, José A.,

    2016-01-01

    Bibliografia El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de ...

  17. Analysis of the uptake of atmospheric ammonia by leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, L. W. A.; Koops, A. J.; Adema, E. H.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Pieters, G. A.

    Individual leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were exposed for 9 h in a leaf chamber to different NH 3 concentrations at different light intensities. The rates of NH 3-uptake, transpiration and photosynthesis were measured simultaneously. The flux density of NH 3 increased linearly with concentration in the range of 4-400μg m -3. Flux densities also increased with light intensity. Resistance analysis indicated that NH 3 transport into the leaf is via the stomata: transport via the cuticle is negligible under the experimental conditions. There is no internal resistance against NH 3 transport. The NH 3 flux was found not to influence the photosynthesis.

  18. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Polania Perdomo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de la atmósfera a t...

  19. Reação de germoplasma crioulo de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Luis A.M.; Ricardo S. Balardin; Costa,Ivan F. D; Gulart,Caroline A.; Lenz,Giuvan

    2008-01-01

    Nos anos de 2003 e 2004, na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, foram avaliados 60 genótipos de Feijoeiro Comum (Phaseolus vulgaris), de origem andina e meso-americana, com o objetivo de caracterizar sua estrutura genética quanto à resistência a 12 raças fisiológicas de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, no estádio juvenil (V1/V2). As reações de cada genótipo foram avaliadas com base em uma escala de notas com valores de 1 a 9 a partir das quais foram calculados dois índices de resistência para ...

  20. Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Spores to Phaseolus vulgaris Hypocotyls and to Polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D H; Kauss, H

    1984-04-01

    Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors sodium azide and antimycin A, indicating a requirement for metabolic activity in adhesion. Various commercial proteins and Tween 80 also reduced adhesion to both surfaces. Binding was enhanced by the presence of salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides were equally effective. The removal of surface wax from hypocotyls by chloroform treatment greatly reduced their subsequent ability to bind spores. The results suggest a similar mechanism for spore adhesion to the plant surface and to polystyrene, involving purely physical surface properties rather than group-specific binding sites.

  1. Morpho-physiological characteristics of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) related to drought adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Polanía, José A; M. Rao, Idupulapati; Mejía, Sara; Beebe, Stephen E.; Cajiao, César

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la segu- ridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las caracte- risticas morfológicas y fisiológicas de raices de 21 lineas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarr...

  2. Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris Enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em cultura celular de Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto de Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the activity of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in extracts of cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Invertase pathway was identified in the three studied species. Sucrose synthase pathway was also responsible for sucrose metabolism in Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris cells. Activity values higher than 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein were found for acid and neutral invertases, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase in the cell extract of the three plant species. Sucrose synthase showed low activity in Bauhinia forficata cells. As sucrose concentration in the culture medium decreased, sucrose synthase activity increased in C. zedoaria and P. vulgaris cells. The glycolytic enzymes activity gradually reduced at the end of the culture period, when carbohydrate was limited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em culturas de célula em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. A via da invertase foi identificada nas três espécies estudadas. A via da sacarose sintase também foi responsável pelo metabolismo da sacarose em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Foram encontradas atividades maiores que 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 de proteína das enzimas invertase ácida e alcalina, UDPglicose pirofosforilase e fosfoglicomutase no extrato celular das três espécies de plantas. A sacarose sintase mostrou atividade baixa nas células de Bauhinia forficata. À medida que a concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura diminuiu, a atividade da sacarose sintase aumentou em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Ao final do período de cultura, quando os carboidratos se tornaram limitantes, as atividades das enzimas glicolíticas reduziram-se gradualmente.

  3. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  4. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  5. Phytotoxic Effect of Landfill and Leachate Pollution Indexes on Germination and Seedling of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Benavides Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate solid waste management includes leachate management, an effluent that results from the degradation of solid waste, moisture content and pluvial additions to the disposal site. Due to poor management of the landfill, sometimes leachate is likely to reach nearby areas, affecting soil water and vegetal area. A powerful tool to assess the pollution potential of a given leachate is the leachate pollution index (LPI developed by Kummar & Alappat (2005 that evaluates 18 parameters in order to calculate a value between 5-100 being 100 the highest in pollution potential. The LPI allows the comparison between leachates from different sites and ages, and also assists in the decision making process on leachate treatment. However, it is currently unknown if this value can also be related to the fitotóxico effect of a leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L. The aim of this work was to calculate the LPI of two leachates and compare the effect on P. vulgaris L (common bean. A greenhouse scale experiment was set up, the studied variables were seed germination per cent (% and phenotype of P. vulgaris at seedling step after treated with several leachate concentrations from Guanajuato (GTO and Toluca (TOL, México. Results showed that a greater LPI (34.8 from GTO did not correspond to a largest fitotoxic effect on P. vulgaris. This bioassay could be a completely tool with LPI to evaluate pollution potential of leachate approaching to normal environmental conditions.

  6. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; During, H.J.; Vermeulen, P.J.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2014-01-01

    * Background and Aims Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. * Methods Phaseolus vulgaris p

  7. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  8. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  9. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  10. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are investigate

  11. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  12. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a signifi

  13. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  14. The interaction between endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme and PGIP from Phaseolus Vulgaris studied by surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, B; Cervone, F; Roepstorff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris. PG hydrolyses the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall and is considered an important pathogenicity factor of many fungi. PGIP is a specific inhibitor of fungal PGs and is thought to be involved in plant defence against phytopathogenic fungi. SPR was used either to study the effect...

  15. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  16. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45 % similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) ( = CNPSo 122(T) = SEMIA 4080(T) = IPR-Pv81(T) = WDCM 440(T)).

  17. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of genes expressed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melotto, Maeli; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B; Bruschi, Adriano G; Camargo, Luis E A

    2005-06-01

    To rapidly and cost-effectively generate gene expression data, we developed an annotated unigene database of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In this study, 3 cDNA libraries were constructed from the bean breeding line SEL1308, 1 from young leaf and 2 from seedlings inoculated or not inoculated with the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Briosi & Cavara, which causes anthracnose in common bean. To this date, 5255 single-pass sequences have been included in the database after selection based on sequence quality. These ESTs were trimmed and clustered using the computer programs Phred and CAP3 to form a unigene collection of 3126 unique sequences. Within clusters, 318 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 68 insertions-deletions (indels) were found, indicating the presence of paralogous gene families in our database. Each unigene sequence was analyzed for possible function using their similarity to known genes represented in the GenBank database and classified into 14 categories. Only 314 unigenes showed significant similarities to Phaseolus genomic sequences and P. vulgaris ESTs, which indicates that 90% (2818 unigenes) of our database represent newly discovered common bean genes. In addition, 12% (387 unigenes) were shown to be specific to common bean. This study represents a first step towards the discovery of novel genes in beans and a valuable source of molecular markers for expressed gene tagging and mapping.

  18. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  19. Polimorfismo en Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Fabaceae. Evidencias que indican hibridación natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S Hoc

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió una población polimórfica de Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus que crece en el Noroeste de Argentina. Para dilucidar el origen de este polimorfismo fueron coleccionadas algunas plantas que pertenecían a la var. aborigineus, otras que exhibían dimorfismo floral y plantas que presentaban ciertos caracteres particulares. Luego de realizarles tratamientos de fecundación libre y autopolinización, se sembraron las semillas producidas en un invernáculo, aisladas del acceso de visitantes potencialmente polinizadores. Se siguió el crecimiento de cada planta hasta su fructificación. Se registró el número de plantas que se murieron debido a las infecciones. El número de plantas que florecieron y fructificaron fue registrado con el fin de estudiar su éxito reproductivo. Se analizaron los caracteres florales y se realizaron mediciones de las legumbres y sus semillas. Con los resultados obtenidos, las autoras concluyeron que los individuos que exhibían el dimorfismo floral probablemente sean el resultado de hibridación e introgresión entre la var. aborigineus y cultivares primitivos. Esta hipótesis se sustenta por la presencia de segregación divergente, observada en la descendencia que exhibía esta segregación. Otros cultivares permiten un flujo génico entre las entidades parentales, con la consecuencia del establecimiento de una población híbrida coexistente con sus entidades parentales. Quizás como resultado de la introgresión, los ejemplares de la línea con características diferenciales exhiben caracteres diferentes a los de sus progenitores. Los resultados de la autopolinización y de la fecundación libre en los individuos asignados a lavar. aborigineus, demuestran que la fecundación libre aporta una gran plasticidad genética, porque las generaciones posteriores persisten y son resistentes a las infecciones. Se hizo un seguimiento de la descendencia de la F1. Las plantas que pertenecían a la var. aborigineus

  20. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  1. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signalling via reactive oxygen species (ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia eDuran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN as a jasmonic acid (JA–dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the 'damaged self' from the damaged 'non-self'. The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason.

  2. Fine-mapping of a major QTL controlling angular leaf spot resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Beat; Manzanares, Chloe; Jara, Carlos; Lobaton, Juan David; Studer, Bruno; Raatz, Bodo

    2015-05-01

    A major QTL for angular leaf spot resistance in the common bean accession G5686 was fine-mapped to a region containing 36 candidate genes. Markers have been developed for marker-assisted selection. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important grain legume and an essential protein source for human nutrition in developing countries. Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the pathogen Pseudocercospora griseola (Sacc.) Crous and U. Braun is responsible for severe yield losses of up to 80%. Breeding for resistant cultivars is the most ecological and economical means to control ALS and is particularly important for yield stability in low-input agriculture. Here, we report on a fine-mapping approach of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) ALS4.1(GS, UC) for ALS resistance in a mapping population derived from the resistant genotype G5686 and the susceptible cultivar Sprite. 180 F3 individuals of the mapping population were evaluated for ALS resistance and genotyped with 22 markers distributed over 11 genome regions colocating with previously reported QTL for ALS resistance. Multiple QTL analysis identified three QTL regions, including one major QTL on chromosome Pv04 at 43.7 Mbp explaining over 75% of the observed variation for ALS resistance. Additional evaluation of 153 F4, 89 BC1F2 and 139 F4/F5/BC1F3 descendants with markers in the region of the major QTL delimited the region to 418 kbp harboring 36 candidate genes. Among these, 11 serine/threonine protein kinases arranged in a repetitive array constitute promising candidate genes for controlling ALS resistance. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers cosegregating with the major QTL for ALS resistance have been developed and constitute the basis for marker-assisted introgression of ALS resistance into advanced breeding germplasm of common bean.

  3. Localization of phytase transcripts in germinating seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Louadj, Lamia; Ounane, Ghania; Abadie, Josiane; Amenc, Laurie; Bargaz, Adnane; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-01

    The work provides the first-time evidence of tissue-specific expression of a phytase gene in the germinating seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytase enzyme plays a major role in germinating seeds. It is also active during N2 fixation within nodules of legumes. The effect of phosphorus (P) deficiency on phytase gene expression and localization in N2-fixing root nodules has been recently studied in hydroaeroponic culture of Phaseolus vulgaris. In this study, phytase gene transcripts within the germinating seed tissues of the P-inefficient P. vulgaris recombinant inbred line RIL147 were in situ localized with a similar RT-PCR recipe as that used for nodules. Our results show that the phytase gene expression was mainly localized in the outer layers, vascular cells and parenchyma of germinating seeds whereas it was localized in the inner and middle cortex of nodules. Image analysis quantified higher fluorescence intensity of the phytase transcript signal in the seed embryo than in radicles, cotyledons or the nodule cortex. Furthermore, the phytase activity was 22-fold higher in cotyledons (43 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dry weight) than in nodules (2 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dry weight). The K m and V m values of phytase activity in cotyledons were also significantly higher than in nodules. Interestingly, the amplified sequence of cDNA phytase exhibited highest homology with the Glycine max purple acid phosphatase (NM_001289274) 90 % for germinating seed as compared to nodule phytase cDNA displaying 94 % homology with the Glycine max phytase (GQ422774.1). It is concluded that phytase enzymes are likely to vary from seeds to nodules and that phytase enzymes play key roles in the use of organic P or N2 fixation, as it is well known for germination.

  4. Contenido de aflatoxinas y proteína en 13 variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Aflatoxin and protein content in 13 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Denise Peña-Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En México el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una semilla leguminosa de elevado consumo (11 kg per cápita anualmente, por lo que su cultivo es amplio en diferentes regiones. En este estudió se determinó la presencia de aflatoxinas en ocho variedades de frijol común y cinco variedades de frijol mejorado; además del contenido de proteína y humedad. En todas las variedades evaluadas el contenido de humedad mostró grandes variaciones (6 a 16%, encontrándose 16% de las variedades estudiadas fuera de la normatividad (In Mexico, the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a highly consumed legume seed (11 kg per capita annually, so that its cultivation it' s quite extensive in different regions. In this study we investigated the presence of aflatoxins in eight common bean varieties and five improved bean varieties, in addition to protein and moisture. In all the varieties tested, the moisture content showed large variations (from 6 to 16%, being 16%of the varieties studied outside the normal (< 12%. The highest content of protein was detected in the improved bean varieties (26.1% and, the lowest in commercial (19.8% ± 3.09 and wild varieties (20.78% ± 1.93. All of them showed aflatoxins on average of 7.46 ng g-¹ and a range from 5 to 13 ng g-¹. The highest level of contamination was observed in the improved bean varieties (9.2 ±2.9 ngg-¹, followed by the commercial ones ±0.95 7.25 ngg-¹ and wild varieties 6 ± 1 ng g-¹. Tannins were detected in wild bean varieties at a level of 0.44%± 0.13. The results obtained confirm the presence of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the different varieties of common and wild beans at levels permitted by national law, but may pose a risk to the consumer's health due to its high consumption.

  5. Catalytic and structural diversity of the fluazifop-inducible glutathione transferases from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Asimakopoulou, Basiliki; Platis, Dimitrios; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2012-06-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of inducible enzymes that play important roles in stress tolerance and herbicide detoxification. Treatment of Phaseolus vulgaris leaves with the aryloxyphenoxypropionic herbicide fluazifop-p-butyl resulted in induction of GST activities. Three inducible GST isoenzymes were identified and separated by affinity chromatography. Their full-length cDNAs with complete open reading frame were isolated using RACE-RT and information from N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analysis of the cDNA clones showed that the deduced amino acid sequences share high homology with GSTs that belong to phi and tau classes. The three isoenzymes were expressed in E. coli and their substrate specificity was determined towards 20 different substrates. The results showed that the fluazifop-inducible glutathione transferases from P. vulgaris (PvGSTs) catalyze a broad range of reactions and exhibit quite varied substrate specificity. Molecular modeling and structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. These results provide new insights into catalytic and structural diversity of GSTs and the detoxifying mechanism used by P. vulgaris.

  6. BOOKLET TO INSTITUTO PEDAGOGICO NACIONAL TEACHERS ABOUT SYMBIOSIS AND PROCESSES ON BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE BIOFERTILIZER Rhizobium sp IN Phaseolus vulgaris WITH ALTERNATIVE TO SYMBIOSIS FOR Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Quevedo Rubiano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the thesis carried out in the research group of Biotechnology Teaching in Colombia, with the aim of providing teachers of Biology of Instituto Pedagogico Nacional a booklet that can strengthen the teaching of biotechnology processes using Rhizobium sp reduction of chemical fertilizers and symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris.   The booklet contains a proposal of practical activities that enable teachers of this institution to use spaces like the farm, enabling to teach biotechnology related to agronomy. Therefore, for this project was considered two Biological and Pedagogical approaches, the first is within the analytical empirical paradigm in the process of microbiological characterization of Rhizobium and their Biofertilizing ability in beans; and the teaching approach within the design of a booklet that includes the findings of this study as a contribution to the reduction of chemical fertilizers school farm. In order to have a complete analysis of the work it was subjected to quantitative and qualitative methods.   This biotech practice is included in the booklet showing in bioassays that bacteria has biofertilizer without inhibiting potential symbiosis, and that research and teaching biological concepts from scientific expertise can be promoted in Biology class for students to understand its context in a significant way, to be used in different levels of education; also it is a teaching strategy.

  7. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  8. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  9. Digestibilidad del almidón en diferentes variedades de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Apolonio Vargas-Torres; Perla Osorio-Díaz; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Leticia Morales-Franco; Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió la composición química y la digestibilidad del almidón de cuatro variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas (p¿0,05) en el contenido de proteína y el contenido de lípidos fue bajo pero sin diferencias apreciables. Estos frijoles son buena fuente de minerales (3,67-5,15% cenizas). El valor de almidón total (AT) menor fue para la variedad Flor de Mayo (34,70%) y el mayor para Peruano (42,81%) y Mayocoba (40,24%). Los valores mayores...

  10. Occurrence of isoflavonoids in Brazilian common bean germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Paula Feliciano; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2014-10-08

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is present in the daily diet of various countries and, as for other legumes, has been investigated for its nutraceutical potential. Thus, 16 genotypes from different gene pools, representing seven types of seed coats and different responses to pathogens and pests, were selected to verify their isoflavone contents. The isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein and the flavonols kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin were found. Grains of the black type showed the highest concentrations of isoflavonoids and were the only ones to exhibit daidzein. IAC Formoso, with high protein content and source of resistance to anthracnose, showed the greatest concentration of genistein, representing around 11% of the content present in soybean, as well as high levels of kaempferol. Arc 1, Raz 55, and IAC Una genotypes showed high content of coumestrol. The results suggest the use of IAC Formoso to increase the nutraceutical characteristics in common bean.

  11. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  12. A PHASEOLUS VULGARIS EXTRACT REDUCES CUE-INDUCED REINSTATEMENT OF CHOCOLATE SEEKING IN RATS

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    Irene eLorrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a reinstatement procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR 10 (FR10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food.

  13. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40–45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  14. Growth Response of Two Phaseolus mungo L. Cultivars Induced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride

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    Navnita Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to quantify the difference in response of two Phaseolus mungo L. cultivars (i.e., UH-1 and IPU-94-1 to Glomus mosseae (G, that is, Funneliformis mosseae, Acaulospora laevis (A, and Trichoderma viride (T, in different combinations or alone. All the treatments were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum to ensure nodulation as soil used in the experiment was sterilized. After 120 days of inoculation, plants were analyzed for chlorophyll content, nodulation, mycorrhization, leaf area, and protein content. Results indicate variation in growth response of two cultivars with different treatments. Triple inoculation of plants with G + A + T proved to be the best treatment for growth followed by G + T in both cultivars. Our work allowed the selection of P. mungo L. cultivar UH-1 as highly mycorrhizal responsive as compared to IPU-94-1 and G. mosseae to be an efficient bioinoculant as compared to A. laevis for growth enhancement of P. mungo. Further characterization of P. mungo genotypes will enhance our knowledge of physiological and genetic mechanism behind increase in plant growth and yield due to AM symbiosis.

  15. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-07-07

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  16. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans

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    Arishya Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80∘C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin.

  17. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  18. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Balestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives: A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design: The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results: Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions: The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses.

  19. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Francesco; Rotondo, Rossella; Moschini, Roberta; Pellegrino, Mario; Cappiello, Mario; Barracco, Vito; Misuri, Livia; Sorce, Carlo; Andreucci, Andrea; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans) in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase) was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s) present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses. PMID:27415159

  20. Purification, characterization and induction of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A

    1988-12-01

    The enzyme L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was purified from leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration and Sepharose-4-B--succinyl-aminoethyl-L-phenylalanine affinity chromatography. L-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was specifically eluted from the affinity matrix with its substrate L-phenylalanine at 20-25 degrees C. The purified enzyme was shown to be homogeneous by gel electrophoresis both in presence and absence of SDS. Its Mr, determined by gel filtration and non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, was 320,000 +/- 9000 and 330,000 +/- 4000 respectively. After SDS electrophoresis only one band of Mr 83,000 +/- 4000 was detected, indicating that the enzyme is an oligomer containing four subunits. The pH optimum of enzyme activity was 8.8-9.2. Ampholyte isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide demonstrated the presence of a single charged species at pH 4.2. The homogeneous enzyme catalyzed the deamination of L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamate but did not catalyze the transamination of L-phenylalanine to L-phenylpyruvate. The enzyme showed Km 1.25 mM for L-phenylalanine. Antibodies to homogeneous L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase recognised specific epitopes on L-phenylalanine aminotransferase as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and immunoblotting. The induction of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity during phaseollin biosynthesis in the Phaseolus vulgaris--Colletotrichum lindemuthianum interaction was regulated by an increase in enzyme concentration resulting from an increase in de novo synthesis of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase protein.

  1. Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain.

  2. POLIAMINAS E ATIVIDADE DA PEROXIDASE EM FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CULTIVADO SOB ESTRESSE SALINO POLYAMINES AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. GROWN UNDER SALINE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O teor de poliaminas (putrescina, espermidina e espermina e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 foram determinados em plantas de Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioquinha, após terem sido submetidas a estresse salino (50 e 100 mM de NaCl. Foram observadas alterações nos teores das poliaminas, principalmente putrescina, que aumentou com o tempo e a concentração de NaCl. Também ocorreu aumento na atividade da peroxidase em ambas concentrações de NaCl utilizadas. Os resultados mostraram alterações no metabolismo de poliaminas e peroxidases nas plantas de feijão cultivadas em meio salino.Putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents and peroxidase activity (EC 1.11.1.7 were determined in plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioquinha submitted to saline stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Changes were observed in polyamine contents, mainly in putrescine. Increase in peroxidase activity also occurred with NaCl concentration, for both concentrations used. The results showed alterations in the polyamines contents and peroxidase activity in plants of Phaseolus vulgaris grown under salinity.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  4. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will

  5. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method.

  6. A Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene is required for root infection by Rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Nava, Noreide; Cárdenas, Luis; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Santana, Olivia; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases [respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs)] have emerged as key players in the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions. Nonetheless, their role in mutualistic associations, such as the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, is poorly understood. In this work, nine members of the Phaseolus vulgaris Rboh gene family were identified. The transcript of one of these, PvRbohB, accumulated abundantly in shoots, roots and nodules. PvRbohB promoter activity was detected in meristematic regions of P. vulgaris roots, as well as during infection thread (IT) progression and nodule development. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated PvRbohB down-regulation in transgenic roots reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lateral root density, and greatly impaired nodulation. Microscopy analysis revealed that progression of the ITs was impeded at the base of root hairs in PvRbohB-RNAi roots. Furthermore, the few nodules that formed in PvRbohB-down-regulated roots displayed abnormally wide ITs and reduced nitrogen fixation. These findings indicate that this common bean NADPH oxidase is crucial for successful rhizobial colonization and probably maintains proper IT growth and shape.

  7. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Luis P; Ramírez, Mario; Barbazuk, William B; Hernández, Georgina

    2017-08-22

    The vast diversification of proteins in eukaryotic cells has been related with multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene that result in alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts. Analysis of RNA sequencing data from expressed sequence tags and next generation RNA sequencing has been crucial for AS identification and genome-wide AS studies. For the identification of AS events from the related legume species Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, 157 and 88 publicly available RNA-seq libraries, respectively, were analyzed. We identified 85,570 AS events from P. vulgaris in 72% of expressed genes and 134,316 AS events in 70% of expressed genes from G. max. These were categorized in seven AS event types with intron retention being the most abundant followed by alternative acceptor and alternative donor, representing ~75% of all AS events in both plants. Conservation of AS events in homologous genes between the two species was analyzed where an overrepresentation of AS affecting 5'UTR regions was observed for certain types of AS events. The conservation of AS events was experimentally validated for 8 selected genes, through RT-PCR analysis. The different types of AS events also varied by relative position in the genes. The results were consistent in both species. The identification and analysis of AS events are first steps to understand their biological relevance. The results presented here from two related legume species reveal high conservation, over ~15-20 MY of divergence, and may point to the biological relevance of AS.

  8. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Madhusudana Rao, Idupulapati; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviatio...

  9. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Koocheki, A.; M. Nassiri Mahalati; Y Alizadeh; R. Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sesame (Sesamum indicum), an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized ...

  10. The performance of the CROPGRO model for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield simulation=Desempenho do modelo CROPGRO-Dry bean na simulação do rendimento de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Barbosa Justino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the CROPGRO-Dry bean model for simulating dry bean yield. The model’s genetic coefficients were calibrated based on the cultivars ‘Pérola’, ‘Ouro Negro’ and ‘Ouro Vermelho’ in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The coefficients were adjusted based on two experiments that were performed in 2003 with irrigated and nonirrigated water regimes. An additional experiment with irrigation was conducted in 2004. After calibration, the model simulated the bean yield for the period from 1975 through 2006. The simulations were based on daily data on maximum and minimum air temperatures, total precipitation and global solar radiation. The physical and hydric characteristics of the soil and crop management practices were also included. The results show that the crop model can correctly reproduce the observed yield. This finding may indicate that the model is a useful tool to evaluate the crop response to variability and changing climate.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o modelo CROPGRO-Dry bean como ferramenta de previsão de rendimento de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., tendo como base as cultivares ‘Pérola’, ‘Ouro Negro’ e ‘Ouro Vermelho’, cultivados em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. O ajuste dos coeficientes genéticos do modelo foi obtido a partir de dois experimentos realizados em 2003, um conduzido com irrigação e outro em condições de sequeiro. Além destes, outro experimento foi conduzido em 2004, com irrigação. Após o ajuste dos coeficientes, realizou-se a simulação do rendimento do feijoeiro com base em dados de 31 safras entre o período de 1975 a 2006. As simulações foram baseadas em dados meteorológicos diários de temperaturas máxima e mínima do ar, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global, características físico-hídricas do solo e dados de manejo da cultura. Por meio das análises realizadas nas simulações, verificou-se que o modelo

  11. Evaluation of foliar phenols of 25 Mexican varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as antioxidants and varietal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Alfonso; Almaraz-Abarca, Norma; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhri; González-Elizondo, María Del Socorro; Herrera-Arrieta, Yolanda; Pajarito-Ravelero, Arnulfo; Alanís-Bañuelos, Ruth Elizabeth; Torres-Morán, Martha Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and the foliar phenol composition of 25 Mexican varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) were evaluated. Phaseolus coccineus was analysed with comparative aims. The high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection analysis revealed 27 phenolics in the leaves of P. vulgaris (13 quercetin-3-O-glycosides, 8 kaempferol-3-O-glycosides, 2 myricetin glycosides and 4 phenolic acids) and 5 in P. coccineus (2 kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, 2 apigenin-7-O-glycoside and 1 luteolin-7-O-glycoside). All extracts showed high levels of phenols and flavonoids (0.964-5.601 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, and 0.287-1.418 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, respectively) and relevant antioxidant properties, suggesting that the leaves of the varieties of P. vulgaris are a significant source of natural antioxidants. The foliar phenol profiles were species-specific and, besides, the qualitative variation allowed discriminating among varieties of P. vulgaris. These profiles can represent an important varietal authenticity proof.

  12. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-10-15

    Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20-76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagöz, Vahram; Manning, William J

    2005-08-01

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'R123' (O(3)-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O(3)-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O(3) concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O(3)-sensitive and O(3)-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O(3).

  14. Cloning and characterization of a biotic-stress-inducible glutathione transferase from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous proteins in plants that play important roles in stress tolerance and in the detoxification of toxic chemicals and metabolites. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic diversification of a GST isoenzyme from Phaseolus vulgaris (PvGST) which is induced under biotic stress treatment (Uromyces appendiculatus infection). The full-length cDNA of this GST isoenzyme (termed PvGSTU3-3) with complete open reading frame, was isolated using RACE-RT and showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with the tau class plant GSTs. PvGSTU3-3 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase, thioltransferase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. In addition, its K m for GSH is about five to ten times lower compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that PvGSTU3-3 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g., oxidative stress). Its ability to conjugate GSH with isothiocyanates may provide an additional role for this enzyme to act as a regulator of the released isothiocyanates from glucosinolates as a response of biotic stress. Molecular modeling showed that PvGSTU3-3 shares the same overall fold and structural organization with other plant cytosolic GSTs, with major differences at their hydrophobic binding sites (H-sites) and some differences at the level of C-terminal domain and the linker between the C- and N-terminal domains. PvGSTU3-3, in general, exhibits restricted ability to bind xenobiotics in a nonsubstrate manner, suggesting that the biological role of PvGSTU3-3, is restricted mainly to the catalytic function. Our findings highlight the functional and catalytic diversity of plant GSTs and demonstrate their pivotal role for addressing biotic stresses in Phaseolus

  15. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  16. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  17. Effect of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on electrolyte leakage in Phaseolus vulgaris roots overexpressing RbohB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Nava, Noreide; Quinto, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory oxidative burst homolog (RBOH)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a wide range of biological functions in plants. They play a critical role in the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. For instance, overexpression of PvRbohB enhances nodule numbers, but reduces mycorrhizal colonization in Phaseolus vulgaris hairy roots and downregulation has the opposite effect. In the present study, we assessed the effect of both rhizobia and AM fungi on electrolyte leakage in transgenic P. vulgaris roots overexpressing (OE) PvRbohB. We demonstrate that elevated levels of electrolyte leakage in uninoculated PvRbohB-OE transgenic roots were alleviated by either Rhizobium or AM fungi symbiosis, with the latter interaction having the greater effect. These results suggest that symbiont colonization reduces ROS elevated electrolyte leakage in P. vulgaris root cells.

  18. TUC 550: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con tolerancia a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola TUC 550: a new variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with tolerance to angular leaf spot (ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    Full Text Available La mancha angular del poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L., causada por el hongo Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc. Ferraris, provoca pérdidas importantes en el cultivo de poroto. Este trabajo describe la obtención de una nueva variedad de poroto negro, con tolerancia a la mancha angular y óptimo rendimiento, que podría reemplazar a las actuales variedades comerciales difundidas en el Noroeste Argentino. En el año 2001, se introdujeron del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, Colombia, 55 líneas de poroto negro, en las que se combinaban genes que les otorgaban tolerancia múltiple a las principales enfermedades, entre ellas, la mancha angular. Estas líneas fueron sembradas en parcelas de observación en las localidades de La Invernada (La Cocha, Tucumán y San Agustín (Cruz Alta, Tucumán en los años 2002 y 2003. El testigo local fue la variedad TUC 500. Se identificaron cuatro líneas con altos niveles de tolerancia, las que posteriormente fueron evaluadas en invernáculo con 10 patotipos de P. griseola, provenientes de la zona de cultivo. Como resultado de las evaluaciones, se seleccionó una línea adaptada a la región con buen comportamiento con respecto a mancha angular y buen potencial de rendimiento. Estas características fundamentaron la inscripción de TUC 550, en el año 2006, como una nueva variedad de poroto negro ante el Instituto Nacional de Semillas (INASE.The purpose of this work was to develop a bean cultivar with tolerance to angular leaf spot (ALS which would replace the susceptible bean cultivars currently used in Northwestem Argentina (NWA. In 2001, 55 lines of black beans were introduced from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture. These presented multiple genes that endowed them with tolerance to the main diseases affecting the crop. In 2002, these lines were cultivated at two sites, La Invernada (La Cocha, Tucumán and San Agustín (Cruz Alta, Tucumán, in order to compare their yields and

  19. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants.

  20. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  1. Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., a nodule endophytic bacterium of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Hui; Liu, Li Xue; Chen, Wen Feng; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Verástegui-Valdés, Myrthala M; Wang, En Tao; Han, Xiao Zeng

    2017-01-01

    One Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as FH14(T), was isolated from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Hidalgo State of Mexico. Results based upon 16S rRNA gene (≥99.8 % similarities to known species), concatenated sequence (recA, atpD and glnII) analysis of three housekeeping genes (≤93.4 % similarities to known species) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of genome sequence (ranged from 87.6 to 90.0 % to related species) indicated the distinct position of strain FH14(T) within the genus Rhizobium. In analyses of symbiotic genes, only nitrogen fixation gene nifH was amplified that had nucleotide sequence identical to those of the bean-nodulating strains in R. phaseoli and R. vallis, while nodulation gene nodC gene was not amplified. The failure of nodulation to its original host P. vulgaris and other legumes evidenced the loss of its nodulation capability. Strain FH14(T) contained summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c, 59.96 %), C16:0 (10.6 %) and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928, 10.24 %) as the major components of cellular fatty acids. Failure to utilize alaninamide, and utilizing L-alanine, L-asparagine and γ-amino butyric acid as carbon source, distinguished the strain FH14(T) from the type strains for the related species. The genome size and DNA G+C content of FH14(T) were 6.94 Mbp and 60.8 mol %, respectively. Based on those results, a novel specie in Rhizobium, named Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., was proposed, with FH14(T) (=HAMBI 3636(T) = LMG 29288(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants to low-let ionizing radiation: Growth and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Pugliese, M.; Virzo De Santo, A.; De Maio, A.

    2013-10-01

    The scenarios for the long-term habitation of space platforms and planetary stations involve plants as fundamental part of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) to support the crew needs. Several constraints may limit plant growth in space: among them ionizing radiation is recognized to severely affect plant cell at morphological, physiological and biochemical level. In this work, plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were subjected to four different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on this species and to analyze possible mechanisms carried out to overcome the radiation injuries. The effects of X-rays on plant growth were assessed by measuring stem elongation, number of internodes and leaf dry weight. The integrity of photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by photosynthetic pigment composition and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, whereas changes in total antioxidant pool and glutathione S transferase activity (GST) were utilized as markers of oxidative stress. The distribution of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues as natural shielding against radiation was also determined. Irradiation of plants at 0.3 and 10 Gy did not determine differences in all considered parameters as compared to control. On the contrary, at 50 and 100 Gy a reduction of plant growth and a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds and a decrease in total antioxidant content and GST activity were found. Only a slight reduction of Rubisco activity in leaves irradiated at 50 and 100 Gy was found. The overall results indicate P. vulgaris as a species with a good potential to face ionizing radiation and suggest its suitability for utilization in BLSSs.

  3. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  4. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving.

  5. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpana Nanjareddy; Lourdes Blanco; Manoj-Kumar Arthikala; Xochitl Alvarado Affantrange; Federico Snchez; Miguel Lara

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and en-hanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean.

  6. Seed germination and seedling growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by magnetized saline water

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    Fateme Aghamir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water is considered eco-friendly physical presowing seed germination.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetized watertreatments on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris germination under saline conditions (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mM NaCl. This experiment was performed as factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD with three replications. The results revealed that the roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and roots to shoots ratio, chlorophyll content index, water uptake, tissue water contentwere significantly affected by magnetized water.Irrigation with magnetized water significantly increased the physiologic factors such as germination percentage and index, vigor index and salt tolerance index, compared to untreated control seeds.Mean germination time and parameters T1, T10, T25, T50and T90 (required time for germination of one to 90 percent of seeds were reduced significantly in all magnetized water treated plants in comparison to control.The results also demonstrated that magnetized water was conducive to promote the growth of bean seedlings under saline conditions.

  7. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  8. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen interactions. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, D.C.; Weinstein, L.H.; Mancini, J.F.; van Lueken, P.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments in fumigation chambers with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants were performed to assess the effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen (fungal and bacterial) interactions. Hydrogen fluoride was found to alter the plant-pathogen interaction, although the kind and consistency of effect caused by HF depended upon the host, pathogen, and several other factors. A reduction in powdery mildew probably indicates that HF was affecting the infectivity of the pathogen itself because reduction in disease was proportional to the length of the exposure period, infection was continuous during the exposure period, and the pathogen itself was epiphytic. The effect of fluoride on bean rust may have been due to accumulated fluoride in the leaf having a direct or indirect effect on the pathogen because both pre- and post-inoculation exposures to HF were effective and additive. Other evidence for an indirect effect of fluoride was found in halo-blight where stem collapse was affected but foliar symptoms were not, and the site affected was spatially removed from the site of fluoride accumulation. Effects on early blight of tomato also indicated an effect of fluoride in the leaf.

  9. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  10. Anatomical alterations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. mature leaves irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Arena, C; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of higher plants in Space involves not only the development of new agro-technologies for the design of ecologically closed Space greenhouses, but also understanding of the effects of Space factors on biological systems. Among Space factors, ionising radiation is one of the main constraints to the growth of organisms. In this paper, we analyse the effect of low-LET radiation on leaf histology and cytology in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants subjected to increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy). Leaves irradiated at tissue maturity were compared with not-irradiated controls. Semi-thin sections of leaves were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis was applied to quantify anatomical parameters, with a specific focus on the occurrence of signs of structural damage as well as alterations at subcellular level, such as the accumulation of phenolic compounds and chloroplast size. Results showed that even at high levels of radiation, general anatomical structure was not severely perturbed. Slight changes in mesophyll density and cell enlargement were detected at the highest level of radiation. However, at 100 Gy, higher levels of phenolic compounds accumulated along chloroplast membranes: this accompanied an increase in number of chloroplasts. The reduced content of chlorophylls at high levels of radiation was associated with reduced size of the chloroplasts. All data are discussed in terms of the possible role of cellular modifications in the maintenance of high radioresistance and photosynthetic efficiency.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhiza maintains nodule function during external NH4+ supply in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Peter E; Pérez-Fernández, Maria A; Valentine, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    The synergistic benefits of the dual inoculation of legumes with nodule bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are well established, but the effect of an external NH(4)(+) supply on this tripartite relationship is less clear. This effect of NH(4)(+) supply was investigated with regards to the growth and function of the legume host and both symbionts. Nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings with and without AM, were grown in a sand medium with either 0 N, 1 mM or 3 mM NH(4)(+). Plants were harvested at 30 days after emergence and measurements were taken for biomass, N(2) fixation, photosynthesis, asparagine concentration, construction costs and N nutrition. The addition of NH(4)(+) led to a decline in the percentage AM colonization and nodule dry weights, although AM colonization was affected to a lesser extent. NH(4)(+) supply also resulted in a decrease in the reliance on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF); however, the AM roots maintained higher levels of NH(4)(+) uptake than their non-AM counterparts. Furthermore, the non-AM plants had a higher production of asparagine than the AM plants. The inhibitory effects of NH(4)(+) on nodule function can be reduced by the presence of AM at moderate levels of NH(4)(+) (1 mM), via improving nodule growth or relieving the asparagine-induced inhibition of BNF. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  12. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Dinh; Pham Le Ha; Nguyen Van Toan; Le Xuan Tham [Nuclear Research Institute, Radiobiology Department, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M{sub 1} generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M{sub 2} generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  13. Green manure and its influence on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green manures have been used as biomass producers and suppliers of nutrients and keep the soil productive potential in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of dry biomass and nutrient concentration and accumulation in plants of green manure in two cropping systems, without associating and associated with millet and its influence on the nutritional status of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in succession in agroecological production. Four legumes (Canavalia ensiformis Adans; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; Crotalaria juncea L.; Mucuna pruriens (L. DC and one grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. as association plant, were evaluated. A randomized block design was used, with eight treatments and four repetitions. The green manure plants were cut and left on the ground at 60 days after planting and bean was planted 20 days after cutting the manure plants. The evaluated variables were dried biomass production, nutrient content of green manure and nutrient content in leaves of beans in succession. The production of dry biomass of green manure was higher than 9.00 t ha-1. Mucuna stood out with the greatest tenors of N, Ca, Mg, pork beans with the highest tenors of K, Cu, Mn. The greatest accumulation of P, K and Ca nutrients was in pigeon pea. The highest values of N and Mg were obtained in mucuna. Higher C / N relation was obtained in rotalaria.

  14. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  15. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  16. Stress induced acquisition of somatic embryogenesis in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; López, Liliana; León-Ramírez, Claudia G; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Verver-y-Vargas, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been shown to be a recalcitrant plant to induce somatic embryogenesis (SE) under in vitro conditions. We used an alternative strategy to induce SE in common bean based upon the use of a cytokinin (BAP) coupled with osmotic stress adaptation instead of SE response that is induced by auxins. Explants derived from zygotic embryos of common bean were subjected to osmotic stress (sucrose 12 % w/v, 0.5 M) in the presence of BAP 10 mg/L and adenine free base 40 mg/L to induce somatic embryos from specific competent cells of the apical meristem and cotyledonary node. Somatic embryos were obtained from the competent cells in a direct response (direct SE). In a secondary response (secondary SE), those somatic embryos formed proembryogenic masses (PEM) that originated/developed into secondary somatic embryos and showed the SE ontogeny. Maturation of somatic embryos was achieved by using different osmolality media and converted to plants. Full-visible light spectrum was necessary to achieve efficient plant regeneration. Long-term recurrent SE was demonstrated by propagation of PEM at early stages of SE. This protocol is currently being applied for stable genetic transformation by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and bioballistics as well as for basic biochemical and molecular biology experiments.

  17. Molecular polymorphism related to flowering trait variation in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Lorenzo; Tissi, Carlo; Mazzucato, Andrea; Negri, Valeria

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flowering variation and the molecular polymorphism in key regulatory genes that control flowering in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. collection of 94 accessions from Europe and the Americas. The analysis of variance revealed that the difference in days-to-flowering between accessions was significant, with European accessions characterized by flowering precocity. Population structure analysis corroborated previous data on the genetic distinction between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. A low level of admixture was detected. Genomic sequences of 15 gene fragments were obtained. About 7.0 kb per accession were sequenced and a total of 48 nucleotide substitutions identified. A Mixed Linear Model analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to identify marker-trait associations. Haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) associated with the studied traits were detected: in PvVRN1 and PvPHYB with days-to-flowering, in PvMYB29 with number of flower buds per inflorescence and in PvTFL1z and PvFCA with inflorescence length. The two genes associated with days-to-flowering control belong to the photoperiod and vernalization pathways. In particular, the PvVRN1 gene appears to play an important role in regulating the adaptation process of common bean. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Affantrange, Xochitl Alvarado; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and enhanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Leaf orientation and distribution in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop and their relation to light microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, V. L.; Jones, H. G.; Clark, Jerry A.

    Changes in canopy structure parameters (leaflet orientation, leaflet inclination and leaf area index) were measured in crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the field as the canopy developed between July and October. These changes were compared with the corresponding changes in seasonal light transmission. The beans showed clear heliotropic behaviour, with preferential orientation of leaflets towards the sun's beam, especially on sunny days. Nevertheless a significant proportion of the leaves pointed in other directions, with as much as 20% oriented towards the north. The highest proportion of leaf inclinations was in the range 30-40° on cloudy days and between 40° and 50° on sunny days. Two methods were compared for assessing changes in light transmission: (a) the use of a Sunfleck Ceptometer and (b) the use of continuous records obtained with sensors installed in the canopy. Over the growth period studied, the total of the leaf plus stem area indices (LS) increased from 0.26 to 5.2 with the transmission coefficient (τ) for photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), obtained using the Ceptometer, correspondingly decreasing from 0.72 to 0.05, and the canopy extinction coefficient decreasing from 1.4 to 0.62. The continuous records of light transmission gave generally similar estimates of τ. Some contrasting leaf angle distribution functions were compared for estimation of LS from the light measurements. The best leaf angle function to predict LS from the observed light transmission was a conical function corrected by the degree of heliotropism.

  20. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to differing ozone regimes having identical total exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Younglove, Theodore; McCool, Patrick M.

    Protocols were designed to test for differences in response of plants to ozone treatments having equal total exposure (concentration × time) but different exposure profiles Kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. California Dark Red) were exposed to ozone in controlled fumigation chambers within a greenhouse Four different ozone exposure profiles were used, each having the same total cumulative exposure (SUM00) and the same 7, 12 and 24 h seasonal means. The three exposure profiles which incorporated peak concentrations more severely impacted response parameters compared to a steady-state profile which did not exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Significant differences were found in percent necrotic leaf area, number of pods and top dry weight between exposure profiles. In additional analyses, the response parameters were regressed against seasonal cumulative ozone concentrations raised to powers of 0.33 and from 0.5 to 4 in steps of 0.5 in order to increase effective weighting of the higher concentrations. Total dry weight and leaf necrosis were best fit with the sum of the squared concentrations ( n = 2) while number of pods was best fit by the summed concentrations to the 3.5 power ( n = 3.5). These analyses suggest the peak ozone concentrations are important in determining plant response.

  1. Genetic assessment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions by peroxidase gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemli, Seda; Kaya, Hilal Betul; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2014-06-01

    Peroxidase, a plant-specific oxidoreductase, is a heme-containing glycoprotein encoded by a large multigenic family in plants. Plant peroxidases (POXs, EC 1.11.1.7) play important roles in many self-defense interactions in plants. Here, 67 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes were studied using a POX gene-based marker method. Comparison of POX genes could resolve evolutionary relationships in common bean. Eighty fragments were obtained with 20 primer pairs that amplified one (POX8c) to eight (ATP29) bands, with a mean of four bands per primer pair. The average (polymorphic information content) PIC value for the POX products was 0.40. The maximum variation (93%) was found between Turkey (#33) and India (#52) and between Antalya (#33) and India (#53). The minimum variation (0%) was found among four pairs: Bozdag (#2) and Karadeniz (#38), Kirklareli (#11) and Turkey (#15, 16, 43), Bandirma (#13) and Turkey (#15, 16, 43), and Kirklareli (#10) and Bandirma (#22). UPGMA was used to discriminate the common bean genotypes into five clusters, while STRUCTURE software was used to investigate the genetic population structure. The results showed that POX gene family markers can be used to study genotypic diversity and provide new information for breeding programs and common bean improvement practices. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  3. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  4. Elicitor-mediated induction of chalcone isomerase in Phaseolus vulgaris cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R A; Gerrish, C; Lamb, C J; Robbins, M P

    1983-12-01

    Approximately fourfold increases in the extractable activity of the enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI, EC 5.5.1.6) were observed within 24 h of treatment of cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris with a crude elicitor preparation heatreleased from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The induction of CHI activity was highly dependent upon elicitor concentration, with maximum induction occurring in two discrete concentration ranges. A basal half-life for CHI>32 h in control cultures was determined by labelling with (2)H from (2)H2O followed by analysis of the equilibrium distribution of enzyme activity in CsCl density gradients. Comparative density labelling indicated that at both the lower and higher effective elicitor concentrations, the induced appearance of CHI activity was the result of an apparent initial activation of pre-existing enzyme followed by an increase in the rate of de-novo synthesis of the enzyme as compared with non-elicited controls. The increased appearance of the enzyme over the first 8 h in elicitor-treated cultures was inhibited by cycloheximide, cordycepin and actinomycin D. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of co-ordinate enzyme induction operating in French-bean cell cultures exposed to fungal elicitors.

  5. Elicitor-induced prolyl hydroxylase from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Localization, purification and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwell, G P; Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A

    1985-08-01

    The enzyme prolyl hydroxylase (proline: 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, EC 1.14.11.12), induced in suspension-cultured cells of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean) by treatment with an elicitor preparation from the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, has been investigated. The enzyme, which catalyses the hydroxylation of poly-L-proline with the stoichiometric decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate, has been shown to be localized mainly in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. After solubilization from microsomal membranes, the hydroxylase was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on poly-L-proline-Sepharose 4B. The subunit Mr, as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/poly-acrylamide-gel electrophoresis, was 65 000, the subunit apparently being recovered as a doublet: the subunits associate under non-denaturing conditions to give at least a tetramer. The bean hydroxylase has kinetic properties and cofactor requirements similar to those previously reported for the enzyme from other plants. Elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured bean cells leads to a rapid induction of prolyl hydroxylase activity concomitant with induction of a protein: arabinosyl-transferase and increased levels of an arabinosylated hydroxyproline-rich protein.

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein from Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, F; De Lorenzo, G; Degrà, L; Salvi, G; Bergami, M

    1987-11-01

    Homogeneous endo-polygalacturonase (PG) was covalently bound to cyanogen-bromide-activated Sepharose, and the resulting PG-Sepharose conjugate was utilized to purify, by affinity chromatography, a protein from Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls that binds to and inhibits PG. Isoelectric focusing of the purified PG-inhibiting protein (PGIP) showed a major protein band that coincided with PG-inhibiting activity. PGIP formed a complex with PG at pH 5.0 and at low salt concentrations. The complex dissociated in 0.5 m Na-acetate and pH values lower than 4.5 or higher than 6.0. Formation of the PG-PGIP complex resulted in complete inhibition of PG activity. PG activity was restored upon dissociation of the complex. The protein exhibited inhibitory activity toward PGs from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus niger. The possible role of PGIP in regulating the activity of fungal PG's and their ability to elicit plant defense reactions are discussed.

  7. Purification and Characterization of a Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Degrà, Luisa; Salvi, Giovanni; Bergami, Mario

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous endo-polygalacturonase (PG) was covalently bound to cyanogen-bromide-activated Sepharose, and the resulting PG-Sepharose conjugate was utilized to purify, by affinity chromatography, a protein from Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls that binds to and inhibits PG. Isoelectric focusing of the purified PG-inhibiting protein (PGIP) showed a major protein band that coincided with PG-inhibiting activity. PGIP formed a complex with PG at pH 5.0 and at low salt concentrations. The complex dissociated in 0.5 m Na-acetate and pH values lower than 4.5 or higher than 6.0. Formation of the PG-PGIP complex resulted in complete inhibition of PG activity. PG activity was restored upon dissociation of the complex. The protein exhibited inhibitory activity toward PGs from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus niger. The possible role of PGIP in regulating the activity of fungal PG's and their ability to elicit plant defense reactions are discussed. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16665751

  8. Evaluation of the oxidative burst in suspension cell culture of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Kerstin; Schempp, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Plants respond to the attack of pathogens with the oxidative burst, a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work a cell culture suspension of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to investigate the oxidative burst triggered by a conidia suspension of different races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. As a defence response of the cells a two-phase peak was observed with all used races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, varying only in the produced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. Findings with additives such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and catalase gave rise to the conclusion that more superoxide radicals were produced than be detectable with Amplex Red as hydrogen peroxide. It is assumed that the conversion of the superoxide radical is spontaneous and not driven via a cell-derived superoxide dismutase. The addition of low-molecular cell wall components (ergosterol, glucosamine, galactosamine) showed clearly that compounds like this act as elicitors and thus are involved in triggering the burst. Furthermore, an evaluation of the metabolizing capacities of hydrogen peroxide of the suspension culture cells revealed the enormous capacity of the cells to detoxify this ROS.

  9. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs.

  10. A genome-wide analysis of differentiation between wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Acosta, J; Delgado-Salinas, A; Gepts, P

    2005-10-01

    Lack of introgression or divergent selection may be responsible for the maintenance of phenotypic differences between sympatric populations of crops and their wild progenitors. To distinguish between these hypotheses, amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were located on a molecular linkage map of Phaseolus vulgaris relative to genes for the domestication syndrome and other traits. Diversity for these same markers was then analyzed in two samples of wild and domesticated populations from Mesoamerica. Differentiation between wild and domesticated populations was significantly higher in parapatric and allopatric populations compared to sympatric populations. It was also significantly higher near genes for domestication compared to those away from these genes. Concurrently, the differences in genetic diversity between wild and domesticated populations were strongest around such genes. These data suggest that selection in the presence of introgression appears to be a major evolutionary factor maintaining the identity of wild and domesticated populations in sympatric situations. Furthermore, alleles from domesticated populations appear to have displaced alleles in sympatric wild populations, thus leading to a reduction in genetic diversity in such populations. These results also provide a possible experimental framework for assessing the long-term risk of transgene escape and the targeting of transgenes inside the genome to minimize the survival of these transgenes into wild populations following introduction by gene flow.

  11. Study on Plantago major L. dan Phaseolus vulgaris L. chlorophyll and carotenoid content using as bioincator for air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG ANGGARWULAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study using chlorophyll and carotenoid as bioindicator air quality. This research used completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with 5 replicates. The first factor was distance from source of exhaust automobile emissions, consists of 4 levels: 0,50, 100, and 200 m. The second factor was plant spesies, consist 2 level: Plantago major and Phaseolus vulgaris. Data collected were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test in 5% confidence level. The result indicated that increasing distance from source exhaust automobile emission, increased growth and chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll content in Phaseolus is more sensitive as bioindicator for air pollution.

  12. Histological characterization of gell formation and lesion development on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and clones of hybrid poplar after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacosta, F.

    1978-01-01

    Histological investigations with leaves of several hybrid poplar clones illustrate gall formations in response to simulated acid rain that result from hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mesophyll cells. Similar experiments with phaseolus vulgaris and clones of hybrid poplar show a sequence of events that follow a general pattern of adaxial epidermis destruction, injury to palisade parenchyma and eventual destruction of more interior tissues after continued exposure to one, six-minute, rain event daily. Results show that most (95%) lesions on Phaseolus vulgaris developed near trichomes and stomata after exposure to the simulated acid rain.

  13. Characterization of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates using differential cultivars of common bean in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal; Claudia Thomazella; Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho; Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal; Haroldo Tavares Elias

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, 32 isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum obtained from the infected plants of field-grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil were analyzed based on the virulence to 12 differential cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Thirteen distinct races were identified, six of which had not been reported previously in Santa Catarina. This is the first report of the occurrence of 67, 83,101,103,105, and 581 races of C. lindemuthianum. Race 65 was most ...

  14. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

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    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  15. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution.

  16. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

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    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  17. Effect of volatile substances released from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum on the rhizosphere and phyllosphere fungi of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A F

    1978-01-01

    Differences were found in the counts and occurrence of fungi in the phyllosphere and thizosphere of two representatives of the Lamiacea family, Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum, and in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing separately or in coenosis with O. majorana or O. basilicum. Both the volatile substances released from ground leaves of the two latter plant species and the root exudates affected considerably spore germination of isolated phylospheric and rhizospheric fungi. The results indicated a possible role of root exudates and volatile substances released from leaves in colonization of rhizosphere and/or phyllosphere by fungi, especially in associations of various plants.

  18. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  19. Characterization of Two Putative Protein Phosphatase Genes and Their Involvement in Phosphorus Efficiency in Phaseolus vulgari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Yue Liang; Zhi-Jian Chen; Zhu-Fang Yao; Jiang Tian; Hong Liao

    2012-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatases plays a major role in signal transduction of plant responses to environmental stresses.In this study,two putative protein phosphatases,PvPS2:1 and PvPS2:2 were identified and characterized in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).The two PvPS2 members were found to be localized to the plasma membrane and the nucleus by transient expression of PvPS2:GFP in onion epidermal cells.Transcripts of the two PvPS2 genes were significantly increased by phosphate (Pi) starvation in the two bean genotypes,G19833 (a P-efficient genotype) and DOR364 (a P-inefficient genotype).However,G19833 exhibited higher PvPS2:1 expression levels than DOR364 in both leaves and roots during P1 starvation.Increased transcription of PvPS2:1 in response to Pi starvation was further verified through histochemical analysis of PvPS2:1 promoter fusion β-glucuronidase (GUS) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.Analysis of PvPS2∶1 overexpression lines in bean hairy roots and Arabidopsis showed that PvS2:1 was involved in root growth and P accumulation.Furthermore,expression levels of two P(1) starvation responsive genes were upregulated and the APase activities were enhanced in the overexpressing PvPS2∶1 Arabidopsis lines.Taken together,our results strongly suggested that PvPS2∶1positively regulated plant responses to P1 starvation,and could be further targeted as a candidate gene to improve crop P efficiency.

  20. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  1. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  2. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings Exposed to Prometryn Herbicide Contaminated Soil Trigger an Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahia, Kerima; Carol, Pierre; Planchais, Séverine; Abrous-Belbachir, Ouzna

    2016-04-27

    Herbicides from the family of S-triazines, such as prometryn, have been widely used in crop production and can constitute an environmental pollution in both water and soil. As a valuable crop, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown all over the world and could be exposed to such herbicides. We wanted to investigate the possible stress sustained by the common bean growing in prometryn-polluted soil. Two situations were observed: when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn, some, but not all, measured growth parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner. Growth was reduced, and photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products were less accumulated when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced had a deleterious effect, as seen by the accumulation of oxidized lipid in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA). Higher prometryn (500 μM) concentrations had a disastrous effect, reducing antioxidant activities. At a low (10 μM) concentration, prometryn increased antioxidant enzymatic activities without affecting plant growth or MDA production. Gene expression of proline metabolism genes and proline accumulation confirm that bean plants respond to a stress according to the prometryn concentration. Physiological responses such as antioxidative enzymes APX, CAT, and the enzyme implicated in the metabolization of xenobiotics, GST, were increased at 10 and 100 μM, which indicated a prevention of deleterious effects of prometryn, suggesting that bean is a suitable material both for herbicide pollution sensing and as a crop on a low level of herbicide pollution.

  3. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  4. Identification of novel drought-tolerant-associated SNPs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villordo-Pineda, Emiliano; González-Chavira, Mario M; Giraldo-Carbajo, Patricia; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Caballero-Pérez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a leguminous in high demand for human nutrition and a very important agricultural product. Production of common bean is constrained by environmental stresses such as drought. Although conventional plant selection has been used to increase production yield and stress tolerance, drought tolerance selection based on phenotype is complicated by associated physiological, anatomical, cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes. These changes are modulated by differential gene expression. A common method to identify genes associated with phenotypes of interest is the characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs) to link them to specific functions. In this work, we selected two drought-tolerant parental lines from Mesoamerica, Pinto Villa, and Pinto Saltillo. The parental lines were used to generate a population of 282 families (F3:5) and characterized by 169 SNPs. We associated the segregation of the molecular markers in our population with phenotypes including flowering time, physiological maturity, reproductive period, plant, seed and total biomass, reuse index, seed yield, weight of 100 seeds, and harvest index in three cultivation cycles. We observed 83 SNPs with significant association (p < 0.0003 after Bonferroni correction) with our quantified phenotypes. Phenotypes most associated were days to flowering and seed biomass with 58 and 44 associated SNPs, respectively. Thirty-seven out of the 83 SNPs were annotated to a gene with a potential function related to drought tolerance or relevant molecular/biochemical functions. Some SNPs such as SNP28 and SNP128 are related to starch biosynthesis, a common osmotic protector; and SNP18 is related to proline biosynthesis, another well-known osmotic protector.

  5. The Effect of vermicompost on salt tolerance of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    A. Beyk Khurmizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, increasing production of waste as a result of population growth, increased food consumption, industrial development and urbanization growth, is regarded as a serious challenge. Vermicompost, as an end product of urban waste recycling with proper physicochemical features, can play an effective role in plant growth and development and also in reducing harmful effects of various environmental stresses on plants. For this purpose, a study with the aim of investigating the effects of vermicompost and salinity interactions on morphological traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Light Red Kidney seedlings was performed. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design, including five different volumetric ratios of vermicompost and sand (0:100; 10:90; 25:75; 50:50 and 75:25, and four levels of salinity (30, 60, 90 and 120 mmol l-1 NaCl, equal to 2.75, 5.50, 8.25 and 11 deciSiemens per meter (dS/m respectively, along with control (0.00, in three replications. Seeds were cultured in plastic pots and sampling of seedlings was done after 28 days. The results showed that in an environment without stress, vermicompost had significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the stem length, internodes number, area and dry weight of leaves, diameter, dry weight and total roots length, while having no significant effect on stem dry weight. The interaction between salinity and vermicompost has significant effect on the stem length, internodes number, the area and dry weight of leaves and dry weight of roots but no significant effect was observed on the stem dry weight, diameter and total roots length. Thus, in the low levels of salinity, all ratios of vermicompost and in high levels of salinity, high ratios of vermicompost can limit the negative effects of salinity on bean seedlings.

  6. Influence of atmospheric vapour pressure deficit on ozone responses of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Edwin L; Booker, Fitzgerald L; Sadok, Walid; Burkey, Kent O

    2012-04-01

    Environmental conditions influence plant responses to ozone (O(3)), but few studies have evaluated individual factors directly. In this study, the effect of O(3) at high and low atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was evaluated in two genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (R123 and S156) used as O(3) bioindicator plants. Plants were grown in outdoor controlled-environment chambers in charcoal-filtered air containing 0 or 60 nl l(-1) O(3) (12 h average) at two VPDs (1.26 and 1.96 kPa) and sampled for biomass, leaf area, daily water loss, and seed yield. VPD clearly influenced O(3) effects. At low VPD, O(3) reduced biomass, leaf area, and seed yield substantially in both genotypes, while at high VPD, O(3) had no significant effect on these components. In clean air, high VPD reduced biomass and yield by similar fractions in both genotypes compared with low VPD. Data suggest that a stomatal response to VPD per se may be lacking in both genotypes and it is hypothesized that the high VPD resulted in unsustainable transpiration and water deficits that resulted in reduced growth and yield. High VPD- and water-stress-induced stomatal responses may have reduced the O(3) flux into the leaves, which contributed to a higher yield compared to the low VPD treatment in both genotypes. At low VPD, transpiration increased in the O(3) treatment relative to the clean air treatment, suggesting that whole-plant conductance was increased by O(3) exposure. Ozone-related biomass reductions at low VPD were proportionally higher in S156 than in R123, indicating that differential O(3) sensitivity of these bioindicator plants remained evident when environmental conditions were conducive for O(3) effects. Assessments of potential O(3) impacts on vegetation should incorporate interacting factors such as VPD.

  7. Punctuated distribution of recombination hotspots and demarcation of pericentromeric regions in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Mehul S; Jones, Valerie A; Vallejos, C Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    High density genetic maps are a reliable tool for genetic dissection of complex plant traits. Mapping resolution is often hampered by the variable crossover and non-crossover events occurring across the genome, with pericentromeric regions (pCENR) showing highly suppressed recombination rates. The efficiency of linkage mapping can further be improved by characterizing and understanding the distribution of recombinational activity along individual chromosomes. In order to evaluate the genome wide recombination rate in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) we developed a SNP-based linkage map using the genotype-by-sequencing approach with a 188 recombinant inbred line family generated from an inter gene pool cross (Andean x Mesoamerican). We identified 1,112 SNPs that were subsequently used to construct a robust linkage map with 11 groups, comprising 513 recombinationally unique marker loci spanning 943 cM (LOD 3.0). Comparative analysis showed that the linkage map spanned >95% of the physical map, indicating that the map is almost saturated. Evaluation of genome-wide recombination rate indicated that at least 45% of the genome is highly recombinationally suppressed, and allowed us to estimate locations of pCENRs. We observed an average recombination rate of 0.25 cM/Mb in pCENRs as compared to the rest of genome that showed 3.72 cM/Mb. However, several hot spots of recombination were also detected with recombination rates reaching as high as 34 cM/Mb. Hotspots were mostly found towards the end of chromosomes, which also happened to be gene-rich regions. Analyzing relationships between linkage and physical map indicated a punctuated distribution of recombinational hot spots across the genome.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Sunfleck dynamics and canopy structure in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Victor L.; Jones, Hamlyn G.; Clark, Jerry A.

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) fluctuations were quantified in crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the field as the canopy developed between July and October. Two different methods were used to select sunflecks and shadeflecks. Four ranges of zenith angles (60-70°, 50-60°, 40-50° and 30-40°) were selected for analysing PPFD fluctuations. At the base of the canopy, sunflecks contributed 18%, 53%, 10% and 4% during the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of growth, respectively. At a height of 20 cm above the soil surface, the respective contributions were 28% and 21% during the 6th and 7th weeks. Sunfleck lengths of 0-5 s were the most frequent, with the greatest number being found with smaller zenith angles. The proportion of short duration sunflecks increased as the growth period advanced. The number of long sunflecks decreased with time, with very few longer than 100 s by the 5th and 7th weeks. The distributions of sunfleck irradiance were similar to normal distributions and irradiance ranged in μmol m-2 s-1 from 600-900, 800-1500 and 1000-1600 respectively at zenith angles of 50-60°, 40-50° and 30-40°. A multiple regression showed that short sunflecks (100 s) depended on zenith angle and Ls. Shadefleck distributions were similar to those for sunflecks but there were fewer of the shortest examples and more of the longest. The best statistical distribution to describe sunflecks and shadeflecks was the gamma distribution, which could provide the basis for the future development of a good model for sunfleck and shadefleck distributions.

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Andrea; Gepts, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins are a large and diverse family of water channel proteins that are essential for several physiological processes in living organisms. Numerous studies have linked plant aquaporins with a plethora of processes, such as nutrient acquisition, CO2 transport, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about this protein family in common bean. Here, we present a genome-wide identification of the aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a legume crop essential for human nutrition. We identified 41 full-length coding aquaporin sequences in the common bean genome, divided by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Residues determining substrate specificity of aquaporins (i.e., NPA motifs and ar/R selectivity filter) seem conserved between common bean and other plant species, allowing inference of substrate specificity for these proteins. Thanks to the availability of RNA-sequencing datasets, expression levels in different organs and in leaves of wild and domesticated bean accessions were evaluated. Three aquaporins (PvTIP1;1, PvPIP2;4 and PvPIP1;2) have the overall highest mean expressions, with PvTIP1;1 having the highest expression among all aquaporins. We performed an EST database mining to identify drought-responsive aquaporins in common bean. This analysis showed a significant increase in expression for PvTIP1;1 in drought stress conditions compared to well-watered environments. The pivotal role suggested for PvTIP1;1 in regulating water homeostasis and drought stress response in the common bean should be verified by further field experimentation under drought stress.

  12. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  13. Identification of novel drought-tolerant-associated SNPs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Emiliano eVillordo-Pineda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a leguminous in high demand for human nutrition and a veryimportant agricultural product. Production of common bean is constrained by environmental stressessuch as drought. Although conventional plant selection has been used to increase production yield andstress tolerance, drought tolerance selection based on phenotype is complicated by associatedphysiological, anatomical, cellular, biochemical and molecular changes. These changes are modulatedby differential gene expression. A common method to identify genes associated with phenotypes ofinterest is the characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs to link them to specificfunctions.In this work, we selected two drought-tolerant parental lines from Mesoamerica, Pinto Villa and PintoSaltillo. The parental lines were used to generate a population of 282 families (F 3:5 and characterizedby 169 SNPs . We associated the segregation of the molecular markers in our population withphenotypes including flowering time, physiological maturity, reproductive period, plant, seed and totalbiomass, reuse index, seed yield, weight of 100 seeds and harvest index in three cultivation cycles.We observed 83 SNPs with significant association (p < 0.0003 after Bonferroni correction with ourquantified phenotypes. Phenotypes most associated were days to flowering and seed biomass with 58and 44 associated SNPs respectively. Thirty-seven out of the 83 SNPs were annotated to a gene with apotential function related to drought tolerance or relevant molecular/biochemical functions. Some SNPssuch as SNP28 and SNP128 are related to starch biosynthesis, a common osmotic protector; andSNP18 is related to proline biosynthesis, another well-known osmotic protector.

  14. Morpho-chemical characterization of dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces collected on Fruška Gora Mt.

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    Savić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance of old cultivars, including dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been accelerated in last five to six decades, which mainly led to great genetic impoverishment. For all the humanity and its future, particularly is important the maintenance and evaluation of old cultivar’s seeds. The research presented in this paper has been conducted on the territory of southwestern Fruška gora Mt. Of the collected samples of field and vegetables crops, as well as wild plants on the mountain, 13 accessions of snap bean and 21 accessions of dry bean have been analyzed in this paper. Seed color, seed shape, 1000-seed mass and phaseolin type was determined for all the accessions. Seeds of collected bean and snap bean accessions were predominantly white and cylindrical in shape. Mass of 1000 seeds ranged between 104,90 g and 634,96 g. T phaseolin type dominated, while S type of phaseolin was present in six bean and in two snap bean accessions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030: Development of vegetable varieties and hybrids for field and indoor production and Project Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Autonomous Province Vojvodina, Republic Serbia, number 114-451-3139/2011-01

  15. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  16. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

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    Maria Neve Ombra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical by 50% (EC50. The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  17. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  18. Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoprotein Transcripts Exhibit Different Spatial Patterns of Accumulation in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew D.; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Christopher J.; Lawton, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of transcripts encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in hypocotyls of Phaseolus vulgaris L. infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was examined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. The expression of hypersensitive resistance in an incompatible interaction was accompanied by a massive early accumulation of transcripts in the epidermal, cortical, and perivascular parenchymal tissues immediately adjacent to the inoculation site. In a compatible interaction, there was no accumulation of transcripts in the epidermal and cortical tissues even though fungal hyphae ramified throughout these tissues. However, transcripts accumulated at a later stage in the perivascular tissue directly below the site of infection and in tissue several millimeters from the inoculation site. Thus, there is a spatial and tissue-specific counterpart to the differential timing of transcript accumulation in incompatible versus compatible interactions (AM Showalter, JN Bell, CL Cramer, JA Bailey, CJ Lamb [1985] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 6551-6555). These differences in the spatial distribution and tissue specificity of transcript accumulation imply the differential induction of signaling systems involved in race:cultivar-specific interactions. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667827

  19. Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoprotein Transcripts Exhibit Different Spatial Patterns of Accumulation in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M D; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J; Lawton, M A

    1990-11-01

    The distribution of transcripts encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in hypocotyls of Phaseolus vulgaris L. infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was examined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. The expression of hypersensitive resistance in an incompatible interaction was accompanied by a massive early accumulation of transcripts in the epidermal, cortical, and perivascular parenchymal tissues immediately adjacent to the inoculation site. In a compatible interaction, there was no accumulation of transcripts in the epidermal and cortical tissues even though fungal hyphae ramified throughout these tissues. However, transcripts accumulated at a later stage in the perivascular tissue directly below the site of infection and in tissue several millimeters from the inoculation site. Thus, there is a spatial and tissue-specific counterpart to the differential timing of transcript accumulation in incompatible versus compatible interactions (AM Showalter, JN Bell, CL Cramer, JA Bailey, CJ Lamb [1985] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 6551-6555). These differences in the spatial distribution and tissue specificity of transcript accumulation imply the differential induction of signaling systems involved in race:cultivar-specific interactions.

  20. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Landfill leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L and survival of microorganisms of public health importance

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    García-Ortiz, Vanessa Ruby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In landfill, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generated leachate (LE, a chemical inorganic and organic mix an environmental pollutant to determine by Leachate Pollution Index (LPI. A bioassay could give certainty to its negative effect. To include pathogenic human microorganisms (PHM and mesophilic total aerobic bacteria (MTAB different than fecal and total coliforms would have health value. The objectives of this research were i analyzed the phytotoxicity of leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris and ii to detect in LE the existence of HPM and MATB. A bioassay "in vitro" was made in Petri dishes and Leonard jars using seeds P. vulgaris treated by diluted leachate. The response variables of bioassay were: germination percentage, phenotype: plant height and root length, biomass total: fresh and dry weight of root and plant. Including HPM and MATB detection. Experimental data was analyzed by Tukey p<0.05. The results indicated that LE caused inhibition and/or stimulation on P. vulgaris; Leachate´s phytoxicity was depending on its chemical composition and level dilution, this suggests that toxic effect is due its heavy metals and extreme alkalinity, killing HPM in leachate but not MATB. A bioassay P. vulgaris is useful to define degree of benefical and/or toxicity of LE, and validate LPI. While is important to know the role of HPM in LE and potential environmental biological contamination.

  1. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections w

  2. Genetic diversity of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under no-tillage and conventional systems in Southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Hungria, M.; Andrade, D.S.; Campo, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), but yields are often low and may be improved by a higher N supply through symbiosis with rhizobia. One main limitation to the N2-fixation process is the susceptibility of the symbiosis to environmental stresses f

  3. Thermal Inactivation of Lectins and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity during Steam Processing of Dry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Efkts on Protein Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.; Blonk, J.; Zuilichem, van D.J.; Oort, van M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of steam treatment on the protein quality and antinutritional factors in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) have been evaluated. The thermal inactivation of total and jhnctional lectins and trypsin inhibitor activity as well as total and available lysine during steam treatment at 102, 119 and 1

  4. Improving adaptation to drought stress in white pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L): genotypic effects on grain yield, yield components and pod harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume crop in Africa and Latin America where rainfall pattern is unpredictable. The objectives were to identify better yielding common bean lines with good canning quality under drought, and to identify traits that could be used as sele...

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci underlying seven agronomic traits in Middle American diversity panel in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide associate studies (GWAS) provide an experimental ap...

  6. Marker-assisted molecular profiling and RNA-Seq reveal a disease resistance cluster associated with Uromyces appendiculatus infection in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to fungal rust along wit...

  7. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  8. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Luciana B. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F., inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.. A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diversos compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas.

  9. Leaf surface and histological perturbations of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus after exposure to simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY); Gmur, N.F.; Da Costa, F.

    1977-08-01

    Initial injury to adaxial leaf surfaces of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus occurred near trichomes and stomata after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain. Lesion frequency was not correlated with density of either stomata or trichomes but was correlated with degree of leaf expansion. The number of lesions per unit area increased with total leaf area. Results suggest that characteristics of the leaf indumentum such as development of trichomes and guard cells and/or cuticle thickness near these structures may be involved in lesion development. Adaxial epidermal cell collapse was the first event in lesion development. Palisade cells and eventually spongy mesophyll cells collapsed after continued, daily exposure to simulated rain of low pH. Lesion development on Phaseolus vulgaris followed a specific course of events after exposure to simulated rain of known composition, application rate, drop size frequency, drop velocities, and frequency of exposures. These results allow development of further experiments to observe accurately other parameters, such as nutrient inputs and nutrient leaching from foliage, after exposure to simulated sulfate acid rain.

  10. Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol ( phaseolus vulgaris l. en el valle de san juan

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    Juan Cedano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el valle de San Juan. Se realizó un estudio para determinar el efecto del fraccionamiento de la fertilización nitrogenada y el momento adecuado para la aplicación de nitrógeno en el cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en cinco localidades del Valle de San Juan, R. D. Los experimentos fueron establecidos del 5 al 14 de noviembre (1997 , se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar y nueve tratamientos en cada localidad, encontrándose que en los terrenos con altos niveles de nitrógeno no hubo respuesta a la aplicación de nitrógeno ni al fraccionamiento de este nutrimento; mientras que en los suelos con deficiencia en nitrógeno si hubo respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada encontrándose diferencia estadística significativa a la aplicación y al momento de aplicación del fertilizante. Entre las localidades hubo diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05, mientras que no se encontró interacción entre los tratamientos y las localidades

  11. Influence of a natural-ingredient diet containing Phaseolus vulgaris on the colonization by segmented, filamentous bacteria of the small bowel of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; van den Brink, M E; Bakker, M H; Beynen, A C

    1992-01-01

    The appearance of segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) in the small bowel of mice is influenced by the composition of the diet, but the dietary components responsible are not known. The addition of ground, whole Phaseolus vulgaris to a natural-ingredient diet at the expense of part of the skim milk powder, ground barley and wheat middlings components, caused an increase of the colonization of the mouse small bowel by SFBs. This effect was not seen when whole Phaseolus was added to a purified diet at the expense of part of the casein, corn oil, coconut fat, corn starch, dextrose and cellulose components. In an attempt to identify the fraction of Phaseolus that might contain SFB-inducing substances, the skin and kernel fraction of the bean were added to the natural-ingredient diet. The skin and kernel fraction were found to be as effective in inducing SFB appearance as was whole Phaseolus.

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA, DIGESTIBILIDADE PROTÉICA E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DE FEIJÃO COMUM (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Ariane Gomes da SILVA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Polifenóis são substâncias encontradas nas leguminosas e que se ligam às proteínas, diminuindo a sua digestibilidade e seu aproveitamento pelo organismo. Essa interação, portanto, pode prejudicar a capacidade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos. Tendo como base esta problemática, a pesquisa teve por objetivo a caracterização físico-química, a digestibilidade protéica e a capacidade antioxidante de três cultivares de feijão comum. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. de 3 diferentes cores: preto, marrom e branco, todos doados pela EMBRAPA – Centro de Pesquisa Arroz e Feijão. Os grãos foram analisados tanto na forma crua quanto cozida em autoclave e para sua caracterização foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, de peso e de densidade. Nos grãos crus e cozidos foram realizadas as análises de digestibilidade protéica, teor de taninos, fenólicos totais, cor e atividade antioxidante. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a cocção dos grãos promoveu redução nos teores de taninos, fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante e aumento na digestibilidade protéica. A cocção infl uenciou a cor do tegumento dos grãos, intensifi cando suas cores vermelhas e amarelas. Quanto à digestibilidade protéica, observamos que não houve diferença signifi cativa entre os cultivares.

  13. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  14. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  15. Relationship among antimutagenic, antioxidant and enzymatic activities of methanolic extract from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador-Martínez, Anaberta; Albores, Arnulfo; Bah, Moustapha; Calderón-Salinas, Victor; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Guevara-González, Ramón; Shimada-Miyasaka, Armando; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2006-12-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds, which can provide health benefits to the consumer. The objective of this work was to study the relationship among antimutagenicity, antioxidant and enzymatic activities of methanolic extract and trolox by principal components multivariate analysis. Antimutagenicity of phenolic compounds present in methanolic extract from the seed coat of common beans (P. vulgaris, Flor de Mayo Bajío cultivar) and trolox against AFB1 mutagenicity were evaluated in the Salmonella typhimurium microsuspension assay. Antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract and trolox were evaluated using beta-carotene and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro model assays. Cythrome P450 activity was measured by fluorometric assay. For phenolic extract, trolox and phenolic extract+trolox, the inhibition on AFB1 mutagenicity in tester strain TA100 was 47, 59 and 69%, respectively. While in TA98 was 39, 48 and 68%. The inhibition of phenolic compounds, trolox and phenolic compounds+trolox on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity was 48, 59 and 88%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that phenolic extract and trolox have high antimutagenic and antioxidant activity and also inhibited enzymatic activity. The results suggest that the primary mechanism of action of phenolic compounds in beans against AFB1 mutagenicity may be extra-cellular in the microsuspension assay.

  16. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  17. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  18. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  19. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  20. Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Jing Zhang, Yu; Soledad Vásquez-Murrieta, María; Hua Sui, Xin; Feng Chen, Wen; Carlos Alberto Padilla, Juan; Wu Guo, Xian; Lian Gao, Jun; Yan, Jun; Hong Wei, Ge; Tao Wang, En

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, FH13T and FH23, representing a novel group of Rhizobium isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Mexico, were studied by a polyphasic analysis. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed them to be members of the genus Rhizobium related most closely to 'Rhizobium anhuiense' CCBAU 23252 (99.7 % similarity), Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370T (98.6 %), and Rhizobium sophorae CCBAU 03386T and others ( ≤ 98.3 %). In sequence analyses of the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, both strains formed a subclade distinct from all defined species of the genus Rhizobium at sequence similarities of 82.3-94.0 %, demonstrating that they represented a novel genomic species in the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the reference strain FH13T and the type strains of related species varied between 13.0 ± 2.0 and 52.1 ± 1.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain FH13T was 63.5 mol% (Tm). The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 17 : 0 anteiso, 18 : 0, summed feature 2 (12 : 0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928) and summed feature 8 (18 : 1ω7c). The fatty acid 17 : 1ω5c was unique for this strain. Some phenotypic features, such as failure to utilize adonitol, l-arabinose, d-fructose and d-fucose, and ability to utilize d-galacturonic acid and itaconic acid as carbon source, could also be used to distinguish strain FH13T from the type strains of related species. Based upon these results, a novel species, Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., is proposed, with FH13T ( = CCBAU 101094T = HAMBI 3626T = LMG 28672T) as the type strain.

  1. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

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    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  2. Phytohemagglutinins augment red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induced allergic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, B P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-11-20

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a commonly consumed bean has been reported to induce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Phytohemagglutinins (PHAs, mainly PHA-P) contribute a major proportion of red kidney bean seeds. However, their roles in red kidney bean induced allergic reactions are still to be explored. This study was carried out to understand the role of PHAs in allergic manifestations using BALB/c mice and cultures of splenocyte, RBL-2H3 cells as well as bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs). Also, the characterization of allergic components from PHA-P was studied by LC-MS/MS. Enhanced levels of specific IgE and IgG1, clinical scores, cytokines and chemokines, β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene, prostaglandin D2 and abrupt histological changes in the intestine, lung and spleen indicated a pivotal role of PHA-P in red kidney bean allergy. Further, LC-MS/MS study revealed two IgE binding components of PHA-P as PHA-L and PHA-E. Enhanced specific IgE/IgG1 and β-hexosaminidase level elucidated the possible role of PHA-L and PHA-E in allergic manifestations. Furthermore, in the presence of IgE inhibitor piceatannol, reduced β-hexosaminidase release to some extent was noticed. The up regulated expression of GATA-3 and T-bet expression was observed in PHA-L as well as PHA-E groups. Taken together, this study revealed the fact that allergenicity potential of red kidney bean may get augmented due to the presence of different phytohemagglutinins. Although food allergy is an immune provocation induced mainly by dietary allergenic protein components of the food, the role of dietary lectins in the food induced allergic manifestations cannot be ruled out. Here we provide the systematic evidences about the allergenic potential of PHAs and further disclosed the culprit components as PHA-L and PHA-E. It is an important finding that the PHA-L and PHA-E can cause allergic manifestations via not only the IgE mediated pathway but also the non

  3. Genomic studies of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Humberto; Aguilar, Alejandro; Díaz, Rafael; Mora, Yolanda; Martínez-Batallar, Gabriel; Salazar, Emmanuel; Vargas-Lagunas, Carmen; Martínez, Esperanza; Encarnación, Sergio; Girard, Lourdes; Mora, Jaime

    2016-09-06

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseoli, R. trifolii, R. grahamii and Sinorhizobium americanum, were able to colonize Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) seeds. To gain further insight into the traits that support this ability, we analyzed the genomic sequences and proteomes of R. phaseoli (CCGM1) and S. americanum (CCGM7) strains from seeds and compared them with those of the closely related strains CIAT652 and CFNEI73, respectively, isolated only from nodules. In a fine structural study of the S. americanum genomes, the chromosomes, megaplasmids and symbiotic plasmids were highly conserved and syntenic, with the exception of the smaller plasmid, which appeared unrelated. The symbiotic tract of CCGM7 appeared more disperse, possibly due to the action of transposases. The chromosomes of seed strains had less transposases and strain-specific genes. The seed strains CCGM1 and CCGM7 shared about half of their genomes with their closest strains (3353 and 3472 orthologs respectively), but a large fraction of the rest also had homology with other rhizobia. They contained 315 and 204 strain-specific genes, respectively, particularly abundant in the functions of transcription, motility, energy generation and cofactor biosynthesis. The proteomes of seed and nodule strains were obtained and showed a particular profile for each of the strains. About 82 % of the proteins in the comparisons appeared similar. Forty of the most abundant proteins in each strain were identified; these proteins in seed strains were involved in stress responses and coenzyme and cofactor biosynthesis and in the nodule strains mainly in central processes. Only 3 % of the abundant proteins had hypothetical functions. Functions that were enriched in the genomes and proteomes of seed strains possibly participate in the successful

  4. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  5. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buendía Héctor F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated

  6. Genomic analysis of storage protein deficiency in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar ePandurangan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome

  7. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  8. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

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    Carolina Astudillo-Reyes

    Full Text Available Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA. Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381 were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP, zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF and heavy metal associated (HMA family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  9. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  10. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  11. Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana G; Sćiban, Marina B; Petrović, Nada J

    2010-04-01

    The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

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    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  13. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  14. The influence of the type and concentration of amendments on the growth dynamics of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia NICULA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were performed to test the influence of amendments on the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. The amendments tested were natural bentonite, natural zeolite modified with Ca2+ and natural zeolite modified with NH4+, respectively. The seeds of beans were planted in polluted soil mixed with 5% and respectively 10% content of amendment. Mixes with the two above-mentioned concentrations were prepared with each type of amendment considered. Soil without amendment was used as control-soil. In each of the seven experimental series, 15 seeds were planted. The height of each plant was measured and recorded after a pre-established number of days, up to one calendar month. Data were analyzed using version 16.0 (for Windows ofthe SPSS software package.

  15. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-08-05

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability.

  16. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  17. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  18. Enhancement of CO/sub 2/ and ethylene production and cellulase activity by glyphosate in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Irmaileh, B.E.; Jordan, L.S.; Kumamoto, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) on carbon dioxide. (CO/sub 2/) levels, ethylene production, and cellulase activity was investigated. Production of ethylene increased within 12 h and CO/sub 2/ increased within 24 h when 12-day-old bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Red Kidney) were treated with 20 mM isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. The CO/sub 2/ cycled for 3 days and then increased around treated plants. Specific activity of cellulase was increased in debladed bean seedlings that had been retreated with 20 mM isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. Cellulase enhancement was detected 2 days after the pretreated plants were debladed. Glyphosate-enhanced ethylene production may have increased the cellulase activity. 24 references, 3 figures.

  19. Down-regulation of SymRK correlates with a deficiency in vascular bundle development in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Rosana; Jáuregui, David; Nava, Noreide; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Montiel, Jesús; Santana, Olivia; Sanchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    The symbiotic interaction of legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Nodulation depends on the finely coordinated expression of a battery of genes involved in the infection and the organogenesis processes. After Nod factor perception, symbiosis receptor kinase (SymRK) receptor triggers a signal transduction cascade essential for nodulation leading to cortical cell divisions, infection thread (IT) formation and final release of rhizobia to the intracellular space, forming the symbiosome. Herein, the participation of SymRK receptor during the nodule organogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris is addressed. Our findings indicate that besides its expression in the nodule epidermis, in IT, and in uninfected cells of the infection zone, PvSymRK immunolocalizes in the root and nodule vascular system. On the other hand, knockdown expression of PvSymRK led to the formation of scarce and defective nodules, which presented alterations in both IT/symbiosome formation and vascular system.

  20. Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 μg.mL-1 H2O).

  1. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  3. Biochemical characterisation of an allantoate-degrading enzyme from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): the requirement of phenylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, María José; Muñoz, Alfonso; Pineda, Manuel; Piedras, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    In tropical legumes like French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) or soybean (Glycine max), most of the atmospheric nitrogen fixed in nodules is used for synthesis of the ureides allantoin and allantoic acid, the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen in these species. The purpose of this investigation was to characterise the allantoate degradation step in Phaseolus vulgaris. The degradation of allantoin, allantoate and ureidoglycolate was determined "in vivo" using small pieces of chopped seedlings. With allantoate and ureidoglycolate as substrates, the determination of the reaction products required the addition of phenylhydrazine to the assay mixture. The protein associated with the allantoate degradation has been partially purified 22-fold by ultracentrifugation and batch separation with DEAE-Sephacel. This enzyme was specific for allantoate and could not use ureidoglycolate as substrate. The activity was completely dependent on phenylhydrazine, which acts as an activator at low concentrations and decreases the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate at higher concentrations. The optimal pH for the activity of the purified protein was 7.0 and the optimal temperature was 37 degrees C. The activity was completely inhibited by EDTA and only manganese partially restored the activity. The level of activity was lower in extracts obtained from leaves and fruits of French bean grown with nitrate than in plants actively fixing nitrogen and, therefore, relying on ureides as nitrogen supply. This is the first time that an allantoate-degrading activity has been partially purified and characterised from a plant extract. The allosteric regulation of the enzyme suggests a critical role in the regulation of ureide degradation.

  4. Development of four phylogenetically-arrayed BAC libraries and sequence of the APA locus in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, James; Poncet, Valérie; Geffroy, Valérie; Gepts, Paul

    2006-04-01

    The APA family of seed proteins consists of three subfamilies, in evolutionary order of hypothesized appearance: phytohaemagglutinins (PHA), alpha-amylase inhibitors (alphaAI), and arcelins (ARL). The APA family plays a defensive role against mammalian and insect seed predation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The main locus (APA) for this gene family is situated on linkage group B4. In order to elucidate the pattern of duplication and diversification at this locus, we developed a BAC library in each of four different Phaseolus genotypes that represent presumptive steps in the evolutionary diversification of the APA family. Specifically, BAC libraries were established in one P. lunatus (cv. 'Henderson: PHA+ alphaAI- ARL-) and three P. vulgaris accessions (presumed ancestral wild G21245 from northern Peru: PHA+ alphaAI+ ARL-; Mesoamerican wild G02771: PHA+ alphaAI+ ARL+; and Mesoamerican breeding line BAT93: PHA+ alphaAI+ ARL-). The libraries were constructed after HindIII digestion of high molecular weight DNA, obtained with a novel nuclei isolation procedure. The frequency of empty or cpDNA-sequence-containing clones in all libraries is low (generally APA gene family, including members of the three subfamilies, as hypothesized. The different subfamilies were interspersed with retrotransposon sequences. In addition, other sequences were identified with similarity to chloroplast DNA, a dehydrin gene, and the Arabidopsis flowering D locus. Linkage between the dehydrin gene and the D1711 RFLP marker identifies a potential syntenic region between parts of common bean linkage group B4 and cowpea linkage group 2.

  5. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  6. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris: su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodríguez-Castillo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000. Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los cuales son de utilidad en la prevención y tratamiento de varias de las patologías que afectan a la población costarricense. La presente revisión, documenta los efectos positivos que algunos nutrientes y otros elementos que aporta el frijol tienen en la prevención y el control de algunas de las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen problemas de salud pública en el país. Se abordan de manera particular la fibra, el ácido fólico y el magnesio. Asimismo, se hace referencia a otras sustancias fitoquímicas, presentes en los frijoles, que constituyen elementos protectores de la salud y que hacen de los frijoles un "alimento funcional". Finalmente, se ofrecen recomendaciones prácticas orientadas a mejorar la digestibilidad de este alimento, de manera que se contribuya a mantener e incrementar su consumo a nivel de los hogares costarricenses.Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are an important part of the Costa Rican diet. Nevertheless, the amount and the frequency of its consumption has been decreasing over time, especially in the urban areas. This tendency is a concern to those involved in health and nutrition since beans are a source of protein, non-heme iron, fiber, folic acid, thiamin, potassium , magnesium and zinc. The nutritional contribution of beans lo the Costa Rican diet is important in spite of the reduction in consumption. Beans are important because of their nutrient content and the presence of phytochemicals that have been recognized as part of

  7. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  8. Characterization of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates using differential cultivars of common bean in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004, 32 isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum obtained from the infected plants of field-grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Santa Catarina state, Brazil were analyzed based on the virulence to 12 differential cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Thirteen distinct races were identified, six of which had not been reported previously in Santa Catarina. This is the first report of the occurrence of 67, 83,101,103,105, and 581 races of C. lindemuthianum. Race 65 was most common (34%. All the isolates were compatible to the cultivars Michelite and Mexico 222. Some isolates infected not only differential cultivar of Mesoamerican origin, but also the ones of Andean origin.Em 2003 e 2004, isolados de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum obtidas de plantas infectadas de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil foram analisadas baseando-se na virulência em 12 cultivares diferenciadoras de Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Treze raças distintas foram identificadas, sendo que seis delas não haviam sido reportadas anteriormente em Santa Catarina. Este é o primeiro registro de ocorrência das raças 67, 83, 101,103,105, e 581 do C. lindemuthianum. A raça mais comum foi a 65 (34%. Todos os isolados foram compatíveis com as cultivares Michelite e México 222. Alguns dos isolados infectaram tanto cultivares diferenciadoras de origem Mesoamericana como de origem Andina.

  9. Geosmin (2β,6α-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1β-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-03-01

    The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C₁₂H₂₂O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 μg geosmin (kg root tissue)⁻¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments.

  10. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  11. Small RNAs Derived from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in Hairy Roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Pablo; Hernández-López, Alejandrina; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sanchez, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes hairy root disease by transferring bacterial DNA into the plant genome. It is an essential tool for industry and research due to its capacity to produce genetically modified roots and whole organisms. Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. The most abundant and diverse species of ArT-sRNAs were those of 21- and 22-nucleotides in length. Many T-DNA encoded genes constituted phasiRNA producing loci (PHAS loci). Interestingly, degradome analysis revealed that ArT-sRNAs potentially target genes of P. vulgaris. In addition, we detected low levels of ArT-sRNAs in the A. rhizogenes-induced calli generated at the wound site before hairy root emergence. These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. Therefore, the role of RNA silencing observed in this study has implications in our understanding and usage of this unique plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:28203245

  12. Development of carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica and its evaluation on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Swati; Das, Aparajita; Chandra, Anil; Varma, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Endophytic fungi are plant beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms often applied as bioinoculants for enhanced and disease-free crop production. The objectives of the present work were to develop a carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica as a bioinoculant. Powder formulation of four different carrier materials viz., talcum powder, clay, sawdust and bioboost (organic supplement) were evaluated and a talc-based formulation was optimized for a longer shelf life with respect to microbial concentration, storage temperature and biological activity. Finally the effect of optimized talc formulation on plant productivity was determined. The application dosages were optimized by studies on plant growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants under green house conditions. Five percent formulation (w/w) of talcum powder was observed to be the most stable at 30 °C with 10(8) CFU g(-1) and effective for a storage period of 6 months. The application of this optimized formulation resulted in increase of growth parameters of P. vulgaris L. and better adaptation of plants under green house conditions.

  13. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, C W; Ito, Y; Singer, D; Albersheim, P; Darvill, A G; Benhamou, N; Nuss, L; Salvi, G; Cervone, F; De Lorenzo, G

    1994-05-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a cell wall-associated protein that specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of fungal endopolygalacturonases. The Phaseolus vulgaris gene encoding PGIP has been cloned and characterized. Using a fragment of the cloned pgip gene as a probe in Northern blot experiments, it is demonstrated that the pgip mRNA accumulates in suspension-cultured bean cells following addition of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides or fungal glucan to the medium. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for PGIP were generated against a synthetic peptide designed from the N-terminal region of PGIP; the antigenicity of the peptide was enhanced by coupling to KLH. Using the antibodies and the cloned pgip gene fragment as probes in Western and Northern blot experiments, respectively, it is shown that the levels of PGIP and its mRNA are increased in P. vulgaris hypocotyls in response to wounding or treatment with salicylic acid. Using gold-labeled goat-anti-rabbit secondary antibodies in EM studies, it has also been demonstrated that, in bean hypocotyls infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the level of PGIP preferentially increases in those cells immediately surrounding the infection site. The data support the hypothesis that synthesis of PGIP constitutes an active defense mechanism of plants that is elicited by signal molecules known to induce plant defense genes.

  14. Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Giardini, Alessandro; Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Biagetti, Eleonora; Santilocchi, Rodolfo; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi; Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the nucleotide diversity of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, which is characterized by two independent domestications in two geographically distinct areas: Mesoamerica and the Andes. This provides an important model, as domestication can be studied as a replicate experiment. We used nucleotide data from five gene fragments characterized by large introns to analyse 214 accessions (102 wild and 112 domesticated). The wild accessions represent a cross-section of the entire geographical distribution of P. vulgaris. A reduction in genetic diversity in both of these gene pools was found, which was three-fold greater in Mesoamerica compared with the Andes. This appears to be a result of a bottleneck that occurred before domestication in the Andes, which strongly impoverished this wild germplasm, leading to the minor effect of the subsequent domestication bottleneck (i.e. sequential bottleneck). These findings show the importance of considering the evolutionary history of crop species as a major factor that influences their current level and structure of genetic diversity. Furthermore, these data highlight a single domestication event within each gene pool. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this evidence indicates the Oaxaca valley in Mesoamerica, and southern Bolivia and northern Argentina in South America, as the origins of common bean domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. PvRACK1 loss-of-function impairs cell expansion and morphogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Flores, Tania; Guillén, Gabriel; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xóchitl; Lara-Flores, Miguel; Sánchez, Federico; Villanueva, Marco A

    2011-07-01

    Receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) is a highly conserved, eukaryotic protein of the WD-40 repeat family. Its peculiar β-propeller structure allows its interaction with multiple proteins in various plant signal-transduction pathways, including those arising from hormone responses, development, and environmental stress. During Phaseolus vulgaris root development, RACK1 (PvRACK1) mRNA expression was induced by auxins, abscissic acid, cytokinin, and gibberellic acid. In addition, during P. vulgaris nodule development, PvRACK1 mRNA was highly accumulated at 12 to 15 days postinoculation, suggesting an important role after nodule meristem initiation and Rhizobium nodule infection. PvRACK1 transcript accumulation was downregulated by a specific RNA interference construct which was expressed in transgenic roots of composite plants of P. vulgaris inoculated with Rhizobium tropici. PvRACK1 downregulated transcript levels were monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis in individual transgenic roots and nodules. We observed a clear phenotype in PvRACK1-knockdown nodules, in which nodule number and nodule cell expansion were impaired, resulting in altered nodule size. Microscopic analysis indicated that, in PvRACK1-knockdown nodules, infected and uninfected cells were considerably smaller (80 and 60%, respectively) than in control nodules. In addition, noninfected cells and symbiosomes in silenced nodules showed significant defects in membrane structure under electron microscopy analysis. These findings indicate that PvRACK1 has a pivotal role in cell expansion and in symbiosome and bacteroid integrity during nodule development.

  16. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

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    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

  17. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  18. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93 calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

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    Kassim Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is

  19. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet.

  20. Ozone impact on vegetation: phenolic metabolism modification and oxidative alteration of Rubisco in Phaseolus vulgaris L; Impact de l'ozone sur le vegetal: modification du metabolisme phenolique et alteration de la Rubisco chez Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, M.

    2002-04-15

    In order to characterize and quantify, in semi-natural situation, the incidence of atmospheric pollution on some physiological and metabolic functions in plants, the aim of our work was to identify sub-cellular impact markers, in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), able to characterize a chronic and realistic ozone pollution climate. Two criteria were chosen: the foliar phenolic metabolism and the Rubisco, the key enzyme of photosynthesis. Using Open Top Chambers system, we demonstrated that, according to concentration, exposure kinetic and leaf type, ozone could induce amount variations of some constitutive soluble phenolic and the synthesis of new phenolic (iso-flavonoids). In some cases, these disturbances were observed jointly with foliar injuries and/or biomass reduction. Concurrently, this chronic and moderate ozone exposure could also induce carbonyl formation in amino acid residues constitutive of Rubisco small subunit (Rubisco-SSU) and a reduction in the amount of the native Rubisco. The amount of a constitutive kaempferol glucuronide and the ozone-induced oxidative alteration of Rubisco-SSU were selected and tested for the construction of dose-response relationships. Whatever the marker, the linear model was able to describe the relation. For the phenolic response, several exposure indexes were tested. According to their mode of calculation, these exposure forms emphasize more or less the contribution of high ozone concentrations. If, for Rubisco oxidation, the use of the exposure index AOT40 seems relevant, in the case of the phenolic marker, the choice of the right index is leaf type dependant. (author)

  1. Absorção de metais pesados do lodo de esgoto pelo feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Heavy Metal Uptake Of The Sewage Sludge By Bean Plants(Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Mário Miyazawa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and uptake of heavy metals of sewage sludge by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in green house experiments. Treatments consisted of 1,0 ; 2,0 and 5,0% (m/m of dry sewage sludge, collected from Londrina (Bom Retiro and ETE-Sul and Curitiba (ETE-Belém and RALF. Bean ( variety IAPAR 57 was sown three times at 0, 120 and 240 days after the treatments have been applied. Contents of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in bean tissues cultivated with 5,0% (m/m of all sewage sludge were similar to the control and Ba contents were reduced by increasing the quantity of sewage sludge in the soil. The Zn content in tissue bean incresed from 86 mg kg-1 of control to 462 mg kg-1 by applying 5% (m/m of sewage sludge in soil, but plant beans did not show toxicity symptons. The addition of 5% (m/m of sewage sludge increased Mn content in plants, from 193 mg kg-1 of control to 1.960 mg kg-1, showing toxity in bean leaves when the contents were more than 500 mg kg-1. The addition of sewage sludges in soils increased only available Zn carbonate and Cu organic species.

  2. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  3. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

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    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  4. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

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    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  5. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions.

  6. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  7. Tissue hypertrophy and epithelial proliferation rate in the gut of rats fed on bread and haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; McClean, D; Mathers, J C

    1996-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the large bowel increases gut epithelial proliferation rate (EPR). Two experiments were carried out in which rats were fed on bread (wholemeal or white)-based diets containing graded amounts of cooked haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans; the latter are a rich source of fermentable carbohydrates. Consumption of beans was associated with several-fold increases in SCFA production with the greatest relative increase being for butyrate. Despite the very large increase in SCFA production, there was no evidence that this had any effect on EPR in the duodenum. Where the basal diet contained wholemeal bread (Expt 1) there was no effect of enhanced SCFA supply on EPR in either the caecum or colon, but with the white bread-based diet (Expt 2) adding beans produced increments in both SCFA supply and EPR in the caecum. Evidence that SCFA are responsible for enhanced EPR above normal levels is not convincing. In those instances where enhanced SCFA supply is associated with increased EPR, the increase may be (1) from a hypoproliferative state towards normal, (2) a transient phenomenon accompanying tissue hypertrophy or (3) a homeostatic response to increased cell loss by cell sloughing or apoptosis. It is not likely that there is any direct link with risk of colon cancer.

  8. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

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    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16 kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6 M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8 M and 21.5 M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100 M.

  9. Herbaspirillum lusitanum sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Cervantes, Emilio; Ventosa, Antonio; Igual, José-Mariano

    2003-11-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown in a soil from Portugal. The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, curved rod-shaped and motile. The isolates were catalase- and oxidase-positive. The TP-RAPD (two-primer randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) patterns of all strains were identical, suggesting that they belong to the same species. The complete 16S rDNA sequence of a representative strain was obtained and phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbour-joining method indicated that this bacterium belongs to the beta-Proteobacteria and that the closest related genus is Herbaspirillum. The DNA G+C content ranged from 57.9 to 61.9 mol%. Growth was observed with many different carbohydrates and organic acids including caprate, malate, citrate and phenylacetate. No growth was observed with maltose, meso-inositol, meso-erythritol or adipate as sole carbon source. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data obtained in this work, the bacterium represents a novel species of the genus Herbaspirillum, and the name Herbaspirillum lusitanum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P6-12(T) (=LMG 21710(T)=CECT 5661(T)).

  10. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

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    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  11. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

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    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Phaseolus vulgaris Trypsin Inhibitor with Antiproliferative Activity on Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Liu, Qin; Cui, Yajuan; Li, Dong; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-01-23

    A 17.5-kDa trypsin inhibitor was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "gold bean" with an isolation protocol including ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose), affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-sepharose (Sulfopropyl-sepharose), and gel filtration by FPLC (Fast protein liquid chromatography) on Superdex 75. It dose-dependently inhibited trypsin with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM, and this activity was reduced in the presence of dithiothreitol in a dose- and time-dependent manner, signifying the importance of the disulfide linkage to the activity. It inhibited [methyl-³H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and lymphoma MBL2 cells with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. The inhibitor had no effect on fungal growth and the activities of various viral enzymes when tested up to 100 μM.

  13. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

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    Yau Sang Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel, Mono Q (anion exchanger, and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion. The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of a Phaseolus vulgaris Trypsin Inhibitor with Antiproliferative Activity on Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17.5-kDa trypsin inhibitor was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “gold bean” with an isolation protocol including ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-sepharose (Sulfopropyl-sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC (Fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. It dose-dependently inhibited trypsin with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM, and this activity was reduced in the presence of dithiothreitol in a dose- and time-dependent manner, signifying the importance of the disulfide linkage to the activity. It inhibited [methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and lymphoma MBL2 cells with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. The inhibitor had no effect on fungal growth and the activities of various viral enzymes when tested up to 100 μM.

  15. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  16. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-04

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  17. Isolation and characterization of an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative activity from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Spotted Bean'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2007-02-01

    A 7.3-kDa antifungal peptide with an N-terminal sequence exhibiting remarkable homology to defensins from other leguminous plants was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Spotted Bean'. The isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. It exerted an antifungal action on Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It inhibited mycelial growth in F. oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 1.8 microM. It suppressed [methyl-(3)H]-thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and MBL2 cells with an IC(50) value of 4.0 and 9.0 microM, respectively. There was no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity when the peptide was tested up to 0.1 mM.

  18. RESPUESTA DEL CULTIVO DE LA HABICHUELA (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Verlili. A LA APLICACIÓN DE DIFERENTES BIOPRODUCTOS

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    Elein Terry Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el área experimental del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta del cultivo de la habichuela ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Verlili, a la aplicación sola o combinada de productos bioestimulantes y biofertilizantes. Para dar cumplimiento a los objetivos propuestos, se estudiaron diferentes tratamientos que consistieron en las aplicaciones combinadas de EcoMic ® con Fitomas-E ® , Liplant ® y Dimargón ® , así como las aplicaciones simples de cada uno, todos comparados con un tratamiento control sin aplicación. Se realizaron diferentes evaluaciones referidas a algunas variables del crecimiento y desarrollo del cultivo e igualmente se calculó el rendimiento agrícola al final del ciclo vegetativo. Los resultados mostraron la efectividad de los productos en el crecimiento, desarrollo y rendimiento, destacándose el tratamiento donde las plantas recibieron la combinación EcoMic ® +Fitomas-E ® , con diferencias significativas respecto al resto de los tratamientos, lo que además conllevó a la obtención de rendimientos superiores, demostrándose de esta manera el aporte que realizan a la producción agrícola de este cultivo.

  19. Organization of ATPA coding and 3' flanking sequences associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C D; Ortega, V M

    1992-08-01

    A region of the mitochondrial genome associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Phaseolus vulgaris was flanked by two different repeated sequences designated x and y. The DNA sequence of the CMS-unique region and a portion of each flanking repeat was determined. Repeat x contained a complete coding copy of the F1 ATPase subunit A (atpA) gene, as well as an open reading frame (orf) predicting a protein of 209 amino acids. The TGA termination codon of the atpA gene and the ATG initiation codon of orf209 were overlapping. These reading frames were oriented with their 3' ends proximal to the CMS-unique region. The CMS-unique region of 3736 nucleotides contained numerous orfs. The longest of these predicted proteins being of 239, 98 and 97 amino acids. The 3' coding and 3' flanking regions of orf98 were derived from an internal region of the higher plant chloroplast tRNA alanine intron. The region of repeat y immediately adjacent to the CMS-unique region contained the 111 carboxy-terminal coding residues of the apocytochrome b (cob) gene. This segment was oriented with its 5' end proximal to the CMS-unique region, but cob gene sequences were not fused to an initiation codon within the unique region.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  1. Effect of salinity on relative water content and pigment concentration in three genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Licet Chávez Suárez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed at the Agricultural Research Institute “Jorge Dimitrov” in November 2011, with the aim of studying the effect of salinity on the relative water content (RWC and the concentration of pigments in plants of three varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: HOL-17 HOL-35 HOL-74, using a saline soil (EC 5.2 dS.m-1 and a non-saline soil as control. The Relative Water Content (RWC was determined by the method described by Yamasaki and Rebello and the concentration of pigment by the methodology of Lichtenthaler and Wellburn. The results indicated a significant decrease in the RWC in the saline treatment, relative to control, in the three studied varieties. The content of chlorophyll b was affected in the three varieties under saline conditions, while HOL-17 and HOL-74 varieties exhibited a significant increase in the concentration of carotenoids, suggesting a protective mechanism of chlorophyll photooxidation induced by salt stress.

  2. Necesidades hídricas de dos variedades de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en condiciones de invernadero

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    Marulanda V. Edgar

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el efecto de diferentes láminas de agua, determinados con base en la evaporación del tanque evaporímetro tipo A, colocado fuera del invernadero. Se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos húmedos y secos, incrementándose el desarrollo vegetativo a medida que aumentaban las cantidades de agua presente en el suelo. Las mayores producciones de fríjol en las variedades Porrillo y Calima se obtuvieron con láminas de 229 mm y 199 mm respectivamente.The effect of different water sheets, determined by the evaporation in a type A evaporimeter tank, on the yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris was analyzed. Significant differences were found between the humid and dry treatments with an increasing plant development as the amount of water in the soils rised. The highest bean yields in the Porrillo and Calima varieties were obtained with water sheets of 229 mm and 199 mm respectively.

  3. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  5. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

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    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  6. Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions.

  7. Interaction of Methanol Spray and Water-Deficit Stress on Photosynthesis and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Nezam; Amiri, Hamzeh; Ismaili, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study was a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and three replications. The four levels of methanol spraying were used. Spraying was carried out three times during the growing season at 10-day intervals beginning at 4 weeks after sowing. The spraying of solution continued until saturation of droplets on the leaves was achieved. The levels of water-deficit stress applied were nonstress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the methanol and water-deficit stress treatments for chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, carotenoid, total chlorophyll, net photosynthesis (PN ), intercellular CO2 (Ci ), maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv /Fm ), leaf moisture, water use efficiency and relative water content. The application of foliar methanol at all levels of water-deficit stress significantly decreased the catalase activity of the roots. Under all levels of water-deficit stress, the 30% (v/v) methanol treatment significantly decreased peroxidase activity in the roots over that for the control. The results suggest that foliar application of methanol can decrease the negative effects of water-deficit stress on Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry.

  8. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  9. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M; McClean, Phillip E

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  10. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  11. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level.

  12. Biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of {sup 57}Fe-enriched Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppler, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zurich (Switzerland); Meile, Leo [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Zurich (Switzerland); Walczyk, Thomas [National University of Singapore, Department of Chemistry and Department of Biochemistry, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Ferritin is the major iron storage protein in the biosphere. Iron stores of an organism are commonly assessed by measuring the concentration of the protein shell of the molecule in fluids and tissues. The amount of ferritin-bound iron, the more desirable information, still remains inaccessible owing to the lack of suitable techniques. Iron saturation of ferritin is highly variable, with a maximum capacity of 4,500 iron atoms per molecule. This study describes the direct isotopic labeling of a complex metalloprotein in vivo by biosynthesis, in order to measure ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin was produced by cloning and overexpressing the Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin gene pfe in Escherichia coli in the presence of {sup 57}FeCl{sub 2}. Recombinant ferritin was purified in a fully assembled form and contained approximately 1,000 iron atoms per molecule at an isotopic enrichment of more than 95% {sup 57}Fe. We did not find any evidence of species conversion of the isotopic label for at least 5 months of storage at -20 C. Transfer efficiency of enriched iron into [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin of 20% was sufficient to be economically feasible. Negligible amounts of non-ferritin-bound iron in the purified [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin solution allows for use of this spike for quantification of ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  13. Connections of the torus semicircularis and oliva superior in the frog, Rana esculenta: a Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesz, C; Kulik, A

    1996-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the frog principal nucleus (TP) of torus semicircularis (TOS) and superior olive (SO) were examined by employing the anterograde and retrograde transport patterns of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). After injecting the tracer into these nuclei it was found that the TP projected to the ipsilateral posterior and central thalamic nuclei, all subdivisions of the bilateral TDS and the ipsilateral nucleus isthmi (NI). In the rhombencephalon the projection was restricted mainly to the contralateral SO and the cochlear nucleus (CN). Retrogradely labeled cells were found in most of the areas that contained anterogradely labeled terminals. The termination areas of the SO fibers were similar to the projections of fibers of TP origin in the diencephalic and in the mesencephalic auditory centers. A strong projection was followed into the contralateral SO; the CNs received fibers at both sides. Caudally to the SO the reticular formation, the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the solitary nucleus and the dorsal column nuclei were supplied by the fibers of the SO origin. Retrogradely labeled cells were found in the TOS, tegmental nuclei, solitary nucleus, dorsal column nuclei and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Our results indicate that the frog auditory pathway is more complex at the level of the secondary and tertiary fiber projections than has been previously recognized.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter the response of growth and nutrient uptake of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Wang; Zhaozhong Feng; Xiaoke Wang; Wenliang Gong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the responses to elevated O3 in growth and nutrition of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Guangzhouyuan) were investigated. Exposure was conducted in growth chambers by using three O3 concentrations (20 (CF), 80 (CFO1) and 120 nL/L (CFO2); 8 hr/day for 75 days). Results showed that elevated O3 slightly impacted overall mycorrhizal colonization, but significantly decreased the proportional frequency of hypha and increased the proportional frequency of spores and vesicles, suggesting that O3 had significant effects on mycorrhizal structure. Elevated O3 significantly decreased yield, dry mass and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in both non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants. However, significant interactive effects were found in most variables due to that the reduction by O3 in the mycorrhizal plants was less than that in the non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, AMF increased the concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in shoot and root. It can be concluded that AMF alleviated detrimental effects of increasing O3 on host plant through improving plant nutrition and growth.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao Chen; Jing Wu; Yunfeng Lu; Yuannan Cao; Hui Zeng; Zhaoyuan Zhang; Lanfen Wang; Shumin Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w) PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  16. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  17. IMPACT OF LIQUID NITROGEN EXPOSURE ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF HYDRATED Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Inaudis; Rivas, Maribel; Nápoles, Lelurlys; Marrero, Pedro; Yabor, Lourdes; Aragón, Carlos; Pérez, Aurora; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cryopreserving seeds with high water content is detrimental to survival, but biochemical and structural parameters of cryostored hydrated common bean seeds have not been published. The objective of this work was to study the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on selected biochemical and structural parameters of hydrated Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. We cryopreserved seeds at various moisture contents and evaluated: germination; electrolyte leakage; fresh seed weight; levels of chlorophyll pigments, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics and proteins; thickness of cotyledon epidermis, parenchyma, and starch storage parenchyma; and radicle and plumule lengths. Germination was totally inhibited when seeds were immersed in water for 50 min (moisture content of 38%, FW basis) before cryopreservation. The combined effects of seed water imbibition and cryostorage decreased phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total), chlorophyll a and protein content. By contrast, electrolyte leakage and levels of chlorophyll b and other aldehydes increased as a result of the combination of these two experimental factors. These were the most significant effects observed during exposure of humid seed to liquid nitrogen. Further studies are still required to clarify the molecular events taking place in plant cells during cryostorage.

  18. Isolation and characterization of 13 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Ding, Yi; Hu, Zhenhua; Lin, Chufa; Wang, Shuzhen; Wang, Bingcai; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Guolin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (H(E)) and observed heterozygosity (H(O)) levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  19. High genetic variability in endophytic fungi from the genus Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, T T; de Souza Leite, T; de Queiroz, C B; de Araújo, E F; Pereira, O L; de Queiroz, M V

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the present study were to identify, to analyse the phylogenetic relations and to evaluate the genetic variability in Diaporthe endophytic isolates from common bean. Diaporthe sp., D. infecunda and D. phaseolorum strains were identified using multilocus phylogeny (rDNA ITS region; EF1-α, β-tubulin, and calmodulin genes). IRAP (Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism) and REMAP (Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism) molecular markers reveal the existence of high genetic variability, especially among D. infecunda isolates. It was concluded that the multilocus phylogenetic approach was more effective than individual analysis of ITS sequences, in identifying the isolates to species level, and that IRAP and REMAP markers can be used for studying the genetic variability in the genus Diaporthe particularly at the intraspecific level. The combined use of molecular tools such as multilocus phylogenetic approach and molecular markers, as performed in this study, is the best way to distinguish endophytic strains of Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The nodule conductance to O₂ diffusion increases with phytase activity in N₂-fixing Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-01

    To understand the relationship between phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and respiration for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume nodules, six recombinant inbred lines of common bean (RIL Phaseolus vulgaris L.), contrasting in PUE for SNF, were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown under hydroaeroponic culture with sufficient versus deficient P supply (250 versus 75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)). At the flowering stage, the biomass of plants and phytase activity in nodules were analyzed after measuring O2 uptake by nodulated roots. Our results show that the P-deficiency significantly increased the phytase activity in nodules of all RILs though with highest extent for RILs 147, 29 and 83 (ca 45%). This increase in phytase activity was associated with an increase in nodule respiration (ca 22%) and in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (ca 21%). A significant correlation was found under P-deficiency between nodule O2 permeability and phytase activity in nodules for RILs 104, 34 and 115. This observation is to our knowledge the first description of a correlation between O2 permeability and phytase activity of a legume nodule. It is concluded that the variation of phytase activity in nodules can increase the internal utilization of P and might be involved in the regulation of nodule permeability for the respiration linked with SNF and the adaptation to P-deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean : Intercellular Transmission of Elicitation in Cell Suspension Cultures and Hypocotyl Sections of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R A; Dey, P M; Lawton, M A; Lamb, C J

    1983-02-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors.

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris and have high genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, L L; Costa, L E O; Santos, T T; Araújo, E F; Queiroz, M V

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi from the leaves of the common bean and the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum using IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism) analyses. The fungi were isolated by tissue fragmentation and identified by analysing the morphological features and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rDNA large subunit (LSU). Twenty-seven different taxa were identified. Colletotrichum was the most commonly isolated genera from the common bean (32.69% and 24.29% of the total isolates from the Ouro Negro and Talismã varieties, respectively). The IRAP and REMAP analyses revealed a high genetic diversity in the Colletotrichum endophytic isolates and were able to discriminate these isolates from the phytopathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris endophytic community, and the IRAP and REMAP markers can be used to rapidly distinguish between C. lindemuthianum and other Colletotrichum members that are frequently found as endophytes. This is the first report of the diversity of endophytic fungi present in the common bean and the use of IRAP and REMAP markers to assess the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Differential patterns of arabinosylation by membranes of suspension-cultured cells of Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean) after subculture or elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwell, G P

    1984-09-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean) incorporated [1-3H] arabinose in vivo into high-Mr polymers that could be separated into glycoprotein and polysaccharide. Microsomal membranes from suspension-cultured cells of beans incorporated arabinose from UDP-beta-L-arabinose in vitro into both polysaccharide and glycoprotein. The enzyme involved in arabinan synthesis, arabinan synthase, appeared to be immunologically distinct from the protein:arabinosyltransferase system. Both these activities are inducible, but behave differently with either plant-growth-regulator or fungal-elicitor treatments. After subculture of cells entering the stationary growth phase the arabinan synthase activity reaches much higher values than does that of the protein transferase system during the initial period of cell division and growth, whereas after elicitation at the same growth stage, all the increased incorporation of arabinose occurs into glycoprotein of Mr higher than 200 000 and to a greater extent into a specific glycoprotein of Mr 42 500. Preliminary characterization of these glycoproteins prepared under non-reducing conditions and after acid and alkaline hydrolysis suggests that the high-Mr glycoprotein material is similar to arabinogalactan protein, whereas the lower-Mr material may be a hydroxyproline-rich protein existing as a dimer and that specifically increases during the hypersensitive response of the cells to the fungal elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

  5. Comportamiento agroproductivo de 10 variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el agroecosistema del municipio de Yaguajay.

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    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del comportamiento agroproductivo de 10 variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L., en las condiciones edafoclimáticas de la CCS “Luis La O” del municipio Yaguajay, provincia de Sancti Spíritus. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el período diciembre 2013- marzo 2014.Con un marco de siembra de 0,50 m x 0,10 m, para 200 000 - 250 000 plantas por hectárea. Utilizamos un diseño Latinizado con tres bloques de 10 parcelas distribuidas al azar y de 5 m2 cada una. El estudio fenológico manifestó que las variedades más precoces resultaron: Velazco Largo y Cul-156. Las de ciclo más largo: CC-25-9 (n y Tomeguín 93. La información reveló diferencias en el comportamiento fenológico de las variedades, al comparar los parámetros del experimento, con los que publica el Instituto de Investigaciones de Granos (IIG. Se apreció que las variedades: Buena Ventura (r y CC-25-9 (r como las de mejor comportamiento en cuanto al rendimiento, con diferencias significativas respecto a las demás variedades. Estas variedades no lograron sus rendimientos potenciales, pero superaron los rendimientos del territorio.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  7. Bioremediation model for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils using phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a locally adapted microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga-Navarrete, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca Rosa; Villagómez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Perry, Gregory; Islas-Pelcastre, Margarita

    2017-06-03

    The objective of the present study was to examine a biological model under greenhouse conditions for the bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soils. The model consisted in a combination of phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and rhizopheric bio-augmentation using native Trichoderma sp., and Rhizobium sp. microorganisms that showed no inhibitory growth at 10,000 mg L(-1) of herbicide concentration. 33.3 mg of atrazine 50 g(-1) of soil of initial concentration was used and an initial inoculation of 1 × 10(9) UFC mL(-1) of Rhizobium sp. and 1 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1) of Trichoderma sp. were set. Four treatments were arranged: Bean + Trichoderma sp. (B+T); Bean + Rhizobium sp. (BR); Bean + Rhizobium sp. + Trichoderma sp. (B+R+T) and Bean (B). 25.51 mg of atrazine 50 g(-1) of soil (76.63%) was removed by the B+T treatment in 40 days (a = 0.050, Tukey). This last indicate that the proposed biological model and methodology developed is useful for atrazine contaminated bioremediation agricultural soils, which can contribute to reduce the effects of agrochemical abuse.

  8. Physicochemical and thermal properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Great Northern bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ratnayake, Wajira S

    2014-03-01

    The compositions and properties of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars (Beryl-R, Coyne, Gemini, Marquis, and Orion) were investigated. Starch was isolated from each cultivar by a wet milling process. Isolated, unmodified starches were characterized for granular, molecular, thermal, and rheological properties. Smooth surfaces and essentially similar granule sizes and shapes were observed among all cultivars. Amylose contents were in the range 21.0% to 22.6%. Amylose and amylopectin molecular weights were approximately 10(5) and 10(9) Da, respectively. Typical C-type X-ray pattern was observed in all cultivars. Significant differences were observed among cultivars in percentage relative crystallinities, which were in the range 18.2% to 23.8%. The relative crystallinity was independent of amylose proportion and molecular weight. The 5 Great Northern bean cultivars differed in their thermal and rheological properties. Coyne and Gemini had low gelatinization enthalpies. In pasting profile analysis, Coyne had the lowest peak and final viscosities. Granule size, polymer proportion, and molecular weights had major influences on gelatinization and pasting properties of Great Northern bean starches. Great Northern bean is one of the major varieties of dry-edible beans produced worldwide. Starch is the major component in Great Northern beans, which accounts for approximately 40% of its composition. Although most legume starches have been studied in detail, physicochemical and functional properties of Great Northern bean starch are largely unknown. This study investigated the properties and thermal behaviors of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars. The new information reported in this article, on starch properties, would pave ways to find new ingredient and product applications for Great Northern beans in food processing. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Cinética de congelamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a baixas temperaturas Freezing kinetics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti-Mata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi obter as curvas de congelamento do feijão, cultivar 'gordo', nas temperaturas de -25, -50, -170 e -196 ºC e determinar sua difusividade térmica efetiva. Com vista à obtenção das curvas de congelamento das sementes nas temperaturas de -25 e -50 ºC utilizou-se um freezer criogênico horizontal; para a temperatura de -170 ºC, o vapor de nitrogênio e, para a temperatura de -196 ºC, as sementes foram submersas no nitrogênio líquido. Afim de expressar o comportamento cinético do congelamento das sementes de feijão, foi usado o modelo de Fourier levando-se em consideração o primeiro termo da série, além dos Modelos I e II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os três modelos representam satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais da cinética de congelamento; apesar disto, com o Modelo II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte se obtém o maior coeficiente de determinação. Constata-se também que, para congelar as sementes de feijão até atingir o equilíbrio térmico na temperatura de -25 ºC, o tempo necessário foi de 1200 min; em temperatura de -50 ºC o equilíbrio foi atingido com 480 min; a -170 ºC o equilíbrio se deu em 180 min e, a -196 ºC, em 30 min.The objective of this study was to obtain the freezing curves of beans, variety 'gordo' at temperatures of -25, -50, -170 and -196 ºC, and determine their effective thermal diffusivity. For the curves of freezing beans seeds at temperatures of -25 and -50 ºC a cryogenic horizontal freezer was used, for temperature of -170 ºC, nitrogen vapor was used and at temperature of -196 ºC seeds were submerged in liquid nitrogen. To express the kinetic behavior of the freezing of bean seeds, the Fourier model was used taking into account the first term of the series and; Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte model I and II. The results indicate that the three models satisfactorily represent the experimental data of the kinetics of freezing, though with

  10. Tolerância à salinidade em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L Salt tolerance in bean (Paseolus vulgaris cell culture

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    F. Broetto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações das técnicas da cultura de tecidos no melhoramento é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentam tolerância à salinidade. Vários autores obtiveram linhas de células tolerantes ao estresse salino; e estudo de mecanismos bioquímicos da tolerância a sais em plantas tem demonstrado altas correlações entre estes e o acúmulo de macromoléculas em tecido de plantas superiores. Para verificar essas correlações em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cv IAC carioca, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários foram cultivados em meio sólido, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0 a 60 mM. Após 13 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto ao crescimento relativo, teor de proteínas, teor de prolina e atividade da peroxidase. Os parâmetros analisados mostraram decréscimo no crescimento relativo e no de proteínas em resposta ao NaCl. Paralelamente, observou-se aumento significativo no conteúdo de prolina e atividade da enzima peroxidase.One of the applications of the tissue culture technique in plant improvement is the identification of cell lines which show salinity tolerance. Several authors were able to obtain saline stress-tolerant cell lines and show that mechanisms of tolerance to salts have a strong correlation between this phenomenon and a high macromolecule concentration in plant tissues. Callus obtained from embrionic axis of Phaseolus vulgarís cv. IAC carioca in solid medium, supplemented with 0 to 60 mM NaCl, as the salt treatment, were used. Callus harvesting was done on the 13th day, when they were processed for relative growth, protein, proline content and peroxidase acivity. The results show both, a decrease of the relative growth and of protein content in response to the NaCl treatment, as compared to controls. However, there was a significant increase on the proline content and on the peroxidase activity.

  11. Dose-response studies with the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU), applied as a soil drench to two growth substrates, on greenhouse-grown varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka-Rick, R; Manning, W J

    1993-01-01

    To study plant growth and yield effects of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU), which is frequently used for ozone crop loss assessments, dose-response studies were carried out with potted bean plants under greenhouse conditions in winter and spring. Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L., differing in sensitivity to ozone (O(3)), were grown in unfiltered air on a sandy loam rich in organic matter and on a vermiculite-clay mixture. Four treatments of EDU at concentrations from 300 to 800 mg liter(-1) were given as a soil drench during plant development. Foliar symptoms of EDU phytoxicity were observed at all doses, and plant biomass, particularly pod dry weight, was considerably reduced to increasing doses of EDU. Primary and first trifoliate leaf weight in EDU-treated plants increased as did the number of buds, indicating an extension of vegetative growth and a delay of reproductive processes. 'BBL 290' beans, which are O(3)-sensitive, were injured by EDU more than the O(3)-tolerant 'BBL 274'. The phytotoxic effects of EDU were more pronounced in the synthetic growth substrate than in field soil. In a second experiment, EDU was applied in concentrations from 100 to 400 mg liter(-1) to 'BBL 290' plants, exposed to filtered air or simulated levels of O(3) pollution. In field soil, plant growth and biomass partitioning in filtered air was only slightly altered by EDU, although leaf injury due to EDU occurred. In the vermiculite-clay mix, the biomass of most plant organs, particularly that of roots, was linearly reduced with increasing EDU doses. O(3) did not cause any alteration in plant biomass in field soil-grown and EDU-treated plants. Ozone leaf injury, which affected 67% of primary leaf area in non-treated plants, was completely suppressed by EDU doses as low as 100 mg liter(-1). This indicates that low concentrations of EDU, which do not affect plant growth in field soil, provide sufficient protection from O(3) injury. The need for careful EDU dose

  12. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  13. Ozone tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris depends on more than one mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Lucia, E-mail: guidilu@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Degl' Innocenti, Elena [Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Giordano, Cristiana [Ce.M.E, Centro di Microscopie Elettroniche, CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy); Biricolti, Stefano [Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, Universita di Firenze, Viale delle Idee 30, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy); Tattini, Massimiliano [Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Two bean cultivars with different sensitivity to ozone, i.e. the O{sub 3}-sensitive Cannellino and the O{sub 3}-tolerant Top Crop, were exposed to acute O{sub 3}-stress (165 nL L{sup -1}) with the aim of evaluating physiological and biochemical traits that may confer O{sub 3}-tolerance. Stomatal conductance was smaller and the ability to dissipate excess energy, via regulated and unregulated nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms was greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These morphological and physiological-traits allowed the O{sub 3}-tolerant cultivar to compensate for the light-induced declines in {Phi}{sub PSII}, to preserve photosystem II from excitation-energy, and likely to prevent the generation of ROS to a superior degree than the O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the potential capacities to reducing the superoxide anion and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were significantly greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These findings are consistent with the early accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the almost complete disruption of cell structure, and irreversible damages to the photosynthetic apparatus observed in the O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivar. - Tolerance to ozone in bean highly integrated morphological, physiological and biochemical traits.

  14. Avaliação da biodiversidade de rizóbios simbiontes do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em Santa Catarina Assessment of biodiversity in rhizobia symbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Stocco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os solos brasileiros, em geral, apresentam uma população abundante de rizóbios capazes de nodular e fixar N2 em simbiose com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; contudo, a diversidade dessas bactérias ainda é pouco conhecida. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a biodiversidade de microssimbiontes do feijoeiro em Santa Catarina e, para isso, foram obtidos 117 isolados de nódulos de plantas coletadas em campo, em 23 áreas do extremo oeste, do meio oeste e do planalto sul catarinense. Com base nos atributos morfofisiológicos, os isolados foram classificados em nove grupos. Pela análise dos perfis de DNA após a amplificação (PCR com o "primer" BOX, que codifica regiões conservadas e repetidas do genoma, 107 perfis distintos foram agrupados em um nível final de similaridade de apenas 26,9 %. Os perfis obtidos pela amplificação do gene 16S ribossômico - referência na taxonomia atual de procariotos - seguida pela digestão com três enzimas de restrição (técnica de RFLP-PCR, resultaram em seis agrupamentos principais e cinco bactérias isoladas. As populações consistiram de 17,1 % de Rhizobium tropici, 35,9 % de R. etli, 32,5 % de R. leguminosarum, 1,7 % de R. giardinii e 12,8 % com perfis distintos das espécies descritas de rizóbios de feijoeiro. R. tropici predominou em solos ácidos do meio oeste e do planalto sul, R. leguminosarum não foi detectado no extremo oeste e R. etli ocorreu nas três regiões, essas duas últimas espécies em solos menos ácidos. Os resultados enfatizam a diversidade genética elevada de rizóbios, inter e intra-específica, nos solos catarinenses, inclusive com a indicação de novas espécies.Brazilian soils usually present a great number of populations of rhizobial bacteria capable of nodulating and fixing N2 in symbiosis with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., but the diversity of these bacteria is still poorly known. This study aimed to assess the biodiversity of micro-symbionts of

  15. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Periods of weeds interference in culture common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Borchartt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa determinar os períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas no feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivado em plantio direto, em Rolim de Moura-RO. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos simultaneamente; no primeiro a cultura permaneceu livre da competição com plantas daninhas desde a emergência até os 7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 42; 49 e 64 dias; no segundo a cultura permaneceu em competição com a comunidade infestante pelos períodos citados no primeiro ensaio. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A Digitaria horizontalis e Zea mays foram as espécies que apresentaram maior importância. A D. horizontalis atingiu altas frequências relativas, dominância relativa e densidade de até 95,3%. A Z. mays apesar dos baixos índices de densidade e freqüência relativa, apresentou alta dominância relativa pelo grande acúmulo de massa seca. O rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro foi afetado pela convivência com as plantas daninhas. Assumindo perdas de 5% no rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro pela interferência da comunidade infestante o período anterior à interferência foi de quatro dias, onde não foi necessária a realização do controle. O período total de prevenção da interferência foi de dezoito dias após a emergência (DAE e o período crítico de prevenção da interferência situou-se entre os quatro e os dezoito DAE. Neste período até 18 DAE a convivência do feijoeiro com plantas daninhas ocasionou diminuição no rendimento da cultura por competirem pelos recursos do meio, onde houve necessidade de serem controladas.The research was carried out with the objective of determining the critical periods of weed interference in the culture of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in no tillage system in Rolim de Moura-RO. Two trials were conducted simultaneously where in the first the culture remained free of the competition with weeds since the emergency until the

  16. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    H.A. de Mendonça

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susceptible to anthracnose, but it has desirable grain and corona color. Anthracnose resistance and corona color were studied in the F1 and F2 generations of three populations resulting from crosses of P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro, and Carioca. The Carioca x P-45 cross indicated that the Mex.2 allele, which conditions resistance to the pathogen, is linked with a recombination frequency of 0.0604 ± 0.0232 to one of the alleles which determines the dark brown corona color. The EMGOPA 201-Ouro x Carioca cross revealed that the resistance allele of EMGOPA 201-Ouro was independent from the alleles which determine the yellow corona. These resistance alleles were also determined to be independent according to EMGOPA 201-Ouro x P-45 cross results.As cultivares de feijão com grão tipo Carioca devem possuir, entre outros caracteres, resistência ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, agente causal da antracnose, e possuir halo de cor clara. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o controle genético desses dois caracteres, visando orientar os futuros trabalhos de melhoramento. Os genitores utilizados foram P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro e Carioca-300V, sendo que o P-45 possui halo marrom escuro e o EMGOPA 201-Ouro, halo amarelo, ambos resistentes ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. O genitor Carioca-300V é suscetível, porém possui cor de grão e de halo desejáveis. Do intercruzamento desses genitores obtiveram-se três populações que foram avaliadas nas gerações F1 e F2 para

  17. Cartografía de QTL asociados a la tolerancia a estrés hídrico en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Villordo Pineda, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol común o judía) es una leguminosa de gran demanda para la nutrición humana y un producto agrícola muy importante. Sin embargo, la producción de frijol se ve limitada por presiones ambientales como la sequía. En México, el 85% de la cosecha de frijol se produce en la temporada de primavera-verano, principalmente en las regiones del altiplano semiárido con una precipitación anual entre 250 y 400 mm. A pesar del implemento de tecnología en el campo, los factores natu...

  18. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  19. Toxidade e repelência de óleos essenciais no manejo de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (coleoptera: chrysomelidae, bruchinae) em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteze Alves

    2011-01-01

    A espécie de feijão comum, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), destaca-se como a mais importante, entre as cinco cultivadas no mundo. Dentre as pragas do feijão armazenado no Brasil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) é considerada uma das mais significativas, sendo seu controle comumente realizado com inseticidas sintéticos protetores e fumigantes. No entanto, novas alternativas aos inseticidas sintéticos vêm sendo testadas, como os produtos naturais, que são menos tóxicos, de menor custo, biodegradáveis e a...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) EN LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó en el municipio La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, para evaluar el impacto del fitomejoramiento participativo sobre el sistema local de semillas de los pequeños agricultores del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). El trabajo de investigación consideró realizar el primer ejercicio de selección participativa de variedades de frijol en una feria de diversidad efectuada en una comunidad rural en Cuba, la cual fue organizada por un agricultor en la localidad ...

  1. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  2. Homólogos de genes de resistencia en fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris) y su aplicación en resistencia a colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Gutiérrez, Luz Nayibe

    2012-01-01

    El cultivo de fríjol ( Phaseolus vulgaris) es afectado por diversos patógenos que limitan su producción, por esta razón la identificación de genes de resistencia funcionales es uno de los principales retos en investigación. Este proyecto tuvo por objetivo identificar homólogos de genes de resistencia (RGH) asociados con resistencia a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum agente causal de la antracnosis. Se evaluaron 544 combinaciones de primers degenerados, diseñados a partir de secuencias conservada...

  3. Eficiência de formulações de ulvana em induzir resistência em Phaseolus vulgaris contra Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,M. B.; MEDUGNO, C. C.; SCHONS, R. F.; STADNIK, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia da ulvana, um polissacarídeo proveniente de alga, em induzir resistência em Phaseolus vulgaris contra Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, quando formulada sozinha ou com caulinita, sílica amorfa ou atapulgita e armazenada por 0, 4, 8 ou 12 meses. Após cada período de armazenamento, as formulações e água (controle) foram aplicadas à folhagem de plantas de feijão (cv. Uirapuru, estádio fenológico V4) aos 6 e 3 dias antes da inoculação com C. lindemuth...

  4. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  5. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (phaseolus vulgaris) y arveja (pisum sativum). efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la...

  6. Cultivo in vitro y evaluación de la expresión transitoria del gen uidA en Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Torrescano De Labra, Luiselva

    2015-01-01

    El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es una de las leguminosas de mayor consumo y distribución en el mundo y existe un gran número de variedades con características favorables, para su cultivo y consumo. En México, es una de las bases de la alimentación; sin embargo, aún enfrenta problemas de susceptibilidad a factores bióticos y abióticos, así como la presencia de componentes antinutricionales..Debido a la importancia del frijol, es conveniente desarrollar y establecer un s...

  7. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  8. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Altrock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  10. Transcriptome profiling identifies candidate genes associated with the accumulation of distinct γ-glutamyl sulphur dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqun eLiao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and black gram (Vigna mungo accumulate γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulphur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately four-fold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was two-fold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulphydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methyl-cysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulphur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulphur amino acid γ-glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  11. Effects of 15% CO/sub 2/ on the accumulation of the phytoalexin phaseollin in Phaseolus vulgaris in response to mechanical injury and to infection by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.M.; Rahe, J.E.

    1977-04-15

    Accumulation of phaseollin at sites of point-freezing injury on etiolated hypocotyls of Phaseolus vulgaris occurred in air but was prevented when seedlings were placed in air containing 15 percent CO/sub 2/ immediately after injury. The inhibitory effect was partially overcome when CO/sub 2/-treated seedlings were returned to air. Phaseollin accumulation in 15 percent CO/sub 2/ did occur, however, when injured seedlings were maintained in air for 3-9 h before being transferred to CO/sub 2/, indicating that the sensitivity to CO/sub 2/ lies at an early stage of the process leading to phaseollin production. In contrast, phaseollin accumulation at sites of infection of P. vulgaris by an incompatible race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was not inhibited by 15 percent CO/sub 2/. These results indicate that the processes leading to the accumulation of phaseollin at incompatible infection sites and at injury sites may be regulated differently.

  12. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region.

  13. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  14. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  15. Conformational study of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) by tryptophan fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wen, Qi-Biao

    2011-01-12

    Fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study changes in the conformation of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) under various environmental conditions. The possible relationship between fluorescence data and DSC characteristics was also discussed. Tryptophan fluorescence and fluorescence quenching analyses indicated that the tryptophan residues in KPI, exhibiting multiple fluorophores with different accessibilities to acrylamide, are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains close to at least some of the tryptophan residues. GdnHCl was more effective than urea and SDS in denaturing KPI. SDS and urea caused variable red shifts, 2-5 nm, in the emission λ(max), suggesting the conformational compactness of KPI. The result was further supported by DSC characteristics that a discernible endothermic peak was still detected up to 8 M urea or 30 mM SDS, also evidenced by the absence of any shift in emission maximum (λ(max)) at different pH conditions. Marked decreases in T(d) and enthalpy (ΔH) were observed at extreme alkaline and/or acidic pH, whereas the presence of NaCl resulted in higher T(d) and ΔH, along with greater cooperativity of the transition. Decreases in T(d) and ΔH were observed in the presence of protein perturbants, for example, SDS and urea, indicating partial denaturation and decrease in thermal stability. Dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide have a slight effect on the thermal properties of KPI. Interestingly, a close linear relationship between the T(d) (or ΔH) and the λ(max) was observed for KPI in the presence of 0-6 M urea.

  16. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  17. Effects of SO(2) and O(3) on Allocation of C-Labeled Photosynthate in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, S B; McConathy, R K

    1983-11-01

    A series of laboratory exposures of two varieties of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var 274 and var 290) was conducted to determine the sensitivity of [(14)C]photosynthate allocation patterns to alteration by SO(2) and O(3). Experiments with the pollution-resistant 274 variety demonstrated short-term changes in both (14)C and biomass allocation to roots of (14)CO(2)-labeled plants but no significant effect on yield by up to 40 hours of exposure to SO(2) at 0.50 microliters per liter or 4 hours of O(3) at 0.40 microliters per liter. Subsequent experiments with the more sensitive 290 variety demonstrated significant alteration of photosynthesis, translocation, and partitioning of photosynthate between plant parts including developing pods. Significant increases in foliar retention of photosynthate (+40%) occurred after 8 hours of exposure to SO(2) at 0.75 microliters per liter (6.0 microliters per liter-hour) and 11 hours of exposure to O(3) at 0.30 microliters per liter-hour (3.3 microliters-hours). Time series sampling of labeled tissues after (14)CO(2) uptake showed that the disruption of translocation patterns was persistent for at least 1 week after exposures ceased. Subsequent longer-term exposures at lower concentrations of both O(3) (0.0, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 microliters per liter) and SO(2) (0.0, 0.20, and 0.40 microliters per liter) demonstrated that O(3) more effectively altered allocation than SO(2), that primary leaves were generally more sensitive than trifoliates, and that responses of trifoliate leaves varied with plant growth stage. Altered rates of allocation of photosynthate by leaves were generally associated with alterations of similar magnitude and opposite direction in developing pods. Collectively, these experiments suggest that allocation patterns can provide sensitive indices of incipient growth responses of pollution-stressed vegetation.

  18. A high-throughput SNP marker system for parental polymorphism screening, and diversity analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Cortés, Andrés J; Penmetsa, R Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Cook, Doug R

    2013-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has become a marker system of choice, because of the high abundance of source polymorphisms and the ease with which allele calls are automated. Various technologies exist for the evaluation of SNP loci and previously we validated two medium throughput technologies. In this study, our goal was to utilize a 768 feature, Illumina GoldenGate assay for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed from conserved legume gene sequences and to use the new technology for (1) the evaluation of parental polymorphisms in a mini-core set of common bean accessions and (2) the analysis of genetic diversity in the crop. A total of 736 SNPs were scored on 236 diverse common bean genotypes with the GoldenGate array. Missing data and heterozygosity levels were low and 94 % of the SNPs were scorable. With the evaluation of the parental polymorphism genotypes, we estimated the utility of the SNP markers in mapping for inter-genepool and intra-genepool populations, the latter being of lower polymorphism than the former. When we performed the diversity analysis with the diverse genotypes, we found Illumina GoldenGate SNPs to provide equivalent evaluations as previous gene-based SNP markers, but less fine-distinctions than with previous microsatellite marker analysis. We did find, however, that the gene-based SNPs in the GoldenGate array had some utility in race structure analysis despite the low polymorphism. Furthermore the SNPs detected high heterozygosity in wild accessions which was probably a reflection of ascertainment bias. The Illumina SNPs were shown to be effective in distinguishing between the genepools, and therefore were most useful in saturation of inter-genepool genetic maps. The implications of these results for breeding in common bean are discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the GoldenGate system for SNP detection.

  19. A phytase gene is overexpressed in root nodules cortex of Phaseolus vulgaris-rhizobia symbiosis under phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Amenc, Laurie; Ounane, Ghania; Abadie, Josiane; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2013-08-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for rhizobial symbioses to convert N2 into NH4 usable for N nutrition in legumes and N cycle in ecosystems. This N2 fixation process occurs in nodules with a high energy cost. Phytate is the major storage form of P and accounts for more than 50 % of the total P in seeds of cereals and legumes. The phytases, a group of enzymes widely distributed in plant and microorganisms, are able to hydrolyze a variety of inositol phosphates. Recently, phytase activity was discovered in nodules. However, the gene expression localization and its role in N2-fixing nodules are still unknown. In this work, two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), selected as contrasting for N2 fixation under P deficiency, namely RILs 115 (P-efficient) and 147 (P-inefficient) were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899, and grown under hydroaeroponic conditions with sufficient versus deficient P supply. With in situ RT-PCR methodology, we found that phytase transcripts were particularly abundant in the nodule cortex and infected zone of both RILs. Under P deficiency, phytase transcripts were significantly more abundant for RIL115 than for RIL147, and more in the outer cortex than in the infected zone. Additionally, the high expression of phytase among nodule tissues for the P-deficient RIL115 was associated with an increase in phytase (33 %) and phosphatase (49 %) activities and efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (34 %). It is argued that phytase activity in nodules would contribute to the adaptation of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis to low-P environments.

  20. Discrimination against 15N among recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contrasting in phosphorus use efficiency for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Bargaz, Adnane; Carlsson, Georg; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-02-15

    Although isotopic discrimination processes during nitrogen (N) transformations influence the outcome of (15)N based quantification of N2 fixation in legumes, little attention has been given to the effects of genotypic variability and environmental constraints such as phosphorus (P) deficiency, on discrimination against (15)N during N2 fixation. In this study, six Phaseolus vulgaris recombinant inbred lines (RILs), i.e. RILs 115, 104, 34 (P deficiency tolerant) and 147, 83, 70 (P deficiency sensitive), were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and hydroaeroponically grown with P-sufficient (250 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)) versus P-deficient (75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)) supply. Two harvests were done at 15 (before nodule functioning) and 42 (flowering stage) days after transplanting. Nodulation, plant biomass, P and N contents, and the ratios of (15)N over total N content ((15)N/Nt) for shoots, roots and nodules were determined. The results showed lower (15)N/Nt in shoots than in roots, both being much lower than in nodules. P deficiency caused a larger decrease in (15)N/Nt in shoots (-0.18%) than in nodules (-0.11%) for all of the genotypes, and the decrease in shoots was greatest for RILs 34 (-0.33%) and 104 (-0.25%). Nodule (15)N/Nt was significantly related to both the quantity of N2 fixed (R(2)=0.96***) and the P content of nodules (R(2)=0.66*). We conclude that the discrimination against (15)N in the legume N2-fixing symbiosis of common bean with R. tropici CIAT899 is affected by P nutrition and plant genotype, and that the (15)N/Nt in nodules may be used to screen for genotypic variation in P use efficiency for N2 fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The response of aminopeptidases of Phaseolus vulgaris to drought depends on the developmental stage of the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budič, Maruška; Cigić, Blaž; Šoštarič, Maja; Sabotič, Jerica; Meglič, Vladimir; Kos, Janko; Kidrič, Marjetka

    2016-12-01

    Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts. Three, named PvAP1, PvAP2 and PvAP4, are metallo aminopeptidases with broad substrate specificity, active against substrates conjugated to alanine and lysine. Two others, PvAP3 and PvAP5, are apparently serine aminopeptidases, the former active against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine and leucine, and the latter characterised by narrow specificity against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine. Their apparent molecular weights range from ∼37 kDa to ∼80 kDa. Levels of activity of individual aminopeptidases in both watered and drought stressed plants are shown to depend on the age of leaves. In watered plants they were generally highest in young, and very low in older, trifoliate leaves, the latter with the exception of PvAP5. Drought initiated an almost general increase of their activities, although to different extents, with the exception of PvAP4 and PvAP5 in young trifoliate leaves. Thus, in such studies it is necessary to investigate the effects of drought separately in leaves of different ages in order to elucidate the different complex and probably specific roles of aminopeptidases in the response of common bean to drought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Annotation, Phylogeny and Expression Analysis of the Nuclear Factor Y Gene Families in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Carolina eRípodas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plant nuclear factor Y (NF-Y genes have gained major interest due to their roles in many biological processes in plant development or adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly in the root nodule symbiosis established between legume plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria. NF-Ys are heterotrimeric transcriptional complexes composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC, which bind with high affinity and specificity to the CCAAT box, a cis element present in many eukaryotic promoters. In plants, NF-Y subunits consist of gene families with about ten members each. In this study, we have identified and characterized the NF-Y gene families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain legume of worldwide economical importance and the main source of dietary protein of developing countries. Expression analysis showed that some members of each family are up-regulated at early or late stages of the nitrogen fixing symbiotic interaction with its partner Rhizobium etli. We also showed that some genes are differentially accumulated in response to inoculation with high or less efficient R. etli strains, constituting excellent candidates to participate in the strain-specific response during symbiosis. Genes of the NF-YA family exhibit a highly structured intron-exon organization. Moreover, this family is characterized by the presence of upstream ORFs when introns in the 5' UTR are retained and miRNA target sites in their 3' UTR, suggesting that these genes might be subjected to a complex post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple protein alignments indicated the presence of highly conserved domains in each of the NF-Y families, presumably involved in subunit interactions and DNA binding. The analysis presented here constitutes a starting point to understand the regulation and biological function of individual members of the NF-Y families in different developmental processes in this grain legume.

  3. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

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    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  4. Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. en el estado de Chiapas, Mexico

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    Bernardo Villar S\\u00E1nchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el estado de Chiapas, México. Por su contribución en la dieta alimenticia y la generación de empleos, y por existir una ancestral cultura productiva y una superficie de siembra de más de 100 mil hectáreas, el cultivo de frijol es de fundamental importancia en el estado de Chiapas. Sin embargo, se ha determinado una brecha tecnológica de más de 700 kg/ha entre el potencial del cultivo y los rendimientos actuales. Esta es ocasionada por numerosos factores limitantes entre los que destaca la presencia de suelos de baja fertilidad y ácidos. La estrategia adoptada para el manejo de este problema incluye: 1.Aplicación de cal y fósforo; 2. Mejoramiento genético para resistencia; 3.Manejo de los ciclos de materia orgánica y nutrientes del suelo; y 4.Combinación de las tres alternativas. En este reporte se dan los avances obtenidos con relación a la primera alternativa considerada como el paso inicial para el logro de un manejo integral de suelos en Chiapas. Durante 1997 se estudiaron cinco dosis de cal y tres de fósforo en condiciones de invernadero y campo para suelos de diferentes localidades. Se utilizó un experimento factorial completo con cuatro repeticiones, los experimentos fueron evaluados en términos de la producción de grano y al efecto de la cal sobre las propiedades químicas del suelo. Hubo respuesta del frijol en rendimiento a la aplicación de cal y fósforo

  5. Cytological investigations of mesophyll of Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Red Kidney' infected with PVS

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    Krystyna Brzezicka-Szymczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have put under cytological observation 2-, 4-, and 8-day fragments of mesophyll of the leaves Phaseolus 'Red Kidney' infected with PVS. In the necrosis caused by PVS can be distinguished a necrotic centre, a seminecrotic zone, and a belt of terminal cells. The necrotic centre is the most changed area whose cells are most often decayed. In the seminecrotic zone, the presence of viruses in the cell causes some pathological changes. The ER canals assume the shape of swollen cisterns. The chloroplasts reacts with the softening of granas, the growth of starch granules and plastoglobules content as well as with the presence of proteinaceous fibrous structures. The karyolymph and mitochondrium matrix become elucidated. The continuity of plasmalemma and tonoplast become interrupted. Virus particles appear in the area of cytoplasm of seminecrotic zone and in the necrotic centre, they are dispersed or rarely arranged in aggregations which often are in contact with tonoplast. We have observed virus packs enclosed with lipoproteid membrane. Viruses were not stated in the terminal zone. We have ascertained the intensive development of cell walls in the cells of terminal and seminecrotic zones. A lobar or punctual way of the development appeared in different areas of the cell wall and was found independently in various cells. The modified areas included as well plasmodesmata. The above observations enable us to presume that the cells of necrotic centre and seminecrotic zone are the place of replication and assembling of viruses and is responsible for the mechanical localization of virus infection.

  6. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  7. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  8. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  9. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different environmental conditions on two bean cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzano, M.R.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history parameters of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an important pest of bean crops in Colombia, were determined in environmental control chambers on two dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv.). Trialeurodes vaporariorum longevity on cv. Chocho decreased as

  11. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Andrés J; Monserrate, Fredy A; Ramírez-Villegas, Julián; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  12. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  13. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

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    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  14. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwabena Darkwa; Daniel Ambachewa; Hussein Mohammed; Asrat Asfaw; Matthew W. Blairc

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3). All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤0.05) outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  15. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  16. Cell wall polysaccharides of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Polissacarídeos de parede celular de feijões (Phasealus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. Shiga

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The soluble and insoluble cotyledon (SPF-Co and IPF-Co and tegument (SPF-Te and IPF-Te cell wall polymer fractions of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris were isolated using a chemical-enzymatic method. The sugar composition showed that SPF-Co was constituted of 38.6% arabinose, 23.4% uronic acids, 12.7% galactose, 11.2% xylose, 6.4% mannose and 6.1% glucose, probably derived from slightly branched and weakly bound polymers. The IPF-Co was fractionated with chelating agent (CDTA and with increasing concentrations of NaOH. The bulk of the cell wall polymers (29.4% were extracted with 4.0M NaOH and this fraction contained mainly arabinose (55.0%, uronic acid (18.9%, glucose (10.7%, xylose (10.3% and galactose (3.4%. About 8.7% and 10.6% of the polymers were solubilised with CDTA and 0.01M NaOH respectively and were constituted of arabinose (52.0 and 45.9%, uronic acids (25.8 and 29.8%, xylose (9.6 and 10.2%, galactose (6.1 and 3.9% and glucose (6.5 and 3.8%. The cell wall polymers were also constituted of small amounts (5.6 and 7.2% of cellulose (CEL and of non-extractable cell wall polymers (NECW. About 16.8% and 17.2% of the polymers were solubilised with 0.5 and 1.0M NaOH and contained, respectively, 92.1 and 90.7% of glucose derived from starch (IST. The neutral sugar and polymers solubilization profiles showed that weakly bound pectins are present mainly in SPF-Co (water-soluble, CDTA and 0.01-0.1M NaOH soluble fractions. Less soluble, highly cross-linked pectins were solubilised with 4.0M NaOH. This pectin is arabinose-rich, probably highly branched and has a higher molecular weight than the pectin present in SPF-Co, CDTA and 0.01-0.1M NaOH fractions.Foram isoladas por método enzimático-químico as frações da parede celular de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contendo polímeros solúveis e insolúveis obtidos do cotilédone (SPF-Co e IPF-Co e tegumento (SPF-Te e IPF-Te. A análise da composição de açúcares mostrou que a SPF-Co era

  17. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  18. Polyphenolic compounds appear to limit the nutritional benefit of biofortified higher iron black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Beebe, Steve E; Reed, Spenser; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2014-03-26

    Our objective was to determine if a biofortified variety of black bean can provide more bioavailable-iron (Fe) than a standard variety. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus-vulgaris L.), a standard (DOR500; 59μg Fe/g) and biofortified (MIB465; 88μg Fe/g) were used. The DOR500 is a common commercial variety, and the MIB465 is a line developed for higher-Fe content. Given the high prevalence of Fe-deficiency anemia worldwide, it is important to determine if Fe-biofortified black beans can provide more absorbable-Fe. Black bean based diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for the broiler (Gallus-gallus) except for Fe (dietary Fe-concentrations were 39.4±0.2 and 52.9±0.9 mg/kg diet, standard vs. biofortified, respectively). Birds (n=14) were fed the diets for 6-weeks. Hemoglobin-(Hb), liver-ferritin and Fe-related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency and total-body-Hb-Fe values were used to estimate Fe-bioavailability. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency values were higher (P0.05). Such extremely-low in-vitro Fe-bioavailability measurement is indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenolic-compounds that may inhibit Fe-absorption. High levels of these compounds would be expected in the black bean seed-coats. The parameters of Fe-status measured in this study indicate that only a minor increase in absorbable-Fe was achieved with the higher-Fe beans. The results also raise the possibility that breeding for increased Fe-concentration elevated the levels of polyphenolic-compounds that can reduce bean Fe-bioavailability, although the higher levels of polyphenolics in the higher-Fe beans may simply be coincidental or an environmental effect. Regardless, Fe-biofortified beans remain a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable-Fe in human populations that consume high levels of these beans as a dietary staple, and the bean polyphenol profile must be further evaluated and modified if

  19. Genetic analysis of the response to eleven Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2014-04-30

    Bean anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.- Scrib. Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) generally follows a qualitative mode of inheritance. The pathogen shows extensive pathogenic variation and up to 20 anthracnose resistance loci (named Co-), conferring resistance to specific races, have been described. Anthracnose resistance has generally been investigated by analyzing a limited number of isolates or races in segregating populations. In this work, we analyzed the response against eleven C. lindemuthianum races in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) common bean population derived from the cross Xana × Cornell 49242 in which a saturated linkage map was previously developed. A systematic genetic analysis was carried out to dissect the complex resistance segregations observed, which included contingency analyses, subpopulations and genetic mapping. Twenty two resistance genes were identified, some with a complementary mode of action. The Cornell 49242 genotype carries a complex cluster of resistance genes at the end of linkage group (LG) Pv11 corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-2. In this position, specific resistance genes to races 3, 6, 7, 19, 38, 39, 65, 357, 449 and 453 were identified, with one of them showing a complementary mode of action. In addition, Cornell 49242 had an independent gene on LG Pv09 showing a complementary mode of action for resistance to race 453. Resistance genes in genotype Xana were located on three regions involving LGs Pv01, Pv02 and Pv04. All resistance genes identified in Xana showed a complementary mode of action, except for two controlling resistance to races 65 and 73 located on LG Pv01, in the position of the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-1. Results shown herein reveal a complex and specific interaction between bean and fungus genotypes leading to anthracnose resistance. Organization

  20. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  1. Metabolic engineering of folate and its precursors in Mexican common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Rivera, Naty G; García-Salinas, Carolina; Aragão, Francisco J L; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío Isabel

    2016-10-01

    Folate (vitamin B9) deficiency causes several health problems globally. However, folate biofortification of major staple crops is one alternative that can be used to improve vitamin intakes in populations at risk. We increased the folate levels in common bean by engineering the pteridine branch required for their biosynthesis. GTP cyclohydrolase I from Arabidopsis (AtGchI) was stably introduced into three common bean Pinto cultivars by particle bombardment. Seed-specific overexpression of AtGCHI caused significant increases of up to 150-fold in biosynthetic pteridines in the transformed lines. The pteridine boost enhanced folate levels in raw desiccated seeds by up to threefold (325 μg in a 100 g portion), which would represent 81% of the adult recommended daily allowance. Unexpectedly, the engineering also triggered a general increase in PABA levels, the other folate precursor. This was not observed in previous engineering studies and was probably caused by a feedforward mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Results from this work also show that common bean grains accumulate considerable amounts of oxidized pteridines that might represent products of folate degradation in desiccating seeds. Our study uncovers a probable different regulation of folate homoeostasis in these legume grains than that observed in other engineering works. Legumes are good sources of folates, and this work shows that they can be engineered to accumulate even greater amounts of folate that, when consumed, can improve folate status. Biofortification of common bean with folates and other micronutrients represents a promising strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations around the world. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genetic parameters and breeding strategies for high levels of iron and zinc in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S M; Melo, P G S; Faria, L C; Souza, T L P O; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S

    2016-06-10

    One of the current focus of common bean breeding programs in Brazil is to increase iron (FeC) and zinc content (ZnC) in grains. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for FeC and ZnC in common bean, verify the need for conducting multi-site evaluation tests, identify elite lines that combine high FeC and ZnC with good adaptability, stability, and agronomic potential, and examine the genetic association between FeC and ZnC. Elite lines (140) were evaluated for important agronomic traits in multiple environments. In one trial, FeC and ZnC were evaluated and genetic parameters were estimated. Based on the high heritability estimates and significant selection gains obtained, the conditions for a successful selection was favorable. Of the 140 evaluated lines, 17 had higher FeC and ZnC, and were included in the validation test (2013, five environments), specifically for the evaluation of FeC and ZnC. The line by environment interaction for FeC and ZnC was detected, but it was predominantly simple. The environmental effect strongly influenced FeC and ZnC . The environment Brasília/rainy season was selected as the best evaluation site for preliminary tests for FeC and ZnC, because it resulted in similar conclusions as the mean of the five environments. The lines CNFP 15701 and CNFC 15865 had higher FeC and ZnC and were highly adaptable and stable, and are recommended for utilization in breeding programs. The lines CNFC 15833, CNFC 15703, and CNFP 15676 showed excellent combined agronomic and nutritional traits, and were selected for the development of biofortified cultivars. Additionally, the genetic association between FeC and ZnC was detected.

  3. Resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Phaseolus vulgaris: a case study for mapping two independent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, Valérie; Sévignac, Mireille; Billant, Paul; Dron, Michel; Langin, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a devastating disease of common bean. Resistant cultivars are economical means for defense against this pathogen. In the present study, we mapped resistance specificities against 7 C. lindemuthianum strains of various geographical origins revealing differential reactions on BAT93 and JaloEEP558, two parents of a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population, of Meso-american and Andean origin, respectively. Six strains revealed the segregation of two independent resistance genes. A specific numerical code calculating the LOD score in the case of two independent segregating genes (i.e. genes with duplicate effects) in a RILs population was developed in order to provide a recombination value (r) between each of the two resistance genes and the tested marker. We mapped two closely linked Andean resistance genes (Co-x, Co-w) at the end of linkage group (LG) B1 and mapped one Meso-american resistance genes (Co-u) at the end of LG B2. We also confirmed the complexity of the previously identified B4 resistance gene cluster, because four of the seven tested strains revealed a resistance specificity near Co-y from JaloEEP558 and two strains identified a resistance specificity near Co-9 from BAT93. Resistance genes found within the same cluster confer resistance to different strains of a single pathogen such as the two anthracnose specificities Co-x and Co-w clustered at the end of LG B1. Clustering of resistance specificities to multiple pathogens such as fungi (Co-u) and viruses (I) was also observed at the end of LG B2.

  4. An Autophagy-Related Kinase Is Essential for the Symbiotic Relationship between Phaseolus vulgaris and Both Rhizobia and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Barraza, Aarón; Olivares, Juan E.; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes contain three types of lipid kinases that belong to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family. In plants and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only PI3K class III family members have been identified. These enzymes regulate the innate immune response, intracellular trafficking, autophagy, and senescence. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated downregulation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) PI3K severely impaired symbiosis in composite P. vulgaris plants with endosymbionts such as Rhizobium tropici and Rhizophagus irregularis. Downregulation of Pv-PI3K was associated with a marked decrease in root hair growth and curling. Additionally, infection thread growth, root-nodule number, and symbiosome formation in root nodule cells were severely affected. Interestingly, root colonization by AM fungi and the formation of arbuscules were also abolished in PI3K loss-of-function plants. Furthermore, the transcript accumulation of genes encoding proteins known to interact with PI3K to form protein complexes involved in autophagy was drastically reduced in these transgenic roots. RNAi-mediated downregulation of one of these genes, Beclin1/Atg6, resulted in a similar phenotype as observed for transgenic roots in which Pv-PI3K had been downregulated. Our findings show that an autophagy-related process is crucial for the mutualistic interactions of P. vulgaris with beneficial microorganisms. PMID:27577790

  5. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

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    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  6. Linkage mapping of the Phg-1 and Co-14 genes for resistance to angular leaf spot and anthracnose in the common bean cultivar AND 277

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar AND 277 is an important source of disease resistance to angular leaf spot (ALS, caused by Pseudocercospora griseola) and anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). AND 277 has the Phg-1 gene that confers resistance to eight races of...

  7. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  8. Combining ability of Phaseolus vulgaris L. for resistance to common bacterial blight

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    Rosana Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases limit dry bean and snap bean yields. Common bacterial blight (CBB, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is one of the most serious bacterial diseases in dry bean and snap bean that cause crop losses. Since there is no satisfactory chemical control, the use of resistant cultivars is an important control measure. Genetic studies of resistance are important for choosing appropriate breeding methods. Combining ability was determined for disease resistance in three snap bean genotypes (Alessa, Hab 52 and Hab 198 and two dry bean genotypes (Bac-6 and A-794. Plants were inoculated with highly pathogenic isolate CNF 15, using a razor blade procedure in leaves and needle punctures in pods. They were evaluated 7 days after inoculation. Leaves were evaluated on a 1 to 5 scale and pods by lesion diameter. Diallel analysis was conducted using Griffing's model. General combining ability (GCA was significant for both leaf and pod infection, whereas specific combining ability (SCA was significant for disease reaction in pods. Bac-6 and A-794 were considered superior genotypes for leaf resistance. Nonadditive effects were predominant in pod reactions, and Alessa x Bac-6, Alessa x A-794 and Hab 52 x Bac-6 were the best combinations.Entre as várias doenças que causam problemas às culturas do feijão-de-vagem e do feijão comum, uma das mais importantes é o crestamento bacteriano comum (CBB, causado pela bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, que pode ocasionar grandes perdas na produção. O controle químico não é eficiente, e entre as medidas de controle recomendadas, destaca-se a resistência genética. Estudos genéticos da resistência são básicos para a definição dos métodos de melhoramento a serem adotados para cada caso. Avaliou-se a capacidade de combinação de três genótipos de feijão-de-vagem (Alessa, Hab 52, Hab 198 e dois de feijão comum (Bac-6 e A-794 quanto à resistência ao CBB, em folhas e vagens. A

  9. The expression of a chimeric Phaseolus vulgaris nodulin 30-GUS gene is restricted to the rhizobially infected cells in transgenic Lotus corniculatus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsolio, C; Campos, F; Sánchez, F; Rocha-Sosa, M

    1994-12-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris there is a nodulin family, Npv30, of ca. 30 kDa, as detected in an in vitro translation assay [2]. We isolated a gene (npv30-1) for one of the members of this family. The nucleotide sequence of the promoter of npv30-1 contains nodule-specific motifs common to other late nodulin genes. The promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene; this chimeric fusion was introduced into Lotus corniculatus via Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. GUS activity was only detected in the infected cells of the nodules of transgenic plants. By contrast, the expression of a 35S-GUS construct was restricted to the uninfected cells and the vascular tissue.

  10. Relationship between in vitro Fe and Zn dialysability and peptide composition of albumin and globulins extracted from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi-Boccia, G; Carbonaro, M; Cappelloni, M; Carnovale, E

    1996-11-01

    In vitro dialysability of iron, zinc and protein was determined from whole bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), albumin and globulin (G1, G2) after cooking. Albumin showed the highest iron, zinc, protein and phytic acid content. Cooking increased iron and protein dialysability only in whole bean and albumin. Compared to globulins, albumin also presented a higher in vitro protein digestibility and cystine chemical reactivity. HPLC analysis of peptides in dialysates of bean and protein fractions suggested that some aggregation occurred during dialysis. The percentage of amino acids in dialysed peptides was found to be different between albumin and globulins. The difference in iron and zinc dialysability between albumin and globulins seems to depend on the phytic acid content of the albumin fraction and the protein properties of globulins.

  11. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

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    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  12. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  13. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-05

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.

  14. A model of canopy irradiance in relation to changing leaf area in a phytotron-grown snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J. H.; Reynolds, J. F.

    1984-03-01

    Simple exponential decay models were used to describe the variation in irradiance profiles within a snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canopy over a 33-day period of canopy development. The extinction coefficients of these models were varied over time as a function of changing canopy leaf area; nonlinear least-squares procedures were used to estimate parameter values. The resultant model response surfaces depict the changes in canopy irradiance that accompany canopy maturation and illustrate the dynamic nature of canopy closure. A criterion index is defined to aid in assessing the applicability of these models for use in whole-plant simulation models, and an evaluation of these models is given based on this index, their predictive accuracy, and the utility for use within varying modeling frameworks.

  15. Genome-wide identification and in silico characterisation of microRNAs, their targets and processing pathway genes in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Cardoso, T C; Portilho, L G; de Oliveira, C L; McKeown, P C; Maluf, W R; Gomes, L A A; Teixeira, T A; do Amaral, L R; Spillane, C; de Souza Gomes, M

    2016-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) is a globally important staple crop, which is an important source of calories, protein and essential micronutrients. At the genomic level little is known regarding the small non-coding RNAs within the common bean genome. One of the most important classes of such small non-coding RNAs is microRNAs (miRNAs), which control mRNA and protein expression levels in many eukaryotes. Computational methods have been applied to identify putative miRNAs in the genomes of different organisms. In this study, our objective was to comprehensively identify and characterise miRNAs from the genome and transcriptome of P. vulgaris, including both mature and precursor miRNA forms. We also sought to identify the putative proteins involved in miRNA processing and the likely target genes of common bean miRNAs. We identified 221 mature miRNAs and 136 precursor miRNAs distributed across 52 different miRNA families in the P. vulgaris genome. Amongst these, we distinguished 129 novel mature miRNAs and 123 miRNA precursors belonging to 24 different miRNA families. We also identified 31 proteins predicted to participate in the miRNA-processing pathway in P. vulgaris. Finally, we also identified 483 predicted miRNA targets, including many which corroborate results from other species, suggesting that miRNA regulatory systems are evolutionarily conserved and important for plant development. Our results expand the study of miRNAs and their target genes in common bean, and provide new opportunities to understand their roles in the biology of this important staple crop. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Efectos de la aplicación simultanea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación simultánea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con dos tratamientos y ocho réplicas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación combinada de Fitomas E (2,0 l.ha-1 y Biobras 16 (0,12 l.ha-1 y una variante control. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas a los 25 y 40 días post siembra, vaina por planta, granos por vainas, granos por plantas, masa de 100 granos y rendimiento agrícola. Se observó en la altura de las plantas diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ambos tratamientos, superando la combinación de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 al tratamiento control, en un 19,43 % y un 17,73 % respectivamente. La variable vainas por planta también mostró diferencias significativas favorables al tratamiento con los bioestimulantes, no así el número de granos por vainas y la masa de 100 granos. El mayor rendimiento agrícola se obtuvo con la variante donde se aplicó Fitomas E y Biobras 16, el cual difirió significativamente del control. Se concluye que el comportamiento agroproductivo del cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se favoreció con el tratamiento evaluado.

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DE SISTEMAS AGRÍCOLAS NA RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. IRRIGADO À ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA EM COBERTURA DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON IRRIGATED COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. RESPONSE TO NITROGEN TOPDRESSING

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    Corival Cândido da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O aumento na produção de alimentos por meio da agricultura, com enfoque em sistemas agrícolas, tem sido bastante praticado nos últimos anos. O feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma espécie viável de integrar esses sistemas, o que tem sido demonstrado nas áreas irrigadas na região central do Brasil. Entretanto, são necessários ajustes nas técnicas de manejo, adequando-as aos diferentes sistemas. A adubação nitrogenada é uma delas e esta deve ser diferenciada, considerando a diversidade dos sistemas agrícolas em que o feijoeiro participa. Para testar esta hipótese, avaliou-se a influência de quatro sistemas agrícolas na resposta do feijoeiro irrigado, cultivar Aporé, à adubação nitrogenada. Os sistemas foram A - rotação milho-feijão, preparo do solo com arado de aiveca na primavera-verão (novembro-dezembro e grade aradora no outono-inverno (maio-junho; B – rotação arroz-feijão, preparo do solo com arado de aiveca em todas as épocas; C - rotação arroz/calopogônio-feijão, preparo do solo com grade aradora em todas as épocas; e D - rotação milhofeijão, em plantio direto contínuo. O nitrogênio, tendo a uréia como fonte, foi aplicado em cobertura nas doses de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 kg.ha-1 de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no período de outono-inverno (maio-junho de 1996 e 1997, em latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, na Fazenda Capivara, pertencente à Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Houve efeito dos tratamentos no número de vagens/planta, na massa de 100 grãos e no rendimento de grãos. Os maiores rendimentos de grãos foram obtidos nos sistemas C e D, em que houve menor movimentação de solo. No sistema C, o efeito das doses de N ajustou-se ao modelo quadrático, sendo de 109 kg.ha-1 de N a

  18. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  19. Metodología para la selección de líneas de fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L. por estrés de temperatura a nivel microgametofítico

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    Vásquez Luz Marina

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Studies of various plant species have shown that a significant portion of the genes that are expressed in the sporophyte are also expressed in the microgametophyte (pollen grain. Consequently, selection pressure applied to pollen may aid in the modification of qualitative or quantitative characters of the derived progeny. To verify this hypothesis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a study of the effect of high temperature stress on pollen grain in three cultivars in F1 and F2 generations was conducted by means of  "in vitro" germination techniques and controlled pollinization with stressed pollen. In vitro germination was inversely related with the level and duration of high temperature stress. As 50°C the stressed pollen showed considerable decrease in germination. Evaluation of germination of pollen between progenies showed no increase in tolerance to high temperature of microgametophytes. Greater progress in selection of microgametophytes be obtained using larger quantities of pollens, which would provide greater opportunity to select for vigor. The origen of the variability in the germination of pollen in cultivars in the flowering period should also be examined.

    Los trabajos realizados en varias especies de plantas revelan que una porción significativa de los genes que se expresan en el esporofito también lo hacen en el grano de polen, en consecuencia la presión de selección a nivel de polen debe conducir a  modificaciones en caracteres cualitativos o cuantitativos de las progenies derivadas. Para comprobar esta hipótesis en fríjol se estudió el efecto de estrés por temperaturas altas sobre granos de polen, en tres variedades de Phaseolus vulgaris L. y sus generaciones F1 y F2 mediante las técnicas de germinación "in vitro" y polinización controlada con polen estresado. El porcentaje de germinación " in vitro" estuvo inversamente relacionada con el nivel de estrés por

  20. Estudio electroforético de germoplasma de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en centros secundarios de diversidad genética: el caso de África sur-Oriental

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    Triana E. Mónica

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 238 muestras de Phaseolus vulgaris L. de Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia y Zimbabwe por sus tipos de faseolina, utilizando la electroforesis SDS-PAGE. Al ubicar las variedades dentro de los centros de origen en las Américas, se encontró que el 69% eran del tipo ''T'', indicando un origen en el sur de los Andes. En el estudio se discuten aspectos evolutivos de diversidad genética en un centro secundario.238 samples of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe of the south-eastern of Africa were analyzed for their phaseolin types using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Tracing them bad to their centers of origin in the Americas, a majority of materials (69% were found to be of "T" type, indicating an origin in the Southern Andes. Evolution aspects of genetic diversity in a secondary center are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of snap bean cultivars for resistance to ambient oxidants in field plots and to ozone in chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, J.P.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Most cultivars of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) currently available in the US were evaluated for resistance to oxidant (ozone) air pollution in field plots at Beltsville and Salisbury, Maryland, in one or more of the past 8 years. Of 387 cultivars and breeding lines tested, 270 were classified resistant, 86 intermediate, and 31 susceptible. Responses of seedlings with one expanded trifoliate leaf to high concentrations of ozone revealed statistically significant differences among cultivars. The correlation between leaf injury induced by ozone on seedlings and ozone injury on the same cultivars as adult field-grown plants was low (r = .20) but significant. 13 references, 3 tables.

  2. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis.

  3. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain.

  4. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

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    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  5. (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought stress did not affect the concentration of sucrose in ... photosynthetic rate thereby disrupting carbohydrate metabolism in leaves (Kim et al. 2000). .... quantified by this method was multiplied by an approximate factor of 6.25 to estimate.

  6. Phytochemical characterisation of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; Arráez-Román, David; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Although green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) constitute a major agro-industrial crop worldwide and involve many bean varieties, the phytochemical composition and how this fluctuates among varieties is not well known. The purpose of this work was to conduct a comprehensive characterisation of the phytochemical compounds found in three varieties of green bean. Hydromethanol extracts from green beans were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) in order to characterise phytochemical compounds from different varieties of P. vulgaris L. The compounds were characterised based on interpreting their mass spectrum provided by the TOF-MS as well as by comparison with information from the literature (some compounds have been described previously in Fabaceae). In this work, 72 phytochemical compounds were tentatively characterised by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. These compounds were classified as, 10 phenolic acids, 59 flavonoids, two lignans and an iridoid. Notably, out of the 72 compounds, 54 are new and their isomers have been characterised for the first time in green beans. The phytochemical composition of three different varieties of P. vulgaris L have been characterised using HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. A total of 72 phytochemical compounds were characterised, 54 being reported in green beans for the first time. Among these were the main flavonoids detected. These results highlight the influence that variety can exert on the quality of phytochemicals. Given that new phytochemical compounds have been characterised, this study offers a useful approach for improving and updating the food-composition tables. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of an aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on the properties of tail tendon collagen of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

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    L. Pari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the structural and functional properties of collagen caused by advanced glycation might be of importance for the etiology of late complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of oral administration of aqueous pod extract (200 mg/kg body weight of Phaseolus vulgaris, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine in India, on collagen content and characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, collagen content (117.01 ± 6.84 mg/100 mg tissue as well as its degree of cross-linking was increased, as shown by increased extent of glycation (21.70 ± 0.90 µg glucose/mg collagen, collagen-linked fluorescence (52.8 ± 3.0 AU/µmol hydroxyproline, shrinkage temperature (71.50 ± 2.50ºC and decreased acid (1.878 ± 0.062 mg hydroxyproline/100 mg tissue and pepsin solubility (1.77 ± 0.080 mg hydroxyproline/100 mg tissue. The alpha/ß ratio of acid- (1.69 and pepsin-soluble (2.00 collagen was significantly decreased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Administration of P. vulgaris for 45 days to streptozotocin-diabetic rats significantly reduced the accumulation and cross-linking of collagen. The effect of P. vulgaris was compared with that of glibenclamide, a reference drug administered to streptozotocin-diabetic rats at the dose of 600 µg/kg body weight for 45 days by gavage. The effects of P. vulgaris (collagen content, 64.18 ± 1.97; extent of glycation, 12.00 ± 0.53; collagen-linked fluorescence, 33.6 ± 1.9; shrinkage temperature, 57.0 ± 1.0; extent of cross-linking - acid-soluble collagen, 2.572 ± 0.080, and pepsin-soluble collagen, 2.28 ± 0.112 were comparable with those of glibenclamide (collagen content, 71.5 ± 2.04; extent of glycation, 13.00 ± 0.60; collagen-linked fluorescence, 38.9 ± 2.0; shrinkage temperature, 59.0 ± 1.5; extent of cross-linking - acid-soluble collagen, 2.463 ± 0.078, and pepsin-soluble collagen, 2.17 ± 0.104. In

  8. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanji; Crampton, Mollee; Todd, Antonette; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2012-03-23

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common bean genetic map. A total of 30

  9. Effect of an aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on the properties of tail tendon collagen of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Venkateswaran, S

    2003-07-01

    Changes in the structural and functional properties of collagen caused by advanced glycation might be of importance for the etiology of late complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of oral administration of aqueous pod extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Phaseolus vulgaris, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine in India, on collagen content and characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, collagen content (117.01 6.84 mg/100 mg tissue) as well as its degree of cross-linking was increased, as shown by increased extent of glycation (21.70 0.90 g glucose/mg collagen), collagen-linked fluorescence (52.8 3.0 AU/ mol hydroxyproline), shrinkage temperature (71.50 2.50 C) and decreased acid (1.878 0.062 mg hydroxyproline/100 mg tissue) and pepsin solubility (1.77 0.080 mg hydroxyproline/100 mg tissue). The alpha/ ratio of acid- (1.69) and pepsin-soluble (2.00) collagen was significantly decreased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Administration of P. vulgaris for 45 days to streptozotocin-diabetic rats significantly reduced the accumulation and cross-linking of collagen. The effect of P. vulgaris was compared with that of glibenclamide, a reference drug administered to streptozotocin-diabetic rats at the dose of 600 g/kg body weight for 45 days by gavage. The effects of P. vulgaris (collagen content, 64.18 1.97; extent of glycation, 12.00 0.53; collagen-linked fluorescence, 33.6 1.9; shrinkage temperature, 57.0 1.0; extent of cross-linking - acid-soluble collagen, 2.572 0.080, and pepsin-soluble collagen, 2.28 0.112) were comparable with those of glibenclamide (collagen content, 71.5 2.04; extent of glycation, 13.00 0.60; collagen-linked fluorescence, 38.9 2.0; shrinkage temperature, 59.0 1.5; extent of cross-linking - acid-soluble collagen, 2.463 0.078, and pepsin-soluble collagen, 2.17 0.104). In conclusion, administration of P. vulgaris pods had a positive influence on the

  10. Growth dynamics of two bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. l. Growth analysis by fixed periods Dinámica de crecimiento de dos variedades de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris L. l. análisis de crecimiento por periodos fijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Gustavo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Inthe vegetative phase of growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the dry matter gain depends on the physiological behavior and growth habit of the bean plant. The Growth process in relation to growth type were evaluated in the present study. The purpose of the study was to establish growth type and growth index relations in ICA-Cerinza (growth type 1 and
    ICA -Tundama (growth type 11 wich are both bush bean varieties. The plants were sown in 40.5 m2 plots, in rows spaced 0.5 m. and 0.12 m. between plants in a randomized completely block design with 4 replications; samples of 3 plants per plotwere taken 7 days each starting 15 to 78 days after emergence. Total dryweight (TOW Stem dryweight (SOW, leaf dry weight (LOW and total leaf area (TLA were
    determined. Relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf weight ratio (LWR, and specific leaf area (SLA, were determined by the classical aproach. Significant differences in TDW, SDW, LDW, and TLA between varieties were detected in the 15 and 78 days
    evaluations. Similar results were obtained for RGR, NAR, LAR, LWR, and SLA. The mean RGR was 0.0455 g. g-1 .day-1 in Cerinza and 0.0437 g.g-1.day -1 in Tundama but these were no statistically different. NAR and RGR had similar trends and were positive and significantly correlated. LAR decreced
    linearly in Cerinza, but it was cuadratic in Tundama with the highest values in the initial and the last evaluations. The LWR show that Tundama variety translocated more dry matter to assimilatory tissue formation. SLA was similar for the two varieties, but it was higher in the indeterminate (type 11, showing that Tundama had moretinny leaves. Growth analysis
    utilizing fixed time periods did not allow to detect differences between varieties. Apparently, these were similar in physiological behavior during the vegetative phase independently of growth type.
    La fase de crecimiento vegetativo de la planta de

  11. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

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    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  12. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

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    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  13. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

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    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  14. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  15. Identification of an ancestral resistance gene cluster involved in the coevolution process between Phaseolus vulgaris and its fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, V; Sicard, D; de Oliveira, J C; Sévignac, M; Cohen, S; Gepts, P; Neema, C; Langin, T; Dron, M

    1999-09-01

    The recent cloning of plant resistance (R) genes and the sequencing of resistance gene clusters have shed light on the molecular evolution of R genes. However, up to now, no attempt has been made to correlate this molecular evolution with the host-pathogen coevolution process at the population level. Cross-inoculations were carried out between 26 strains of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and 48 Phaseolus vulgaris plants collected in the three centers of diversity of the host species. A high level of diversity for resistance against the pathogen was revealed. Most of the resistance specificities were overcome in sympatric situations, indicating an adaptation of the pathogen to the local host. In contrast, plants were generally resistant to allopatric strains, suggesting that R genes that were efficient against exotic strains but had been overcome locally were maintained in the plant genome. These results indicated that coevolution processes between the two protagonists led to a differentiation for resistance in the three centers of diversity of the host. To improve our understanding of the molecular evolution of these different specificities, a recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from two representative genotypes of the Andean (JaloEEP558) and Mesoamerican (BAT93) gene pools was used to map anthracnose specificities. A gene cluster comprising both Andean (Co-y; Co-z) and Mesoamerican (Co-9) host resistance specificities was identified, suggesting that this locus existed prior to the separation of the two major gene pools of P. vulgaris. Molecular analysis revealed a high level of complexity at this locus. It harbors 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms when R gene analog (RGA) clones are used. The relationship between the coevolution process and diversification of resistance specificities at resistance gene clusters is discussed.

  16. Inheritance of partial resistance against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Phaseolus vulgaris and co-localization of quantitative trait loci with genes involved in specific resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, V; Sévignac, M; De Oliveira, J C; Fouilloux, G; Skroch, P; Thoquet, P; Gepts, P; Langin, T; Dron, M

    2000-03-01

    Anthracnose, one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A "candidate gene" approach was used to map anthracnose resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL). Candidate genes included genes for both pathogen recognition (resistance genes and resistance gene analogs [RGAs]) and general plant defense (defense response genes). Two strains of C. lindemuthianum, identified in a world collection of 177 strains, displayed a reproducible and differential aggressiveness toward BAT93 and JaloEEP558, two parental lines of P. vulgaris representing the two major gene pools of this crop. A reliable test was developed to score partial resistance in aerial organs of the plant (stem, leaf, petiole) under controlled growth chamber conditions. BAT93 was more resistant than JaloEEP558 regardless of the organ or strain tested. With a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between these two parental lines, 10 QTL were located on a genetic map harboring 143 markers, including known defense response genes, anthracnose-specific resistance genes, and RGAs. Eight of the QTL displayed isolate specificity. Two were co-localized with known defense genes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein) and three with anthracnose-specific resistance genes and/or RGAs. Interestingly, two QTL, with different allelic contribution, mapped on linkage group B4 in a 5.0 cM interval containing Andean and Mesoamerican specific resistance genes against C. lindemuthianum and 11 polymorphic fragments revealed with a RGA probe. The possible relationship between genes underlying specific and partial resistance is discussed.

  17. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla eReinprecht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  18. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  19. Complex carbohydrate digestion and large bowel fermentation in rats given wholemeal bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; Mathers, J C

    1993-03-01

    The digestion of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and of resistant starch (RS) by rats fed on wholemeal-bread-based diets containing 0-450 g cooked, freeze-dried haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)/kg diet was measured over the final 14 d of a 21 d feeding experiment. The bread and beans provided all the dietary polysaccharide. RS could not be detected consistently in faeces and it was assumed that this fraction was entirely fermented in the large bowel (LB). NSP digestibilities were 0.56 and 0.86 for wholemeal bread and beans respectively with no evidence that the dietary presence of beans affected digestibility of bread NSP. Bean non-cellulosic polysaccharides were highly digestible with values of 0.98, 0.88 and 0.99 for arabinose, xylose and uronic acids components respectively. There were large increases in organic matter flow to the LB when beans were fed which was associated with marked caecal hypertrophy and alterations in caecal volatile fatty acids (VFA) pattern. Calculated VFA absorption from the LB was 5-fold higher with the highest level of beans and this was reflected in higher concentrations of VFA in portal and heart blood.

  20. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under salinity stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parsa-Motlagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in condition of irrigation with saline water, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran during 2010. The studied factors were water salinity (500 (control, 2000, 4000 and 6000 s.cm-1, phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 soil in form of Triple super phosphate and mycorrhizal fungi with three levels (GLOMUS MOSSEAE AND GLOMUS INTRARADICES AND no fungi (control. The results showed that the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoeids, K, Ca and P were decreased with increasing of salinity levels. But salinity increased the concentration of Na and Na/K ratio. Mycorrhizal fungi had no significant effect on concentration of Ca and chlorophyll a. The interaction of salinity and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of chlorophyll b, Na and P was significant. Results demonstrated that GLOMUS INTRARADICES had better effect on improvement of photosynthetic pigments concentration and concentration of nutrition elements. In low levels of salinity stress, use of MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI WITH PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER, can reduce the negative effects of salt by increasing of concentration of photosynthetic pigments and nutrition elements.

  1. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

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    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp on the ALL cell line (Jurkat. The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL.

  2. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  3. Interrelationships between trans-Plasma Membrane Electron/Proton Transfer Stoichiometry, Organic Acid Metabolism, and Nitrate Reduction in Dwarf Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusichem, M L; Nelemans, J A; Bienfait, H F

    1988-05-01

    Iron deficiency in dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induces an increased activity of a system in the rhizodermal cells, which reduces extracellular ferric salts, and an active proton efflux from the roots, which is coupled to accumulation of citrate and malate in the roots and subsequent export of these compounds in the xylem. During reduction of extracellular ferricyanide by Fe-deficient plants, the stoichiometry of electron transport to proton efflux is 2e(-)/1H(+), and citrate and malate levels in the roots are strongly decreased. Reduction of ferricyanide by Fe-sufficient plants has no influence on root and shoot levels of citrate and malate, but in such plants the process is characterized by a e(-)/H(+) efflux stoichiometry close to unity. Apparently, organic acid metabolism and transport are closely associated with the e(-)/H(+) efflux ratio. To assess the significance of organic acid metabolism as one of the direct intracellular components of the induced unbalanced e(-)/H(+) efflux by roots, we studied NO(3) (-) reduction in shoots and roots of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. Nitrate reductase activity in the roots was positively correlated with the level of citrate and malate, whereas the enzyme activity in the leaves responded positively to the import of these organic acid anions.

  4. Selective microenvironmental effects play a role in shaping genetic diversity and structure in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace: implications for on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, B; Negri, V

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the organization of landrace diversity and about the forces that shape and maintain within- and among-landrace population diversity. However, this knowledge is essential for conservation and breeding activities. The first aim of this study was to obtain some insight into how variation has been sculptured within a cultivated environment and to identify the loci that potentially underlie selective effects by using a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace case study whose natural and human environment and morpho-physiological traits are known in detail. The second aim of this study was to define an appropriate on-farm conservation strategy which can serve as a model for other populations. The farmers' populations of this threatened landrace were examined with 28 single sequence repeat molecular markers. The landrace appears to be a genetically structured population in which substantial diversity is maintained at the subpopulation level (62% of the total variance). Evidence of locus-specific selective effects was obtained for five of the 13 loci-differentiating subpopulations. Their role is discussed. Our data suggest that a complex interaction of factors (differential microenvironmental selection pressures by farmers and by biotic and abiotic conditions, migration rate and drift) explains the observed pattern of diversity. Appropriate on-farm conservation of a structured landrace requires the maintenance of the entire population.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of drought-induced genes in the roots of a tolerant genotype of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gustavo Henrique; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes; Beraldo, Ana Luiza Ahern; da Silva, Márcio José; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-03-28

    In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477) when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as "driver" the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought). After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags). We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  6. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Mui Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477 when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought. After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags. We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  7. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of (210)Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and (210)Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the (210)Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the (210)Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg(-1) fresh wt. The results suggest that the (210)Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the (210)Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of in situ and ex situ conservation of crop diversity. What a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace case study can tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Valeria; Tiranti, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness of in situ (on-farm) and ex situ conservation strategies to maintain total genetic diversity was assessed in a threatened Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace. Farmer seed lots (subpopulations) were sampled initially and then after in situ and ex situ multiplication (two locations). The number of plants used in the ex situ multiplications (120) was much larger than that normally used in germplasm bank procedures and the farmer seed lots were kept separate. In situ, the landrace was multiplied by each farmer with the usual population size. Eighty plants from the initial population, the in situ and the two ex situ multiplications were individually tested using 26 microsatellite markers. Most of the genetic parameters showed a consistent decline in the ex situ populations compared with the in situ population, with a notable loss of less frequent alleles. The differentiation among the farmer subpopulations increased when the multiplication took place outside of the adaptation area. Although 120 plants were multiplied in each ex situ cycle, a bottleneck effect was present. In addition, tests for neutrality detected three loci that are involved in pathogen response and are potentially under selective effects. The diversity conservation and the management practices of autogamous landrace crops are discussed.

  9. Two glutamine synthetase genes from Phaseolus vulgaris L. display contrasting developmental and spatial patterns of expression in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, B G; Day, H M; Turton, J F; Shen, W J; Cullimore, J V; Oliver, J E

    1989-04-01

    The gln-gamma gene, which specifies the gamma subunit of glutamine synthetase in Phaseolus vulgaris L., has been isolated and the regulatory properties of its promoter region analyzed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. A 2-kilobase fragment from the 5'-flanking region of gln-gamma conferred a strongly nodule-enhanced pattern of expression on the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Parallel studies on the promoter of another glutamine synthetase gene (gln-beta) showed that a 1.7-kilobase fragment directed 20-fold to 140-fold higher levels of beta-glucuronidase expression in roots than in shoots. Histochemical localization of beta-glucuronidase activity in nodules of the transgenic plants indicated that the chimeric gln-gamma gene was expressed specifically in the rhizobially infected cells; expression of the gln-beta construct was detected in both cortical and infected regions of young nodules, and became restricted to the vascular tissue as the nodule matured. We conclude that gln-beta and gln-gamma genes are differentially expressed both temporally and spatially in plant development and that the cis-acting regulatory elements responsible for conferring these contrasting expression patterns are located within a 2-kilobase region upstream of their coding sequences.

  10. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate: Effect of high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Li, Lin

    2008-10-15

    The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment at 200-600MPa, prior to freeze-drying, on some functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of vicilin-rich red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond (SS) contents were also evaluated. HP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure, as evidenced by gradual increases in fluorescence strength and SS formation from SH groups, and decrease in denaturation enthalpy change. The protein solubility of KPI was significantly improved at pressures of 400MPa or higher, possibly due to formation of soluble aggregate from insoluble precipitate. HP treatment at 200 and 400MPa significantly increased emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI); however, EAI was significantly decreased at 600MPa (relative to untreated KPI). The thermal stability of the vicilin component was not affected by HP treatment. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility of KPI was decreased only at a pressure above 200MPa and for long incubation time (e.g., 120min). The data suggest that some physiochemical and functional properties of vicilin-rich kidney proteins can be improved by means of high-pressure treatment. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensibilité du haricot Phaseolus vulgaris à la concentration en aluminium des sols de la région des grands lacs

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    Wouters, JFR.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to soil aluminium concentration of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris in the African "Great Lakes" region. The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  12. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress.

  13. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-17

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  14. Effect of a chronic and moderate ozone pollution on the phenolic pattern of bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina): relations with visible injury and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoun, M; Goulas, M J.P.; Biolley, J -P.

    2001-05-01

    From sowing, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina) plants were exposed to three chronic doses of ozone for 7h.day(-1): non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air supplied with 40nl.l(-1) ozone (NF+40) and non-filtered air supplied with 60nll(-1) ozone (NF+60). Four harvests were carried out 6, 13, 20 and 27 days after emergence. Either primary leaves, or first trifoliate leaves, or both were sampled as far as possible. For each sampled leaf, visible ozone injuries were registered, the free polyphenolic pool was analysed using HPLC and the dry matter was weighed. Visible damage on leaves was related to both exposure time and ozone concentration added. There were no adverse effects of added ozone on the biomass of primary leaves while a significant reduction of first trifoliates dry matter could be observed (NF+60 atmosphere, third and fourth harvest). Among the normally occurring phenolics, we detected a significant decrease in the accumulation of a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative as the ozone concentration increased. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that this ozone-induced modification could be sometimes distinguishable with difficulties from changes expected to be of development relevance. Beside this phenolic disbalance, we detected a de novo biosynthesis of compounds that closely depended on the level of visible ozone injury. Since their accumulation increased with leaf damage, these ozone-induced phenolics could be used to detect phytotoxic ambient levels of tropospheric ozone.

  15. Measurement of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate in plant leaves by isotope dilution. [Spinacea oleracea; Triticum aestivum; Arabidopsis thaliana; Maize; Phaseolus vulgaris; Petunia hybrida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.

  16. Superoxide-dismutase deficient mutants in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): genetic control, differential expressions of isozymes, and sensitivity to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  17. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 M arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  18. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a selected lectin-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in two cell-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Gabriele, Morena; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Legumes and particularly beans are a key food of Mediterranean diet representing an important source of proteins, fiber, some minerals and vitamins and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic effects of a new fermented powder of a selected lectin-free and phaseolamin-enriched variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), named Lady Joy. Lady Joy lysate (Lys LJ) was studied in human erythrocytes and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. The antioxidant and anti-hemolytic properties of Lys LJ, studied in an ex vivo erythrocytes system using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA-RBC) and the hemolysis test, evidenced a dose-dependent antioxidant activity as well as a significant hemolysis inhibition. Besides, results evidenced that Lys LJ treatment significantly decreased the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion, Lys LJ showed both an antimutagenic effect in yeast and a strong scavenging activity in yeast and human cells.

  19. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  20. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

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    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  1. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  2. Three highly similar formate dehydrogenase genes located in the vicinity of the B4 resistance gene cluster are differentially expressed under biotic and abiotic stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Perrine; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Macadré, Catherine; Langin, Thierry; Geffroy, Valérie

    2010-06-01

    In higher plants, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC1.2.1.2.) catalyzes the NAD-linked oxidation of formate to CO(2), and FDH transcript accumulation has been reported after various abiotic stresses. By sequencing a Phaseolus vulgaris BAC clone encompassing a CC-NBS-LRR gene rich region of the B4 resistance gene cluster, we identified three FDH-encoding genes. FDH is present as a single copy gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, and public database searches confirm that FDH is a low copy gene in plant genomes, since only 33 FDH homologs were identified from 27 plant species. Three independent prediction programs (Predotar, TargetP and Mitoprot) used on this large subset of 33 plant FDHs, revealed that mitochondrial localization of FDH might be the rule in higher plants. A phylogenetic analysis suggests a scenario of local FDH gene duplication in an ancestor of the Phaseoleae followed by another more recent duplication event after bean/soybean divergence. The expression levels of two common bean FDH genes under different treatments were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. FDH genes are differentially up-regulated after biotic and abiotic stresses (infection with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and dark treatment, respectively). The present study provides the first report of FDH transcript accumulation after biotic stress, suggesting the involvement of FDH in the pathogen resistance process.

  3. Polymorphism of a complex resistance gene candidate family in wild populations of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Argentina: comparison with phenotypic resistance polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meaux, J; Cattan-Toupance, I; Lavigne, C; Langin, T; Neema, C

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen populations of wild bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), located in three provinces in Argentina, were analysed for their polymorphism for a complex resistance gene candidate (RGC) family clustered on the genome and for resistance phenotypes to strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Results indicate that RGC polymorphism is high. Population structure obtained for markers related to resistance was compared to population structure obtained for RAPD markers in order to infer the evolutionary forces driving polymorphism for resistance in wild populations at both molecular and phenotypic levels. Hierarchical analysis of differentiation showed that, within provinces, populations were differentiated for RAPD as well as for molecular and phenotypic markers of resistance. In contrast, provinces were differentiated only for RAPD and RGC markers and not for resistance phenotypes. The discrepancies found between diversity structures for molecular markers (RAPD and RGCs) and for resistance phenotypes suggest an effect of selection and indicate that diversity for resistance may not be driven by the same selective forces at the molecular and phenotypic levels. We further discuss whether specific selective forces are exerted on RGC markers and underline the importance of spatial scale of analysis for demonstrating an impact of selection.

  4. Epigenetic analyses and the distribution of repetitive DNA and resistance genes reveal the complexity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsêca, Artur; Richard, Manon M S; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the main representative of its genus and one of most important sources of proteins in African and Latin American countries. Although it is a species with a small genome, its pericentromeric and subtelomeric heterochromatin fractions are interspersed with single-copy sequences and active genes, suggesting a less compartmentalized genome organization. The present study characterized its chromatin fractions, associating the distribution of repetitive sequences and resistance genes with histone and DNA epigenetic modifications with and without biotic stress. Immunostaining with H3K4me3 and H4K5ac were generally associated with euchromatic regions, whereas H3K9me2, H3K27me1, and 5mC preferentially labeled the pericentromeric heterochromatin. The 45S rDNA and centromeric DNA sequences were hypomethylated as were most of the terminal heterochromatic blocks. The largest of them, which is associated with resistance genes, was also hypomethylated after the plants were infected with virulent and avirulent strains of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, suggesting no correlation with control of resistance gene expression. The results highlighted the differences between subtelomeric and pericentromeric heterochromatin as well as variation within the pericentromeric heterochromatin. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  6. Asymmetry of gene flow and differential geographical structure of molecular diversity in wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Gepts, P

    2003-01-01

    Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), we analyzed the genetic structure of wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica at different geographical levels to test the hypothesis of asymmetric gene flow and investigate the origin of weedy populations. We showed both by phenetic and admixture population analyses that gene flow is about three- to four-fold higher from domesticated to wild populations than in the reverse direction. This result, combined with other work, points to a displacement of genetic diversity in wild populations due to gene flow from the domesticated populations. The weedy populations appear to be genetically intermediate between domesticated and wild populations, suggesting that they originated by hybridization between wild and domesticated types rather than by escape from cultivation. In addition, the domesticated bean races were genetically similar confirming a single domestication event for the Mesoamerican gene pool. Finally, the genetic diversity of the domesticated bean population showed a lower level of geographic structure in comparison to that of the wild populations.

  7. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  8. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  9. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions; Aspectos biologicos de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) em Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), sob condicoes de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare, E-mail: lisi@bio.ufpr.b, E-mail: stra@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva, E-mail: paulo@cpafrr.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Entomologia

    2003-12-15

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  10. Physiological performance and electrophoretic pattern of isoenzymes in Phaseolus vulgaris Lam. seeds treated with essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Márcia Antonia Bartolomeu Agustini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different doses of essential oil of Moringa oleifera (EOM on physiological potential and the expression of isoenzymes in bean seeds, an experiment was conducted with two cultivars (Colibri and Campos Gerais and seven treatments (bactericidal, fungicide and the doses 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% EOM. Germination, first count of germination, germination speed index (GSI, emergence and emergence rate index (ERI were evaluated in addition to the enzymes esterase (EST, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and isocitrate lyase (ICL by electrophoresis. In an experiment conducted in the laboratory, the dose containing 0.4% EOM promoted germination and higher averages for first germination in seeds and GSI in the Colibri cultivar. However, the highest dose used (0.8% was responsible for the worst physiological performance by the cultivar. For Campos Gerais, increasing doses of essential oil stimulated germination, first count of germination and GSI. In the field, higher doses of essential oil gave higher germination percentages for the Colibri cultivar, not influencing the seeds of Campos Gerais. The ERI was not altered by the treatments with OEM and changes in the molecular forms of the isoenzymes were observed, with low expression values of bands for EST, ICL and ADH-related vigor, the germination of both cultivars, as well as increased expression of SOD, which is associated with reductions in germination.

  11. Influence of cultivar on the content of selected minerals in red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.

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    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot is a vegetable that accumulate heavy metals. This is largely dependent on the cultivar, methods and growing conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of elements in the roots of 15 cultivars of red beet. The analysis assessed the content of macroelements (Na, P and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn. Most soils of the Lesser Poland region are exposed to the impact of industrial and transportation pollution. The soils of this region are characterized by strong acidification as well as natural or increased heavy metal content. The experiment was set up at the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, in 2009-2010. On the basis of the performed analysis, ‘Opolski’ was chosen as the cultivar that was characterized by a high content of macroelements and lower ability to accumulate heavy metals than the other tested cultivars. The lowest ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd and Cr was found in the cases of cultivars with cylindrical root shapes, such as Rywal or Opolski. One can indicate such cultivars as Astar F1 or Nabab F1 as cultivars recommended for cultivation in ecologically threatened areas.

  12. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  13. Relationship between variation in quality of individual seeds and bulk seed quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The variation in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC) (µS cm¿¹ g¿¹) of 24 seed lots of two common bean cultivars produced at two locations was quantified using the parameters mean ¿ median, standard deviation (SD), and the range 0¿75%. Also coefficient of variation (CV) was tested, which was

  14. Changes in quality of selected red beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivars during the growing season

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    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red beet (Beta vulgaris L. may be consumed at all stages of growth, both in the form of small early vegetable during spring and later, during winter, when stored. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of changes in the content of individual components in subsequent stages of growth is very important.

  15. Minerals and chosen heavy metals retention in immature common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds depending on the method of preservation

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    Jacek Słupski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are a good source of protein, and are also abundant in carbohydrates, B-group vita­mins, dietary fibre and mineral compounds. Material and methods. This work evaluates the retention of ash, eleven minerals and two heavy metals in products obtained from two common bean cultivars harvested before reaching full maturity, with a diy mat­ter content of about 40%. Analyses were conducted on raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: two frozen and one canned (sterilized. The former com­prised two types of frozen product: one traditionally produced (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking, the other a convenience, "ready-to-eat" product obtained using a modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting