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Sample records for cultivar evaluation spring

  1. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

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    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  2. Evaluation the effects of manure and mycorrhizal inoculation on grain and oil yield of spring safflower cultivars (Carthamus tinctorius L.

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    P rezvani moghaddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Considering the nutrient loss, environmental pollution and increase in production costs on account of chemical fertilizer application, supplying mineral nutrients based on organic sources and mycorrhizal inoculation can improve organic matter content in soil (Khandan & Astaraei, 2005; Halajnia et al., 2007, promote sustainable production of oil crops (Mostafavian et al., 2008; Kawthar et al., 2010 and ultimately affect the long term performance of the agricultural ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions (Mostafavian et al., 2008. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an annual oil seed crop belonging to the Asteraceae family and its spring cultivars are mainly grown in semiarid regions, especially in Iran. Hence, the current experiment was aimed to evaluate the effects of manure application and mycorrhizal inoculation on yield and yield components of spring safflower cultivars in Iran. In addition, quality yield in term of oil percentage was studied in response to experimental treatments. Materials and methods A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran (latitude: 15° 36´ N, longitude: 28° 59´ E, altitude: 985 m, during growing season of 2009-2010, by using a completely randomized block design based on factorial fraction with three replications and sixteen treatments. The experimental treatments included four spring safflower cultivars (Darab, Isfahan, Arak and IL-111, two manure levels (no applying and applying manure 25 t.ha-1 and two mycorrhiza levels (no inoculation and inoculation with Glomus mosseae. The experimental field was prepared according to the local practices for safflower production. Each plot was 6 m2 (3 m long and 1 m apart. Between blocks, 2 m alley was kept to eliminate all side effects of treatments. Seed sowing was performed at 14th April in 2010. Final density was 50 plants.m-2. The first irrigation was immediately done after seed sowing with

  3. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  4. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium spp. on grain of spring wheat cultivars grown in Poland

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    Lenc Leszek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen spring wheat cultivars, recommended for commercial production in northern Poland, were assessed for Fusarium head blight (FHB in natural non-epidemic conditions, from 2011 to 2013. Assessment was based on FHB incidence (proportion of heads with symptoms, disease severity (DS; proportion of bleached spikelets per head, proportion of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK, and spectrum of Fusarium spp. colonising the kernels. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS often differed significantly among cultivars and years. There was a strong positive correlation between FHB incidence and DS. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS were not correlated with the June–July temperatures, and were only occasionally correlated with the total June–July rainfall. There was a weak positive correlation between FHB incidence and proportion of FDK. There was a strong positive correlation between DS and proportion of FDK. The cultivar affected colonisation of kernels by Fusarium spp. Fusarium poae was the FHB pathogen isolated most often. Fusarium poae colonised 6.0% of the kernels, on average, but up to 12.0% on individual cultivars. Other Fusarium species were less frequent: F. avenaceum in 5.6% of kernels, F. culmorum in 5.3%, F. tricinctum in 2.8%, F. graminearum in 1.5%, and F. sporotrichioides in 1.2%. Fusarium equiseti occurred sporadically. The importance of F. poae in the FHB complex is emphasised. All cultivars expressed ‘moderate FHB resistance’ if evaluated according to FHB incidence. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka Smolicka, and Struna expressed ‘moderate susceptibility’, and Bombona, Hewilla, Katoda, KWS Torridon, Łagwa, Nawra, Parabola, Radocha, SMH 87, Trappe, Tybalt, and Waluta expressed ‘susceptibility’ if evaluated by the proportion of FDK. Cultivars differed within the ‘moderately resistant’, ‘moderately susceptible’, and ‘susceptible’ categories. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka

  5. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... during grain filling. There is in particular a need to model how heat and other stresses, including interacting effects of heat and drought, affect duration of GLA after flowering and how this affects source–sink relations during grain filling....... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...

  6. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

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    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  7. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  8. Response of Several Spring Barley Cultivars to UV-B Radiation and Ozone Treatment

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    Kristina DĖDELIENĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions to assess the impact of UV-B radiation (8 kJ m-2 d-1 and ozone (240 μg m-3 on seven spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. It has been established that the impact of UV-B and ozone on various spring barley cultivars differs greatly and in most cases the cultivars which are tolerant to an impact of ozone are sensitive to UV-B and vice versa. The impact of both investigated stressors resulted in a more pronounced decrease in chlorophyll a than chlorophyll b content while the chlorophyll a/b ratio in the leaves of different spring barley cultivars has also decreased. The reaction of carotenoids differs greatly depending on a stressor. UV-B radiation causes a significant increase in the content of carotenoids which is most likely a defence reaction against high energy short-wave radiation. The impact of ozone, in contrast, resulted in a decrease in carotenoids in the leaves of different spring barley cultivars.

  9. Health status of five spring barley cultivars cultivated under organic system

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    Anna Baturo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare health status of harvested grain of spring barley cv. Rudzik, Rodos, Start and Maresi cultivated in organic system and cv. Damazy grown in an organic farm. Analyses showed that prevalent pathogen on grain was Bipolaris sorokiniana isolated from 48% of grains. Fungi from genus of Fusarium were obtained less numerously, from 27% of grains and were represented mainly by F. poae and F. avenaceum. Microscopic analysis of F. poae was confirmed by PCR analysis. All cultivars were intensively diseased by B. sorokiniana, thus it is impossible to show a cultivar especially recommended for this system, where B. sorokiniana can be serious problem. However cv. Damazy showed relatively the lowest infestation by B. sorokiniana and it also was not more intensively diseased by Fusarium spp. It is very important in nutrition aspect because these fungi can be dangerous for both human and animal health due to their abilities to produce mycotoxins.

  10. Consumer evaluation of scab-resistant apple cultivars in Sweden

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    Å. JÖNSSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untrained consumers for sensory evaluation was investigated on Swedish-grown scab-resistant apple cultivars in 2002 (11 cultivars and 2003 (15 cultivars. The consumers evaluated five cultivars each, including the control cultivar ‘Aroma’. Each cultivar was scored for appearance, texture, juiciness, taste and overall impression by a minimum of 100 consumers in 2002 and by 200 in 2003. All quality attributes were positively correlated when calculations were performed across all consumer scores, with overall impression and taste having the strongest association. ‘Rubinola’ and K:1160 emerged as the best liked cultivars overall. Cultivar means were analysed for relationships with some previously scored or measured variables and with consumer profile data. Positive correlations with overall impression were obtained for amount of red colour in 2002, and for sugar levels in 2003. Among consumer profile variables, age had the largest influence on consumer scores, with some indications that older consumers preferred (or at least tolerated soft-fleshed cultivars better than did younger consumers. Minimum number of consumers needed to obtain reliable results was determined by computer simulations indicating that the error rate became stabilized already with 50 consumers.;

  11. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

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    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  12. Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-hong; ZHANG Na; HU Ya-ya; WEI Xue-jun; YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun

    2013-01-01

    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.

  13. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

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    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing

    2016-08-01

    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  14. Fall nitrogen enhances spring nitrogen enhanced flowering in the long day strawberry cultivar ‘Elan’

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    Edward F. Durner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Architectural analysis describes the position and fate (vegetative or floral of plant meristems to account for differences in their sensitivity to stimuli depending on developmental stage and position on the plant. To provide further insight into the flowering responses of long day strawberries to nitrogen, ‘Elan’ seedlings were fertilized in mid-October, overwintered in a greenhouse, then dissected the following March and their floral architecture evaluated. Additional plants from fall N treatments were placed under ND and fertilized weekly for four weeks with 100, 400, 800 or 1200 ppm N during greenhouse-forcing under ND and growth monitored until June. Plants were dissected after forcing and their floral architecture evaluated. Fall fertilized plants were significantly more floral than non-fertilized controls before forcing. Some axillary buds of fertilized plants formed floral branch crowns but there were no floral branch crowns on non-fertilized plants. Precocity was not affected by fall N and 400, 800 or 1200 ppm spring N were equally effective in accelerating flowering (+1 week compared to 100 ppm spring N. Fall N enhanced the number of inflorescences and flowers produced by the primary crown. Spring N enhanced flowering of branch crowns and the total numbers of inflorescences and flowers per plant. Inflorescence production was a qualitative response to N while flower production was quantitative. Architectural models of post-forcing dissected plants provided additional insight. All 100 ppm spring N terminal meristems were floral while 400 and 800 ppm spring N meristems were less floral. All terminal meristems of plants receiving 100 ppm fall N before 1200 ppm spring N were floral but meristems from plants that did not receive fall N before 1200 ppm spring N were much less floral. Branch crown formation was enhanced with elevated (400, 800 or 1200 ppm spring N and prior fall N enhanced their floral nature.

  15. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

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    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  16. Androgenesis in Anther Culture of Lithuanian Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKAVICIUTE, Rita

    2008-01-01

    An anther culture method was used for the production of doubled haploids (DHs) in Lithuanian barley and potato cultivars that were directly regenerated from embryoids (Caredda´s method) were applied to determine androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green DH regenerants were obtained in 3 Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (´Aidas´, ´Alsa´, and ´Auksiniai´) out of 10 studied. The highest rate of embryoid formation was determined in cv. ...

  17. The effect of irrigation disruption in different reproductive growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content in three spring safflower cultivars

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    Bibi elaheh Moosavifar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil has an important role in human food. An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the response of spring genotypes of safflower to irrigation disruption in reproductive growth different stages, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation = whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, irrigation until flowering, and irrigation until heading-bud and cultivars (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main plots and subplots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation until heading-bud stage caused a significant reduction in number of total and fertile head per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and oil content and yield. Among cultivars, Mahali Isfahan had the most number of total and fertile head per plant and number of seeds per head and IL111 showed just the reverse response. Also between yield components, number of total head per plant showed the highest correlation with yield. According to the results, Mahali Isfahan variety in all of the irrigation disruption regimes produced the highest kernel yield. Therefore, due to the nativeness of this cultivar and high adaptation to this arid climatic zone, provide an opportunity for producing higher yields in comparison with other cultivars under water stress.

  18. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  19. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  20. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

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    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  1. Cultivars

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    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  2. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Some of Winter Canola Cultivars

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    J Rashidifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate terminal drought tolerance in different Canola cultivars based on drought tolerance indices, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at experimental field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Karaj in 2008-09. Results using stress tolerance index (STI, geometric mean productivity (GMP and mean productivity (MP indices revealed Zarfam, Talaye and GKH305, were as cultivars with highest yield in both optimum irrigation and terminal drought conditions. High and positive correlation between STI, GMP and MP indices with yield in optimum and drought conditions indicated that they were as the best indices for introduction and characterization of drought tolerant canola cultivars. Biplot graph showed that MP, GMP and STI indices had high correlation coefficient with each other, and tolerant genotypes were located near tolerance indices. Also results of three dimensional scatter plot indicated that cultivars Zarfam, GKH 305 and Tassilo were recognized as tolerant genotypes to drought stress, and cultivars ES Astrid, GK Helena, Modena and Okapi were identified as sensitive genotypes.

  3. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

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    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  4. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  5. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  6. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  7. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  8. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-12-14

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features.

  9. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Chen

    Full Text Available Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and MCA (metal chelating activity were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC, followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA. The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  10. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  11. Pollution-free cultivation techniques of trailing cultivar of common bean in early spring%早春蔓生菜豆无公害栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连平

    2012-01-01

    根据当地气候特征及蔓生菜豆生育习性,从产地条件、品种选择、播种、田间管理、病虫害防治和适时采收等方面总结了早春蔓生菜豆无公害栽掊技术。%Some pollution-free cultivation techniques of trailing cultivars of common bean in early spring were summarized based on local climate conditions and growth habit of cultivar,including ecological environment of producing areas,selection of fine cultivars,sowing,field management,control of diseases and pests and timely harvest.

  12. Comparison of Introduced Cowpea Cultivars in Spring in Kaili%凯里地区豇豆品种引种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭光仙; 顾艳梅

    2014-01-01

    为推进凯里市豇豆品种的良种化,筛选出高产、抗病、优质、商品性好的新品种,以之豇28-2为对照,对2013年春引进的4个豇豆品种进行了品比试验。试验结果表明,银豇1号在凯里地区春季栽培表现良好,丰产、优质、抗病、商品性等综合性状优良,经济效益明显,可作凯里地区春季主栽品种推广;嫦娥玉带和特长小叶表现较好,适合作凯里地区春栽品种;而白银珠和之豇28-2表现较差,不宜推广。%In order to screen out new high-yield, disease-resistant and good-quality cowpea cultivar with good commercial characters for Kali city, we carried out the comparative test of four new-introduced cowpea cultivars in the spring of 2013, by taking Zhijiang 28-2 as control cultivar. The results showed that, Yinjiang No.1 had the best comprehensive characters of high yield, good quality, disease resistance and excellent commercial, and possessed high economic benefit, so it could be promoted as the main planting cultivar in Kaili area in spring. The two cultivars Chang'eyudai and Techangxiaoye had good comprehensive characters, and they were suitable for spring cultivation in Kaili area. While Baiyinzhu and Zhijiang 28-2 had poor comprehensive characters, thus they were unfavorable to be promoted in Kaili.

  13. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  14. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  15. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  16. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  17. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Central and Eastern Provinces account for 26 %. The rest of the provinces ... from traditional cash crops, especially coffee. (Coffea arabica) ..... Impact Study of the Tissue Culture. Banana. Project in ... local cultivars. INIBAP Newsletter for Asia.

  18. Comparison of Cowpea Cultivars for Outdoor Planting in Spring in Henan Province%河南省豇豆春季露地品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海培; 王红宾; 杜瑞民; 王涛; 王莎

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen out suitable cowpea cultivars for outdoor planting in spring in Henan province, we studied the growth period, yield, commercial characters, incidence of rust disease and powdery mildew of 20 cowpea cultivars, by taking Zhecui No.1 as control cultivar. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Anjiang No.1, Zaojiang No.5 and Anjiang No.2 had better comprehensive characters, higher early yield and total yield, stronger stress resistance and excellent quality, and the cultivar Zhenyuzaodoujiao had higher yield and stronger stress resistance, therefore, the four cultivars could be promoted in large scale in Henan province.%为了筛选出适合河南省春季露地栽培的豇豆品种,以浙翠一号为对照,对20个豇豆品种进行品比试验。通过调查参试品种的生育期、商品性,锈病、白粉病的发病情况以及产量等特性,从中筛选出综合性状表现好的品种。试验结果表明,安豇一号、早豇5号、安豇二号的植物学综合性状好,早期产量高,丰产,抗逆性强,品质优;珍玉早豆角丰产,抗逆性强,这4个品种可在河南省大面积推广。

  19. Comparison of Tomato Cultivars for Early Spring Planting in Greenhouse%春提早大棚番茄品种筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加亮; 仇东辉; 丁智; 沈平柏; 刘竹根

    2013-01-01

    To screen out high-quality tomato cultivars for early spring planting in greenhouse, we carried out the comparative test of nine introduced tomato cultivars, and compared their adaptability and yield in Lixiahe area of Yandu district, by taking Jinpeng No.1 as control cultivar. The results showed that, the four cultivars, Oukai, Diguan 915, Renault 101 and Snooker possessed excellent performance on prematurity, fruit shape, fruit color, flavor, texture, yield and resistance, and were suitable for planting in Yancheng city gradually.%为筛选出优良春提早大棚番茄品种,以金棚1号为对照,引进欧凯等9个番茄新品种进行参与比较试验,分析各品种在盐城盐都里下河地区的适应性、丰产性。试验结果表明,欧凯、帝冠915、雷诺101、斯诺克这4个品种在早熟性能、果形、果色、口感、质地、产量、抗性等方面综合表现十分优秀,适于盐城地区逐步示范推广。

  20. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  1. Molecular Screening and Resistance Evaluation of American Wheat Cultivars to Chinese Stripe Rust Races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lu; ZHANG Chun-yu; SUN Quan; LIN Feng; CUI Na; XU Shi-chang; GAO Yang; XU Xiao-dan

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the major diseases of wheat in China.In order to asses the resistance levels and existing Yr genes among 59 wheat cultivars (lines) from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States,to provide resistance resources for genetic improvement of wheat stripe rust resistance in China,59 wheat cultivars (lines) from PNW of the United States were infected by 3 mixed races of predominant Chinese stripe rust races CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 to evaluate their resistance at seedling and adult plant stages,and screened with molecular markers tightly linked to currently effective all-stage resistance genes Yr10,Yr15 and adult plant resistance genes Yr18,Yr39.Of 59 American cultivars (lines),five cultivars (lines),Expresso,02W50076,ACS52610,WA008012,and WA00801833,had all-stage resistance,showing resistance to mixed races of CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 at both seedling and adult plant stages.33 cultivars (lines) had adult plant resistance,only showing resistance to stripe rust at adult stage.Based on the molecular screening,none of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines) had the polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr10.There were 12,33 and 29 cultivars (lines) which had polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39,accounting for 20,55 and 49% of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines),respectively.All these results suggested that Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39 were widespread among PNW cultivars (cultivars) and could be utilized in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

  2. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  3. Cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Zhaonian; Deng, Zuhu; Chen, Rukai; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  4. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  5. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  6. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  7. Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation.

  8. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-22

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

  9. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  10. Evaluation of fruit quality and susceptibility to blue mold of nine Asian pear cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine Asian pear cultivars (Atago, Hosui, Isiiwase, Kosui, Olympic, Shinko, Shinsui, Ya Li, and Yoinashi) were evaluated for quality (firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids) and susceptibility to the blue mold pathogen Penicillium expansum. Fruit were grown at the University of Maryland Ext...

  11. Evaluation of twelve maize (Zea mays L. cultivars for silage Avaliação de doze cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. para silagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina Jorge Leme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of different maize cultivars for ensiling of the plant. Twelve maize cultivar were analyzed in a completely randomized block design, with three block, twelve treatments and three replication. The plot with three lines of six meters long and spacing of 0.8 m were used in all trials. The cycle of the plants of the planting to harvest varied from 105 to 114 days. The height average differed among (P 0.05 for ear by plant number (0.9 to 1.1, dry matter (33.2 to 38.2 %, ether extract (1.9 to 2.5 % and neutral detergent fiber (49.1 to 56.2 %. The dry matter production differed (P O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológica de diferentes cultivares de milho para ensilagem. Foram avaliados doze cultivares de milho em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três blocos, 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três linhas de seis metros de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,8 m entre linhas. O ciclo das plantas, do plantio à colheita, variou de 105 a 114 dias. A altura média diferiu entre os cultivares (P 0,05 entre os cultivares para número de espigas por planta (0,9 a 1,1, teores de matéria seca (33,2 a 38,2 %, de extrato etéreo (1,9 a 2,5 % e de fibra em detergente neutro (49,1 a 56,2 %. A produção de matéria seca diferiu (P < 0,05 entre o cultivar TORK (20,6 t/ha e os cultivares CD-302 (16,4 t/ha e TRAKTOR (15,7 t/ha. O AGN-3150 apresentou o menor teor de fibra em detergente ácido (24,2 % e maior digestibilidade (80,7 %. Todas as cultivares apresentaram características agronômicas e qualitativas adequadas para produção de silagem, destacando-se os cultivares TORK e AGN-3150.

  12. Evaluation of snap bean cultivars for resistance to ambient oxidants in field plots and to ozone in chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, J.P.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Most cultivars of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) currently available in the US were evaluated for resistance to oxidant (ozone) air pollution in field plots at Beltsville and Salisbury, Maryland, in one or more of the past 8 years. Of 387 cultivars and breeding lines tested, 270 were classified resistant, 86 intermediate, and 31 susceptible. Responses of seedlings with one expanded trifoliate leaf to high concentrations of ozone revealed statistically significant differences among cultivars. The correlation between leaf injury induced by ozone on seedlings and ozone injury on the same cultivars as adult field-grown plants was low (r = .20) but significant. 13 references, 3 tables.

  13. Comportamento de cultivares de alface americana em Santo Antônio do Amparo Evaluation of crisphead lettuce cultivars in Santo Antônio do Amparo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony E. Yuri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de cultivares de alface do tipo americana em duas épocas de cultivo, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Santo Antônio do Amparo (MG, de setembro a dezembro de 1998 e fevereiro a maio de 1999 em condições de túnel. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com seis cultivares (Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady e Raider e quatro repetições. As avaliações de massa fresca total e comercial, circunferência e comprimento do caule da cabeça comercial foram realizadas quando as plantas apresentaram cabeça bem formada e compacta. Na primeira época de plantio, sobressaíram-se na característica massa fresca total as cultivares Lady (820,4 g planta-1 e Lucy Brown (790,7 g planta-1 sem, contudo, diferirem da cultivar Lorca (626,6 g planta-1. Para massa fresca comercial destacaram-se as cultivares Lady (620,0 g planta-1 e Lucy Brown (559,3 g planta-1 com maiores rendimentos. A circunferência da cabeça comercial variou de 36,3 a 47,2 cm e o comprimento do caule de 3,3 a 4,5 cm. Para a segunda época de cultivo não observou-se diferenças significativas entre as cultivares para massa fresca total e comercial. No entanto, todas as cultivares apresentaram massa fresca comercial acima de 850 g planta-1. A circunferência da cabeça variou de 45,4 a 53,4 cm e o comprimento de caule de 3,7 a 4,9 cm. Maiores rendimentos em termos de massa fresca foram obtidos na segunda época de plantio.The behavior of crisphead lettuce cultivars at two planting periods was evaluated in two experiments carried in Santo Antônio do Amparo, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from September to December 1998 and February to May 1999, under a plastic tunnel conditions. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with six treatments (cv Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady and Raider with four replications. The evaluations of total and marketable fresh weight, circumference and stem length of the marketable

  14. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V

    2005-12-01

    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  15. Evaluation of Different Groundnut Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars Against Termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Malik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot, followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot, Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot and BARD-479 (16.82±2.06 workers/plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus workers was found on ICG-7326 cultivars (14.85±1.81 workers/plot. The maximum mean population infestation of O. obesus soldiers was recorded on 2KCGC20 cultivar (4.88±0.25 soldiers/plot followed by Australian (4.15±.30, soldiers/per plot, BARD-479 (2.00±.17 soldiers/plot, ICG-7326 (1.70±.14 soldiers/plot, BARD 2000 (2.40±.25 soldiers/ plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus soldiers was found on Gold (1.87±.17 soldiers/plot. Population of O. obesus workers was positively related with the damage and negatively related the yield in all the groundnut cultivars.

  16. Evaluation of plant resistance inducers on different winter soft wheat cultivars against Septoria leaf blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, M; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Selim, S; Boizet, F; Couleaud, G; Maumene, C; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the emergence of fungal strains highly resistant to mainly used fungicides and the deleterious impacts of these fungicides on the environment, development of alternative control strategies to protect wheat crops against STB is needed. The induction of plant resistance by elicitors is likely to be a helpful alternative. Our study aims at characterizing the efficiency of potential resistance inducers towards STB in three bread wheat cultivars differing in their resistance levels to the pathogen: Alixan (susceptible), Premio (moderately resistant) and Altigo (resistant). These cultivars were inoculated under controlled and semi-controlled conditions with the pathogenic M. graminicolo strain T01193 in order to assess the protective effect of three potential resistance inducers against the disease. Moreover, the direct antifungal effect bf these products was evaluated in vitro at different concentrations in order to verify their potential biocide activity. Furthermore, cytological analyses were performed in order to determine the effects of these products on the fungal infection process and to compare these effects among the three wheat cultivars. Finally, reactive oxygen species metabolism was investigated in the three cultivars during their interaction with T01193 by measuring peroxidase activity.

  17. Evaluation of the occluded carbon within husk phytoliths of 35 rice cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing; Liu, Qin; Gu, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Zhu, Keya

    2016-12-01

    Rice is a well-known silicon accumulator. During its periods of growth, a great number of phytoliths are formed by taking up silica via the plant roots. Concurrently, carbon in those phytoliths is sequestrated by a mechanism of long-term biogeochemical processes within the plant. Phytolith occluded C (PhytOC) is very stable and can be retained in soil for longer than a millennium. In this study, we evaluated the carbon biosequestration within the phytoliths produced in rice seed husks of 35 rice cultivars, with the goal of finding rice cultivars with relatively higher phytolith carbon sequestration efficiencies. The results showed that the phytolith contents ranged from 71.6 mg•g‒1 to 150.1 mg•g‒1, and the PhytOC contents ranged from 6.4 mg•g‒1 to 38.4 mg•g‒1, suggesting that there was no direct correlation between the PhytOC content and the content of rice seed husk phytoliths ( R = 0.092, p>0.05). Of all rice cultivars, six showed a higher carbon sequestration efficiency in phytolith seed husks. Additionally, the carbon biosequestration within the rice seed husk phytoliths was approximately 0.45‒3.46 kg-e-CO2•ha‒1•yr‒1. These rates indicate that rice cultivars are a potential source of carbon biosequestration which could contribute to the global carbon cycle and climate change.

  18. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

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    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  19. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

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    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  20. Morphological evaluation of buffelgrass cultivar “Lucero INTA-PEMAN” in drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIFFA, S.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In searching for new cultivars that are better adapted to edapho-climatic constraints existing in northwestern Argentina, mainly drought and salinity stress, a hybrid of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. named Lucero INTA PEMAN was obtained by controlled crosses at the Instituto de Fitopatología y Fisiología Vegetal, INTA. The objective was to morphologically evaluate and compare Cenchrus ciliaris cv Lucero with Texas-4464, Biloela and Molopo cultivars in Dean Funes (North of the Province of Córdoba, Argentina under drought field conditions using a randomized complete block design with three replications in two crop cycles (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 considering one-year plant and re-growth as ontogenic stages of the plant, respectively. Thirteen morphological characters were analyzed by ANOVA and DGC testing (p <0.05. Although most of the thirteen morphological characters evaluated showed decreased re-growth over one-year plants, Lucero was least affected by low water availability, showed highest values for seed production components in both ontogenic stages and was superior to Texas-4464 in biomass production characters and to Biloela and Molopo cultivars in most of them. Lucero showed a promising and considerable forage value for drought-affected regions, such as northwestern Argentina.

  1. Avaliação de cultivares de alfafa e estimativas de repetibilidade de caracteres forrageiros Evaluation of alfalfa cultivars and estimates of repeatability coefficient of forage traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Paula Ferreira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de 42 cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. e estimar o coeficiente de repetibilidade das características produção de matéria seca, teor de proteína bruta na folha e no caule e tolerância a doenças, avaliadas no período das águas (outubro a março e da seca (abril a setembro, em seis cortes. Observou-se variabilidade significativa entre as cultivares quanto à produção de matéria seca e ao teor de proteína bruta na folha, em ambas as estações. No tocante a teor de proteína bruta no caule e tolerância a doenças, a variabilidade foi manifestada apenas no período da seca. As cultivares de melhor desempenho, para a maioria das características avaliadas, foram Crioula e Cibola. Em geral, o coeficiente de repetibilidade apresentou estimativas de baixa magnitude (inferior a 0,4. Quanto à produção de matéria seca, constatou-se a existência de comportamento similar das cultivares avaliadas nos dois períodos estudados, coeficiente de repetibilidade variando de 0,3195 a 0,4270, determinação genotípica em torno de 65%, e possibilidade de se atingir a predição do valor real por meio de sete a nove cortes.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 42 cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and to estimate the repeatability coefficient for dry matter production, leaf and stem protein content and disease tolerance features during the dry (April to September and rainy (October to March seasons with six cuts. Dry matter yield and leaf protein content presented significant variation in both seasons, although stem protein content and tolerance to diseases were different only during the dry season. Cultivars Crioula and Cibola had the best performance in most features. In general, the repeatability coefficient showed a low magnitude estimate (below 0,40. Regarding dry matter production, the cultivars showed similar behavior in both seasons, with repeatability

  2. Avaliação de metodologias de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares milho = Evaluation of methodologies of adaptability and stability in corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Romais Schmildt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar três metodologias para análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produtividade. Foi avaliada a produtividade de cultivares de milho do ensaio nacional da Embrapa, centro, nas safras agrícolas 2004/2005, 2005/2006 e 2006/2007,determinando-se a adaptabilidade e estabilidade pelos métodos de Lin e Binns com decomposição (CRUZ; CARNEIRO, 2006; Annicchiarico com decomposição (SCHMILDT; CRUZ, 2005 e um método proposto baseado no método de Annicchiarico com decomposição. Foram propostos a utilização do erro-padrão da média ao invés do desvio-padrão, no cálculo da variabilidade dos ambientes para cada cultivar e também o aumento do nível de confiança, de 75 para 95%. Percebeu-se que os resultados de indicação de cultivares pelos três métodos apresentaram alta correlação de Spearman (p The aim of this study was to compare three methodologies which analyze adaptability and stability of corn cultivars. It evaluated the productivity of corn cultivars of the national experiment of Embrapa, center, regarding the crops 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, in order to determine the adaptability and stability, by the methods of Lin and Binns with decomposition (CRUZ; CARNEIRO, 2006, Annicchiarico with decomposition (SCHMILDT; CRUZ, 2005 and by another method proposed based on the Annicchiarico method with decomposition. The use of the average standard error instead of the standard deviation in the calculation of the variability of environments for each cultivar, as well as for the increasing of the confidence level of 75 to 95% was proposed. It was noticed that the results of indication of cultivars by the three methods showed Spearman’s high correlation (p < 0.01. The new method presents advantages: it values the deviations between the environments by taking into account the number of environments and presenting the lowest level of significance (allowing lowest type I error. The proposed

  3. Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Four Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jamshidi zinab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the major crops cultivated mainly for oil, human consumption and renewable fuel all over the world. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which adversely affect growth, metabolism and yield of crops in semiarid and arid area. Drought stress during any particular growth stage of crops causes yield reduction. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on yield, physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of rapeseed in flowering stage, this field experiment was carried out in Yazd agricultural research institute during 2011-2012. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications imposed. Irrigation was considered as the main plot at two levels including control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan and stress in the anthesis stage (irrigation after 160 mm evaporation from class A pan and cultivars (Oise, Triangle, Karun and SLM046 were considered as sub plots. Sampling was carried out 7, 12 and 26 days after drought stress imposed. In each plot, 7, 12 and 26 days after stop irrigation from flowering stage (drought stress treatment, 4-5 expanded leaves from above of canopy were harvested. Relative water content of leaves and stomatal conductance were recorded. Soluble carbohydrate and proline content were measured. The lipid peroxidation level of the leaves was determined by measuring the content of malondealdehyde. Yield and yield components (number of grains per pod, number of pod per plant and weight of 1000 grains were recorded at maturity. Results and Discussion The results showed that drought and cultivar interaction on SPAD value was not significant after stress. The interaction of the drought on leaf relative water content was significant at 26 days after the stress. The results revealed that, drought stress led to a significant decrease in relative

  4. Evaluation of flood inundation in Crystal Springs Creek, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Hess, Glen

    2016-05-25

    Efforts to improve fish passage have resulted in the replacement of six culverts in Crystal Springs Creek in Portland, Oregon. Two more culverts are scheduled to be replaced at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard (Glenwood/Bybee project) in 2016. Recently acquired data have allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of the hydrology of the creek and the topography of the watershed. To evaluate the impact of the culvert replacements and recent hydrologic data, a Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System hydraulic model was developed to estimate water-surface elevations during high-flow events. Longitudinal surface-water profiles were modeled to evaluate current conditions and future conditions using the design plans for the culverts to be installed in 2016. Additional profiles were created to compare with the results from the most recent flood model approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for Crystal Springs Creek and to evaluate model sensitivity.Model simulation results show that water-surface elevations during high-flow events will be lower than estimates from previous models, primarily due to lower estimates of streamflow associated with the 0.01 and 0.002 annual exceedance probability (AEP) events. Additionally, recent culvert replacements have resulted in less ponding behind crossings. Similarly, model simulation results show that the proposed replacement culverts at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard will result in lower water-surface elevations during high-flow events upstream of the proposed project. Wider culverts will allow more water to pass through crossings, resulting in slightly higher water-surface elevations downstream of the project during high-flows than water-surface elevations that would occur under current conditions. For the 0.01 AEP event, the water-surface elevations downstream of the Glenwood/Bybee project will be an average of 0.05 ft and a maximum of 0.07 ft higher than current conditions. Similarly, for the 0

  5. Avaliação de cultivares de bananeira (Musa sp na região de Selvíria-MS Evaluation of banana (Musa sp cultivars in Selvíria-MS region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicléia Aparecida da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo e a produção de sete cultivares de bananeira na região de Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata e quatro repetições, num total de 28 parcelas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram as seguintes conclusões: A cultivar Mysore mostrou maior período do plantio ao florescimento, e as cultivares Nanica e São Tomé, menores. As cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho apresentaram menor ciclo do plantio à colheita, enquanto as cultivares Mysore e Prata apresentaram ciclos maiores e iguais. As cultivares Marmelo e Nanica produziram cachos e pencas maiores, e as cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho produziram cachos e pencas menores. A cultivar Mysore apresentou cacho com maior número de pencas, e a cultivar São Tomé, menor número. A cultivar Ourinho obteve maior número de frutos por penca, e a cultivar Marmelo, menor número. A cultivar Marmelo destacou-se com maior comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos da segunda penca. As melhores cultivares para esta região são Nanica e Marmelo, pois apresentaram bom desenvolvimento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the production of seven banana cultivars in the region of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The experiment was conducted in random blocks, under seven different treatments (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata with four repetitions, in a total of 28 plots. The results led to the following conclusions: the period which goes from the planting to the flowering was longer for the Mysore cultivar and shorter for the Nanica and São Tomé cultivars. The development from the planting to the harvesting was shorter for the Ouro-da-Mata and Ourinho cultivars and equally longer for the Mysore and Prata cultivars. The Marmelo end Nanica cultivars

  6. Evaluation of Different Groundnut Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars Against Termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Usman Malik; Humayun Javed; Mahmood Ayyaz

    2015-01-01

    Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot) and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot), followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot), Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot) and B...

  7. Avaliação da competição intergenotipica em misturas de cultivares de soja Evaluation o f intergenotypic competition in soybean cultivars blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antonio Bisognin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os efeitos da competição intergenotípica em misturas de cultivares de soja - Glycine max (L. Merrill - foi conduzido um experimento em Capão do Leão, RS, no ano agrícola de 1989/90. Os tratamentos foram os estandes puros de IAS 5, Ivorá, Bragg, BR 8 - Pelotas e Ivaí e as combinações de Bragg com os demais cultivares, nas proporções de 20, 35, 50, 65 e 80%. O delineamento experimental foi o látice parcialmente balanceado 5x5, com quatro repetições. A competição intergenotípica foi quantificada pela variação percentual = 100 (PM - PEP/ PEP, onde PM é a média do caráter em mistura e PEP é a média do caráter em estande puro. As misturas produziram, em média, 3,8% mais que a média dos componentes em estande puro. Duas misturas, IAS 5 + Bragg e BR 8-Pelotas + Bragg, proporcionaram acréscimos no rendimento em todas as proporções de misturas. Concluiu-se que a competição intergenotípica pode ser utilizada no melhoramento da soja, visando a obtenção de misturas com rendimento e desempenho superior. Respostas diferenciadas à competição intergenotípica foram observadas em diferentes misturas e proporções e, proporção e características contrastantes entre os cultivares como capacidade de ramificação, altura de planta, ciclo de maturação e período de florescimento devem ser consideradas para a formação de misturas superiores.Intergenotypic competition effects on soybean -Glycine max (L. Merrill - cultivar blends was evaluated in an experiment carried out along the 1989/90 crop season, in Capão do Leão county, RS. Five cultivars, IAS 5, Ivorá, Bragg, Ivaí and BR 8-Pelotas in pure stand and the blends of Bragg with every cultivar, in the proportions of 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%, were alocated to a partially balanced 5 x 5 lattice design with four repetitions. Intergenotypic competition was quantified by percent vanation 1 (PM - PEP/PEP, where PM stands for the vanable mean in the blend and PEP

  8. Evaluation of quality of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins radiated with greater degree of maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marilia C.G. dos; Maciel, Maria Ines S., E-mail: marines@ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Villar, Heldio P., E-mail: hpvillar@cnen.gov.br [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy were evaluated in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when harvested at maturation stage showing yellow flesh and skin color more red than green, representing four degree of maturation at commercial scale. The fruits were stored for 21 days at 12 degree C and sensory evaluated after that period as its external appearance, internal appearance, acidic taste, sweet taste, mellow flavor, aroma, texture and succulence of the flesh, by a team of ten trained judges. Physic chemical analysis of the main characteristics of fruits quality were also performed in the pulp at the end of storage. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the doses used did not damaged the sensory characteristics of mango fruit and that they received a dose of 0.5 kGy showed higher acceptance for most sensory attributes evaluated. The physic chemical characteristics showed no significant differences between the doses, except the amount of ascorbic acid that decreased progressively with increasing doses. Application of this method is viable for mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when taken with a higher degree of maturity and was safe for the external market and sensory acceptable. (author)

  9. Preliminary evaluation of pollen quality, fertility relations and fruit set of selected sour cherry cultivars in polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szpadzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary experiments were carried out in spring 2006. The percentage of fruit set of 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral', 'Debreceni Bötermö', 'újfefértói Fürtos' and 'Karneol' was higher after open pollination compared with self-pollination. The cultivar Vowi had an inconsiderably higher percentage of fruit set after self-pollination compared with open pollination. The percentage of fruit set in 'Debreceni Bötermö' and 'újfehértói Fürtos' was about 25 % higher after pollination by 'Schattenmorelle IR-2' and 'Koral' compared with the percentage of fruit set after cross - pollination of both cultivars with each other. In general, they did not appear to be good pollinators with each other. The highest quality of pollen was observed for the following cultivars: 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral' and Vowi and the lowest result was obtained in 'újfehértói Fürtos'. The highest yield was given by the following cultivars: Vowi, Schattenmorelle IR-2 and Koral.

  10. Evaluation of maize cultivars for their susceptibility towards mycotoxigenic fungi under storage conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dawlal, P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available was carried out where each maize cultivar was serially inoculated with each of the fungi. Results showed that four maize cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards the field fungi while three cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards...

  11. water quality evaluation of spring waters in nsukka, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... impact not only the aquatic ecosystem, but also the availability ... by many different environmental factors like climate .... Because location, movement and storage affect these ... Nsukka springs have highest levels of ammonia.

  12. Avaliação de cultivares de milho verde em pariquera-açu Evaluation of corn cultivars for ear production at grain milk stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issao Ishimura

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de milho Cargill 742, Cargill 408, Cargill 511, Cargill 501, Agroceres 162, Pioneer X 307, IAC Phoenyx 1918, IAC Phoenyx o2 1313, IAC Maya XIX e BR 126 foram avaliados em duas épocas, em plantios de inverno (maio e junho de 1983 na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu, SP, com o objetivo de identificar os melhores para a produção de milho verde. Foram estudadas as seguintes características agronômicas: estande final; número e total de espigas comerciáveis; peso de espigas com palha, comerciáveis e total; índice de espigas (número de espigas comerciáveis/estande final e peso médio de espigas comerciáveis. Os cultivares se diferenciaram quanto à população final de plantas; índice de espigas; resistência a Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.; ciclo do plantio à colheita, e produtividade: o Cargill 742 e o Cargill 408 foram os mais produtivos, superando o Agroceres 162, e mostraram ainda menor incidência de Helminthosporium turcicum, maior índice de espigas e precocidade. As condições climáticas foram atípicas, desfavoráveis à cultura do milho, provocando baixo nível de produtividade, que ainda foi lucrativo.Ten dent-corn cultivars were evaluated in two planting dates (May and June at the Pariquera-Açu Experiment Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to identify the best materials for ear production at grain milk stage. The following characteristics were studied: final stand, number of total ears and commercial ears type, weight of ears with husk, ear index, average weight of commercial ears, plant cycle and plant reaction to natural infection of Helminthosporium turcicum. Among the cultivars tested, statistically significant differences were obtained for final stand, ear index, plant cycle, yield and plant resistance to H. turcicum. The corn cultivars Cargill 408 and Cargill 742 were the most productive, and as compared to Agroceres 162, they matured earlier, yielded higher, showed higher ear

  13. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Blueberry Cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Grown in the Northwest Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, flavan-3-ols (TF3ols, as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reducing power (RP in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, TF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop≥Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99. The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  14. Balneological Evaluation of the Tafadek Spring, Agadez Region, Niger Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghargbu, K.; Latour, T.; Ponikowska, I.; Kurowska, E.

    2012-04-01

    West Africa, particularly Niger Republic is home to thousands of tourists annually. The vast Saharan desert and it's numerous oases in the northern parts of the Republic are a hot attraction on their own. However, in a recent survey of medicinal springs within the West African sub-region, the only hot spring in this country known locally for its therapeutic egress was analyzed. Located about 160km West of Agadez, the "Tafadek" spring with a yield of over 5l/s and temperature of about 50oC, rich in fluoride and silica is a specific water with capacity for application in balneotherapy for the treatment of orthopaedic, rheumatological, neurological, urinary tract infections, and osteoporosis. If the Tafadek spring is developed into a modern health resort promoting balneotherapy, health (balnear) tourism which is non-existent in Niger Republic today could kick start a new dawn in the health/economic development of the nation and the sub-region at large. Keywords: West Africa, Nigeria, Balneotherapy, Health tourism, Spring

  15. Evaluation of water-stress tolerance of Acala SJ 2 and Auburn 2 cotton cultivars in a phenotyping platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Morais Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current scarcity of water, which may be aggravated by climate changes, it is important to develop cultivars tolerant to water stress. For this, information regarding the variability of the tolerance of cultivars to this stress is required. This information can be obtained by using phenotyping platforms, which allow a large-scale and automated assessment of crop traits related to productivity under water stress. This study took place in a greenhouse and used a phenotyping platform to evaluate some agronomic and physiological traits of two cotton cultivars with differing tolerances to this stress. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme with four replicates. The main plots were composed of five water regimes and the subplots of two cultivars, Acala SJ 2 and Auburn 2. The water regimes consisted of a well-irrigated treatment (daily replacement of 100% of evapotranspired water and four water restriction regimes (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of evapotranspired water at the well-irrigated treatment. The phenotyping platform and protocol (different percentages of daily replacement of evapotranspired water employed were suitable to the evaluated cotton cultivars for water-stress tolerance, and allowed the determination of the cultivar most tolerant (Acala SJ 2 and of the cultivar most sensitive (Auburn 2 to water stress. ‘Acala SJ 2’ displayed better physiological and agronomic traits in all water regimes, including higher root density in the upper soil layer, as well as higher water use than ‘Auburn 2’, which explained its higher seed yield under the conditions employed.

  16. 豫西北春季露地豇豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Cowpea Cultivars for Open Field Cultivation in Northwest of Henan Province in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝喜; 赵玉玲; 郑婷婷; 闫妞; 赵立旗; 陈坤

    2016-01-01

    为了筛选出适合豫西北地区春季露地栽培的豇豆新品种,以之豇28-2为对照,对9个豇豆新品种进行比较试验。试验结果表明,青丰2号早熟特性明显,荚条长、无鼠尾、无鼓籽,光滑有光泽,颜色青绿,商品性美观,抗锈病、白粉病能力较对照强,结实能力强、结实时间长、产量高,综合性状优,适合在豫西北地区大面积推广。%In order to screen out new cowpea cultivars suitable for open field cultivation in northwest of Henan province in spring, the comparative test was carried out among nine new cowpea cultivars and a control cultivar Zhijiang 28-2. The results showed that the cultivar Qingfeng No.2 had the characteristics of obvious early maturity, long and green pods, smooth and shiny, good commodity features, stronger resistance to rust and powdery mildew without plump seeds. In addition, it had longer fruiting period, stronger fruit-setting ability, higher yield and superior integrated characteristics, therefore, the cultivar Qingfeng No.2 was suitable for large-area popularization in northwest of Henan province.

  17. Molecular diversity and relationships among Cymbidium goeringii cultivars based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Zhong; Wu, Zhen-Xing; Lu, Jiang-Jie; Shi, Nong-Nong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Tao; Liu, Jun-Jun

    2009-07-01

    Spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) is a popular flowering plant species. There have been few molecular studies of the genetic diversity and conservation genetics on this species. An assessment of the level of genetic diversity in cultivated spring orchid would facilitate development of the future germplasm conservation for cultivar improvement. In the present study, DNA markers of intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR) were identified and the ISSR fingerprinting technique was used to evaluate genetic diversity in C. goeringii cultivars. Twenty-five ISSR primers were selected to produce a total of 224 ISSR loci for evaluation of the genetic diversity. A wide genetic variation was found in the 50 tested cultivars with Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2241) and 93.75% of polymorphic loci. Fifty cultivars were unequivocally distinguished based on ISSR fingerprinting. Cultivar-specific ISSR markers were identified in seven of 50 tested cultivars. Unweighted pair-group mean analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinates analysis (PCA) grouped them into two clusters: one composed the cultivars mainly from Japan, and the other contained three major subclusters mainly from China. Two Chinese subclusters were generally consistent with horticultural classification, and the third Chinese subcluster contained cultivars from various horticultural groups. Our results suggest that the ISSR technique provides a powerful tool for cultivar identification and establishment of genetic relationships of cultivars in C. goeringii.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE ALGUNS ASPECTOS QUALITATIVOS E QUANTITATIVOS DE CULTIVARES DE MILHO PIPOCA (Zea mays L. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF POPCORN (Zea mays CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleso Antônio Patto Pacheco

    2007-09-01

    ;">This study was carried out at Escola de Agronomia of’ Universidade Federal de Goiás in the  1992/93 agricultural year with the purpose of evaluating popcorn cultivars for Goiânia-GO region. The essay had 19 treatments on a randomized complete design block with 4 repetitions. The following cultivars were used as part of the Popcorn National Essay coordinated by CNPMS/EMBRAPA: H-16, CMS 42 C-I, CMS 42 C-II, CMS 43 C-I, CMS 43 C-II, UNB-2, PIRAPOCA EPAMIG, ZÉLIA-0l, SAM (STA. CECÍLIA, ROGO POP 1, ROGO POP 2, ROGO POP 3, MF 1001, MF 1002, GO 100-P, COLORADO POP 1, COLORADO POP 2, RS-20 and BR-440. It was evaluated plant height and first ear insertion height, sick plants percentage, ear index, final stand, grain/ha yield and popping expansion capacity index (E.C.. The H-16 cultivar presented the highest grain yield (2,928 kg/ha but low E.C. (11.9. The triple hybrid ZÉLIA-0l had good performance with 22.1 E.C. and l,770 kg/ha. This yield was 12% higher than the pattern cultivar SAM (STA. CECÍLIA with 1,492 kg/ha and 15.5 P.E. It was found high positive correlation among yield and female flowering date, ear index and plant and ears height. Popping expansion capacity did not present any correlation among P.E. and another studied characters.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; pop-corn.

  19. Evaluation of high throughput screening methods in picking up differences between cultivars of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique evaluation of three advanced high throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis systems (HTPH-systems) for screening of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification. Straw from 20 cultivars of winter wheat from two sites in Denmark was hydrothermally pretreated an...

  20. Cultivar Selection and Test Site Evaluation of Cotton Regional Trials in Jiangsu Province Based on GGE Biplot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LI; Naiyin XU

    2014-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the high yielding and stability of candidate cultivars, depict the adaptive planting region, analyze trial location discrim-ination ability and representativeness, as wel as identify the ideal cultivar and trial location, with the aim to provide theory background for cultivar selection and rea-sonable scheme of test location in Jiangsu Province. [Method] The GGE biplot method was used to analyze the lint cotton yield of 12 experimental genotypes in the 6 test locations (three replicates in each) of the cotton regional trial in Jiangsu Province in 2013. [Result] The effects of genotype (G), environment (E), and geno-type by environment interaction (G×E) on lint cotton yield were al highly significant (P<0.01), which made it necessary to further explore the specific pattern of geno-type by environment interaction. Jinmian118 (G4) and SF3303 (G5) were the best ideal genotypes screened by the "ideal cultivar" and "ideal location" view of GGE biplot, and the ordination of test sites based on the ideal index were in the order of Dafeng (DF), Yanliang (YL), Liuhe (LH), Dongtai (DT), Yancheng (YC), and Nantong (NT), among which NT was relatively weak in representing of the whole target cot-ton planting region in Jiangsu Province. The "similarity among locations" view of GGE biplot clustered al trial locations into one group, showing that the test sites in the cotton planting region in Jiangsu Province were in the same mega-environment. The "which-won-where" view of GGE biplot indicated that cotton cultivar Jinmian118 (G4) was the most appropriate cultivar in the homogeneous cotton planting region in Jiangsu Province. [Conclusion] Among the candidate cultivars, Jinmian118 and SF3303 were identified as the most ideal cultivars in this set of conventional cotton regional trial in Jiangsu Province; the test site of Dafeng ranked the first out of al locations in terms of discrimination and representativeness, and al test locations were clustered into

  1. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Drought Resistance Indicates for Yield and Its Components in Three Triticale Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kinaci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing cereal production and quality. The development of triticale cultivars which are tolerant to drought is an objective in many breeding programmes, but so far success has been limited. This study was carried to examine differences in yield and yield components and kernel features among triticale cultivars (Tatlicak 97, Karma 2000 and MIKHAM 2002 under drought stress. Three triticale cultivars with different yield performance were grown in separate experiments under the rain fed and irrigated conditions at Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2006-2007 growing season. In the study, susceptibility index (SSI, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL, yield index (YI, yield stability index (YSI, mean productivity (MP and geometric mean productivity (GMP were calculated. The best yielding cultivar under the drought stress, hence having a low susceptibility index, was Karma 2000. This cultivar may be utilized for improvement of drought resistance in triticale breeding programmes.

  3. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  4. Evaluation of Resistance of Cucumber Cultivars to the Vegetable Leafminer (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae in Greenhouse Evaluación de Resistencia de Cultivares de P epino a la Mosca Minadora (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae en Invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Basij

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, is distributed around the world and is an important pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Given the resistance potential of the leafminer to current insecticides, the use of resistant plant cultivars and parasitoids could be effective integrated pest management (IPM strategies against it. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is a preferred host for this insect. Seventeen cultivars of cucumber have been evaluated to study resistance mechanisms to L. sativae. All cucumber cultivars were evaluated in screening tests in greenhouse with indices such as the number of leafminer stings, the number of larval mines, the proportion of larval mines to leafminer stings, and the rate of injury. Significant differences (p La mosca minadora, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, se ha distribuido por el mundo en recientes años y es una plaga importante de vegetales y plantas ornamentales. La resistencia potencial de la mosca minadora a insecticidas corrientes, el uso de cultivares resistentes, y parasitoides podrían ser estrategias efectivas en su manejo integrado de plagas (IPM. El pepino (Cucumis sativus L. es un huésped preferido por este insecto. Diecisiete cultivares de pepino fueron evaluados para estudiar los mecanismos de resistencia a L. sativae, en pruebas de screening en invernadero usando índices tales como número de marcas hechas por la mosca, número de galerías larvales, proporción entre galerías larvales y marcas hechas por la mosca, y tasa de daño. Se observaron diferencias significativas (p < 0,01 entre cultivares, así como correlaciones significativas entre los índices evaluados. Los cultivares de pepino se clasificaron por el método cluster basado en todos los caracteres medidos en cuatro grupos: susceptible, semi susceptible, semi resistente, y resistente. Los ensayos de resistencia a antibiosis de los cultivares se condujeron en cámara de crecimiento y se evaluaron con algunos índices biológicos de

  5. Avaliação de cultivares e hibridos de bananeira em lavras, MG Banana hybrids and cultivar evaluation in lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os genótipos de bananeira Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, Prata Anã, Grande Naine, SH36-40, FHIA 18, FHIA 01 e PV 03-44, em condições de sequeiro na região sul de Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de identificar os mais produtivos e com melhor adaptação edafoclimática, em comparação com as cultivares Prata e Prata Anã, tradicionalmente cultivadas nessa região. O ensaio foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Lavras, no período de 1997 a 1999. Cada genótipo foi plantado em blocos de 50 plantas, no espaçamento 3,0 x 3,0 m, sendo a parcela útil as 24 plantas centrais e uma por repetição. O híbrido SH36-40 foi superior aos demais em peso médio dos cachos (16,56 kg, frutos (171,00 g, diâmetro (4,21 cm e comprimento dos frutos (17,64 cm nos três primeiros ciclos. Isso corresponde a um rendimento de 18,5 t/ha, cerca de duas vezes maior que a produção das cultivares Prata Anã, Pioneira, Nam, Caipira e três vezes maior que a do híbrido PV 03-44. O híbrido SH 36-40 apresentou, ainda, porte médio de 2,75 m, ciclo em torno de 17,5 meses e o menor período da emissão à colheita do cacho, inferior a 4,83 meses para as plantas-mãe, filha e neta. Esse híbrido apresentou também um menor e mais tardio perfilhamento. Os híbridos SH 36-40 e FHIA 01 apresentaram os maiores incrementos nos pesos dos cachos e dos frutos do primeiro para o terceiro ciclo. As cultivares Caipira, Prata Anã, Pioneira e Nam produziram cachos com peso médio inferior a 9,0 kg e o híbrido PV0344, inferior a 6,0 kg. A cv. Caipira foi a mais tardia, com um ciclo em torno de 22 meses e a Prata Anã e Pioneira, as mais precoces, com cerca de 16,6 meses no primeiro ciclo e 15,5 no segundo e terceiro ciclos.The banana genotypes Nam, Caipira, Pioneira, Prata anã, Grande Naine, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, SH 36-44, and PV 03-44 were evaluated from 1997 to 1999. The objective was to identify the most productive and most adaptated genotype compared to the

  6. Evaluation of intoxication of sugarcane cultivars and I. grandifolia by amicarbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi,R; E.D Velini; Girotto,M; C.A Carbonari; Gomes,G.L.G.C; M.L.B. Trindade

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intoxicação de planta daninha e cultivares de cana-de-açúcar ao amicarbazone. Para isso, utilizou-se Ipomoea grandifolia como planta daninha representante e os cultivares de cana-de-açúcar PO8862, SP80 3280 e RB83 5486, caracterizados como sensível, intermediário e tolerante aos herbicidas, respectivamente. Foi verificado o consumo de água e quantificada a concentração do amicarbazone em seiva de xilema dos três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e de I. gran...

  7. Evaluation of Potato Cultivars for Resistance to Black Scurf Caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn the causal agent of stem canker and black scurf diseases is an important pathogen of potato. This study was conducted to determine the reaction of 28 local and commercial potato cultivars against black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn under field conditions during 2003-2004. Based on the results; cultivars Jaerla, Moreno and Batum had significantly higher black scurf rate (37.9, 30.3 and 29.7 %, respectively) compared to the other cultivars tested, while...

  8. Comparison of winter hardiness and growth of Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars grown in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marosz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment with Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars purchased from a commercial nursery was conducted in Skierniewice, central Poland. Both Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars were planted in June 2005 at a spacing of 3 × 2.2 m. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of climate conditions on the growth of eight cultivars of small kiwi fruit and to evaluate their usefulness for orchard culture in central Poland. After three years of growth in different climate conditions, including one of the coldest winters (2005/06 during the last years, and also severe late spring frosts (2007, some conclusion can be drawn. Two cultivars of Actinidia kolomikta have shown quite good resistance to winter and spring frosts, but the growth rate of these plants was rather slow. All the cultivars of Actinidia arguta were damaged by frost during the 2005/06 winter due to the snow-cover level, which was rather thick (24 cm. One year later all new shoots and leaves of Actinidia arguta cultivars were damaged completely by late spring frosts, which deleted flowering and fruit setting for at least one year. After three years of growth observations, the growth rate of small kiwi cultivars can be divided into three groups: fast growing with 'Jumbo' and 'Genewa'; moderate growing with 'Issai', 'Ken's Red' and 'Weiki' - male and female, and slow growing with A. kolomikta cultivars Dr Szymanowski and Sientiabrskaja.

  9. Avaliação de extrato de algas no progresso temporal da mancha de Mycosphaerella em cultivares de morangueiro Evaluation of seaweed extract on temporal progress of Mycosphaerella leaf spot in strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nunes Nesi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Em morangueiros, a mancha das folhas, causada por Mycosphaerella fragariae, é uma das doenças mais comuns na cultura, o que torna importantes os estudos de controle alternativo e de cultivares, sobre o progresso da epidemia. Em busca de práticas alternativas para seu controle, avaliou-se o efeito de cultivares de morangueiro e do extrato da alga Ascophyllum nodosum, na expressão dos sintomas de mycosphaerella, além de avaliar o ajuste de modelos de crescimento para o progresso temporal da incidência e severidade da doença. Utilizou-se o extrato de algas a 29%, na dose de 2 L ha-1, aplicado no solo, na folha e em ambos. As cultivares Dover, Toyonoka, Albion, Camarosa, Ventana, Campinas, Tudla e Camino Real foram avaliadas, quinzenalmente, quanto a incidência e severidade da doença. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Com os dados de incidência e severidade, calculou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença e utilizou-se a análise de variância para avaliar o efeito de cultivares e do extrato de algas. Aos dados do progresso temporal da incidência e da severidade, em cada cultivar, foram ajustados os modelos monomolecular, logístico e de Gompertz. O extrato de algas não apresentou efeito ou interação com cultivares, no controle da mycosphaerella. Houve efeito de cultivar com menor intensidade da doença, em Albion e Ventana, devido, principalmente, ao atraso na epidemia, pela redução do inóculo inicial efetivo. Aos dados de progresso temporal da incidência e da severidade ajustaram-se, respectivamente, os modelos logístico e monomolecular, para todas as cultivares.Leaf spot, caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae, is a common foliar disease infectious to a broad variety of strawberry cultivars. In a search for alternative control methods, seaweed extract from Ascophyllum nodosum was applied to strawberry cultivars and evaluated for its effect on

  10. Study on evaluation of starch, dietary fiber and mineral composition of cookies developed from 12 sorghum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Dayakar; Kulkarni, Dhanashri B; C, Kavitha

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to identify best cultivars suitable for sorghum cookies accordingly nutrient and mineral compositions were evaluated. Protein and fat content of cookies were ranged from 5.89±0.04 to 8.27±0.21% and 21.03±0.01 to 23.08±0.03% respectively. The starch content of cookie ranged between 47.06±0.01 and 42.15±0.03% and dietary fiber was reported highest in CSH14 (9.27±0.01%). The highest Mg (56.24±0.03mg/100g) P (255.54±0.03mg/100g), and K (124.26±0.02mg/100g) content were found in C43 cultivar. CSV18R was reported highest iron content (1.23±0.01mg/100g). The sensory scores for overall acceptability of cookies were highest in CSH23, CSH13R and CSV18R cultivars which are rich in dietary fiber and minerals. Normally the hybrids are high yielders and the grain price/qt is 20% lower than varieties. It is implied the raw material costs of two identified cultivars (CSH23 & CSH13R) would help the industry to reduce overall cost of production and offer a better profit margins over the varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture : response of two soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Barcelos Cardoso; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini; Elsa Cristina de Mundstock; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos

    2007-01-01

    Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable mi...

  12. Cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with cultivars: genetic model evaluation and seed trait analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jixiang; McCarty, Jack C; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2010-05-01

    Seed from upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., provides a desirable and important nutrition profile. In this study, several seed traits (protein content, oil content, seed hull fiber content, seed index, seed volume, embryo percentage) for F(3) hybrids of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with five elite cultivars over four environments were evaluated. Oil and protein were expressed both as percentage of total seed weight and as an index which is the grams of product/100 seeds. An additive and dominance (AD) genetic model with cytoplasmic effects was designed, assessed by simulations, and employed to analyze these seed traits. Simulated results showed that this model was sufficient for analyzing the data structure with F(3) and parents in multiple environments without replications. Significant cytoplasmic effects were detected for seed oil content, oil index, seed index, seed volume, and seed embryo percentage. Additive effects were significant for protein content, fiber content, protein index, oil index, fiber index, seed index, seed volume, and embryo percentage. Dominance effects were significant for oil content, oil index, seed index, and seed volume. Cytoplasmic and additive effects for parents and dominance effects in homozygous and heterozygous forms were predicted. Favorable genetic effects were predicted in this study and the results provided evidence that these seed traits can be genetically improved. In addition, chromosome associations with AD effects were detected and discussed in this study.

  13. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  14. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars early maturing, for the start of the sugar harvest, non-calcium soils sialitizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenaldo Delgado Mora

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar of sugarcane is the one with high productivity when grown under different environmental conditions. The most critical periods in terms of manufacturing performance, occurs in the first stage of harvest (November-January, which has been a concern of producers and a challenge for breeders. Therefore, the objective of the work is to evaluate the cultivars cane early maturing sugar high sugar and stable performance in various environments, for the start of the sugar harvest in Sialitizados non-calcium soils, using cold plantations. The experimental phase of this work was done in the experimental block Spartacus, belonging to the Territorial Research Station Sugar Cane Villa Clara, strain cane plant and first sucker. By high sugar yields and low levels of reducing sugars was obtained as a result, be used for the month of December, C86-156, C90-469, C89-148, C90-501, C92-203 and C89-161, varieties for January C87-252, C89-148, C89-161, C89-250, C90-501 and C92-203, for February cultivars C87-252, C90-469 and C92-203. The cultivars C87-252, C89-148, C89-161, C90-501 and C92-203, are noted for their stability in the variables studied at the beginning of the sugar war. Economically, it is not recommended to use C89-246 to present pol 3.27 % less than the average of the leading cultivar and reducing sugar values are above 0.38 can cause big damages in the manufacturing process.

  15. The Evaluation Exchange. Volume XV Number 1. Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Julia, Ed.; Harris, Erin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This issue of The Evaluation Exchange explores the promising practices and challenges associated with taking an enterprise to scale, along with the role that evaluation can and should play in that process. Surprisingly few examples exist of nonprofit efforts that have scaled up and achieved lasting success. A program or approach may be strong…

  16. Phenological evaluation of three apple cultivars at Bom Retiro – SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frederica Latorre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in a single apple orchard, located in Bom Retiro, Santa Catarina, in order to make a phenological assessment of the Imperatriz, Imperial Gala and Fuji cultivars planted there and their relationships with the physical conditions provided by the orchard together with the pollination and fruit production taking place. Seven plants from each cultivar were selected at random for the purpose of measuring the average length of the stems that had achieved up to 1.5m in height from the level of the soil, the numbers of reproductive and vegetative stems, the lengths of the leaves, and the numbers of flowers which were classified according to their stage of development. The averages were compared by Tukey test (5%. The cultivar that was utilized for pollination (Imperatriz showed early production, but the flowering coincided little with that of the other productive cultivars. However, these characteristics could have been greatly influenced by ambient conditions, considering this cultivar’s production history before its use as the pollinizing cultivar. For remedial purposes, techniques could be employed to synchronize the flowering, and appropriate management would be capable of increasing the populations of pollinating agents to help the effective fertilization.

  17. Evaluating connection of aquifers to springs and streams, Great Basin National Park and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Jackson, Tracie L.; Dotson, K. Elaine; Plume, Russell W.; Hatch, Christine E.; Halford, Keith J.

    2015-12-22

    Federal agencies that oversee land management for much of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, including the management of Great Basin National Park by the National Park Service, need to understand the potential extent of adverse effects to federally managed lands from nearby groundwater development. As a result, this study was developed (1) to attain a better understanding of aquifers controlling groundwater flow on the eastern side of the southern part of the Snake Range and their connection with aquifers in the valleys, (2) to evaluate the relation between surface water and groundwater along the piedmont slopes, (3) to evaluate sources for Big Springs and Rowland Spring, and (4) to assess groundwater flow from southern Spring Valley into northern Hamlin Valley. The study focused on two areas—the first, a northern area along the east side of Great Basin National Park that included Baker, Lehman, and Snake Creeks, and a second southern area that is the potential source area for Big Springs. Data collected specifically for this study included the following: (1) geologic field mapping; (2) drilling, testing, and water quality sampling from 7 test wells; (3) measuring discharge and water chemistry of selected creeks and springs; (4) measuring streambed hydraulic gradients and seepage rates from 18 shallow piezometers installed into the creeks; and (5) monitoring stream temperature along selected reaches to identify places of groundwater inflow.

  18. Avaliação de cultivares de mandioca, para consumo in natura, quanto à resistência à mancha parda da folha Evaluation of cassava cultivars for resistance to brown leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo P. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando confirmar o agente etiológico da 'mancha-parda' e avaliar diferentes cultivares de mandioca quanto à resistência a doença e às características agronômicas e nutricionais no estado do Rio de Janeiro, realizaram-se dois ensaios em condições de campo, na UFRRJ. No primeiro, de fevereiro de 1997 a junho de 1998, avaliaram-se seis cultivares (Amarelinha, Marcos OP, IAC-264, Baiana, Mantiqueira e Sonora. No segundo, de janeiro a agosto de 1999, avaliaram-se as mesmas cultivares mais a 'Saracura' e Rosada de SC. Em ambos ensaios utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. A intensidade de doença, originada a partir de infecção natural, foi quantificada a cada sete e 15 dias, e por ocasião da colheita, quando se estimaram a severidade e a incidência de folhas lesionadas, taxa de desfolha e número de folhas lesionadas. Com os dados de severidade e de incidência, construíram-se curvas e calcularam-se os valores da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, para as estimativas da severidade da doença e da incidência de folhas infectadas, respectivamente. Houve diferença entre as cultivares quanto à resistência à mancha parda da folha, causada por Cercosporidium henningsii. A 'Amarelinha' foi a mais suscetível e 'Baiana' e 'Sonora' as mais resistentes. Não houve, em geral, diferença significativa entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e características das raízes, com destaque porém, para a cultivar Amarelinha que apresentou raízes mais uniformes e com maior peso médio. Houve correlação negativa e significativa entre a severidade da doença, expressa pelos valores da AACPD e número e peso das raízes.Two field experiments were conducted to confirm the etiological agent of the cassava 'brown leaf spot', to study the progress of the disease and to evaluate resistance, agronomic and nutritional traits of different cassava cultivars. The experiments were performed in Rio de

  19. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture: response of two soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barcelos Cardoso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable microspores decreased significantly with time of culture, within each cultivar and gelling agent tested. The interaction Day X Cultivar was significant for the frequencies of binucleate symmetrical grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures. The effect of gelling agents on the frequency of binucleate symmetrical pollens grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures was not significant. About the frequencies of calli and embryogenic calli formed, a significant difference was detected between the cultivars (IAS5= 14.8% and BRS 133=6.6%. Gelling agents showed no effect over these frequencies.Anteras de duas cultivares de soja foram cultivadas em meio de cultura basal B5 longo gelificado com agarose ou Phytagel®. Análises citológicas das anteras foram conduzidas durante os primeiros 45 dias de cultura para avaliar a viabilidade e o estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos. A freqüência de formação de calos foi analisada após 45 dias do início da cultura. A análise da variância da viabilidade do micrósporo mostrou interações significativas de Cultivar X Agente Gelificante X Dias de Cultura. As freqüências de grãos de pólen viáveis diminuíram significativamente com o tempo de cultura, dentro de cada cultivar e agente gelificante testado. A interação Dia X Cultivar foi significante para as freqüências de grãos de pólen binucleados simétricos e estruturas multinucleados/multicelulares. O efeito do agente gelificante na freq

  20. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of potato cultivars evaluated through PCR-DGGE profiles Comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata avaliadas por perfis de PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the shifts on the PCR-DGGE profiles of bacterial communities associated to the rhizosphere of potato cultivars, in order to generate baseline information for further studies of environmental risk assessment of genetically modified potato plants. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with five potato cultivars (Achat, Bintje, Agata, Monalisa and Asterix, cultivated in pots containing soil from an integrated system for agroecological production. The experiment was conducted in a split plot randomized block design with five cultivars, three sampling periods and five replicates. Rhizosphere samples were collected in three sampling dates during plant development. DNA of rhizosphere microorganisms was extracted, amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers, and analyzed through DGGE. Shifts on the rhizosphere bacterial communities associated to rhizosphere of different cultivars were related to both cultivar and plant age. Differences among rhizosphere bacterial communities were clearest at the earliest plant age, tending to decrease in later stages. This variation was detected among bacterial communities of the five tested cultivars. The characterization of soil microbial communities can be part of plant breeding programs to be used on studies of environmental risk assessment of genetically modified potatoes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as alterações nos perfis de PCR-DGGE das comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata, para obter informações para futuros estudos de avaliação de risco ambiental de plantas de batatas geneticamente modificadas. Foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com cinco cultivares de batata (Achat, Bintje, Ágata, Monalisa e Asterix, cultivadas em vasos com solo de um sistema integrado de produção agroecológica. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com cinco cultivares, tr

  1. Evaluation of nutrient status and grain yield of two corn cultivars under different soil aluminum levels after liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Pauletti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing levels of Al saturation through the addition of lime under field conditions in the nutritional status and grain yield of two corn (Zea mays L. cultivars: one tolerant and one non-tolerant to Al. The experiment was conducted on Red Yellow Latosol (Oxisol at the Paraná, Brazil. Control plots received no lime (T0, the treatment T3 received lime to achieve 0% Al saturation and treatments T1 and T2 recieved 33.3% and 66.6%, respectively, of the lime applied to treatment T3. At full bloom stage, representative leaves ("nutritional leaves" were analysed for macro, micronutrients and Al contents, and in treatments T0 and T3 were also analyzed for Al distribution in shoot plants parts (stem, node, internode and leaves. Liming increased concentrations of N, P and Mg and decreased concentrations of Mn and Al in the "nutritional leaves"of both cultivars. The Al distribution in the shoot plant parts showed that its concentration was higher in the leaves than in any other plant part, independent of liming level. Grain yield of the tolerant cultivar was higher, although for both cultivars increase in yield was correlated with decrease in Al saturation.Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis decrescentes de saturação por Al em função da calagem, em condições de campo, na nutrição e produtividade de grãos de dois cultivares de milho: um tolerante e outro sensível ao Al. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Oxisol, no estado do Paraná - Brasil. O tratamento T0 não recebeu calagem, o tratamento T3 recebeu calagem para obter 0% de saturação por Al e os tratamentos T1 e T2 receberam 33,3% e 66,6% da quantidade aplicada no T3, respectivamente. No pleno florescimento foram coletadas folhas representativas do estado nutricional ("folhas nutricionais" para análise dos macro e micronutrientes e Al. Nos tratamentos T0 e T3 foi avaliado a distribui

  2. Avaliação de cultivares de alface em ambiente protegido em Boa Vista, Roraima, Brasil Evaluation of lettuce cultivars under protected cultivation in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Farias Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o desempenho de seis cultivares de alface em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. As cultivares de alface avaliadas foram: Hortência, Rubra, Mônica SF1, Regina de Verão, Verônica e Grandes Lagos 659. A temperatura do ar dentro do ambiente protegido oscilou entre 24,4 ºC e 31,5oC durante o cultivo. Rubra e Grandes Lagos 659 apresentaram os melhores desempenhos, com rendimentos médios superiores a 28.000 kg.ha-1 e massa fresca por planta de 176,7 g e 184,4 g, respectivamente.This study evaluated the growth and yield of six lettuce cultivars under protected cultivation. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The cultivars Hortencia, Rubra, Monica SF1, Regina de Verão, Veronica and Grandes Lagos 659 were evaluated. The air temperature under protected cultivation oscillated between 24,4oC and 31,5oC during the experimental period. Rubra and Grandes Lagos 659 showed the best performance with yields superior to 28,000 kg.ha-1 and fresh weight of 176,7g and 184,4 g, respectively.

  3. Application of Variational Iteration Method for Dropping Damage Evaluation of the Suspension Spring Packaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Song; Ning-ning Duan; An-jun Chen

    2014-01-01

    The dropping damage evaluation for packaging system is essential for safe transportation and storage. A dynamic model of nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator for the suspension spring packaging system was proposed. Then, a first-order approximate solution was obtained by applying He’s variable iteration method. Based on the results, a damage evaluation equation was derived, which reveals the main controlling physical parameters for damage potential of drop to packaged products concretel...

  4. Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Amaranth cultivars in different planting dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir ayeneband

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimum planting date and best cultivar of Amaranth, a field experiment was conducted in 2005 on agricultural Faculty of Ahvaz. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split plot with three replications. Main plot were assigned to three planting dates (i.e. 4/10, 4/15 & 5/1 and sub-plot were assigned to four amaranth cultivars (i.e. Slovaky, Plaintsent, Mercado & Amonth. Results showed that change in planting date had a significant effect on most quality and quantity components of forage yield. Mercado CV. in second planting date had the highestforage yield. Highest stem weight was a main reason for yield priority. Despite of lowest yield, highest protein content was obtained by Amount cv. in third planting date. Therefore, Mercado cv. and second planting date could be recommended for planting Amaranth crop in Ahvaz.

  5. Avaliação de cultivares de alfafa na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Evaluation of alfalfa cultivars in the region of Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Lédo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar e selecionar cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. mais adaptadas às condições edafoclimáticas da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. O ensaio foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco-MG, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram avaliadas 59 cultivares no período de 31/8/1999 a 10/12/2001, realizando-se 16 cortes de avaliação. Avaliaram-se a produção de matéria seca (PMS, altura da planta (AP, vigor (VG, porcentagem de floração (FLO, relação folha/caule (RFC, e incidência de doenças (ID e pragas (IP. Para PMS, AP, VG, FLO e ID, observaram-se diferenças significativas entre as cultivares. As cultivares P-30, Crioula C-1, Crioula C-3 e Crioula C-2 foram as que apresentaram maiores PMS (13,17; 13,13; 13,00 e 12,48 t/ha/ano, respectivamente. As cultivares apresentaram maior FLO (18,98% e AP (54,13 cm nos cortes realizados no período de verão, quando comparado com os de inverno (6,11% e 46,60 cm, respectivamente. Com base nos resultados obtidos, foram selecionadas as cultivares P-30, Crioula C-1, Crioula C-3 e Crioula C-2.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate and select the alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L. best adapted to the climate and soil of Zona da Mata, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The trial was carried out at Embrapa Gado de Leite, in the experiment station located in Coronel Pacheco, MG, using a randomized complete block design with two replications. Fifty-nine cultivars studied between Sept. 9, 1999 and Dec. 10, 2001 were submitted to 16 evaluating cuts. Dry matter production (DMP, plant height (PH, vigor (VG, flowering percent (FLO, leaf/stem ratio (RFC and disease (D and pests (P occurrence were observed. There were significant differences among cultivars regarding to DMP, PH, VG, FLO and D. Cultivars P-30, Crioula C-3 and Crioula C-2 showed the highest DMP (13,17; 13,13; 13,00 e 12

  6. Evaluation of Yield and Healthiness of Twenty Table Grapevine Cultivars Grown in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisek Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2008-2013, 20 table grape cultivars grown in Skierniewice (Central Poland were assessed. Among the assessed cultivars, two - ‘Chasselas Blanc’ (standard and ‘Favorit’ belonged to V. vinifera. Eighteen interspecific hybrids - ‘Aron’, ‘Esther’ (‘Eszter’, ‘Fanny’, ‘Flora’, ‘Galanth’, ‘Ganita’, ‘Garant’, ‘Katharina’, ‘Lidi’, ‘Lilla’, ‘Muscat Bleu’, ‘Nelly’, ‘Osella’, ‘Philipp’, ‘Rosetta’, ‘Rosina’, ‘Timur’ and ‘Verdelet’ were bred in various European countries. Vines, grafted on ‘Kober 5 BB’ rootstock, were planted in 2007 and annually covered for winter. Taking into account productivity, quality of fruits, susceptibility to frost damage and fungal diseases, the Swiss ‘Muscat Bleu’ and German ‘Garant’ proved most suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Central Poland. Plants of all cultivars belonging to the group of interspecific hybrids were less susceptible to infections caused by fungal pathogens than plants of V. vinifera genotypes. The assessment of frost resistance based on the observation of those parts of bushes, which were not covered, showed high diversification among the interspecific hybrids.

  7. Avaliação da intoxicação de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e I. grandifolia ao amicarbazone Evaluation of intoxication of sugarcane cultivars and I. grandifolia by amicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Araldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intoxicação de planta daninha e cultivares de cana-de-açúcar ao amicarbazone. Para isso, utilizou-se Ipomoea grandifolia como planta daninha representante e os cultivares de cana-de-açúcar PO8862, SP80 3280 e RB83 5486, caracterizados como sensível, intermediário e tolerante aos herbicidas, respectivamente. Foi verificado o consumo de água e quantificada a concentração do amicarbazone em seiva de xilema dos três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e de I. grandifolia por meio da bomba de Schollander e da cromatografia e espectrometria de massas (LC-MS. A intoxicação das plantas foi verificada através de leituras da fluorescência, com auxílio do fluorômetro portátil, que permitiu a correlação da taxa de transporte de elétrons (ETR com a concentração de amicarbazone absorvido pelos cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e por I. grandifolia. Verificou-se, através do experimento, que a redução dos valores da ETR pode ser utilizada para indicar o nível de intoxicação de I. grandifolia e de plantas de cana-de-açúcar ao amicarbazone. I. grandifolia destacou-se em relação à cana-de-açúcar pela maior sensibilidade ao amicarbazone. A suscetibilidade diferencial dos cultivares de cana-de-açúcar PO8862, SP80 3280 e RB83 5486 pode ser justificada, possivelmente, pela absorção diferencial do amicarbazone entre os cultivares.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intoxication of weeds and sugarcane cultivars by amicarbazone. Ipomoea grandifolia was used as weed representative and the sugarcane cultivars PO8862, SP80 3280, and RB835486, characterized as sensitive, intermediate and tolerant to herbicides, respectively. Water consumption was verified and amicarbazone concentration quantified in the xylem sap of the three sugarcane cultivars and of I. grandifolia, using the Schollander pump and chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Plant intoxication was verified by fluorescence

  8. Effect of Processing on Ferulic Acid Content in Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica Grain Cultivars Evaluated by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Goudar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica grain cultivars were analyzed for the phenolic components which have beneficial effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dehusking on total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in four types of foxtail millet grain varieties. These grains were extracted for phenolic compounds and evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and antioxidant activity. TPC was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method, TFC by aluminium chloride method and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC evaluation was done for ferulic acid in the phenolic extracts, identification was done by comparing Rf value of the ferulic acid standard with the sample extracts and quantification was done using the peak areas of the obtained chromatograms. Results revealed that TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity was found to be high in husk of the grains compared to whole grains and dehusked grains, whereas when compared amoung different cultivars Black variety got the high content of phenolics.

  9. BARLEY CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-13

    Jun 13, 1993 ... models were each based on several parametric statistics: 1. Thevarianceofacultivaracrossenvironments. This approach uses the variance of a cultivar ... The predicted yield values areadjusted ... Subsistence farmers risks.

  10. Competição de cultivares de brócolos tipo cabeça única em Campo Grande Single-head broccoli cultivars evaluation in Campo Grande, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G de Lalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na horta da UNIDERP, Campo Grande-MS, de junho a setembro de 2005. Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de diferentes cultivares de brócolos tipo cabeça única disponíveis no mercado para as condições edafoclimáticas de Campo Grande. Foram avaliadas oito cultivares comerciais: BRO68 (Rogers, Marathon (Sakata, Green Parasol (Takii, Centenário (Takii, Legacy (Asgrow, Magestic Crown (Asgrow, AF649 (Sakata e Brócolis de Cabeça (Topseed. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados completos, com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por dez plantas. Foram realizadas seis colheitas, a partir de 89 dias após a semeadura, de acordo com formação da inflorescência e o ponto de colheita, independente do tamanho. Foram avaliadas as características massa fresca (g e diâmetro da inflorescência (cm e produtividade (t ha-1. Para cultivo em Campo Grande, as cultivares Centenário, AF649, BRO68 e Marathon são as mais indicadas para plantio entre junho a setembro, pela maior produtividade.The experiment was carried out in field at the Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e Região do Pantanal, located in Campo Grande, Brazil, from June to September 2005. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of commercial single-head broccoli cultivars for Campo Grande. Eight commercial cultivars were evaluated: BRO 68 (Rogers, Marathon (Sakata, Green Parasol (Takii, Centenário (Takii, Legacy (Asgrow, Majestic Crown (Asgrow, AF649 (Sakata and Brócolis de Cabeça (Topseed. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications, with ten plants per plot. Six harvests were performed, from 89 days after the sowing date, according to the broccoli inflorescence formation and the harvest point, independently from the size. Fresh inflorescence mass (g and diameter (cm and yield (t ha-1 were measured and evaluated. Among the evaluated cultivars, the most recommended

  11. Evaluation of Multiple Spring Phenological Indicators of Yearly GPP and NEP at Three Canadian Forest Sites

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    Qian Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenological shifts in events such as flowering and bud break are important indicators of ecosystem processes, and are therefore of particular significance for carbon (C cycle research. Using long-term flux data from three contrasting plant functional type (evergreen and deciduous boreal forest sites, we evaluated and compared the responses of annual C fluxes to multiple spring phenological indicators, including the C-uptake period onset (CUP onset, spring temperature (average value from March to May, and satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI (average value from March to May. We found that the CUP onset was negatively correlated with annual gross primary production (GPP for all three sites, but that its predictive strength for annual net ecosystem production (NEP differed substantially among plant functional types. Spring temperature demonstrated particularly good potential for predicting both annual GPP and NEP for the evergreen sites, but not for the deciduous site. Spring EVI was demonstrated to have potential for predicting annual NEP for all sites. However, both plant functional types confounded the correlation of annual NEP with annual GPP. Although none of these phenological indicators provided consistent insight into annual C fluxes, using various currently available datasets our results remain potentially useful for the assessment of forest C cycling with future climate change. Previous analyses using only a single phenological metric should be considered with caution.

  12. Evaluation of methane emissions of some rice cultivars of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namaratne, S.Y.; Alwis, H.P.W. de [Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    1996-12-31

    A field experiment on three local rice cultivars, namely BG 300, BG 304 and AT 303, showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) among them with-respect to the methane flux emitted. The methane flux profiles of all three varieties indicated a more or less constant emission during the vegetative and reproductive periods, a peak emission during late flowering/early ripening stage and a dramatic increase in the flux during the late ripening period. The seasonal methane flux of BG 300, BG 304 and AT 303 were 200 {+-} 48, 156 {+-} 52 and 129 {+-} 40 g m{sup {minus}2}, respectively for a 92 day cropping period.

  13. Evaluation of phenological and pomological characteristics of some standard apple cultivars in Samsun ecological condition

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; ÖZTÜRK, Burhan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the phenological and pomological characteristics of 5 year-old ‘Cooper 7 SB2’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Jersey Mac’, ‘Red Chief’, ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ and ‘Süper Chief’ apple cultivars grafted on MM106 in Samsun ecological condition during the 2013-2014 years. The earliest first flowering, earliest full flowering, the earliest harvest date and the latest harvest date were determined in the Jersey Mac, Red Chief, Jersey Mac, and Granny Smi...

  14. Estudo de métodos de inoculação para a avaliação de cultivares de soja a Fusarium tucumaniae Inoculation methods study to evaluation soybean cultivars to Fusarium tucumaniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Baroni Junqueira Franco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a reação das cultivares de soja, IAS-5, FT-Cometa, CAC-1, Monarca e MG/BR 46 (Conquista, consideradas resistentes, e de FT-Estrela e FT-Cristalina, suscetíveis a F. tucumaniae, por dois métodos. Foram inoculadas plântulas e folhas destacadas de soja através do método de grãos de sorgo e grãos de aveia, respectivamente. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram efetuadas semanalmente utilizando-se escalas de notas tanto para sintomas observados na parte aérea das plântulas como para o sistema radicular, e também através da porcentagem de plântulas mortas. Avaliou-se também a altura de plantas e os comprimentos das lesões externa e interna da haste. A relação das cultivares em ordem crescente de porcentagem de plantas mortas foi CAC-1 (47%, Monarca (60%, MG/BR 46 (Conquista (61%, IAS-5 (64%, FT-Cristalina (84%, FT-Cometa (86% e FT-Estrela (90%. Em folhas destacadas, inicialmente, o patógeno infectou tecidos das regiões próximas ao pecíolo, porém este método não foi adequado na caracterização dos materiais, uma vez que ocorre senescência precoce das folhas.The reaction of resistant soybean cultivars IAS-5, FT-Cometa, CAC-1, Monarca and MG/BR 46 (Conquista and the susceptible cultivars FT-Estrela and FT-Cristalina, to F. tucumaniae were evaluated. Soybean seedlings were inoculated by the grain sorghum method; and detached leaves were inoculated by the oat grain method. Disease severity was weekly evaluated using a degree scale for the symptoms observed in the aerial, as well as in the root system, of the seedlings. The percentage of dead seedlings also was evaluated. Plant height, length of the internal, and external lesions in the culm, were examined. The relation of the cultivars in growing order of percentage of dead plants was CAC-1(47%, Monarca(60%, MG/BR 46 (Conquista(61%, IAS-5(64%, FT-Cristalina(84%, FTCometa( 86% and FT-Estrela(90%. Infection of detached leaves by the pathogen in the tissues near

  15. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat.

  16. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  17. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2013-09-25

    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  18. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  19. Application of Variational Iteration Method for Dropping Damage Evaluation of the Suspension Spring Packaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dropping damage evaluation for packaging system is essential for safe transportation and storage. A dynamic model of nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator for the suspension spring packaging system was proposed. Then, a first-order approximate solution was obtained by applying He’s variable iteration method. Based on the results, a damage evaluation equation was derived, which reveals the main controlling physical parameters for damage potential of drop to packaged products concretely. Finally, the dropping damage boundary curves and surfaces for the system were discussed. It was found that decreasing the suspension angle can improve the safe region of the system.

  20. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  1. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  2. Evaluation of volatile metabolites as markers in Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars discrimination by multivariate analysis of headspace solid phase microextraction and mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, José; Câmara, Hugo; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2014-02-15

    To gain insights on the effects of cultivar on the volatile metabolomic expression of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars--Plum, Campari, Grape, Cherry and Regional, cultivated under similar edafoclimatic conditions, and to identify the most discriminate volatile marker metabolites related to the cultivar, the chromatographic profiles resulting from headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) analysis, combined with multivariate analysis were investigated. The data set composed by the 77 volatile metabolites identified in the target tomato cultivars, 5 of which (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone, 2-methyl-6-methyleneoctan-2-ol, 4-octadecyl-morpholine, (Z)-methyl-3-hexenoate and 3-octanone) are reported for the first time in tomato volatile metabolomic composition, was evaluated by chemometrics. Firstly, principal component analysis was carried out in order to visualise data trends and clusters, and then, linear discriminant analysis in order to detect the set of volatile metabolites able to differentiate groups according to tomato cultivars. The results obtained revealed a perfect discrimination between the different Lycopersicon esculentum L. cultivars considered. The assignment success rate was 100% in classification and 80% in prediction ability by using "leave-one-out" cross-validation procedure. The volatile profile was able to differentiate all five cultivars and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. The volatile metabolomic platform for tomato samples obtained by HS-SPME/GC-qMS here described, and the interrelationship detected among the volatile metabolites can be used as a roadmap for biotechnological applications, namely to improve tomato aroma and their acceptance in the final consumer, and for traceability studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  4. Damage Evaluation of Critical Components of Tilted Support Spring Nonlinear System under a Rectangular Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionless nonlinear dynamical equations of a tilted support spring nonlinear packaging system with critical components were obtained under a rectangular pulse. To evaluate the damage characteristics of shocks to packaged products with critical components, a concept of the damage boundary surface was presented and applied to a titled support spring system, with the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, the dimensionless critical velocity, and the frequency parameter ratio of the system taken as the three basic parameters. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the frequency parameter ratio, the mass ratio, the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration, the angle of the system, and the damping ratio on the damage boundary surface of critical components were discussed. It was demonstrated that with the increase of the frequency parameter ratio, the decrease of the angle, and/or the increase of the mass ratio, the safety zone of critical components can be broadened, and increasing the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration or the damping ratio may lead to a decrease of the damage zone for critical components. The results may lead to a thorough understanding of the design principles for the tilted support spring nonlinear system.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

  6. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval

  7. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  8. Evaluation in greenhouse of the response of two Musa cultivar to Black Sigatoka by artificial inoculation of conidial suspension of Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Acosta Suárez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the resistance of Black sigatoka in genotypes from breeding programmes different methods have been used, the artificial inoculation of pathogens reproduction structures is one of them. Nevertheless, is necessary the standardization of condition for it in vitro production and to know the response of cultivars to the diseases in greenhouse. It will permit to establish methods for evaluating and selecting the new resistant genotypes. This work was carried out with the objectives to evaluate different culture media and incubation conditions for obtaining P. fijiensis conidia and for evaluating the response of two cultivars to the artificial inoculation with conidial suspensions of this fungus. Different culture media and incubation conditions for obtaining the conidia and the cultivars Grande naine (susceptible and FHIA-18 (partially resistant were used. The conidia of P. fijiensis could be obtained in vitro at 20ºC and constant light from 10 days of incubation in culture media Potato Carrot Agar, modified V-8 Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. However, the greatest concentration was reached in Potato Dextrose Agar after 20 days of incubation at 20ºC under continuous white fluorescent light. The artificial inoculation of conidial suspensions of P. fijiensis allowed to evaluate the response of Grande Naine and FHIA-18 cultivars in greenhouse. By the use of qualitative scale of symptoms stages and the quantitative variables symptoms evolution time and disease development time was possible to differentiate both cultivars. They maintained in greenhouse similar response to the disease that in the field. Key words: conidia, culture medium, FHIA-18, Grande naine, sporulation

  9. A new fluid dynamics model to evaluate the contractile force of a biological spring, Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria, a sessile peritrich having a body and spring-like stalk, is a model for a bioinspired actuator because of its remarkably fast (msec) and powerful contractions (nN). An example of a biological spring, the stalk converts biochemical energy to physical motion, but the mechanics of contraction are poorly understood. To evaluate contraction force, past models have assumed the body to be a sphere moving in quiescent water and have equated contraction force to drag force on the body described by Stokes' law. However, flow induced by contracting Vorticella does not satisfy conditions of Stokes' law because the flow is unsteady (Womersley number > 1) and bound with a solid substrate to which the cell is tethered. We develop a more rigorous model for contraction force evaluation by assuming the body to be a sphere unsteadily moving perpendicularly toward a solid surface. The model comprises quasi-steady drag force, added mass force and history force with wall effect correction terms for each force. Vorticella not only generates a maximum contraction force greater than Stokes' drag, but it also experiences drag force in the direction of contraction in the later stage of contraction due to the memory effect of water.

  10. Avaliação de caracteres quantitativos relacionados com o crescimento vegetativo entre cultivares de café arábica de porte baixo Evaluation of quantitative traits related with the vegetative growth among arabica coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Travassos Sarinho de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    composed by 24 plants, disposed in three arrays, with useful area formed by the central array. The spacing used was 2.0 m between rows and 1.0 m among plants. The characters were appraised through the variance analysis, estimate of the genetic determinism and the coefficients of correlations. The results detected in the population studied differences among cultivars for height of plants and length of plagiotropic branches. The cultivars Topázio MG 1189, Catuaí Amarelo, Obatã IAC 1669-20 and Topázio MG 1190 were better in growing at 12 months. The stem diameter is strong and positively correlated with length of plagiotropic branches for growth rate. When evaluated at 12 months, it was correlated and negative and highly with the canopy diameter and the length of plagiotropic branches was correlated negatively to number of secondary branches and positively with number of nodes of plagiotropic branches.

  11. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Wapato Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1987 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Lusty, E.William; Wampler, Sally J.

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities at the Richland and Wapato canals in south-central Washington State. The screen integrity tests at the Richland Screens indicated that 100% of fall chinook salmon fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released in front of the screens were prevented from entering the canal behind the screens. Our estimate is based on a 61% catch efficiency for control fish planted behind the screens. At the Wapato Canal, we estimated that between 3% and 4% of the test fish were either impinged on the screen surface and passed over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based on a greater than 90% capture of control fish released in front of the screens. At the Wapato Screens, we estimated that 0.8% of steelhead smolts (Salmo gairdneri) and 1.4% of spring chinook salmon smolts released during low canal flow tests wee descaled. During full canal flow tests, 1.6% of the steelhead and 3.1% of the spring chinook salmon released were descaled. The fish return pipe at the Wapato Canal was tested: the estimate of descaled test fish wa not different from the estimate of descaled control fish. The time required for fish to exit from the Wapato Screen forebay varied with species and with canal flow. During low canal flows, 43.2% of steelhead and 61.6% of spring chinook salmon smolts released at the trash racks were captured in the fish return within 96 hr. 11 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of agricultural climatic resource utilization during spring maize cultivation in Northeast China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Yuan, Bin; Ye, Mingzhu

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural climatic resources (such as light, temperature, and water) are environmental factors that affect crop productivity. Predicting the effects of climate change on agricultural climatic resource utilization can provide a theoretical basis for adapting agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production. This study investigates these effects under the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B using daily data from the high-resolution RegCM3 (0.25°×0.25°) during 1951-2100. Model outputs are adjusted using corrections derived from daily observational data taken at 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1971 and 2000. Agricultural climatic suitability theory is used to assess demand for agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China during the cultivation of spring maize. Three indices, i.e., an average resource suitability index ( I sr), an average efficacy suitability index ( I se), and an average resource utilization index ( K), are defined to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate change on climatic resource utilization between 1951 and 2100. These indices change significantly in both temporal and spatial dimensions in Northeast China under global warming. All three indices are projected to decrease in Liaoning Province from 1951 to 2100, with particularly sharp declines in I sr, I se, and K after 2030, 2021, and 2011, respectively. In Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, I sr is projected to increase slightly after 2011, while I se increases slightly and K decreases slightly after 2030. The spatial maxima of all three indices are projected to shift northeastward. Overall, warming of the climate in Northeast China is expected to negatively impact spring maize production, especially in Liaoning Province. Spring maize cultivation will likely need to shift northward and expand eastward to make efficient use of future agricultural climatic resources.

  13. Evaluation of nonlinear structural dynamic responses using a fast-running spring-mass formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Altman, B.S.; Gruda, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    In today`s world, accurate finite-element simulations of large nonlinear systems may require meshes composed of hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom. Even with today`s fast computers and the promise of ever-faster ones in the future, central processing unit (CPU) expenditures for such problems could be measured in days. Many contemporary engineering problems, such as those found in risk assessment, probabilistic structural analysis, and structural design optimization, cannot tolerate the cost or turnaround time for such CPU-intensive analyses, because these applications require a large number of cases to be run with different inputs. For many risk assessment applications, analysts would prefer running times to be measurable in minutes. There is therefore a need for approximation methods which can solve such problems far more efficiently than the very detailed methods and yet maintain an acceptable degree of accuracy. For this purpose, we have been working on two methods of approximation: neural networks and spring-mass models. This paper presents our work and results to date for spring-mass modeling and analysis, since we are further along in this area than in the neural network formulation. It describes the physical and numerical models contained in a code we developed called STRESS, which stands for ``Spring-mass Transient Response Evaluation for structural Systems``. The paper also presents results for a demonstration problem, and compares these with results obtained for the same problem using PRONTO3D, a state-of-the-art finite element code which was also developed at Sandia.

  14. The Study of Adaptation of the New Peach Cultivars in the Agricultural Region of Vlora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDHOSH FERRAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drupaceous fruits are placed in the first place in the species structure of Albania’s farms. To anticipate problems in the development of arboriculture and market production, scientific institutions have started a research to find possible solutions for the development of this sector. This is the reason why through collaboration between, CTT Vlore & IAM Bari was made possible to bring from Italy during the years 2000-2001, 96 cultivars of peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, nectarines, almonds. These cultivars dominate the production markets of the Mediterranean countries. In this project were included 21 peach cultivars 10 years old, rootstocks, planting material of basic category, clear of viruses and other pathogens. As the main rootstocks were selected GF 677 and MRS 2/5. To study the behavior, adaptability and productivity of the peach cultivars, in the warm coastal areas, specialists from the Agriculture University of Tirana and Center for Technology Transfer in Vlora carried out a number of tests and evaluations during a three year period. At the end of the study it resulted that the cultivars with a very early maturation better adapted in the coastal areas were: ‘Cardinal’, ‘May Crest’, and ‘Spring Crest’. The cultivars with early maturation and consolidated productivity were: “Red Haven”, “Bolero”, “Dixired”, “Early Crest”, “Iris Rosso”. Cultivars with an average maturation period were: “Red Haven Bianca”, “Red Top”, “Regina Bianca”, “Sun Crest”. The most suitable cultivars with a delayed maturation period are considered: “Big Moon”, “Domiziana”, “Haile”, “Laure”, “Maria Delizia”, “Rome Star”, “Pontina” and “Red Cal”. The only cultivar with a very delayed maturation is “Padana”.

  15. Avaliação de cultivares e híbridos de bananeira no recôncavo baiano Evaluation of banana cultivars and hybrids in northeastern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bezerra Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O programa de melhoramento genético de bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical visa desenvolver e selecionar novas cultivares de bananeira com alta produtividade, bom sabor dos frutos e que apresentem resistência às principais doenças. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar cultivares e híbridos de bananeira visando a identificação de genótipos superiores em produtividade e resistência a doenças. Foram avaliados os híbridos da cv. Gros Michel (Calipso, Bucaneiro e Ambrosia; da cv.Yangambi (YB42-21 e YB42-17; da cv. Prata (ST42-08 e ST12-31 e de Prata-Anã (SH3640 e as cultivares Pacovan e Nanicão. As características utilizadas para as avaliações foram: altura da planta (m; diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm; número de folhas vivas na floração; número de folhas vivas na colheita; número de frutos por cacho; peso do cacho (kg; peso médio de frutos (g; comprimento do fruto (cm; diâmetro do fruto (cm; espessura da casca (mm; número de dias do plantio à floração e número de dias do plantio à colheita. Usou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com 10 tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis touceiras por parcela, espaçadas de 2,00 m x 3,00 m. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram características agronômicas iguais ou superiores as cultivares que lhes deram origem. Os melhores híbridos de 'Prata', 'Yangambi' e 'Gros Michel' foram respectivamente, ST12-31, YB42-21 e Bucaneiro.The banana genetic breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits aims to develop and select new banana varieties with high productivity, good fruit flavor and resistance to most banana diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate banana cultivars and hybrids in order to identify superior genotypes for productivity and disease resistance. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height (cm; pseudostem diameter (cm; number of living leaves during flowering; and at harvest number of fingers per bunch; bunch weight

  16. Exploring the genetic variability in water use efficiency: Evaluation of inter and intra cultivar genetic diversity in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Ignacio; Escalona, José Mariano; Bota, Josefina; Tomás, Magdalena; Hernández, Esther; Escudero, Enrique García; Medrano, Hipólito

    2016-10-01

    Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE. The present work compares, on the basis of two field assays, the variability of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) in a large collection of cultivars in contrast with a collection of clones of Tempranillo cultivar. The results show that clonal variability of WUEi was around 80% of the inter-cultivar, thus providing a first assessment on the opportunity for clonal selection by WUE. Plotting the WUEi data against stem water potential or stomatal conductance it was possible to identify cultivars and clones out of the confidence intervals of this linear regression thus with significantly higher and lower WUEi values. The present results contribute to open the expectative for a genetic improvement of grapevine WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Fruit and Leave Extracts from Virus Infected and Healthy Cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Zahra; Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsaz, Mehrnaz; Hessami, Mohammad Javad; Nejatian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Grape virus diseases are a serious problem in Iran. Leaves and fruits of grape have been used for different purposes like cooking in Iran. The present investigation was carried out to study on the cytotoxic-activities of extracts of fruits and leaves of Vitis vinifera from both virus-free and virus-infected grape cultivars against breast cancer cell line (MDAMB- 231) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK 293). IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE CONSIDERED GRAPE CULTIVARS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Rish Baba Sefid, Shahani Ghasre Shirin, Rotabi Zarghan, Asgari Najaf Abad, Fars, Kaj Angor Bojnord, Sarkesh Shiraz and Siahe Zarqan. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (real-time Multiplex PCR) assay was applied to detect virus infected cultivars. The cytotoxic effect of the methanol extracts of different Vitis vinifera varieties on cultured cells was monitored using (3- (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 μg mL(-1)). Among these cultivars, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) along with related symptoms was detected in Siahe Zarqan and Fars. Methanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Vitis vinifera from both virus free and virus infected cultivars showed a range of limited to moderate cytotoxic activity. However, methanol extract of leaves belonged to virus infected cultivars was found to have strong cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 at different concentrations. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) can potentially increase the cytotoxicity of grape cultivars.

  18. Avaliação de linhagens e cultivares de feijão-vagem de crescimento indeterminado, no município de Areia-PB Evaluation of breeding lines and cultivars of climbing snap beans in Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. Oliveira

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se quinze linhagens (Hav 13, Hav 14, Hav 21, Hav 22, Hav 25, Hav 38, Hav 40, Hav 41, Hav 49, Hav 53, Hav 56, Hav 60, Hav 65, Hav 67 e Hav 68 e oito cultivares comerciais (Macarrão Favorito Ag 480, Macarrão Preferido Ag 482, Manteiga Maravilha Ag 481, Teresópolis Ag 484, Macarrão Bragança, Macarrão Trepador Topseed, Macarrão Trepador Hortivale e Macarrão Trepador Isla de feijão-vagem de crescimento indeterminado. O ensaio foi conduzido na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia, no período de março a agosto de 1999 em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. As linhagens Hav 22 (31,6 t/ha, Hav 38 (35,00t/ha, Hav 41 (31,5 t/ha, Hav 68 (30,5 t/ha, e as cultivares Macarrão Favorito Ag 480 (30,3 t/ha, Macarrão Preferido Ag 482 (39,1 t/ha e Manteiga Maravilha Ag 481 (36,2 t/ha destacaram-se por apresentarem alta produtividade, peso médio de vagens de acordo com a preferência do mercado local, e teor de fibra dentro dos padrões comerciais. A cultivar Teresópolis Ag 484 (58,5 t/ha, embora tenha apresentado alta produtividade, necessita de estudos de mercado, para que possa ser indicada para os produtores, uma vez que apresenta vagens grandes e achatadas.Fifteen breeding lines (Hav 13; Hav 14; Hav 21; Hav 22; Hav 25; Hav 38; Hav 40; Hav 41; Hav 49; Hav 53; Hav 56; Hav 60; Hav 65; Hav 67 and Hav 68 and eight cultivars (Macarrão Favorito Ag 480; Macarrão Preferido Ag 482; Manteiga Maravilha Ag 481; Teresópolis Ag 484; Macarrão Bragança; Macarrão Trepador Topseed; Macarrão Trepador Hortivale and Macarrão Trepador ISLA of climbing snap beans were evaluated under field conditions in Areia, State of Paraiba, Brazil. The trial was carried out from March to August, 1999. The best results (high yield, good average weight and low fiber content of pods were obtained with the breeding lines Hav 22 (31.6 t/ha; Hav 38 (35.0 t/ha; Hav 41 (31.5 t/ha and Hav 68 (30.5 t/ha, and with the cultivars Macarrão Favorito Ag 480 (30.3 t/ha; Macarr

  19. Avaliação de cultivares de alface adubadas com silicato de cálcio em casa-de-vegetação Evaluation of lettuce cultivars fertilized with calcium silicate in greenhouse

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    Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, no período de junho a agosto de 2002. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade, o estado nutricional e a qualidade (classe de tamanho de cultivares de alface cultivadas com doses de silicato de cálcio em vasos sob casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, com 1 planta/vaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 3, sendo três cultivares de alface (Raider, Regina e Vera e quatro doses de silicato de cálcio (0, 410, 1,000 e 2,000 mg dm-3; os tratamentos adicionais foram compostos pela aplicação de 820 mg dm-3 de carbonato de cálcio, para as três cultivares. O estado nutricional das plantas de alface foi avaliado pelo Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS. A aplicação da fonte silicato de cálcio não aumentou o crescimento das plantas e não aumentou o teor dos nutrientes nas plantas de alface, mas melhorou a nutrição das plantas para Si e aumentou a porcentagem de plantas sadias. A aplicação também aumentou a concentração de Mn, devido ao alto conteúdo de Mn no fertilizante aplicado (Silifértil®. As três variedades de alface comportaram-se como plantas não acumuladoras de Si.The experiment was carried out at the Department of Soil Sciences of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, from June to August 2002, with the objective to evaluate the productivity, the nutritional state and the quality (size class of lettuce cultivars grown with calcium silicate in greenhouse. The experimental design was disposed in blocks with four replicates, in factorial arrangement with additional treatments: 3 x 4 +3, composed by three lettuce cultivars: Raider (group crisphead lettuce; Regina (group butterhead lettuce and Vera (group looseleaf lettuce and four calcium silicate rates (0, 410, 1.000 and 2.000 mg dm-3, additional treatments were composed of the application of

  20. An evaluation of the transition temperature range of super-elastic orthodontic NiTi springs using differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwart, O; Rollinger, J M; Burger, A

    1999-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the transition temperature ranges (TTR) of four types of super-elastic orthodontic nickel-titanium coil springs (Sentalloy). A knowledge of the TTR provides information on the temperature at which a NiTi wire or spring can assume superelastic properties and when this quality disappears. The spring types in this study can be distinguished from each other by their characteristic TTR during cooling and heating. For each tested spring type a characteristic TTR during heating (austenite transformation) and cooling (martensite transformation) was evaluated. The hysteresis of the transition temperature, found between cooling and heating, was 3.4-5.2 K. Depending on the spring type the austenite transformation started (As) at 9.7-17.1 degrees C and finished (Af) at 29.2-37 degrees C. The martensite transformation starting temperature (Ms) was evaluated at 32.6-25.4 degrees C, while Mf (martensite transformation finishing temperature) was 12.7-6.5 degrees C. The results show that the springs become super-elastic when the temperature increases and As is reached. They undergo a loss of super-elastic properties and a rapid decrease in force delivery when they are cooled to Mf. For the tested springs, Mf and As were found to be below room temperature. Thus, at room temperature and some degrees lower, all the tested springs exert super-elastic properties. For orthodontic treatment this means the maintenance of super-elastic behaviour, even when mouth temperature decreases to about room temperature as can occur, for example, during meals.

  1. Chemometric analysis for the evaluation of phenolic patterns in olive leaves from six cultivars at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Roldán, Cristina; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-02-18

    Leaves from six important olive cultivars grown under the same agronomic conditions were collected at four different times from June to December and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS). Twenty-eight phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. No qualitative differences were detected among leaves. However, for all cultivars, total concentrations of phenolic compounds decreased from June to August, then increased from October on, and reached higher levels again in December. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation of the phenolic content in leaves for different sampling times and cultivars. Hence, the availability of phenolic compounds depends on both the season and the cultivar. June and December seem to be good times to collect leaves as a source of phenolic compounds. December coincides with the harvest period of olives in the Andalusian region. Thus, in December olive leaves could be valorized efficiently as olive byproducts.

  2. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  3. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoja R. Basnet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  4. Avaliação de linhagens e cultivares de feijão-caupi, em Areia, PB Evaluation of breeding lines and cultivars of cowpea-beans in Areia, Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. de Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Dez linhagens e três cultivares de feijão-caupi foram avaliadas em ensaio conduzido em Areia (PB, de abril a julho de 2000, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. As linhagens TE-92-199-20F;TE-90-170-29F; TE-90-170-76F; CNCX-405-17F; CNCX-409-12F; TE-90-180-10F; TE 87-108-6G, Linhagem avançada e as cultivares, IPA 206 e BR-03 Tracuateua, apresentaram comprimento e peso médio de vagens dentro dos padrões comerciais e número médio de vagens por planta dentro do padrão para a espécie (acima de vinte vagens. A produtividade de vagens verdes e de grãos verdes e secos obtida pelas linhagens TE-90-170-76F; CNCX-409-12F; CNCX-405-17F; TE-90-180-10F; TE-87-108-6G, Linhagem avançada e pela cultivar IPA 206, foram superiores a 5,0 t/ha para vagens verdes, a 3,0 t/ha para grãos verdes e a 1,2 t/ha para grãos secos, consideradas altas para o feijão-caupi. As maiores produtividade de vagens verdes (6,5 e 6,5 t/ha, de grãos verdes (3,8 e 3,8 t/ha, e de grãos secos (1,8 e 1,8 t/ha foram obtidas, respectivamente, com as linhagem CNCX-409-12F e cultivar IPA 206.Ten breeding lines and three cultivars of cowpea-bean were evaluated. The experiment was set up in Areia, Brazil, between April and July/00, in Red-yellow Latossoil. The breeding lines TE-92-199-20F; TE-90-170-29F; TE-90-170-76F; CNCX-405-17F; CNCX-409-12F; TE-90-180-10F; TE-87-108-6G, Linhagem avançada, and IPA 206, BR-03 Tracuateua, cvs., presented length and average weight of pods according to the commercial patterns and number of pods by plant according to the pattern of the species (above twenty pods. The yield of green pods, green and dry grains, obtained by the breeding lines TE-90-170-76F; CNCX-409-12F; CNC-405-17F; TE-90-180-0F; TE-87-108-6G, Linhagem avançada and IPA 206, cultivar, were superior to 5.0 t/ha for green pods, to 3.0 t/ha for green grains and to 1.2 t/ha for dry grains, considered highest for the cowpea-beans. Highest yield of green pods (6.5 and 6.5 t/ha, green grains (3

  5. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. 78-128-549, Nixon Power Plant, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1978-12-01

    Asbestos (CAS 1332-21-4) concentrations during sanding and buffing operations were measured at the Nixon Power facility (SIC-4911) in Colorado Springs, Colorado on September 29, 1978. The evaluation was requested by the vice president of the Watkin Construction Company on behalf of plumbers engaged in sanding asbestos joints and connections. Breathing zone asbestos concentrations of fibers greater than five microns in length ranged from 0.02 to 0.187 fibers per cubic centimeter. The OSHA asbestos standard of 2 fibers per cubic centimeter was not exceeded, however, the author concludes that a potential asbestos hazard does exist. He recommends that respirators be used by workers until exhaust ventilation is provided.

  6. Avaliação de cultivares de pepino tipo caipira sob ambiente protegido em duas épocas de semeadura Evaluation of "caipira" cucumber cultivars under protected cultivation in two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se sob cultivo protegido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel (FCA/UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu quatro variedades (Branco Colonião, Caipira Hortec, Prêmio e Rubi e três híbridos (Caipira AG-221, Guarani AG-370 e Safira de pepino tipo caipira em duas épocas: verão e inverno. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. O híbrido Safira foi o mais produtivo na semeadura de verão (41,3 frutos por planta, enquanto no inverno `Prêmio' produziu menor número de frutos comercias (6,7 frutos por planta que todos os demais. Iniciaram-se as colheitas, em média, 51 e 87 dias após a semeadura no verão e no inverno respectivamente. Os híbridos foram mais precoces que as variedades na semeadura de verão. Os frutos passavam do ponto mais rapidamente no cultivo de verão, apresentando maior massa média. Concluiu-se que o híbrido Safira foi o melhor para o cultivo no verão, enquanto no inverno a produtividade de todas as cultivares foi muito prejudicada.Four varieties (Branco Colonião, Caipira Hortec, Prêmio and Rubi and three hybrids (Caipira AG-221, Guarani AG-370 and Safira of cucumber were evaluated under protected cultivation at São Manuel Experimental Farm (FCA/UNESP during summer and winter seasons. The experimental model was randomized block, with four replicates of five plants per plot. `Safira' F1 hybrid presented the highest yield during the summer (41.3 fruits/plant, while `Premio' F1 hybrid had the smallest commercial yield (6.7 fruits/plant during winter. In average, harvesting was initiated 51 days after sowing in the summer, and after 87 days in the winter. Also hybrids were more precocious than open pollinated cultivars, in the summer. Fruits surpassed commercial weight earlier in the summer than in the winter. It was concluded that `Safira' F1 hybrid was the best cultivar for the summer, while in the winter all cultivars presented lower yield.

  7. Evaluation of edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for root-knot nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible ginger and turmeric roots are important agricultural commodities for the State of Hawaii. Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. are major factors hindering optimum production. An evaluation of tolerance and resistance to M. incognita was undertake...

  8. Evaluation of a Rapid Method for Screening Heat Stress Tolerance Using Three Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hai An; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Won Je; Lee, Byung Cheon; Chung, Namhyun; Kang, Chon-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2017-07-19

    Thermotolerance in plants is a topic of concern given the current trends in global warming. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid and reproducible screening method for selection of heat stress-tolerant wheat varieties to expedite the breeding process. We tested the robustness of the screen in three Korean wheat cultivars, "BackJung", "KeumKang", and "ChoKyeong". We showed that 4-day-old seedlings of "KeumKang" had the highest survival rates after a 45 °C treatment for 20 h. Moreover, the ability to retain chlorophyll and antioxidant activity was also highest in "KeumKang". The increase in malondialdehyde content in "ChoKyeong" indicated that this cultivar showed the greatest damage after heat stress. Collectively, our results showed that "KeumKang" is the most heat-tolerant cultivar of the three examined. In conclusion, the most reliable and rapid screening method in our investigation was survival rate examined at lethal temperature.

  9. Avaliação de cultivares de soja, sob manejo orgânico, para fins de adubação verde e produção de grãos Evaluation of soybean cultivars under organic management for green manuring and grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Parron Padovan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de seis cultivares de soja, sob manejo orgânico, para fins de adubação verde e produção de grãos. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento (cultivar. Na época da colheita, 81 dias após a emergência das plântulas, todas as cultivares testadas (Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi, Lambari e Taquari mostraram excelente nodulação, variando de 545 a 760 mg/planta de massa nodular seca. As cultivares Celeste e Taquari, que produziram, respectivamente, 8,33 e 7,12 t ha-1 de biomassa seca da parte aérea, apresentaram outras características agronômicas vantajosas, tais como: ciclo curto, alta acumulação de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos tecidos verdes e bom rendimento de sementes. Esses caracteres indicam potencial de 'Celeste' e 'Taquari' para adubação verde de verão em sistemas de agricultura orgânica. Cinco das cultivares avaliadas revelaram tendência ao acamamento, porém dentro de níveis aceitáveis. As cultivares Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi e Taquari suplantaram em 23%, 32%, 33%, 44% e 70%, respectivamente, a média nacional de produtividade de soja, estimada em 2.398 kg ha-1 nas últimas três safras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain and aboveground biomass production of six soybean cultivars under organic management. A randomized block design was adopted with four replications per treatment (cultivar. By harvest time, 81 days after plants emergence, all tested cultivars (Celeste, Surubi, Campo Grande, Mandi, Lambari, and Taquari had excellent nodulation ranging from 545 to 760 mg/plant of nodule mass (dry weight. The cultivars Celeste and Taquari, which yielded 8.33 and 7.12 t ha-1 of dry biomass, respectively, showed other advantageous agronomic characteristics such as: short cycle, a high accumulation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in green tissues, and good seed setting. These

  10. Nutritional composition, antioxidant properties, and toxicology evaluation of the sclerotium of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris cultivar E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Boon-Hong; Tan, Nget-Hong; Fung, Shin-Yee; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Tan, Chon-Seng; Ng, Szu-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The Tiger Milk Mushroom (Lignosus spp.) is an important medicinal mushroom in Southeast Asia and has been consumed frequently by the natives as a cure for a variety of illnesses. In this study, we hypothesized that Lignosus tigris (cultivar E) sclerotium may contain high nutritional value and antioxidant properties, is nontoxic and a potential candidate as a dietary supplement. The chemical and amino acid compositions of the sclerotium were evaluated and antioxidant activities of the sclerotial extracts were assessed using ferric reducing antioxidant power; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Acute toxicity of the L. tigris E sclerotium was assessed using a rat model study. The sclerotium was found to be rich in carbohydrate, protein, and dietary fibers with small amounts of fat, calories, and sugar. The amino acid composition of the protein contains all essential amino acids, with a protein score of 47. The sclerotial extracts contain phenolics, terpenoids, and glucan. The ferric reducing antioxidant power values of the various sclerotial extracts (hot water, cold water, and methanol) ranged from 0.008 to 0.015 mmol min(-1) g(-1) extract, while the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities ranged from 0.11 to 0.13, and -2.81 to 9.613 mmol Trolox equivalents g(-1) extract, respectively. Acute toxicity assessment indicated that L. tigris E sclerotial powder was not toxic at the dose of 2000 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, L. tigris E sclerotium has the potential to be developed into a functional food and nutraceutical.

  11. Evaluation of Blackberry Cultivars Adapted to the Southeastern United States for Susceptibility to Post-Harvest Fruit Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre- and post-harvest fruit rots, rosette, and other diseases are limiting factors of blackberry production in the southern USA. The development of cultivars with increased resistance to these diseases should result in reduced use of fungicides and greater profits for growers. Five to nine blackbe...

  12. Evaluation of Blackberry Cultivars Adapted to the Southeastern United States for Rosette and Post-Harvest Fruit Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette (caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi) is considered a limiting factor of blackberry production in the southern U. S. Fruit rots annually cause extensive losses to blackberry farmers. The development of cultivars with increased resistance to rosette, fruit rot and other diseases should r...

  13. Qualitative performance of lettuce cultivars in four seasons in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

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    Otaciana Maria dos Prazeres da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major challenge in producing good quality lettuce in the semiarid region is the climatic factors such as high temperature, high luminosity and low air relative humidity, which affect the quality characteristics of leafy vegetables. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of lettuce cultivars of Crisphead (Angelina, Amelia and Taina, Mimosa (Mila, Mimosa and Lavinia, Green-leaf (Scarlet, Vera, Isabella and Vanda and Loose-leaf (Elisa and Regiane in four seasons: summer (12/21/2012, autumn (3/21/2013, winter (06/21/2013 and spring (09/23/2013 in the conditions of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The following characteristics were quantified: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids (SS and total soluble sugars. The quality of the lettuce was influenced by the cultivar and environmental conditions. Lower titratable acidity was recorded for Green-leaf and Loose-leaf groups in the summer and for Crisphead groups in the autumn. The highest content of soluble solids were achieved in autumn for cultivars Vera, Vanda, Isabela, Elisa and Regiane; to Lavinia, Angelina, Amelia and Tainá, and summer and autumn stood out from the other growing seasons for this trait. Cultivars Scarlet, Angelina and Amelia had higher levels of total soluble sugars in the summer; Mila and Lavinia in spring; Elisa and Regiane in winter and Tainá in spring.

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2014-07-01

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest.

  15. Consumer Perception Concerning Apple Fruit Quality, Depending on Cultivars and Hedonic Scale of Evaluation - a Case Study

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    Cătălina DAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse fruit quality through consumers’ perceptions and their preferences revealed by two panel questionnaires. Among the most common apple cultivars on the Romanian markets, were chosen the ones existing simultaneously and continuously (over two-years, during January-March: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Florina’, ‘Idared’. The consumers’ panel for sensory evaluation was represented by students, who completed two types of questionnaires. Both questionnaires refer to foremost traits for dessert apple, such as fruit appearance (size, shape, color and intrinsic peculiarities (pulp consistency, juiciness, taste, flavor. First questionnaire comprised different scales for the traits (1-3, 1-5 or 1-15, while the second one consisted of the hedonic scale (1-9 for all traits. For commercial appearance of the fruits were highlighted ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Braeburn’ and especially ‘Jonagold’. ‘Braeburn’ was distinct by the highest quality taste (average grade 13.9 on the scoring taste scale 1-15 and also for fruit flavor. ‘Granny Smith’, a commercially attractive-looking fruit, received only an average of 6.2 for taste and 2.6 for flavor. ‘Granny Smith’ presented the largest value for the coefficients of variation for taste, this variety being preferred less by female than male tasters. Inconsistency of the market, prices and foreign assortment on Romanian market was illustrated by the lack of statistical correlations between commercial fruit quality and price. The study could provide useful background information for apples breeders, farmers and marketing fruits strategy. The use of different scales for panel evaluation, dependent on the relevance of traits, might be a proper solution for reducing bias. In this case, the 1-15 large scale for apple taste compared with lower ones for other traits

  16. Avaliação da bebida e outras características de cultivares de Coffea canephora e Coffea congensis Cup quality evaluation of Coffea canephora and Coffea congensis cultivars

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    A. A. Teixeira

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se várias características morfológicas de amostras de sementes e a qualidade do produto de alguns cultivares de Coffea canephora e de C. congensis, coletadas em quatro localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se uma escala de cinco pontos, desenvolvida em Angola, para avaliação da qualidade da bebida de C. canephora. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com os dos padrões kouillou de C. canephora do Estado do Espírito Santo e mundo-novo de C. arabica. Verificou-se que 46% das amostras de sementes beneficiadas foram classificadas como pertencentes a C. arabica e, 36%, a C. canephora. As porcentagens de sementes do tipo moca variaram de 10 a 50% para as amostras de C. canephora e de 20 a 40% para C. congensis. Para o mundo-novo essa porcentagem foi de 15%. Os dados referentes à qualidade da bebida indicaram que oito amostras deram bebida significativamente melhor do que a do padrão kouillou e nenhuma se revelou melhor do que a do mundo-novo. Comparações entre as médias de pontos conferidos à bebida de 17 amostras de C. canephora despolpadas com as correspondentes não despolpadas, revelaram diferenças significativas, indicando que a operação do despolpamento contribuiu para a melhoria da qualidade da bebida. As amostras de café despolpadas de C. canephora colhidas em Ribeirão Preto revelaram-se de melhor qualidade de bebida, em relação às das outras três localidades: Tietê, Jaú e Pindorama. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram, ainda, que os cultivares de C. congensis e de C. canephora podem dar bebida de qualidade semelhante.Coffea canephora and C. congensis cultivars were evaluated for morphological and cup quality characteristics, comparing seed samples from four localities of the State of São Paulo. A five point scale, developed in Angola for testing cup quality of C. canephora, was used. C. canephora cv. Kouillou, from the State of Espírito Santo, and C. arabica cv. Mundo-Novo were used as standards. According

  17. Caracterização morfológica e avaliação de cultivares de bananeira resistentes a Sigatoka Negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet no sudoeste goiano Morphologic characterization and evaluation of banana cultivars resistant to the Black Sigatoka disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet in the Southwest of the State of Goiás, Brazil

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    Silvia Correa Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco cultivares de bananeira resistentes a Sigatoka Negra foram cultivadas na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Jataí, localizado na região Sudoeste do Estado. O objetivo foi introduzir genótipos resistentes a Sigatoka Negra no Estado, bem como fazer a caracterização morfológica desses materiais nessas condições climáticas. O trabalho foi realizado por meio da avaliação, em três ciclos produtivos, dos seguintes componentes de produção: intervalo em dias entre o plantio e o florescimento, número de folhas no florescimento e na colheita, número de pencas por cacho, frutos por cacho e frutos por penca, comprimento do cacho e dos frutos e peso do engaço, das pencas e do cacho. As cultivares falsa FHIA-18 e Caipira produziram em média aos 393 dias, apresentando maior precocidade em relação às demais cultivares. Como era esperado, a FHIA-21, que é uma bananeira tipo Terra, apresentou um ciclo maior (488 dias. O clima e a altitude de Jataí-GO podem ter contribuído para o aumento do ciclo das cinco cultivares quando comparado com outras regiões. Para as características de produção, a FHIA-01 e a falsa FHIA-18 se destacaram das demais. Para o número de pencas, a Thap Maeo se destacou nos três ciclos, mostrando a característica deste genótipo. As maiores alturas na floração foram observadas nas cultivares FHIA-21 e Thap Maeo, que também foram as que mais sofreram com os efeitos do vento.Five banana cultivars resistant to the Black Sigatoka Disease were grown at the experimental field of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG, located in the Southwest region of the State of Goiás (Brazil. This work aimed the introduction of Black Sigatoka resistant cultivars as well as the characterization of the morphological aspects of such cultivars at that climatic region. The following characteristics were evaluated, in the first three cycles: days between planting and flowering, leaf number at

  18. Seasonal variation of residence time in spring and groundwater evaluated by CFCs and numerical simulation in mountainous headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Watanabe, Yasuto; Ikeda, Koichi; Yano, Shinjiro; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, additionally time information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. However, there have been few researches to evaluate variation of residence time of subsurface water in time and space at the mountainous headwaters especially with steep slope. We investigated the temporal variation of the residence time of the spring and groundwater with tracing of hydrological flow processes in mountainous catchments underlain by granite, Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan. We conducted intensive hydrological monitoring and water sampling of spring, stream and ground waters in high-flow and low-flow seasons from 2008 through 2013 in River Jingu Watershed underlain by granite, with an area of approximately 15 km2 and elevation ranging from 950 m to 2000 m. The CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute constituent concentrations were determined on all water samples. Also, a numerical simulation was conducted to reproduce of the average residence times of the spring and groundwater. The residence time of the spring water estimated by the CFCs concentration ranged from 10 years to 60 years in space within the watershed, and it was higher (older) during the low flow season and lower (younger) during the high flow season. We tried to reproduce the seasonal change of the residence time in the spring water by numerical simulation, and the calculated residence time of the spring water and discharge of the stream agreed well with the observed values. The groundwater level was higher during the high flow season and the groundwater dominantly flowed through the weathered granite with higher permeability, whereas that was lower during the low flow season and that flowed dominantly through the fresh granite with lower permeability. This caused the seasonal variation of the residence time of the spring

  19. Acúmulo de macronutrientes pela cultivar de cebola "Superex" estabelecida por semeadura direta Evaluating macronutrients accumulated in onion plants of the 'Superex' cultivar in direct seeding system

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    Diego Resende de Queirós Pôrto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi quantificar o acúmulo de macronutrientes ao longo do ciclo da cebola, cv. "Superex", estabelecida por semeadura direta. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Rio Doce, entre os municípios de Itobi e São José do Rio Pardo, SP. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130 e 150 dias após a semeadura (DAS, para determinação da matéria seca e do acúmulo dos nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os acúmulos máximos de matéria seca da parte aérea e do bulbo foram, respectivamente, de 4,70g planta-1 e 17,86g planta-1, aos 150 DAS. A parte aérea e o bulbo contribuíram, respectivamente, com cerca de 20 e 80% na matéria seca da planta inteira ao final do ciclo. A seqüência de acúmulo dos nutrientes verificada para a cebola "Superex" foi: K>N>Ca>S>Mg>P. A planta de cebola acumulou 202,43; 31,23; 295,28; 172,42; 35,20 e 73,47mg, respectivamente, de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Exportou, pelo bulbo, 67% do N, 85% do P, 68% do K, 57% do Ca, 56% do Mg e 81% do S acumulado pela planta.This research was aimed at counting the concentration of macronutrients throughout the onion, cv Superex, established by direct seeding. The experiment was conducted at Rio Doce farm, between the counties of Itobi and São José do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil (21°37'16"S and 46°53'15"W. The macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S as well as plant dry matter content were evaluated in plant samples taken at 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, and 150 days after seeding (DAS. The maximum dry matter content in the bulb and in the aerial part were reached at 150 DAS and were, respectively, of 4.70 and 17.86g plant-1. The aerial part and the bulb contributed respectively with 20 and 80% of the whole mature plant dry matter. The macronutrients were accumulated in the plant in the following order: K>N>Ca>S>Mg>P. The onion plant accumulated 202.43; 31.23; 295.28; 172.42; 35.20 e 73.47 mg of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, and

  20. Biological evaluation of a nutritional supplement prepared with QPM Maize cultivar BR 473 and other traditional food items

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    Paula Heberth de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Protein Maize (QPM cultivar BR 473 was employed, together with soybean flour, brown sugar, banana meal and oat meal, for the preparation of a nutritional supplement.. 21-day old male Fisher rats were fed diets containing the supplement as a protein source, both with and without soybean flour; casein diets with 10 or 7% protein served as respective controls. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Net Protein Retention (NPR and Digestibility were determined. Blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, urea, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein were also measured in the animals and showed that all were in good health condition at the end of the experiment. The obtained results for PER, NPU and NPR indicated that the supplement prepared with QPM maize cultivar BR 473 was a good protein source, especially when soybean flour was added.

  1. Evaluation of Penicillium expansum for growth, patulin accumulation, nonvolatile compounds and volatile profile in kiwi juices of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Shan, Tingting; Yuan, Yahong; Zhang, Zhiwei; Guo, Chunfeng; Yue, Tianli

    2017-08-01

    Patulin (PAT) contamination and changes of nonvolatile and volatile compounds caused by Penicillium expansum in fresh juices of 8 kiwi cultivars were investigated. Growth and PAT production of P. expansum were greater at 25°C than at 4°C. P. expansum grew in kiwi juices under pH ranging from 2.75 to 3.27 and produced 45.10-268.88μg/mL of PAT at 25°C. Decreases occurred in malic acid and soluble protein; while consumption and production simultaneously happened for reducing sugar, total soluble solid, titratable acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid and total phenolics. A large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were produced during infection and each cultivar presented a distinct profile. Most of the alcohols, acids, ketones and phenols increased while aldehydes decreased. VOCs that were specific to infected kiwi juices are potential biomarkers for GC-MS analysis of kiwifruit infected by P. expansum.

  2. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

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    Márcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    evaluated were positively influenced by N fertilization, which can alter growth patterns and canopy structure. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed structural features in relation to all variables evaluated that positively validate as options for pasture. The ammonium nitrate was more effective than urea for dry matter production in hybrids H69 and H12 in the first cut, and for regrowth of cultivars Piata and Marandu. The results showed that nitrogen is a good tool which in turn contributes positively to increases the growth-related variables, such as dry matter (total, leaves and pseudostems. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed morphological, structural features and production of dry matter that validate them as positive options for pasture use.

  3. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

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    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  4. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

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    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  5. Resistência de soja a insetos: VII. Avaliação de danos de percevejos em cultivares e linhagens Resistance of soybean to insects: VII. Evaluation of damage to cultivars and lines by stink bugs

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Em dois anos consecutivos (1980/81 e 1981/82 estudou-se, em Campinas, o comportamento de oito linhagens (IAC 73-228, IAC 77-3802, IAC 77-3823, IAC 78-2296, IAC 78-2318, IAC 78-3258, IAC 78-3278 e D72-9601-1 e dois cultivares (Santa Rosa e TMU de soja em relação ao ataque de percevejos em campo. No primeiro ano, a infestação natural de Nezara viridula (L e Piezodorus guildinii (West. foi complementada com liberação de adultos de Euschistus heros (Fabr. coletados em lavouras de soja. No segundo ano, não houve necessidade de infestações artificiais, já que as populações naturais de N. viridula e P. guildinii estavam altas. Como critérios para avaliação de dano, usaram-se: retenção foliar, produção de grãos, produção dividida em quatro classes de dano, porcentagem em peso de grãos danificados, peso de cem sementes, teor de óleo e poder germinativo. IAC 73-228 e IAC 78-2318 comportaram-se como os mais resistentes.During the seasons of 1980/81 and 1981/82, the performance of eight soybean lines (IAC 73-228, IAC 77-3802, IAC 77-3823, IAC 78-2296, IAC 78-2318, IAC 78-3258, IAC 78-3278 and D72-9601-1 and two cultivars (Santa Rosa and TMU was evaluated in relation to the attack of stink bugs in the field, at Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the season of 1980/81, the low natural infestation of Piezodorus guildinii (West. and Nezara viridula (L. was supplemented by liberation of Euschistus heros (Fabr. adults collected on soybean crops; in the following season, the high natural infestation was sufficient to cause severe damage to soybeans. Seven criteria of damage evaluation were utilized: foliar retention, yield, yield divided in four damage classes, percentage of the damage grain weight, weight of hundred seeds, oil content and germination percentage. The line IAC 73-228 confirmed its resistance and the same performance was observed for the IAC 78-2318. Nevertheless, both these lines have as unfavourable characteristics

  6. Desempenho de cultivares de cebola em cultivo orgânico e tipos de solo no Vale do São Francisco Evaluation of onion cultivars under organic cultivation in two soil types in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil

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    Nivaldo D Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de cebola em cultivo orgânico no Vale do São Francisco, conduziram-se dois experimentos, de maio a outubro de 2005, nos Campos Experimentais de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, e Mandacaru, Juazeiro-BA, em ARGISSOLO e VERTISSOLO respectivamente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se dezoito e quatorze cultivares de cebola, respectivamente e quatro repetições. Em ARGISSOLO a produtividade total de bulbos variou de 13,52 a 39,52 t/ha. A produtividade comercial oscilou de 7,45 a 38,32 t/ha, sobressaindo-se como mais produtivas as cultivares Brisa IPA-12 (38,32 t/ha e São Paulo (35,86 t/ha que não evidenciaram diferenças significativas entre si, assim como as cultivares Botucatu-150 (26,41 t/ha e Pira Ouro (26,37 t/ha, e menos produtivas as cultivares Conquista (7,45 t/ha e Crioula Alto Vale (7,81 t/ha. Em VERTISSOLO a produtividade total de bulbos variou de 6,87 a 24,68 t/ha. Sobressairam-se com produtividade comercial as cultivares Texas Grano PRR (21,56 t/ha e IPA-10 (17,50 t/ha, que não diferiram entre si. As cultivares Crioula Alto Vale, CNPH-6348, CNPH- 6436 e CNPH-6206 não tiveram produção comercial de bulbos.In this research were evaluated the yield of onion cultivars under organic growth in the São Francisco Valley. Two field trials were evaluated, one at the Experimental Farm Station of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid, in Petrolina, in an ultisol type and the other at the Experimental Farm Station of Mandacaru, in Juazeiro, in a vertisol type, from February to October of 2005. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks, with 18 and 14 cultivars, respectively, and four replications. In the ultisol, the total yield of bulbs ranged from 13.52 to 39.52 t/ha. The commercial yield ranged from 7.45 to 38.32 t/ha where the cultivars Brisa (38.32 t/ha and São Paulo (35.86 t/ha showed the highest yield without statistical difference

  7. EVALUATION OF GRAIN SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR DOUBLE CROPPING IN THE SOUTHWEST OF GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO GRANÍFERO NA SAFRINHA NO SUDOESTE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Eduardo Bezerra de Morães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sorghum is a crop of great importance for double cropping, in the Brazilian Central-West region. Within this region, in the Southwestern Goiás State, a research was conducted to select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivars, in the municipalities of Montividiu, Rio Verde, and Santa Helena de Goiás. A randomized blocks design, with four replications, was used. The grain sorghum cultivars tested were: BR 304, 741, 822, Catuy, and the experimental hybrid V 00069. The cultivars were sown on March 5, 2005. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, weight of thousand grains, plant height, and flowering and maturation dates. The results showed the interaction genotype x environment for all evaluated characteristics. The region of Montividiu presented better potential for sorghum grain production. Early flowering and harvest allowed higher grain yields.

     

  8. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  9. Pungency evaluation of onion cultivars from the Venezuelan West-Center region by flow injection analysis-UV-visible spectroscopy pyruvate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Pineda; Lué-Merú, Marcó P; Ricardo, Rivas; Máximo, Gallignani; Maribel, Valero; Luis, Burguera José; Marcela, Burguera

    2004-12-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method was developed for the determination of pyruvate in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.) from the West-Center region of Venezuela. The reference Schwimmer and Weston (1961) (J. Agric. Food Chem. 9 (1961) 301) Batch method was modified and adapted to FIA conditions. The formation kinetic of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-pyruvate complex was evaluated at room temperature and at 37 degrees C. It was demonstrated the suitability of the chromopher formation at room temperature. The optimal values for the FIA parameters were: sample injection volume 3mL, flow rate 6mLmin(-1), reactor length 1.5m, sodium hydroxide concentration 1.0molL(-1) and hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5molL(-1). The working calibration range was extended from 80mgL(-1) (Batch method) to 700mgL(-1) with the FIA set up. The sample dilution step is thus avoided, simplifying the whole analysis process. The pungency in representative samples of the cultivars Yellow granex 438, Ultra Hybrid and Red onion "Sangre de Toro" was evaluated by the flow injection analysis (FIA)-pyruvate method and the results were compared to the reference Batch pyruvate method and to the taste panel test. Non-significant differences were found at the 95% of confidence level between the FIA method and the Batch reference method. Correlation coefficient when comparing the FIA results to the taste panel test was r(2) = 0.8353. Significant differences (P pungency of the cultivars, the Ultra Hybrid having the highest pungency. The pungency order from minor to major was: Red onion, Texas Grano 438 and Ultra Hybrid.

  10. Metagenomic evaluation of bacterial and archaeal diversity in the geothermal hot springs of manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sonu; Batra, Navneet; Pathak, Ashish; Green, Stefan J; Joshi, Amit; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-02-19

    Bacterial and archaeal diversity in geothermal spring water were investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing. This revealed the dominance of Firmicutes, Aquificae, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group in this thermophilic environment. A number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in this unique habitat.

  11. Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery evaluation and anadromous fish study on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon: 1975-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1975 the USFWS began studies designed to define the biological characteristics of wild spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the...

  12. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  13. Avaliação de algumas características pós-colheita e índice de aceitação pelos consumidores de novas cultivares de banana Evaluation of some post-harvest characteristics and consumer acceptance index of new banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - As cultivares Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata e Prata Anã foram avaliadas quanto às características de pós-colheita (longevidade pós-colheita, período de comercialização e resistência ao despencamento dos frutos, aspectos visuais (tamanho do fruto e coloração da casca e da polpa, índice de aceitação pelos consumidores por meio da degustação da fruta madura (sabor, aroma, consistência da polpa e semelhança de sabor e aroma com as cultivares tradicionais Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã e Nanicão. O trabalho foi conduzido por meio de ensaios de laboratório usando 6 pencas de bananas de cada cultivar e entrevistas após os testes de degustação com 80 consumidores de Lavras e Maria da Fé-MG, no período de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. Pelos resultados, verifica-se que, quanto aos aspectos visuais, somente a cv. Caipira obteve baixo índice de aceitação pelos consumidores (ABSTRACT - The banana cultivars Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata and Prata Anã were evaluated as to their post-harvest characteristics (post-harvest longevity, marketing period and resistance to fruit dropping, visual aspects (fruit size and coloration of the peel and pulp and consumer acceptance index through tasting of the ripe fruit (flavor, pulp firmness and similarity of flavor with the traditional cultivars Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã and Nanicão. The work was conducted through laboratory trials by using six banana hands of each cultivar and interviews after the tasting tests with 80 consumers of Lavras and Maria da Fé-MG over the period of October 2000 to April 2001.The results pointed out that as to the visual aspects only the cultivar Caipira obtained a low consumer acceptance index (< 50%. As to the post-harvest characteristics the cultivars Prata Anã, Maçã, Prata and SH 3640 stood out with longer post

  14. Avaliação por RAPD de plantas de abacaxizeiro cultivar Smooth Cayenne derivadas do seccionamento do talo e cultura de tecidos Evaluation of pineapple plants cultivar Smooth Cayenne from peduncle division and tissue culture by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VITÓRIA CECCHETTI GOTTARDI

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas, em área comercial da fazenda Córrego dos Bois, município de Canápolis -- MG, plantas de abacaxizeiro cultivar Smooth Cayenne, para serem avaliadas quanto à propagação pelo método do seccionamento do talo e cultura de tecidos, bem como análise por RAPD das mudas decorrentes destes dois processos de propagação. A propagação pelo seccionamento do talo foi eficiente na produção de mudas, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade, em um curto espaço de tempo, além de apresentar a mesma característica genotípica (análise por RAPD das plantas-matrizes de origem. Já no processo de produção de mudas por cultura de tecidos, não foi obtida uma quantidade suficiente de mudas que comprovasse a utilização de uma metodologia mais sofisticada. Além da perda por contaminação em laboratório de 70% do material em estudo, foi necessária a utilização de um longo período, aproximadamente 18 meses, para a obtenção das mudas. Na análise por RAPD das plantas decorrentes deste processo de propagação, foram observados padrões de bandas diferentes em algumas amostras, as quais podem estar relacionadas com uma possível variação somaclonal.Plants of pineapple Smooth Cayenne cultivar were collected from a commercial area, Córrego dos Bois farm, in Canápolis, state of Minas Gerais, to evaluate two different processes of propagation, peduncle division and tissue culture. These same plants were characterized by RAPD analysis. According to the two propagation method, the peduncle division was efficient in seedlings propagation, in quantity as well as in quality, at a short period of time, resulting the same phenotype and genetic characteristics (RAPD analysis from the matrix descent plants. In the tissue culture method, the quantity of seedlings obtained were not good enough that could prove the use of a sophisticated methodology. Besides loosing 70% of the material, it was necessary to expend a long period of time, at

  15. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  16. Avaliação de cultivares de mangueira selecionadas pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas comparadas a outras de importância comercial Evaluation of mango cultivars selected by "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" compaired to others of commercial importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina Limonta Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    used for commercial production in the State of São Paulo: Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Palmer and IAC Haden 2H. This last one is a clone selected from the Haden 2H cultivar. The yield capacity of the cultivars was evaluated in a field experiment with six cultivars, five replications and three plants per plot, using a completely randomized blocks design, in Votuporanga, State of São Paulo. The yield, resistance to diseases and fruit-fly as well as physical and chemical parameters of the fruits were evaluated. The cultivar Palmer was the most productive, with good adaptation to the local soil and climatic conditions. 'Haden 2H' was the most susceptible cultivar. There was no cultivar resistant to all diseases and 'Espada Vermelha' showed some resistance to fruit-fly. The proportion of peel, pulp and seeds of the fruits were evaluated. The cultivar Votupa showed the highest percentage of pulp, which was similar to the commercial cultivars Van Dyke, Tommy Atkins and Palmer. To evaluate the nutritive value of the cultivars, the chemical composition of the fruits were made in "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" and "Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos", both located in Campinas, State of São Paulo. The fruits were analysed for pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total acidity, lipids, total protein, residual fixed minerals (ash, pectin, ascorbic acid, total carotene, total alimentary fibers, total carbohidrates and calories, and the content of calcium, cupper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc. The cultivar "Espada Vermelha" differed from the others by the chemical parameters, mainly in the mineral composition and in the content of total carotenoids and lipids, which provided intense flavor and coloration to its fruits. 'Votupa', 'Palmer' and 'Van Dyke' presented higher acidity and caloric fruits, whereas 'Espada Vermelha', 'Tommy Atykns' and 'Haden 2H' had fruits less caloric and with lower acidity.

  17. 苹果品种用于加工鲜榨汁的适宜性评价%Suitability evaluation of apple cultivars for fresh juice-processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 毋永龙; 李海飞; 王昆; 李静; 李志霞; 徐国锋

    2013-01-01

      为科学评价苹果品种的鲜榨汁加工适宜性,以122个单果质量在100 g以上的品种为对象,运用相关分析、因子分析、概率分级、层次分析、K-均值聚类、判别分析等方法建立苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性评价技术。结果表明:果实与鲜榨汁间可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比和糖酸比5项指标均呈极显著相关,相关系数分别为0.8967、0.9393、0.8413、0.9036和0.9099。果实可溶性固形物含量、固酸比、出汁率、单宁含量等4项指标被确定为苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性评价指标。4项指标均划分为服从或近似服从正态分布的5级,即极低、低、中、高和极高。根据指标权重和指标分级标准,建立了4项指标的评分标准。建立的苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性判别函数有极高的判别准确性,正确判别率达到94.74%(建模样本)和96.55%(检验样本)。筛选出的58个优良品种中,红富士、乔纳金、津轻等43个品种适于加工鲜榨汁,澳洲青苹、红玉、金冠等15个品种极适于加工鲜榨汁。%To establish a scientific evaluation technique of fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars, fruit and fresh juice of one hundred and twenty-two apple cultivars with a fruit mass above 100 g were studied. Fruits were harvested in the National Germplasm Repository of Pear and Apple (Xingcheng, China) and juiced by a household juicer. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between fruit and fresh juice. Evaluation indices of the fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars were screened by factor analysis and graded by probability distribution, and their weight was decided by analytic hierarchy process. Discrimination functions of fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars were established by K-means cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed that each index

  18. 基于GGE双标图对南方冬大麦区域试验的分析%Cultivar evaluation of China southern winter barley trial based on the GGE biplot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚毅; 贾巧君; 朱靖环; 华为; 林峰; 汪军妹; 杨建明

    2011-01-01

    用GGE双标图对2009-2010年度南方冬大麦品种区域试验进行分析,以图谱的形式阐述了参试品种在各试验点的表现、各品种的平均表现和稳定性、各品种的适应地区、各参试品种的相似性和环境的相似性及两品种之间的比较等问题,很好的解答了品种与环境互作的问题.双标图显示‘苏啤3号'是一个适应性很广的品种.产量相关性状的图谱分析表明:本年度试验中有效穗与产量相关性最高,是影响产量的制约因素.%The cultivar evaluation of China southern winter barley trial using GGE biplot during 2009 -2010 was reported. The following questions could be visually addressed from the biplots: the growth performance of each cultivar in a given test site, mean performance and stability of each cultivar, the most favorable environments for a given cultivar, similarity of a pair of cultivars or environments, the difference between a pair of cultivars and the interaction between cultivars and environments. The results on biplot indicated that Supi No. 3 was a cultivar with wild adaptability. Graphic assessment of yield-related trails showed similarity of effective ears and yield was high in the test, and effective ear was the restrictive factor of yield.

  19. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; Lucius, Anita; Meyer, Tessa; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2011-08-24

    The berry fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) contain bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. The objective was to evaluate blueberries grown in southern Illinois as well as the effect of fermentation, at two different temperatures, on chemical and physical parameters. Fruits from fifteen blueberry cultivars were analyzed. Fruit diameter ranged from 12.8 mm to 18.7 mm, pH from 2.6 to 3.7, reducing sugars from 6.4% to 15.2%, total sugars from 13.9% to 21.6%, total polyphenols from 0.39 to 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g blueberry and antioxidant capacity from 5.8 to 10.9 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacity relative to the positive control acarbose, a known anti-diabetic drug, showed a range from 91.8 to 103.3% for α-amylase and from 103.2% to 190.8% for α-glucosidase. Wines prepared from several of these blueberry cultivars were analyzed throughout fermentation and compared at room temperature and cold temperature fermentation for pH (3.5 to 6.3), °Brix (13.6 to 29.7), total polyphenols (375.4 to 657.1 μg GAE/mL wine), and antioxidant capacity (4.5 to 25.1 mM TE). The wines were also tested for their in vitro capacity to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase and maintained similar inhibitory action as the berries. Highbush blueberry cultivars and their fermented beverages are good natural sources of antioxidants and starch-degrading enzyme inhibitors important for type 2 diabetes management.

  20. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2011-12-14

    Most strawberry flavor studies have examined berries grown in temperate regions with long summer days. Few studies have examined berries harvested in winter months from subtropical regions with shorter photoperiods. Fruits harvested in February and March from two strawberry cultivars, 'Strawberry Festival' and 'Florida Radiance', were examined. Thirty odor active compounds were detected using time-intensity GC-O. Twenty-nine were identified. The major odor active volatiles in both cultivars were 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), methyl butanoate, γ-decalactone, unknown (grassy, LRI 1362, wax), (E)-2-hexenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, butanoic acid, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ethyl hexanoate. Over 90 volatiles were identified and 54 quantified using GC-MS including 33 esters, 6 alcohols, 5 acids, 3 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 2 ketones, and 2 furanones. Odor activity values (OAVs) were determined for 46 volatiles, of which 22 had OAV > 1. The highest OAVs for 'Strawberry Festival' were ethyl butanoate (461), DMHF (424), methyl butanoate (358), and linalool (102). A 14-member trained panel evaluated quartered fruit using quantitative descriptive analysis to quantify seven sensory attributes. Sensory "strawberry flavor" scores were positively correlated with sensory "sweetness" (R(2) = 0.83) as well as GC-MS methyl 3-methylbutanoate (R(2) = 0.90) and ethyl butanoate (R(2) = 0.96). These cultivars lacked methyl anthranilate and possessed an aroma pattern different from summer-grown strawberries.

  1. 28个绿芦笋品种的适应性评价%Evaluation of the Adaptability of 28 Green Asparagus Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝清俊; 陈蕾蕾; 孙欣; 张奇志; Mikolaj Knaflewski; Wodzimierz Krzesi(n)ski

    2013-01-01

    [目的]本文旨在对波兰气候条件下的28个绿芦笋品种进行适应性评价,并选择出最适合在波兰种植的品种.[方法]2008年在马赛林试验站对第六年收获的28个品种的绿芦笋进行评价.收获期间,将收获的芦笋嫩茎,剪至22 cm,分级,称重,同时对嫩茎外观、花青素变化、芦笋头紧实性、颜色及光滑度等性状进行评估.[结果]‘Gynlim’是产量最高的品种,其次为‘Hannibal’,‘Ravel’,‘Grolim’和‘Ramada’.‘Gloria’是最差的品种,其它最差的品种以次为‘Tsuki-kho 3’、‘Purple Passion’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’、‘Sartaguda’、和‘Jacq.Ma2004’.‘Gynlim’、‘Hannibal’、‘Ravel’、‘Ramada’、‘Ariane’是前期产量最高的前5个品种.前期产量最差的品种为‘PLA-2132’,随后是‘Ramos’、‘Tsuki-kho 3’和‘Purple Passion’.‘Ariane’、‘Cipress’、‘Grolim’、‘Gynlim’和‘Hannibal’的嫩茎质量最好.嫩茎质量最差的品种依次是‘Jacq.Ma 2004’、‘Gloria’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’和‘Tsuki-kho 3’.[结论]综合考虑产量与质量,在波兰气候条件下,最适宜的绿芦笋品种为‘Gynlim’、‘Hannibal’、‘Ravel’和‘Grolim’,而‘Gloria’、‘Tsuki-kho 3’、‘Purple Passion’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’和‘Sartaguda’不适合波兰种植.%[Objective] This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability of 28 green asparagus cultivars under the climatic conditions in Poland and to select cultivars most suitable for growing in Poland.[Method] Based on an overview of asparagus,spears of 28 cultivars from the six year's harvest in 2008 were evaluated at the Marcelin Experimental Station.During the harvest period,spears were cut daily and trimmed to 22 cm,followed by grading and weigh.In addition,general appearance,anthocyan discolouration,head tightness,colour and smoothness of the spears were also evaluated.[Result] In terms of total yield,‘Gynlim’ was the best

  2. Avaliação de compostos não-voláteis em diferentes cultivares de cafeeiro produzidas na região sul de Minas Gerais = Evaluation of non-volatile compounds in different cultivars of coffee cultivated in southern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os teores de trigonelina, ácidos clorogênicos (5-ACQ e cafeína em grãos de diferentes cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.. As cultivares avaliadas foram coletadas na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig em Lavras,Estado de Minas Gerais, no ano agrícola de 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um inteiramente casualizado constando de oito cultivares de café com três repetições. Foram avaliadas as cultivares: Oeiras MG 6851, Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474, CatuaíVermelho IAC 99, Rubi MG 1192, Topázio MG 1190, Mundo Novo IAC 379/19, Catucaí Amarelo 2 SL e Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62. Após a colheita dos cafés por derriça manual no pano, estes foram lavados e submetidos ao processo de descascamento e despolpamento. Depois dos grãos serem despolpados, foram secados em terreiro de cimento até atingirem 11%-12% de umidade. Os grãos de café beneficiados foram então moídos para a realização das análises de cafeína, trigonelina e 5-ACQ por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que existem diferenças nos constituintes nãovoláteis entre as cultivares estudadas nas condições ambientais de cultivo similares para todas cultivares. Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62 e Rubi MG 1192 apresentaram os maiores teores de trigonelina; Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62, Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99, Rubi MG 1192 e Oeiras MG 6851 apresentaram os maiores teores de 5-ACQ; o menor teor de cafeína foi observado na cultivar Oeiras MG 6851, seguida pela cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 379-19.This research was conducted to evaluate trigonelline, chlorogenic acids (5-CQA and caffeine contents in grains of different cultivars of coffee (Coffea arabica L. The cultivars were colleted at the Experimental Farm of the EPAMIG-Lavras, Minas Gerais state, during 2005/2006. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight cultivars of coffee: Oeiras MG 6851, Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474

  3. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  4. Evaluation of two release operations at Bonneville Dam on the smolt-to-adult survival of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March 2004, two groups of coded wire tagged subyearling fall Chinook were released from Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery to directly evaluate the effects of...

  5. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  6. SPRING 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  7. Avaliação de cultivares de alface adubadas com silicato de cálcio em casa-de-vegetação Evaluation of lettuce cultivars fertilized with calcium silicate in greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira; Rovilson José de Souza; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Vander Mendonça; Paulo Guilherme Salvador Wadt

    2010-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, no período de junho a agosto de 2002. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade, o estado nutricional e a qualidade (classe de tamanho) de cultivares de alface cultivadas com doses de silicato de cálcio em vasos sob casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, com 1 planta/vaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 3, sendo três cultivares de alface (...

  8. Evaluation of a fine sediment removal tool in spring-fed and snowmelt driven streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Layhee, Megan J.; Sutphin, Zach; Sechrist, Juddson D.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of fine-grained sediments impairs the structure and function of streams, so removing fine sediments may be required to achieve restoration objectives. There has been little work on methods of removing excess sediment or on the efficacy of the methods. We used a 4-year before-after-control-impact design in southeastern Idaho streams to test a fine sediment removal system (FSRS) manufactured by Streamside Environmental LLC. The FSRS agitates fine sediment in the substrate with clean pump water and then vacuums the sediment out of the stream with a second pump. Our objectives were: 1) to test if the FSRS can selectively remove fine sediment; 2) to monitor the bio-physical responses in FSRS treated and downstream waters; and 3) to compare the bio-physical responses to the FSRS in spring-fed and snowmelt driven stream reaches. The FSRS removed ~ 14 metric tons of sediment from the two treated reaches. More than 90% of this sediment was < 2 mm, indicating that the FSRS selected for fine sediment in both stream types. Sustained effects of removing this sediment were confined to substrate improvements in treated reaches. Embeddedness in the spring-fed reach decreased and subsurface grain size in spring-fed and snowmelt driven reaches increased. We did not detect any sustained invertebrate or fish responses in treated reaches or any detrimental bio-physical responses in downstream waters. These results indicate that the FSRS reduced fine sediment levels but sediment removal did not reverse the impacts of sediment accumulation to stream biota within our monitoring time frame.

  9. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  10. An Economic Evaluation of Iranian Horticultural Research and Extension Policy: The Case Study of Almond Late Flowering Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of investment in developing and introducing Almond Late Flowering Cultivars (ALFC in a period of 52 years from 1968 to 2020, developed in Sahand Horticultural Research Station (SHRS, using the economic surplus model and field survey data. ALFC make almond supply curve move less to the left when there is a chilling case, thus affect the economic surplus of producers and consumers. Results showed that because of ALFC, economic surplus of producers and consumers had been increased about 0.4 and 0.6 million US Dollars, respectively that the share of consumers from benefits was 58 percent. The social net present value of ALFC regarding to the cost of research and extension was about 0.1 million US Dollars. It was identified that the internal rate of return in developing and introducing of ALFC had been about 11%. The findings expressed that if the research investment in ALFC could keep the position of almond supply curve unchanged unless the weather conditions, then the economic surplus of producers and consumers would decreased 3 and 4.2 million US Dollars less annually, respectively and internal rate of return in almond research would be 33 %. Comparing the results showed that the introduction of late flowering cultivars could reduce the loss only 4 % per hectare. The results illustrated that investment in R&E of almond could make supply curve shift less in chilling situation because of decrease in cultivation cost, but it is necessary to enhance almond yield too. The findings identify that the efficiency of current system of R&E for almond is low. So it is a necessity to find ways for make better the R&E performance in Iran.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon in the Chehalis River, southwestern Washington, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Kock, Tobias J.; Zimmerman, Mara S.

    2017-01-30

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. A preliminary evaluation of the movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River was conducted using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors. A total of 12 spring Chinook salmon were captured, radio-tagged, and released in the main-stem Chehalis River between May and late June 2014. Tagged fish were monitored from freshwater entry through the spawning period using a combination of fixedsite monitoring locations and mobile tracking.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2014 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and August 2014 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean monthly discharge was 90–206 percent of the discharge in previous years. Overall, 92 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 102 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Seven tagged fish (58 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (5–8 d, 57 percent), or within about a month (34–35 d, 29 percent). One fish (14 percent) remained near the release location for 98 d before moving upstream. The final fates for the seven fish that moved upstream following release included six fish that were assigned a fate of

  12. Evaluation of Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Copper in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings of barley were treated with four different concentrations of cadmium and copper, ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. The aim of the study was to assess toxic effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth of spring barley, and to determine metal accumulation in above-ground and underground parts of the plant. The impact of Cu and Cd on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe were examined. Metal treatment reduced the growth of roots (by 60%, shoots (Cd – 48 %, Cu – 57% and dry weight (Cd – 47 %, Cu – 52% of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis revealed that there was significant negative relationship between MDA content and biomass of barley treated with Cu (r=-0.99, p=0.01. The examined heavy metals were accumulated mainly in the roots and bioconcentration of Cu there was higher than that of Cd, indicating that roots tended to accumulate higher amounts of Cu than Cd. Though translocation of Cd from roots to above-ground tissues was higher, higher levels of Cd were observed in leaves.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.1951

  13. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  14. Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becthel Jacobs Company LLC

    2002-11-01

    UEFPC adjacent to Bldg. 9201-2. The EEMTS treats mercury-contaminated groundwater that collects in sumps in the basement of Bldg. 9201-2. A pre-design study was performed to investigate the applicability of various treatment technologies for reducing mercury discharges at Outfall 51 in support of the design of the Big Spring Water Treatment System. This document evaluates the results of the pre-design study for selection of the mercury removal technology for the treatment system.

  15. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana L. to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part I. Evaluation of the resistance of several cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of 5 year investigations (1981-1985 considerable differences were found in the resistance of 24 hazel cultivars to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.. The resistance was determined on the basis of the percentage of nuts damaged by larvae in the total yield. Six classes of resistance were established, from class I - very resistant cultivars, to class VI - very susceptible cultivars. In feeding experiments a positive correlation, significant at the 1% and 5% level was found between the frequency of beetle feeding on hazel fruitlets during the time of oviposition (July, and the class of resistance of cultivars; a negative correlation between these parameters was found in August, i.e. during hatching and development of larvae in the nuts. In July the beetles fed more readily and more frequently on nuts of susceptible cultivars, whereas they avoided them in August, i.e. in the period when larvae developed in many fruits of these cultivars.

  16. Avaliação do potencial de cinco cultivares de videiras americanas para sucos de uva no sul de Minas Gerais Potential evaluation of five american cultivars for grape juices in the south of Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Elias Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho realizar uma caracterização dos sucos de uva de cinco cultivares de videira americana Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel segundo suas características visuais, olfativas e gustativas, utilizando um método descritivo por um painel de degustadores da Embrapa Uva e Vinho (EMBRAPA/CNPUV de Bento Gonçalves e da Associação Brasileira de Enologia (ABE, constituído por doze degustadores. De acordo com os resultados, os sucos das cultivares Isabel e Folha de Figo foram superiores aos demais, segundo a análise de componentes principais (ACP, principalmente pelas variáveis limpidez, equilíbrio olfativo, intensidade e corpo gustativo, persistência olfato-gustativa e julgamento geral (notas. O suco Folha de Figo foi superior ao Isabel quanto à tonalidade, sendo o primeiro caracterizado como vermelho-violáceo. A cultivar Folha de Figo é a mais utilizada na região para a produção de suco, podendo os produtores utilizarem também a cultivar Isabel, que mostrou potencial nas condições edafo-climáticas do sul de Minas Gerais.The present work was designed to accomplish the characterization of the different grape juices of five grapevine cultivars of Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel according to their visual, smell and taste characteristics utilizing a descriptive method by a panel of tasters of Embrapa Grape and Wine (EMBRAPA/CNPUV of Bento Gonçalves, and of the Brazilian Enology Association (ABE consisting of 12 tasters. According to the results, the juices of the cultivars Isabel and Folha de Figo were higher than the others, analyzed statistically according to the Principal Component Analysis (PCA, mainly by the visual cleanliness variables, olfatory equilibrium, gustative body and quality, olfato-gustative persistence and general judgement (scores and the juice of Folha de Figo was higher than Isabel according to visual shade, the former

  17. Geostatistical Evaluation of Spring Water Quality in an Urbanizing Carbonate Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, A.; Welty, C.

    2003-04-01

    As part of an investigation of the impacts of urbanization on the hydrology and ecology of Valley Creek watershed near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we have analyzed the chemical composition of 110 springs to assess the relative influence of geology and anthropogenic activities on water quality. The 60 km^2 watershed is underlain by productive fractured rock aquifers composed of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks in the central valley and Cambrian crystalline and siliciclastic rocks (quartzite and phyllite) in the north and south hills that border the valley. All tributaries of the surface water system originate in the crystalline and siliciclastic hills. The watershed is covered by 17% impervious area and contains 6 major hazardous waste sites, one active quarrying operation and one golf course; 25% of the area utilizes septic systems for sewage disposal. We identified 172 springs, 110 of which had measurable flow rates ranging from 0.002 to 5 l/s. The mapped surficial geology appears as an anisotropic pattern, with long bands of rock formations paralleling the geographic orientation of the valley. Mapped development appears as a more isotropic pattern, characterized by isolated patches of land use that are not coincident with the evident geologic pattern. Superimposed upon these characteristics is a dense array of depressions and shallow sinkholes in the carbonate rocks, and a system of major faults at several formation contacts. We used indicator geostatistics to quantitatively characterize the spatial extent of the major geologic formations and patterns of land use. Maximum correlation scales for the rock types corresponded with strike direction and ranged from 1000 to 3000 m. Anisotropy ratios ranged from 2 to 4. Land-use correlation scales were generally smaller (200 to 500 m) with anisotropy ratios of around 1.2, i.e., nearly isotropic as predicted. Geostatistical analysis of spring water quality parameters related to geology (pH, specific conductance

  18. Análise da aptidão industrial de seis cultivares de maçãs, considerando suas avaliações físico-químicas (Dados da Safra 2001/2002 Industrial fitness analysis of six apple cultivars, considering their physico-chemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Paganini

    2004-12-01

    apple. Such a discharge may sometimes represent around 30% of total production, which reached 300.000 metric tons in 2000. In some European countries the processing of apples in order to obtain apple juices and hard ciders utilizes selected cultivars and the indicators of quality are the total contents of acids, tannins and sugars. These components are related to quality and comprehend the criteria of color, taste and flavors, attributes that are involved with the process of purchase by consumers. In this work, samples of apple fruits cv namely Gala, Eva, Rainha, Fred Hough, Imperatriz and Sansa were evaluated concerning attributes such as contents of total soluble solids, total and reducing sugars, sucrose, glucose, fructose, total phenolics compounds and total acidity. It was also considered the relationship of total sugars/ acidity and the relative proportion of glucose, sucrose and fructose. The cultivar Imperatriz fruits showed the highest percentage of fructose (66,3% and the lowest percentage of sucrose (15,2%. The sugars/acidity ratios of all cultivars were higher than 20, which is the value of cut off for commercial appeal as table fruits, so that all cultivars were classified as of commercial interest. Sansa, Rainha and Imperatriz cultivars showed contets of phenolic compounds higher a 200 ppm and so they have a feature to be explored by the industrial sector.

  19. Evaluation of process parameters governing the aroma generation in three hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) by correlating quantitative key odorant profiling with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-06-05

    The majority of the world hazelnut crop is roasted, thus developing a unique aroma that depends on the cultivar used and on the roasting conditions applied. Although several studies have investigated the volatile fraction of different cultivars and have correlated the data with overall sensory profiles, studies establishing a correlation between key odorants among the bulk of odorless volatiles and the respective aroma profiles are not yet available. On the basis of recently published stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), differences in concentrations of key odorants in different hazelnut cultivars roasted under defined conditions were monitored and compared with sensory data obtained by projective mapping, aroma profile analysis, and triangle tests. The results showed that the aroma-active compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, and 2-furfurylthiol are appropriate marker odorants to differentiate the various nut aromas. In particular, the appreciated roasty, nutty aroma of optimally roasted hazelnuts was developed if both 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one and 3-methyl-4-heptanone were >450 μg/kg, whereas the sum of the two 2-acyl-1-pyrrolines and two pyrazines should not exceed 400 μg/kg to avoid an over-roasted smell. Such a desired aroma can be obtained for each cultivar, but obviously specific roasting times, temperatures, and roasting techniques had to be applied.

  20. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  1. Evaluation of four supervised learning methods for groundwater spring potential mapping in Khalkhal region (Iran) using GIS-based features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moradi Dashtpagerdi, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    One important tool for water resources management in arid and semi-arid areas is groundwater potential mapping. In this study, four data-mining models including K-nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and quadric discriminant analysis (QDA) were used for groundwater potential mapping to get better and more accurate groundwater potential maps (GPMs). For this purpose, 14 groundwater influence factors were considered, such as altitude, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, slope length, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index, distance from rivers, river density, distance from faults, fault density, land use, and lithology. From 842 springs in the study area, in the Khalkhal region of Iran, 70 % (589 springs) were considered for training and 30 % (253 springs) were used as a validation dataset. Then, KNN, LDA, MARS, and QDA models were applied in the R statistical software and the results were mapped as GPMs. Finally, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was implemented to evaluate the performance of the models. According to the results, the area under the curve of ROCs were calculated as 81.4, 80.5, 79.6, and 79.2 % for MARS, QDA, KNN, and LDA, respectively. So, it can be concluded that the performances of KNN and LDA were acceptable and the performances of MARS and QDA were excellent. Also, the results depicted high contribution of altitude, TWI, slope angle, and fault density, while plan curvature and land use were seen to be the least important factors.

  2. Antioxidants Activity and Color Evaluation of Date Fruit of Selected Cultivars Commercially Available in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L. are nutrient-rich fruit consumed throughout the world, either directly or in several food products. Six commercially available date cultivars in the US were analyzed for total phenolics, antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, and instrumental color. Total phenolics content varied from 33 to 125 mg GAE/100 g dry weight, with the highest in Barni (Saudi Arabia. Antioxidant values as determined by the ABTS in Deglet Nour (Algeria, Deglet Nour (California, Deglet Noor (Tunisia, Shahia (Tunisia, Barni (Saudi Arabia, and Khudri (Saudi Arabia were 1300, 1047, 796, 452, 776, and 341 μmol TE/g dry weight, respectively. Antioxidative properties as measure by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC varied from 3.27 to 3.54, 3.29 to 5.22, and 189 to 243 μmol TE/g dry basis, respectively. Fruit and pulp color of Deglet Nour (Algeria was lighter whereas pulp of Barni (Saudi Arabia was the darkest. Antioxidant values varied with different techniques used and also followed a different pattern than that of phenolics content.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  4. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  5. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.;

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated......, and suggests implementation of NDFI per kg BW in systems evaluating physical structure in diets....

  6. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  7. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  8. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la

  9. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de cultivares de alface do grupo crespa em cultivo hidropônico Adaptability and phenotypic stability of crisp lettuce cultivars in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Gualberto

    2009-03-01

    , adaptability and phenotypic stability of six lettuce cultivars of the crisp group (Deyse, Elba, Sabrina, Summer Green, Vera and Verônica were evaluated, on hydroponic 'NFT'. Nine experiments were carried out in three seasons (autumn= Out n, winter= Inv n and spring= Pri n, in a completely randomized design with four replications, evaluating four plants in each teatment. There occurred significant differences among environments (sowing date. Planting in autumn presented higher yield (Out1 = 3,1; Out2 = 5,3 and; Out3 = 4,6 kg m² than winter (Inv1 = 3,6; Inv2 = 3,5 and; Inv = 3,7 kg m² or spring (Pri1 = 4,0; Pri2 = 3,6 and; Pri3 = 3,2 kg m². Although the significant differences in the interaction cultivars x environment for yield, except for Inv3 and Pri1, there were no significant differences among cultivars in each planting season. Significant differences were found among cultivars only in Out3, for the number of leaves in each plant. Cultivars Deyse and Verônica were the only ones well adapted in both environments for yield, the other cultivars being unstable. Only Summer Green presented behavior highly previsible (stable for number of leaves per plant, nevertheless, showed adaptability only in unfavorable environments.

  10. Design and energetic evaluation of a prosthetic knee joint actuator with a lockable parallel spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeroms, J; Flynn, L; Jimenez-Fabian, R; Vanderborght, B; Lefeber, D

    2017-02-03

    There are disadvantages to existing damping knee prostheses which cause an asymmetric gait and higher metabolic cost during level walking compared to non-amputees. Most existing active knee prostheses which could benefit the amputees use a significant amount of energy and require a considerable motor. In this work, a novel semi-active actuator with a lockable parallel spring for a prosthetic knee joint has been developed and tested. This actuator is able to provide an approximation of the behavior of a healthy knee during most of the gait cycle of level walking. This actuator is expanded with a series-elastic actuator to mimic the full gait cycle and enable its use in other functional tasks like stair climbing and sit-to-stance. The proposed novel actuator reduces the energy consumption for the same trajectory with respect to a compliant or directly-driven prosthetic active knee joint and improves the approximation of healthy knee behavior during level walking compared to passive or variable damping knee prostheses.

  11. Avaliação de cultivares e híbridos de bananeira em quatro ciclos de produção Evaluation of banana cultivars and hybrids in four production cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Híbridos superiores de bananeira com alta produtividade, frutos vistosos e resistência a doenças estão sendo gerados no programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar alguns desses genótipos em quatro ciclos de produção, visando sua recomendação aos agricultores. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 18 repetições, em Cruz das Almas, BA. Avaliaram-se as cultivares Grande-Naine, Nanica, Nam, Thap Maeo, Mysore, Caipira, Prata-Comum, Pacovan e Prata-Anã e os híbridos Pioneira, PA03-22, FHIA-18, PV03-76, PV03-44 e JV03-15. Analisaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, diâmetro do pseudocaule, peso do cacho, número de frutos, comprimento do fruto e ciclo. Ao longo dos ciclos, a 'Nanica' apresentou o menor porte, enquanto a 'Prata-Anã' se destacou no diâmetro do pseudocaule, seguida pela 'Prata-Comum' e pelo JV03-15. A 'Thap Maeo' sobressaiu-se no peso do cacho e no número de frutos, seguida pelo FHIA-18, no primeiro caráter, e pela 'Mysore', pela 'Caipira' e pelo FHIA-18, no segundo caráter. A 'GrandeNaine' e a 'Nanica' apresentaram o maior comprimento do fruto, enquanto o FHIA-18 e o PA03-22 destacaram-se na precocidade. A 'Thap Maeo' tem potencial para substituir a 'Mysore' e os híbridos avaliados apresentam qualidade para vir a ser recomendados aos agricultores.New productive banana hybrids, presenting good fruits and disease resistant, have been generated at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. The objective of this work was to evaluate some of these genotypes in four production cycles, to recommend them to the farmers. The experiment was carried out in the completely randomized design with 18 replications in Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil. The genotypes evaluated were the varieties Grande-Naine, Nanica, Nam, Thap Maeo, Mysore, Caipira, Prata-Comum, Pacovan and

  12. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAND RACES OF THE SPRING SOFT WHEAT GROWN IN THE ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr KONVALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certified parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks. Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  16. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  17. Evaluation of NASA SPoRT's Pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper Products in the 2011 Spring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Carcione, Brian; Siewert, Christopher; Kuhlman, Kristin M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a contributing partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) preparing forecasters to understand and utilize the unique products that will be available in the GOES-R era. This presentation emphasizes SPoRT s actions to prepare the end user community for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This preparation is a collaborative effort with SPoRT's National Weather Service partners, the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), and the Hazardous Weather Testbed s Spring Program. SPoRT continues to use its effective paradigm of matching capabilities to forecast problems through collaborations with our end users and working with the developers at NSSL to create effective evaluations and visualizations. Furthermore, SPoRT continues to develop software plug-ins so that these products will be available to forecasters in their own decision support system, AWIPS and eventually AWIPS II. In 2009, the SPoRT program developed the original pseudo geostationary lightning mapper (PGLM) flash extent product to demonstrate what forecasters may see with GLM. The PGLM replaced the previous GLM product and serves as a stepping-stone until the AWG s official GLM proxy is ready. The PGLM algorithm is simple and can be applied to any ground-based total lightning network. For 2011, the PGLM used observations from four ground-based networks (North Alabama, Kennedy Space Center, Oklahoma, and Washington D.C.). While the PGLM is not a true proxy product, it is intended as a tool to train forecasters about total lightning as well as foster discussions on product visualizations and incorporating GLM-resolution data into forecast operations. The PGLM has been used in 2010 and 2011 and is likely to remain the primary lightning training tool for the GOES-R program for the near future. This presentation will emphasize the feedback received during the 2011 Spring Program. This will discuss several topics. Based on feedback

  18. Avaliação das cultivares de bananeira Prata-Anã, Thap Maeo e Caipira em diferentes sistemas de plantio no norte de Minas Gerais Evaluation of Prata Anã, Thap Maeo and Caipira banana cultivars in different planting systems in the north of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana é uma das frutas tropicais mais consumidas no mundo, respondendo por, aproximadamente, 10% do comércio mundial de frutas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produção de três cultivares de bananeira sob três sistemas de plantio, em dois ciclos de produção, no período compreendido entre março de 2004 e outubro de 2006, em Janaúba, Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados e duas análises estatísticas: Primeira: 'Prata-Anã' em seis diferentes sistemas de plantio; Segunda: fatorial 2 x 2 + 1, com as variedades Caipira e Thap Maeo, em três diferentes sistemas de plantio, com quatro repetições e seis plantas úteis por parcela. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número total de folhas, número de folhas vivas na colheita, número de dias do plantio à colheita, massa do cacho, produtividade, número de pencas e número de frutos por cacho. As características avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância com desdobramentos das interações significativas, tendo os efeitos dos tratamentos comparados pelo teste de Tukey, a 5 % de probabilidade. A mistura de cultivares e o uso de bordaduras não influenciaram na maioria das características de crescimento, nas três cultivares estudadas. A cultivar Thap Maeo foi superior à 'Caipira' na maioria das características avaliadas, no primeiro e segundo ciclos. Para os sistemas de plantio, foi superior o plantio com uma bordadura. A análise da variedade Prata-Anã dentro dos seis sistemas de plantio apresentou diferença significativa para as características de número de folhas vivas na colheita, no segundo ciclo, número de pencas/cacho e número de frutos/cacho.Banana is one of the tropical fruits more consumed in the world, answering for approximately 10% of the world trade of fruits. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the growth and production of three

  19. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  20. Desempenho de cultivares de alface em cultivo hidropônico sob dois níveis de condutividade elétrica Evaluation of two electric conductivity levels on the hidroponic cultivation of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana G Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar cultivares de alface de folhas soltas lisas, submetidas a estresse osmótico em soluções nutritivas sob cultivo hidropônico. Foram realizados dois experimentos, cada um com uma condutividade elétrica (C.E. de 2,0 dS m-1 e 2,5 dS m-1. Os tratamentos foram as cultivares de alface Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia e Vitória Verdinha. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A colheita foi feita aos 45 dias após a semeadura. Nenhuma cultivar se destacou no conjunto das características avaliadas, embora a Manoa tenha apresentado o maior índice de queima de bordas das folhas, sem diferir estatisticamente da Saia Véia e Babá de Verão. As cultivares Regina 579 e Vitória Verdinha são as preferidas dos produtores hidropônico de Pernambuco, devido à falta de genótipos mais adaptados a essa modalidade de cultivo, e por apresentarem folhas lisas, levemente enrugadas e de textura macia.The aim of this work was to compare loose-leaf lettuce cultivars submitted to osmotic stress in nutrient solutions in hydroponic culture. Two experiments were carried out, with electric conductivity of 2.0 or 2.5 dS m-1. The treatments were the cultivars Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia, and Vitória Verdinha. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. Harvest was performed 45 days after sowing. None among the cultivars differed clearly on the characteristics evaluated. However, "Manoa" showed the highest rate of leaf-edge burning, without significant difference in comparison to "Saia Véia" and "Babá de Verão" for summer. The cultivars Regina 579 and Vitória Verdinha are preferred by the growers of hydroponic vegetables of Pernambuco, due to the lack of better genotypes for this type of cultivation and due to the presence of smooth slightly-wrinkled leaves with soft texture.

  1. Avaliação agroeconômica da produção de cultivares de feijão-caupi em consórcio com cultivares de mandioca em Roraima. = The agroeconomic evaluation of the production of cowpea varieties intercropped with varieties of cassava in The State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Arcanjo Alves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar a avaliação agroeconômica da produção consorciada de cultivares de feijão-caupi com cultivares de mandioca para mesa em uma área de cerrado do Estado de Roraima, visando o mercado de Boa Vista, em Roraima. O experimento foi instalado na área experimental do CCA/UFRR, no município de Boa Vista. Fez-se o plantio de duas cultivares de mandioca para mesa em 15 de agosto de 2007, em fi leira dupla, obedecendo ao espaçamento de2,0 x 0,5 x 0,5 m, totalizando 16.000 plantas por hectare. Trinta dias após o plantio da mandioca para mesa, fez-se o plantio dequatro cultivares de feijão-caupi de porte semi-ereto entre as linhas duplas das cultivares de mandioca. O plantio foi realizadoem sulcos, espaçados de 0,5 m, abertos manualmente por meio de enxada, deixando-se após desbaste, 8 plantas por metro. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com três repetições. Os termos do fatorial referem-se as duas cultivares de mandioca e as quatro cultivares de feijão-caupi. Conclui-se que as maiores receitas líquidas são encontradas no consórcio de todas cultivares de feijão-caupi com a mandioca Aciolina e o consórcio da mandioca Aciolina com a cultivar de feijão-caupi UFRR Grão Verde, apresenta a maior relação benefício/custo (6,07, considerando apenas os custos variáveis, na comercialização de vagem verde para a obtenção de grão verde. = This study has as its objective the agricultural and economical evaluation of the intercropped production of cowpea varieties with cassava in the savannah (cerrado area of the State of Roraima, considering the market of Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was done in an experimental area of CCA/UFRR, within the municipality of Boa Vista. Two varieties of cassava were planted in August 15, 2007, in double rows, at the spacing of 2.0 x 0.5 x 0.5 m, in a total of 16.000 plants per hectare. Thirty days after the

  2. Physiological Responses of Some Iranian Grape Cultivars to Iron Chelate Application in Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V. Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil. The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll

  3. The Book of Vinesprouts of Kőszeg (Hungary): a documentary source for reconstructing spring temperatures back to the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Gianni; Tomasi, Diego; Gaiotti, Federica; Jones, Gregory V

    2016-02-01

    Following an age-old tradition, since 1740, in the town of Kőszeg in western Hungary, samples of grapevine shoots are annually harvested on St. George's Day, 24 April, and then are pictorially reproduced in the so-called Book of Vinesprouts. Given the strong relationships between temperature and grapevine phenology, the book represents a potential source for reconstructing past spring temperatures. However, this document has been little utilized so far, due to high varietal heterogeneity and lingering uncertainty regarding cultivar identity. This research developed an approach to address these difficulties, by means of a single-cultivar-based modeling analysis, associated with a set of alternative hypotheses about cultivar early development for the period to be reconstructed. Each hypothesis allowed the calculation of a different past temperature reconstruction, which was evaluated against contemporary independent observational data. The results showed that all the development stages recorded before 1900 were compatible with a vine type with a very low heat requirement for bud burst. Estimates were derived from a model calibrated on a subset of drawings of unknown cultivars executed between 1875 and 1898. The model based on this data subset was the only one giving a consistent reconstruction of spring temperatures, expressed as accumulated growing degree days going back to 1740. Although some uncertainty still exists regarding the reconstruction, the research shows that the Book of Vinesprouts contains generally consistent information about spring temperatures for a period of over 269 years for this region of Hungary.

  4. Lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of amaranth and quinoa cultivars and a new approach to overall evaluation of nutritional quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    Composition of lipophilic phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of 6 quinoa and 14 amaranth cultivars was analyzed. The oil yields in quinoa and amaranth leaves were only 2.72-4.18%, which contained mainly essential fatty acids and had a highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratio (2.28-3.89). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotenes, and xanthophylls, predominantly lutein and violaxanthin, were found in all samples. The primary tocopherol isomers present in both quinoa and amaranth leaves were α- and β-tocopherols. Added to the discussion on the lipophilic nutrients was the normalization of ω-3/ω-6 ratio, α-tocopherol equivalents, and carotenoids, in an attempt to establish a novel system for evaluation of the overall quality attributes of lipophilic nutrients (NQ value). The NQ value, but not the individual components, was highly correlated with all the antioxidant activities, supporting the ranking order of the potential nutritional quality of quinoa and amaranth leaves based on this new method.

  5. Stability of partial resistance in potato cultivars exposed to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cultivars were evaluated for their resistance responses to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans in field and laboratory experiments. Analysis of variance revealed differential cultivar-by-isolate interactions for both foliar and tuber blight resistance. Differential responses occur as

  6. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  7. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of low-temperature tolerance in soybean cultivars of different eco-types at seedling stage in Shanxi Province%山西不同生态型大豆品种苗期耐低温性综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭数进; 李玮瑜; 马艳芸; 赵恒; 乔玲; 李贵全

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low temperature at the seedling stage is the key factor constraining growth and yield in spring-sowing soybeans (Glycine max) in North China. The objectives of this research were to explore responses of soybean cul-tivars of different eco-types in Shanxi Province to low temperatures at the seedling stage, to develop indices and approaches for comprehensive evaluation of low-temperature tolerance in soybeans, and ultimately to provide theoretical basis for breeding soybean cultivars of low-temperature tolerance in order to maintain stable yield un-der the conditions of low temperature stress at the seedling stage. Methods We selected three soybean cultivars (‘Jinda 53’,‘Jinda 70’ and‘Jindou 24’) bred and grown widely in Shanxi Province. At the seedling stage, the plant materials were subjected to stress treatments at three levels of low temperatures and a control treatment in growth cabinets. The low temperature treatments were set for 14, 17 and 20 °C, respectively, and the control treatment was maintained at 23 °C. Upon completion of the temperature treatments, the seedlings were transplanted into larger pots and grown in a greenhouse. Values of photosynthetic traits (including net photosynthetic rates (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr)) were determined on seedlings. The yield traits (plant height, plant mass, pods per plant and yield per plant) were assessed after harvesting. Furthermore, the genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) biplot was employed to analyze the effects of various traits on different cultivars and correla-tions among the traits. Then, subordinate function was applied for comprehensive evaluation of low-temperature tolerance of the three cultivars studied. Important findings (1) The seedling stage of all three cultivars was extended by 1-12 days by the low tempera-ture treatments. (2) Values of the four photosynthetic traits were reduced

  9. Quantum Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  10. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring)

    OpenAIRE

    Calori,Alex Humberto; Factor,Thiago Leandro; Feltran, José Carlos [UNESP; Watanabe,Eduardo Yuji; Moraes,Carolina Cinto de; Purquerio,Luís Felipe Villani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring). The experimental design was a randomi...

  11. Evaluation of the Doraiswamy-Thompson winter wheat crop calendar model incorporating a modified spring restart sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator model demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology model at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified model (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson model predictions.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02 regarding its biocontrol activities and genetic responses against bacterial wilt in two different resistant tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Ning; Lin, Chan-Pin; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lee, Sook-Kuan; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Liu, Chi-Te

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02, isolated from soil collected at Wufeng Mountain, Taiwan, has siderophore-producing ability and in vitro antagonistic activity against bacterial wilt pathogen. To determine the impact of plant genotype on biocontrol effectiveness, we treated soil with this strain before infecting susceptible (L390) and moderately resistant (Micro-Tom) tomato cultivars with Ralstonia solanacearum strain Pss4. We also compared the efficacy of this strain with that of commercial Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336. Strain WF02 provided longer lasting protection against R. solanacearum than did strain Y1336 and controlled the development of wilt in both cultivars. To elucidate the genetic responses in these plants under WF02 treatment, we analyzed the temporal expression of defense-related genes in leaves. The salicylic acid pathway-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and pathogenesis-related protein 1a were up-regulated in both cultivars, whereas expression of the jasmonic acid pathway-related gene lipoxygenase was only elevated in the susceptible tomato cultivar (L390). These results suggest that WF02 can provide protection against bacterial wilt in tomato cultivars with different levels of disease resistance via direct and indirect modes of action.

  13. 引进豌豆品种的比较与评价%Comparison and Evaluation on Introduced Peas (Pisum sativum L.)Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞; 彭昭欣; 陈禅友

    2015-01-01

    为筛选适宜武汉地区种植的豌豆新品种,对引进国外的9份豌豆品种资源与3个本地品种(对照组),开展品种比较试验。通过观测田间生产性能和营养品质,进行综合分析评价,选出综合性状优良品种3个,可入选开展区域试验;同时选出生长习性和荚色具有特异性状的品种2个,可作种质资源加以利用。%To screen new peas cultivars whichare suitable for Wuhan district ,a field trial was conducted with 9 introduced pea cultivars from abroad and 3 local cultivars as a control group. The author Analyzed the data of field performance and nutrient ingredients,three cultivars with excellent comprehensive characters can be selected into next regional test ,two cultivars with special traits in growth habit and pod color were considered as useful germplasm resources.

  14. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  15. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  16. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Junli [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fang Wei [Biology Department, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Zhongyi [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg{sup -1}) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg{sup -1}) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (p < 0.01) between the two experiments, suggesting that Cd accumulation in rice grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  17. [Nutritional evaluation of sweet potato cultivars Ipomea batata (L.) Lam used in bread as partial substitute of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, H; Kalinowski, J; Huaman, Z; Scott, G

    1993-12-01

    Four hundred and forty entries of sweet potato tubers from the International Potato Center were evaluated for chemical characteristics related to nutritional value. Dry matter range in the group was 15 to 45g/100g. The native entries DLP 2393, DLP 1120, DLP 2312, DLP 1908 and the foreign RCB 361F were selected for use in bread manufacture. Their average dry matter and crude protein was 38.5 and 9.2% respectively. Sweet potato bread was made replacing 30% of wheat flour with grinded sweet potato tubers. This bread had 11.0% crude protein in dry matter basis which were the same for bread made of wheat flour. There were no differences in organoleptic characteristics or protein quality (Apparent biological value: 37 vs 42%; apparent digestibility: 81 vs 80%; net protein utilization: 33 vs 39%) between sweet potato or full wheat flour breads respectively.

  18. Collecting and Evaluation of Potato Local Cultivars in Tibet%西藏马铃薯地方资源收集与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许娟妮

    2014-01-01

    Potato local cultivars in Tibet are abundance ,many can be used as parent materials with good properties.In order to understand and master these resources ,10 local potatoes were collected to evaluate agronomic traits ,yield and main quality characteristics. The results showed that among 10 potato local resources,the Aima(red),Saixiangbangbaicun local variety and Changdu had higher yields in contrast to other varieties ,the starch contents of Aima(red),Changdu and Chaguo white potato were under 18%,others were more than 18%which belonged to the high starch varieties.%西藏马铃薯地方品种资源种类较多,许多都可以作为良好的亲本材料。为了了解和掌握这些资源的特性,对收集的10个马铃薯地方资源的农艺性状、产量及主要品质特性进行了评价和鉴定。结果表明:这10个马铃薯地方品种中除艾玛土豆(红)、赛乡帮白村当地品种和昌都土豆的产量较高外,其他产量都比较低,艾玛土豆(红)、昌都土豆和查果白土豆的淀粉含量均低于18%,其他都高于18%,均属于高淀粉类品种。

  19. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  20. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  1. Evaluating the response of two high yielding Indian rice cultivars against ambient and elevated levels of ozone by using open top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, S B

    2012-03-01

    A continuous increase in the background level of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a major challenge for present and future agricultural productivity at worldwide. Present study was designed to assess the impact of ambient (present) and elevated (future) concentrations of O(3) on two cultivars of Indian rice (Oryza sativa L. cvs Malviya dhan 36 and Shivani). Shoot and root lengths, number of leaves and total leaf area were severely affected by both ambient and elevated concentrations of O(3). Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were also reduced by O(3) with more drastic effects under elevated levels of O(3). Leaf proteome showed reduction of some major proteins due to O(3). Pollen viability, viable florets plant(-1) and economic yield also showed significant negative impact under O(3)-exposure in both the test cultivars. The experimental findings depict that both the cultivars of rice demonstrate differential response against O(3), and it may help the plant breeders in selection of resistant cultivars for the area having higher concentrations of O(3).

  2. Common bean cultivars response to lime surface application under no tillage systemResposta de cultivares de feijoeiro comum à calagem superficial em semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity in no tillage system, if not in high situations, can be neutralized by lime surface application, improving mineral nutrition and crop yield. Aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of common bean cultivars, to surface lime application, in no tillage system, an experiment was conducted in Oxisol, Botucatu Municipal District, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a complete randomized block in split plot with four replications, where the plots were formed by common bean cultivars (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 and subplots consisted of surface application of dolomitic limestone (zero, 1.8 t ha-1, 3.6 t ha-1 and 5.4 t ha-1. The surface lime application on the soil occurred in October 2002 and subsequently the sequence millet (spring – beans (summer – oat (autumn-winter were planted under rainfed conditions. Bean cultivars sowing were done on December 17, 2003. It can be concluded that there is influence of cultivars and limestone surface application under no tillage, where IAPAR 81 showed better grain yield with the increase of lime rates, obtaining values of 2,025 kg ha-1 without the lime application to 2,655 kg ha-1 with 5.4 t ha-1 lime rate, obtaining 31% yield increase. A acidez do solo no sistema de semeadura direta, caso não se encontre em situações elevadas, pode ser resolvida com aplicação superficial de calcário, melhorando a nutrição mineral e a produtividade das culturas. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de feijoeiro, em razão da aplicação superficial de calcário, em semeadura direta, foi realizado um experimento num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Botucatu (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, onde as parcelas foram formadas por cultivares de feijão comum (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 e as subparcelas constitu

  3. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  4. Genetics of end-use quality differences between a modern and historical spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to determine the genetic basis for quality differences between a modern semidwarf spring wheat cultivar ‘McNeal’ and a historically important standard height cultivar ‘Thatcher’. McNeal is higher yielding with lower grain protein than Thatcher, yet has stronger gluten p...

  5. Potencial da variedade Joaquina para o processamento de suco clarificado e vinho seco de maçã Evaluation of apple cultivar Joaquina as raw material for juice and wine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Cristina Ramos Fertonani

    2006-06-01

    , that by themselves show very low industrial appeal. However, there are some other apple cultivars with better industrial profile and that can be used to obtain products with high quality. The objective was to evaluate the technological potential of fruits from Joaquina cultivar concerning clarified juice and wine production and quality, comparing them with the products obtained from apples of Fuji and Gala varieties. Fuji and Gala apple cv. were acquired in local market and Joaquina cv. were received from Experimental Station of São Joaquim (Epagri. The clarified juice and the wine were processed in a laboratory scale, with an appropriate protocol. The varietal juice of the Joaquina did not differ significantly from the juices from Fuji and Gala, considering physico-chemical parameter; however, in sensorial analysis the judges gave lower scores to Fuji (3.78, with a high rejection index (64%. The varietal dry wine of the Joaquina, also identical to the reference wines of Fuji and Gala in physico-chemical terms, was considered of similar acceptance to the wine of Gala (4.52, but the wine from Fuji (3.80 was absolutely rejected (67%. The apple from Joaquina variety can be use with parsimony in the processing of juice but with confidence in the production of wine.

  6. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...

  7. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  8. Avaliação de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris para o plantio em sistema orgânico no Distrito Federeal Field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars evaluation for crop in organic system in the state of Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Pereira de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    doesn't have pesticides or soluble fertilizers aplications. In the subsequent year, the same experiments were established in other area with corrected and equilibrated fertility, the same situation of the growers fitted in the organic activity. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. It was evaluated the cultivars Diamante Negro, Talismã, Xamego, Marfim, Jalo Precoce, Pérola, Timbó, Radiante, Aporé, Valente and Vereda The best performing cultivars were from "black" and "carioca" commercial groups, which are the most demanded types in the region of the State of Distrito Federal.

  9. Substrates in the development potted gerbera cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gerbera is a prominent culture that has gained in the Brazilian market of flowers and ornamental plants and there is a great demand for adequate substrates for its production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and distribution of dry mass and nitrogen in potted gerbera, depending on the substrates and cultivars. Experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 substrates and 2 cultivars. Red and Cherry cultivars were evaluated at 1, 15, 29, 43 and 50 days of acclimation (DAA to the leaves number, leaf area, dry mass of aerial parts (leaf and flower and accumulation of nitrogen. From 29 DAA, the inflorescence has established as the drain and has contributed significantly to the total dry mass. The accumulation of nitrogen was similar in vegetative and reproductive periods. The traits evaluated varied depending on the substrate used, influenced by physical and chemical properties of the same. The growth, dry matter and nitrogen distribution potted gerbera cultivars Cherry and Red are influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, with better results in substrates with bulk density of less than 530 kg m-3 and pH values between 5.5 and 6.8

  10. Tropospheric O3 distribution over the Indian Ocean during spring 1995 evaluated with a chemistry-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J. de; Zachariasse, M.; Roelofs, G.J.H.; Velthoven, P. van; Dickerson, R.R.; Rhoads, K.P.; Oltmans, S.J.; Lelieveld, J.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of tropospheric O 3 over the Indian Ocean during spring 1995 is presented based on O 3 soundings and results from the chemistry-general circulation model ECHAM (European Centre Hamburg Model). The ECHAM model is nudged towards actual meteorology using ECMWF analyses, to enable a

  11. Innovative environmental tracer techniques for evaluating sources of spring discharge from a carbonate aquifer bisected by a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M; Sweetkind, Donald S; Gerner, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Littlefield Springs discharge about 1.6 m³ /s along a 10-km reach of the Virgin River in northwestern Arizona. Understanding their source is important for salinity control in the Colorado River Basin. Environmental tracers suggest that Littlefield Springs are a mixture of older groundwater from the regional Great Basin carbonate aquifer and modern (post-1950s) seepage from the Virgin River. While corrected ¹⁴C apparent ages range from 1 to 9 ka, large amounts of nucleogenic ⁴He and low ³He/⁴He ratios suggest that the carbonate aquifer component is likely even older Pleistocene recharge. Modeled infiltration of precipitation, hydrogeologic cross sections, and hydraulic gradients all indicate recharge to the carbonate aquifer likely occurs in the Clover and Bull Valley Mountains along the northern part of the watershed, rather than in the nearby Virgin Mountains. This high-altitude recharge is supported by relatively cool noble-gas recharge temperatures and isotopically depleted δ²H and δ¹⁸O. Excess (crustal) SF₆ and ⁴He precluded dating of the modern component of water from Littlefield Springs using SF₆ and ³H/³He methods. Assuming a lumped-parameter model with a binary mixture of two piston-flow components, Cl⁻ /Br⁻, Cl⁻ /F⁻, δ²H, and CFCs indicate the mixture is about 60% Virgin River water and 40% groundwater from the carbonate aquifer, with an approximately 30-year groundwater travel time for Virgin River seepage to re-emerge at Littlefield Springs. This suggests that removal of high-salinity sources upstream of the Virgin River Gorge would reduce the salinity of water discharging from Littlefield Springs into the Virgin River within a few decades.

  12. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  13. Evaluation on the High Yielding, Stability and Comprehensive Performances of Check Cultivars in National Cotton Regional Trials in the Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiqiao JIN; Naiyin XU

    2014-01-01

    Objective] This study was to analyze the high yielding, stability, adaptabil-ity and main characteristics of check cultivars in national cotton regional trials in the Yangtze River Val ey in 2000-2013, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable selection of check cultivars for cotton regional trials. [Method] GGE biplot analysis method was used to carry out the intensive analysis and comprehensive comparisons on the performances and differences of the 9 major characters of check cultivars, namely, lint cotton yield , stability, and other main traits including bol weight, bol number, lint percentage, fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire val-ue, plant height and seed index. [Result] Ezamian 10 was suitable in the majority of cotton planting regions in the Yangtze River Val ey, with the best high yielding abili-ty and perfect yield stability. The yielding ability of Xiangzamian 8 ranked the sec-ond, but its stability was the poorest. Xiangzamian 8 was of the specific adaptive cultivar with relatively good performance in high yielding but the poorest stability. The suitable planting areas of Xiangzamian 8 were limited to the cotton planting re-gion around Dongting Lake in Hunan province, Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, the Coastal region in Jiangsu Province and Wuhan district in Hubei Province. Xi-angzamian 2 performanced poorer in both yielding and stability, while Simian 3 ranked first in stability but the last in yielding ability. The dominant character of Xi-angzamian 8 and Xiangzamian 2 were high cotton plants and big bol s. Simian 3 performanced super in lint percentage and fiber length. Ezamian 10 was strong in cotton bol formation ability, lint cotton yielding, fiber strength and seed size, as wel as high micronaire value. [Conclusion] The outstanding performance of Ezamian 10 in high and stable yield in the Yangtze River Val ey in recent years has effectively promoted the high yielding ability of candidate varieties in cotton regional

  14. Comparison and screening of bioactive phenolic compounds in different blueberry cultivars: Evaluation of anti-oxidation and α-glucosidase inhibition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Xing; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2017-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate antioxidation and α-glucosidase inhibition of the bioactive compounds in three cultivars of blueberry ('Northland' (NL) from the hybrid blueberry (V. corymbosum L.×V. angustifolium Aiton), 'Britewell' (BW), and 'Gardenblue' (GB) from the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade)). A total of eighteen anthocyanins were identified and quantified in Anthocyanins (ACNs), among which four acylated anthocyanins were exclusively found in Northland. The blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BAEs) were further measured the antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition effect. Northland BAEs exhibited significantly superior antioxidant activity compared with BAEs of other cultivars, and the antioxidant activity was correlated with the content of anthocyanins. However, α-glucosidase inhibition test showed that Britewell BAEs had the strongest inhibitory effect. BAEs were further separated into anthocyanin fraction (AF) and copigment fraction (CF). Fifteen phenolic acids and four iridoids were identified in CF. In terms of α-glucosidase inhibition effects, the CF from three cultivars could inhibit α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner, while the AF did not show significant inhibitory effects. The blueberry exhibits excellent antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fontes e doses de molibdênio via foliar em duas cultivares de feijoeiro Molybdenum sources and rates applied on leaves of two common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vieira da Silva

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando a estudar a resposta de duas cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a fontes e doses de molibdênio via foliar, foram conduzidos três ensaios em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (seca e inverno-primavera 97 e um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo (águas 97/98 do município de Lavras, Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2x2x4 envolvendo duas cultivares (Carioca e Carioca-MG, duas fontes de Mo (molibdatos de sódio e de amônio e quatro doses do micronutriente (0, 50, 100 e 150 g ha-1 de Mo, aplicadas via foliar entre 21 e 25 dias após a emergência. Na colheita foram avaliados o rendimento de grãos, os seus componentes primários (número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por vagem e massa de cem grãos e o estande final. Pelos resultados da análise conjunta, verificou-se que as fontes de Mo não influenciaram o rendimento de grãos e seus componentes. As doses crescentes de Mo aumentaram linearmente o rendimento de grãos até a dose de 54 g ha-1 de Mo.Three field experiments were conducted in southern Minas Gerais State, on distrofic Dusky Red Latosol (1997 summer/fall and winter/spring growing seasons and on a Red Yellow Podzolic (1997/98 summer season, to study the response of two common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to molybdenum (Mo sources and rates of application on leaves. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications and a 2x2x4 factorial arrangement, involving two bean cultivars (Carioca and Carioca-MG, two Mo sources (sodium and ammonium molybdates and four Mo rates (0, 50, 100, and 150g ha-1 Mo, applied on leaves at 21-25 days after emergency . At harvest, the grain yield and their primary components (number of pod per plant, number of grains per pod and weight of one hundred seeds, and the final stand, were evaluated. Results showed no effect of the molybdenum sources on grain yield and yield

  16. Genome-wide evaluation of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alheit Katharina V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genotyping with high-density markers nowadays enable genome-wide genomic analyses in crops. A detailed characterisation of the population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD is essential for the application of genomic approaches and consequently for knowledge-based breeding. In this study we used the triticale-specific DArT array to analyze population structure, genetic diversity, and LD in a worldwide set of 161 winter and spring triticale lines. Results The principal coordinate analysis revealed that the first principal coordinate divides the triticale population into two clusters according to their growth habit. The density distributions of the first ten principal coordinates revealed that several show a distribution indicative of population structure. In addition, we observed relatedness within growth habits which was higher among the spring types than among the winter types. The genome-wide analysis of polymorphic information content (PIC showed that the PIC is variable among and along chromosomes and that especially the R genome of spring types possesses a reduced genetic diversity. We also found that several chromosomes showed regions of high genetic distance between the two growth habits, indicative of divergent selection. Regarding linkage disequilibrium, the A and B genomes showed a similar LD of 0.24 for closely linked markers and a decay within approximately 12 cM. LD in the R genome was lower with 0.19 and decayed within a shorter map distance of approximately 5 cM. The extent of LD was generally higher for the spring types compared to the winter types. In addition, we observed strong variability of LD along the chromosomes. Conclusions Our results confirm winter and spring growth habit are the major contributors to population structure in triticale, and a family structure exists in both growth types. The specific patterns of genetic diversity observed within these types, such as the

  17. Molecular markers as a complementary tool in risk assessments: quantifying interspecific gene flow from triticale to spring wheat and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Vanessa B; Hills, Melissa J; Goyal, Aakash; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Topinka, A Keith; Eudes, Francois; Hall, Linda M

    2013-08-01

    Triticale is being considered as a bioindustrial crop in Canada using genetic modification. Because related spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. durum) may exhibit synchronous flowering and grow in proximity, determination of interspecific gene flow when triticale is the pollen donor is necessary to evaluate potential risk. Pollen-mediated gene flow risk assessments generally rely on phenotypic markers to detect hybridization but DNA markers could be powerful and less ambiguous in quantifying rare interspecific gene flow. Six cultivars representing four species [spring wheat, durum wheat, triticale and rye (Secale cereale)] were screened with 235 spring wheat and 27 rye SSR markers to evaluate transferability and polymorphism. Fifty-five polymorphic markers were used in conjunction with morphological characterization to quantify interspecific gene flow from a blue aleurone (BA) triticale line to two spring wheat cultivars (AC Barrie and AC Crystal) and one durum wheat cultivar (AC Avonlea). Approximately 1.9 Million seeds from small plot experiments were visually screened in comparison with known hybrid seed. In total 2031 putative hybrids were identified and 448 germinated. Morphological analysis of putative hybrid plants identified five hybrids while molecular analysis identified 11 hybrids and two were common to both. Combined, 14 hybrids were confirmed: 10 spring wheat × triticale (0.0008 % of harvested seed): seven AC Barrie × BA triticale (0.001 %) and three AC Crystal × BA triticale (0.0005 %); and four durum wheat × triticale (0.0006 %). The occurrence of rare hybrids does not present a substantial risk to the development of GM triticale.

  18. Development and evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for diagnosis of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mortezaei, Seyed Reza

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has been expanded rapidly to become a major commercial and food-producing sector worldwide in recent decade. In parallel, viral diseases rapidly spread among farms causing enormous economic losses. The accurate detection of pathogens at early stages of infection is a key point for disease control in aquaculture. Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) is a very severe pathogen of carp fishes in different parts of the world and is categorized as a reportable listed disease in the annu...

  19. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  20. Avaliação da maturação dos frutos de linhagens das cultivares Catuaí Amarelo e Catuaí Vermelho(Coffea arabica L. plantadas individualmente e em combinações Fruit ripening evaluations of Catuai Amarelo and Vermelho (Coffea arabica L. lineages of coffee cultivar, planted isolated and in combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Nogueira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se este experimento na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, com o objetivo de avaliar as percentagens de frutos chochos e maturação de linhagens das cultivares Catuaí Vermelho (IAC 44, IAC 81 e IAC 99 e Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, IAC 62 e IAC 86, no período de 1994 a 1999, plantadas isoladas e em diferentes combinações. O experimento foi instalado obedecendo ao delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, parcelas constituídas de seis covas, com uma planta em cada uma adotando o sistema de manejo usualmente empregado na região, no espaçamento de 3,50 m entre linhas x 1,00 m entre covas. As linhagens foram agrupadas por cultivar plantadas isoladas e em multilinhas nas proporções de 33% e 50%. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas considerando seis características avaliadas individualmente, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Na análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Duncan para comparação de médias. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que não houve diferenças significativas dos sistemas de plantio, isolado ou em combinações, sobre os diferentes estádios de maturação dos frutos.The experiment conducted in EPAMIG’s experimental station at São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, to evaluate percentage of empty fruits and fruit ripening, of Catuaí Vermelho (IAC 44, IAC 81, and IAC 99 and Catuai Amarelo (IAC 47, IAC 62, and IAC 86, all Catuai lineages, from 1994 to 1999, planted isolated and in different combinations. A randomized block design was used, with 3 replications and 14 lineages combination as treatment, each plot with six plants, spaced 3.5 by 1.0 m, respectively among interrows and lines. Lineages cultivars were grouped and planted isolated and in multi-lines at proposition of 33% and 50%. Six characteristics were evaluated, and averages compared by Duncan test. There were no differences in planting systems over the fruit maturation stages and empty

  1. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  2. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L. [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  4. 南昌地区引种大花及藤本月季品种的评估鉴定%Evaluation and Identification of Introduced Cultivars of Grandiflora and Climbing Hybrid Roses in Nanchang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管帮富; 彭华; 彭火辉; 陈华玲; 彭玉辅; 章海宾

    2013-01-01

    Grey correlation analysis and fuzzy comprehensive judgment methods were used to comprehensively evaluate the in -troduced 46 cultivars of grandiflora roses and the introduced 8 cultivars of climbing hybrid roses .The main results were obtained as follows:among grandiflora roses cultivars,‘Pink Fan’,‘Hi-ohgi’, ‘Carola’, ‘Rouge Meilland’ and ‘Tchaikovsky’ had the best comprehensive performance, followed by ‘Yalike Red’,‘Golden Scepter’, ‘Kantuer Poker’, ‘Lvyun’, ‘Mount Shasta’,‘Shroveport’,‘Black Tea’,‘Oregold’,‘Hohoemi’ and‘Carte Dor’, while ‘Fenbeidahong’,‘Saiun’ and‘Lovely red’ were the poorest;among climbing hybrid roses cultivars , the comprehensive characters of ‘Angela ’ and ‘Hongqiang ’ performed best , those of ‘Parkdirektor Riggers’,‘Huanglong’,‘Red Eden’,‘Reading Desk’ and‘Lanyueliang’ did well, while those of ‘Spec-tra’ were the worst.The results of comprehensive evaluation by these two methods were basically identical and coincided with the actual performance of these cultivars .Our research results could provide theoretical foundation for the reasonable utilization of intro -duced cultivar resources of grandiflora roses and climbing hybrid roses .%应用灰色关联度分析和模糊综合评判法对引进的46种大花月季和8种藤本月季品种进行了综合分析评估,结果表明:大花月季品种中粉扇、绯扇、卡罗拉、梅郎口红、柴可夫斯基综合表现最好,其次为亚历克红、金凤凰、卡托尔纸牌、绿云、白雪山、月季中心、红茶、俄州黄金、微笑和卡特道尔,综合表现最差的则为粉背大红、彩云和可爱的红;而藤本月季品种中安吉拉和红墙综合表现最好,御用马车和黄龙表现其次,光谱则综合表现最差;两种综合评估方法的分析结果基本一致,且与品种栽培的实际观察表现相一致,为引种的大花及藤

  5. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to ambient air pollution using open top chambers at a rural site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Richa; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2008-12-15

    Air pollutant concentrations are rising in India, causing potential threats to crop production. As air pollutants are known to interfere with physiological processes, this study was conducted to assess the relative responses of physiological and biochemical characteristics of two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Saurabh 950 and NDR 97) leading to variable yield responses. Twelve hour monitoring of ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and O3 in filtered chambers (FCs), non-filtered chambers (NFCs) and open plots (OPs) showed that O3 was the main pollutant at the experimental site. Ozone concentrations often exceeded 40 ppb during anthesis but not during the vegetative growth period. Photosynthetic rate (Ps), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and Fv/Fm ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities and photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and protein contents were assessed at different developmental stages and yield of grains were quantified. Lipid peroxidation, SOD and POD activities, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, g(s), Fv/Fm ratio and contents of protein and photosynthetic pigment were lower in plants of NFCs as compared to FCs. Yield decreased significantly in both cultivars grown in NFCs. NDR 97 showed less reductions in physiological characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and protein, but a greater increase in the antioxidative defense system as compared to Saurabh 950. Yield reduction was higher in NDR 97 than in Saurabh 950. This suggested that NDR 97 utilized more photosynthate in maintaining the metabolic machinery against O3 stress leading to lower translocation of photosynthate to reproductive parts. The study concluded that under natural field conditions, physiological and biochemical responses of plants varied with pollutant concentrations leading to different translocation strategies in plants, modifying their yield responses. NDR 97, a fast growing and high yielding cultivar was more

  6. Seasonal changes in the metabolic fingerprint of 21 grass and legume cultivars studied by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Jensen, Christian S; Pedersen, Morten Greve; Didion, Thomas; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Larsen, Mette K; Nielsen, Jacob Holm

    2010-04-14

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based approach was introduced for metabolic fingerprinting of 21 grass and legume cultivars in the present study. Applying principal component analysis (PCA) on the fingerprints obtained on water extracts, it was possible to elucidate the variation between cultivars and the magnitude of changes in the metabolic fingerprint between the spring growth and the second regrowth. Consequently, the potential of the method for tracking differences and changes related to cultivar and season was demonstrated. In addition, partial least-squares (PLS) regressions revealed correlations between the NMR fingerprints and the value of the grasses as animal feed evaluated as concentration of sugars, neutral detergent fibres (NDF) (R = 0.82), indigestible neutral detergent fibres (iNDF) (R = 0.90), and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (R = 0.75). The correlations between these parameters and the NMR fingerprint could mainly be ascribed to differences in spectral intensities from signals assigned to malic acid (2.40 and 4.70 ppm), choline (3.27 ppm), and glucose (5.24 ppm), and the biochemical rationale for this relation is discussed.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Characters of the Pouteria Campechiana New Cultivar ‘Danping 1'%蛋黄果新品种‘蛋苹一号'性状的初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓成菊; 刘学敏; 陈伟强; 李芹; 张建春; 杨绍琼; 王晓燕; 胡原鸿; 黄绍忠

    2014-01-01

    对选育出来的蛋黄果新品种‘蛋苹一号'进行了植物学性状、农艺性状以及品质性状等并进行研究,结果表明:蛋黄果新品种‘蛋苹一号'具有结果早、丰产、稳产特性;果形端正,为苹果型,果形指数为0.8,平均单果重322 g,可食率高,总糖含量22.91%,甜度适中,维生素C含量高达70.40%,粗脂肪6.95%,总淀粉含量1.60%,可食率71.00%。此结果对该品种的生产应用及示范推广具有重要意义。%The new cultivar Pouteria campechiana ‘Panping 1' were studied about the botanical, agronomic and quality from Institute of Honghe Yunnan Tropical Agricultural Sciences, and then were preliminary evaluated. The results showed that the new cultivar Pouteria campechiana ‘Danping 1' is early bearing, high and stable yield, the fruit shape is apple, fruit shape index is 0.8, average fruit weight 322 g, high edible rate, total sugar content 22.91%, sweets of optimum quality, vitamin C content 70.40%, coarse fat content 6.95%, total starch 1.60%, edible rate 71.00%. These results are very important for the application and extension of new cultivar Pouteria campechiana ‘Danping 1' .

  8. Phenology, production and fruit quality of new Czech apricot cultivars in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating of 14 new apricot cultivars created at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice in the Czech Republic in order to recommend the best of them for growing in the Belgrade region. The study was carried out at the Experimental station ‘Radmilovac’ of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of five years (2009-2013. The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. The control cultivar for comparison was the clone of ‘Velkopavlovická’ cultivar (type of ‘Hungarian Best’, LE-12/2. Flowering of introduced cultivars started from three days before to one day after the control cultivar, while the maturation time ranged from 19 days earlier in cultivar ‘Leskora’ to 12 days after the control in cultivar ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved only in cultivar ‘Palava’, while significantly higher fruit weight was recorded in three cultivars: ‘Candela’ (LE-2927, ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926 and ‘Betinka’ (LE-3276. Cultivars ‘Sophia’ and ‘Betinka’ got the best scores for fruit appearance, while cultivars ‘Marlen’ and ‘Lebona’ ranked the highest for fruit taste. Among studied apricot cultivars, for the cultivation in the Belgrade region, the following cultivars can be recommended as promising: ‘Palava’ (early season, ‘Betinka’ (mid-season and ‘Sophia’ (late season. Regarding the large size and attractive appearance of fruits, these cultivars are more suitable for fresh consumption, but they can also be used for processing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  9. Antioxidant activity evaluation and HPLC-photodiode array/MS polyphenols analysis of pomegranate juice from selected italian cultivars: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Belluomo, Maria Giovanna; Cirilli, Marco; Cristofori, Valerio; Zecchini, Maurizio; Cacciola, Francesco; Russo, Marina; Muleo, Rosario; Dugo, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Chemical composition of pomegranate juice can vary due to cultivar, area of cultivation, ripening, climate, and other variables. This study investigates the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of juices obtained from six old Italian pomegranate cultivars. Fruit accessions physicochemical characteristics were determined. Total polyphenols content (TPC), anthocyanin content (TAC) and proanthocyanidin content (TPAC) were measured in the juice samples. Phenolic bioactive molecules were analyzed by HPLC-photodiode array (PDA)/ESI-MS in all the pomegranate juices. In total, seven nonanthocyanidinic and six anthocyanidinic compounds were identified. The six anthocyanins were found in all juices although at different amounts. These results were correlated with antioxidant activity measured by three different chemical assays: 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) scavenging activity assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Pomegranate juices obtained by six different varieties show variable polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity methods used have shown variable sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that different methods for the assessment of antioxidant capacity of food compounds are indeed necessary, due to complexity of sample composition and assay chemical mechanism and sensitivity. Juices from Italian pomegranate show good levels of polyphenols content and antioxidant activity making them potential candidates for employment in the food industry.

  10. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  11. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  13. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-01-01

    The change in pathogens prevalence to wild fish is probably the least studied ecological interaction associated with hatchery operations. In 1999, the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to evaluate whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and monitored for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition, the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2001. Not all testing has been completed for every year, but to date, there have only been minimal changes in levels of the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts. At this point, due to the limited testing so far, these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  14. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  15. Programmed flowering of the F1 long-day strawberry cultivar ‘Elan’ with nitrogen and daylength manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Durner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for locally grown, high quality strawberries is increasing even though California, Florida and Mexico provide a year-round source of strawberries for the world market. In most of the US, locally grown strawberries are only available for a short time in late spring from seasonal fruiting short-day cultivars thus off-season strawberry production is an attractive option for growers. Seed propagated hybrids such as ‘Elan’ are becoming more widely available and offer an alternative to often low yielding cultivars used for off-season production. To determine whether or not ‘Elan’ could be programmed to flower with photoperiod or nitrogen, seedlings were fertilized with either 100 or 800 ppm nitrogen for 4 weeks in September beginning one week after exposure to either short days, the natural photoperiod, or long days, the natural photoperiod supplemented with 24 hours of incandescent radiation. Plants were then greenhouse forced under both photoperiods and floral phenology evaluated. Elevated nitrogen during floral initiation in September enhanced and accelerated flowering and plants receiving elevated nitrogen during initiation under long days flowered more than any other treatment. To determine whether or not flowering could be enhanced a second time in the same plants, another 4 week period of elevated nitrogen was provided in December and plant phenology evaluated through mid-January. Elevated nitrogen (800 ppm in December enhanced December and January flowering. Seedlings were conditioned with elevated nitrogen for a third time in late spring then field planted (early summer on raised beds with white or black plastic mulch. Elevated nitrogen in late spring enhanced yield in field production. No effects of mulch color, initiation photoperiod or interaction of considered factors were detected. Flowering differences detected in greenhouse studies translated into differences observed in the production field suggesting

  16. Comportamento agronômico e avaliação tecnológica dos cultivares de trigo IAC 120 (Curumi, IAC 286 (Takaoka e IAC 289 (Marruá para o estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the agronomic and technologic characteristics of the wheat cultivars: IAC 120 (Curumi, IAC 286 (Takaoka and IAC 289 (Marruá in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    1994-01-01

    foi tolerante a altas doses de Al3+ e sensível a Mn2+ e Fe 2+; o IAC 289 demonstrou-se tolerante a Fe 2+ e Mn2+, e sensível a Al3+. Nos testes de panificação, os novos cultivares revelaram qualidade satisfatória: o IAC 120 apresentou farinha de glúten médio a forte, e o IAC 286 e IAC 289, farinha de glúten médio.The wheat cultivars IAC 120 (Curumi, IAC 286 (Takaoka and IAC 289 (Marruá were evaluated in relation to (1 grain yield; (2 reactions to the causal agents of leaf and stem rusts (under field and greenhouse conditions; and (3 reactions to the causal agent of leaf spot. The experiments were performed in limed and acid soils, in upland and under sprinkler irrigation, in different regions of the State of São Paulo, during the period 1988-92. Using nutrient solutions in the laboratory, these cultivars were also studied for iron, aluminium and manganese tolerances. Physic and bread quality tests were made with the flours of these cultivars. IAC 120 produced 19% and 14% more than BH 1146 and IAC 24 used as controls, in upland conditions. The cultivars IAC 289 in that same condition showed a grain yield of 26% and 19% greater than the controls Anahuac and IAC 24. Under sprinkler irrigation, IAC 289 presented an increase in grain yield of 13% and 9% in relation to the same controls, respectively. IAC 286 exhibited a superior grain yield of 12% and 15% under sprinkler irrigation as compared to the controls Anahuac and IAC 24, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions the cultivars IAC 120 was susceptible to the races G11, G19, G20 and G21 of the causal agent of the stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici and the cultivars IAC 286 to the races G11 and G17. 'BH 1146' was sensitive and 'IAC 289' and 'Anahuac' presented resistance to all tested races. The reactions to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita races indicated that the cultivars IAC 120, IAC 286, IAC 289, BH 1146 and Anahuac were susceptible under greenhouse conditions. These results were confirmed under field

  17. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

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    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  19. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

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    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  20. Avaliação do estado nutricional das cultivares de uva itália e rubi no município de Marialva, Estado do Paraná = Evaluation of the nutritional state of italy and rubi grape cultivars in Marialva, Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Antônio Tonin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A técnica do diagnóstico nutricional, para fins de recomendação de adubação mais racional e econômica na viticultura, carece de padrões metodológicos para as condições regionais de cultivo da videira. Com o objetivo avaliar e ajustar os valores padrões, ou faixaslimites, de diagnóstico nutricional para videiras, com base em três metodologias de diagnose foliar, para melhor detecção do estado nutricional dos vinhedos, foram averiguados 30 vinhedos comerciais da cultivar de uva de mesa Itália e de 33 vinhedos da cultivar Rubi, nomunicípio de Marialva, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, empregando as metodologias de diagnose foliar da Califórnia, de Michigan e da África do Sul, na safra normal de 2002. Analisaram-se dados de produtividade e teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes. Os ajustes nos padrões foram realizados pelo método do nível crítico, por meio do critério da distribuição normal reduzida (NCRIz. A metodologia da Califórnia não se mostrou adequada para as condições regionais. As outras duas metodologias podem ser utilizadaspara a diagnose nutricional das videiras do município de Marialva com pequenos ajustes.The technique of nutritional diagnosis, for purposes of recommendation of more rational and economical fertilization in wine growing, lacks methodological patterns for the regional conditions of grapevine cultivation. With the objective of evaluating and adjusting the existing values or limit ranges of the grapevine nutritional diagnosis, with base in three diagnosis methodologies to foliate the nutritional state of 30 commercial vineyards of the variety of Italy table grape was evaluated and 33 vineyards of the Ruby variety, in the city of Marialva. Three methodologies were used: California, Michigan and South Africa foliar analyses, in the normal crop of 2002.Productivity data, and macro- and micronutrients were evaluated. The adjustments to the standards were made by the method of the

  1. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

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    Xiaoyan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  2. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

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    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  3. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  4. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  5. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  6. 不同马铃薯品种的不同加工产品适宜性评价%Suitability evaluation of different potato cultivars for processing products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炳南; 张小燕; 赵凤敏; 杨延辰; 刘威; 李树君

    2015-01-01

    , total sugar, starch, moisture, dry matter, ash, total soluble solids, vitamin C, protein, fat and crude fiber of raw potatoes were analyzed according to China national or industrial standards. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences and great variation among most of indicators. Three kinds of products including potato chips, French fries and potato flakes were processed using 44 cultivars collected respectively. The quality indicators of processed products were also tested in the laboratory. For potato chips, four indicators including sensory evaluation, protein, crispness and Hunter whiteness were tested. For French fries, four indicators including sensory evaluation, protein, hardness and Hunter whiteness were tested. For potato flakes, four indicators including sensory evaluation, protein, viscosity and free starch ratio were tested. Analysis of variance also revealed great variation among indicators of three kinds of processed products. Using the maximum - minimum normalized method, multiple quality indicators of potato chips, French fries and potato flakes were calculated into a one-dimensional evaluation indicator in order to establish a representative model. Each comprehensive indicator had a significant correlation with four original indicators of processed products. With stepwise regression method, significant indicators of raw materials were selected to establish the model of processed products, while insignificant indicators were eliminated to reduce the redundancy of models. Based on three calculated comprehensive indicators and 14 indicators of raw materials, comprehensive quality evaluation models of potato chips, French fries and potato flakes were established respectively. The results showed that, the comprehensive quality of potato chips were remarkably influenced by the reducing sugar, ash, protein, eye number and total soluble solids of raw potatoes; the effect of potato chips' comprehensive quality evaluation model were: the coefficient

  7. Overexpression of a blueberry-derived CBF enhances cold tolerance in a southern highbush blueberry cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry cultivars are subject to freezing damage in the winter and early spring. C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes are transcription factors known to induce the expression of genes associated with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. A CBF-encoding gene (BB-CBF) was isolated from the northe...

  8. Variation among highbush blueberry cultivars for frost tolerance of open flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury of open flowers often occurs in fruit crops by late winter or early spring frosts and can result in significant reduction in yield. In this study, freezing tolerance of open flowers of five highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Elliott’, ‘Hannah’s Choice’, ‘Murphy’, and ‘Weymouth’, was d...

  9. Two methods for assessing frost tolerance in flowers of highbush blueberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensitivity of blueberry flowers to freezing temperatures differs among cultivars and stages of bud development. Also, the frost testing technique and the duration at lethal temperature can have a dramatic effect on bud injury. Artificial frost tests should duplicate the types of spring frosts in ...

  10. Response of blackberry cultivars to fertilizer source in an organic fresh market production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One semi-erect (‘Triple Crown’) and three trailing (‘Marion’, ‘Black Diamond’, and ‘Obsidian’) blackberry cultivars were studied from 2011-12 at a certified organic, grower site in Jefferson, OR. Plants were fertilized with 56 kg/ha N each spring using: 1) a liquid fish and molasses blend; 2) pellet...

  11. Response of blackberry cultivars to fertilizer source during establishment in an organic fresh market production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One semi-erect (‘Triple Crown’) and three trailing (‘Marion’, ‘Black Diamond’, and ‘Obsidian’) blackberry cultivars were studied from 2011-2012 at a certified organic, grower collaborator site located in Jefferson, OR. Plants were fertilized with 56 kg/ha N each spring using three different sources:...

  12. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elem Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River for restoration and supplementation. This project was designed to evaluate whether introduction of intensively reared hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and 130 smolts were collected in 2002 for monitoring for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2000 and 2001 (a correction from the 2001 report). To date, the only changes have been in the levels the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts and they have been minimal. These changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  13. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  14. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  15. Evaluation of stratospheric chlorine chemistry for the Arctic spring 2005 using modelled and measured OClO column densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oetjen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine dioxide, OClO, column amounts retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument are presented and validated by comparison with simultaneous ground-based DOAS observations. In addition, the measurements are compared to model calculations taking into account the photochemical change along the light path.

    Although OClO does not participate directly in the destruction of ozone, its accurate measurement as well as modelling is crucial to understand the highly perturbed chlorine chemistry in the polar vortices. SCIAMACHY OClO slant columns retrieved during spring 2005 have been quantitatively validated by comparison with slant columns retrieved from measurements made in Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E and Summit (73° N, 38° W as well qualitatively for Bremen (53° N, 9° E. Fair to good agreement is found depending on location as well as time of year.

    OClO slant column densities modelled with a set of stacked box models and considering the light path through the atmosphere are also included in this comparison. The model predictions differ significantly from the measured quantities. OClO amounts are underestimated for conditions of strong chlorine activation and at large solar zenith angles. Sensitivity studies for several parameters in the stacked box model have been performed and it is inferred that using the chemistry known to date, the observed OClO cannot be adequately reproduced within the range of uncertainties given for the various model parameters.

  16. Variation in Growth, Physiology, and Yield of Six Sugarcane Cultivars from across the Globe in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars with diverse genetic background under similar location can help in better understanding cultivar response to environment and in identifying various physiological traits that could lead to improved yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, yield...

  17. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  18. Cultivar development of allogamous crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza Jr., Cláudio Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    .... It was reviewed the genetic structure of these species and its relationship with the development of cultivars, the technologies used to develop hybrids and improved open-pollinated varieties and their F1...

  19. How to maintain improved cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Improved cultivars loose their identity and healthiness unless maintained properly. Contaminating and degrading forces, such as outcrossing, volunteer plants, mixing, natural selection, mutation and seed-borne diseases, are at the root of this. Maintenance selection can prevent this deterioration.

  20. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  1. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P

    1987-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  2. Micropropagation of four blueberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brenes Angulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharpblue, Woodard, Bonita and Delite cultivars were propagated from leaf explants. Leaf sections from in vitro singlenode explants were compared with those from plants in the field. The explants were placed in WPM medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 TDZ to promote sprouting, then subcultured to fresh WPM medium supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 mg.l-1 zeatin to enhance adventitious shoot growth. Shoot clump length and number of shoots >2mm and >1cm in each clump were determined. Shoots 8 to 10 cm were harvested at 8 weeks and subcultured in WPM medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg.l-1 IBA for rooting. After 10 weeks, shoots were transplanted to greenhouse for acclimatization. The leaf segments cultured in WPM medium with TDZ formed adventitious shoot clumps in all varieties, regardless of leaf source. A significant effect of cultivar, source of explant and interaction cultivar x leaf source was found for shoots >2 mm. Clump size varied significantly among cultivars, leaf source, and interaction cultivars x source x zeatin concentration, when transfering to a medium with 2 concentrations of the growth regulator, but no differences due to cytokinin concentration were found. Number of shoots >2mm and length of the longest shoot varied significantly with cultivar and the interaction cultivar x source of explant in WPM + zeatin medium. Woodard explants from in vitro leaf sections produced the highest number of shoots (44.70±13.34 and Delite the lowest (21.50±4.99. Shoots subcultured in WPM with different IBA concentrations had les than 10% rooting in all treatments. However, when transplanted to greenhouse 100% rooting was obtained, regardless of in vitro treatment with IBA or leaf explant source. All the microshoots of the 4 cultivars were successfully greenhouse acclimatized and plantlets later established in the field.

  3. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  4. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  5. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  6. Cultivo de melão rendilhado com dois e três frutos por planta Evaluation of net melon cultivars conducted with two and three fruits per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de O Charlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cultivares de melão rendilhado produzidas em plantas sob raleio dos frutos. Foram estudadas as cultivares Maxim, Louis, Fantasy, Shinju 200, e Bônus nº2, com as plantas conduzidas com dois e três frutos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5x2, com quatro repetições e com as plantas dispostas no espaçamento de 1,0 m entre linhas e 0,5 m entre plantas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se fertirrigação e vasos plásticos de 13 L, preenchidos com fibra da casca de coco Golden Mix® Misto 98. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células e quando estavam com a primeira folha definitiva completamente desenvolvida foram transplantadas aos vasos. Foram avaliados o rendilhamento da casca, os diâmetros longitudinal e transversal do fruto, o índice de formato do fruto, os diâmetros longitudinal e transversal do lóculo, o índice de formato do lóculo, a espessura do mesocarpo, a massa média dos frutos e a produção por planta. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados. Nas condições deste experimento, a condução de dois frutos por planta resultou em maior rendilhamento da casca, maior diâmetro transversal do fruto, maior diâmetro longitudinal do lóculo e maior massa média dos frutos. Porém, as maiores produções por planta foram observadas quando conduzidas com três frutos. Os híbridos Fantasy e Shinju 200 apresentaram as melhores características de frutos e maiores produções.The pruning of fruits of net melon cultivars was evaluated in this study. The cultivars Maxim, Louis, Fantasy, Shinju 200 and Bônus nº2 were evaluated in plants bearing two and three fruits. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in factorial scheme 5 x 2, with four replications and the plants arranged in the spacing of 1.0 m between lines and 0.5 m between plants. The experiment was conducted in

  7. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  8. Caracterização morfológica, produtividade e rendimento comercial de cultivares de alho Morphological characterization, commercial yield and productivity of garlic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem condições de elevar a produção de alho a ponto de suprir a demanda interna. Para alcançar tal êxito, é necessário avaliar o maior número possível de cultivares visando estabelecer as melhores para cada região. Sendo assim, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o rendimento econômico e a qualidade de bulbos de 20 cultivares de alho na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março e setembro de 2009, no município de Guarapuava-PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se em doze cultivares de alho seminobre e oito cultivares de alho nobre. Foram realizadas as avaliações de produtividade total (PT, produção comercial (PC e classificação comercial dos bulbos; superbrotamento; e seis caracteres relacionados à morfologia da planta: diâmetro do pseudocaule, comprimento e largura da folha, comprimento, largura e número de bulbilhos. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram PT superior às cultivares do grupo seminobre, porém, não houve diferença com relação à PC. Entre as cultivares do grupo nobre, a São Valentim apresentou a maior PC de bulbos, com 8,9 t ha-1. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram maior porcentagem de bulbos nas classes 6 e 7, com destaque para as cultivares Chonan, com 40,3% dos bulbos na classe 7 e a cultivar Ito, com 75% dos bulbos nas classes 6 e 7. O oposto foi observado no grupo seminobre, pois a maioria dos bulbos encontra-se nas classes 3, 4 e 5. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, a cultivar São Valentim se adaptou melhor às condições edafoclimáticas da região, apresentando elevado potencial produtivo.Brazil could increase garlic production up to the point of supplying the internal demand. To achieve this success, it is necessary to evaluate the maximum number of cultivars to establish the best ones for each region. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate economic yield and quality of

  9. Evaluation of pollen germination of some palm males and pollination impact on bunch weight and fruit quality in Kadary date palm cultivar (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Saif, A M; Al-Obeed, R S

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2013-2014) at the Research and Agriculture Experiment Station, Dirab, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh. Pollen grains, used in this trial, were collected from eleven male, namely Succary, Menify, Sallag, Dikhiny, Nabout Zamel, Serry, Khalas, Shagra, Safry, Maktumi and Kadary in order to pollinate female Kadary date palm cultivar. Results indicated that pollens of Safry male followed by Succary, Menify and Serry males increased the physical and biochemical characteristics of fruits during both seasons. Also, all the studied characters were significantly affected with different pollen males used in this trial. Pollens of Safry male gave highest fruit retention and bunch weight and best fruit quality like fruit and flesh weight, fruit size and fruit length and fruit biochemical properties as compared with other male. In vitro pollen germination of eleven males was studied using various concentration of sucrose (4, 6, 8 and 10%). The results showed that best germination was achieved with 8% sucrose concentration; however, 10% sucrose resulted in reduced percentage of pollen germination. In addition, pollen tube growth of five males (Succary, Sallag, Nabout-Zamel, Khalas and Safry) at 8% sucrose was alsostudied at 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr time interval. Elongation rate of pollen tube increased significantly after 24 hrs and it was found that pollens of Safry male gave highest pollen tube growth after 24 hrs than pollens of other male.

  10. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    the same time, flow variability in the river has decreased and the abundance of total benthic macroinvertebrates at the Tailrace site has increased. The condition of trout in spring (averaged across all sampled trout) was positively correlated with fall and winter flow variability (including within-day skewness, within-season skewness and/or change in flow between days) at both locations. No negative correlations between trout condition and any measure of flow variability were detected. The length and weight of rainbow trout at the Little Hole site were negatively correlated with increasing fall and winter flow volume. The condition of brown trout at Little Hole and the condition of brown and rainbow trout at Tailrace were not correlated with flow volume. Macroinvertebrate variables during October were either positively correlated or not correlated with measures of trout condition at the Tailrace and Little Hole sites. With the exception of a positive correlation between taxa richness of macroinvertebrates in January and the relative weight of brown trout at Tailrace, the macroinvertebrate variables during January and April were either not correlated or negatively correlated with measures of trout condition. We hypothesize that high flow variability increased drift by dislodging benthic macroinvertebrates, and that the drift, in turn, resulted in mostly lower densities of benthic macroinvertebrates, which benefited the trout by giving them more feeding opportunities. This was supported by negative correlations between benthic macroinvertebrates and flow variability. Macroinvertebrate abundance (with the exception of ephemeropterans) was also negatively correlated with flow volume. The change in trout condition from fall to spring, as measured by the ratio of spring to fall relative weight, was evaluated to determine their usefulness as a standardized index to control for the initial condition of the fish as they enter the winter period. The ratio values were less

  11. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  12. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Humberto Calori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split plot design. The plot consisted of 4 electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 dS∙m−1; the subplot, of 4 plant densities (25; 44; 66; and 100 plants∙m−2; and the subsubplot, of the 2 potato cultivars (Ágata and Asterix, totaling 4 blocks. The 2.2 and 2.1 dS∙m−1 electrical conductivities yielded the highest productivity of seed potato minitubers, for Ágata and Asterix cultivars, respectively, regardless of plant density. For both cultivars, the highest yield was observed for the 100 plants∙m−2 density.

  13. Trigo, triticale e centeio: avaliação da eficiência ao fósforo e tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio Evaluation of wheat, triticale and rye cultivars for phosphorus efficiency and tolerance to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a eficiência da utilização de fósforo e a tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio, instalou-se um experimento empregando os cultivares de trigo BH-1146, Anahuac, IAC-5, IAC-24 e IAC-21; o de triticale TCEP 77138 e o de centeio Branco, em soluções nutritivas contendo cinco níveis de fósforo (0; 3,1; 6,2; 12,4 e 31 mg/litro combinados com cinco níveis de alumínio (0, 1, 3, 6 e 10 mg/litro. A eficiência ao fósforo foi avaliada levando-se em consideração a produção de matéria seca e a quantidade de P nela presente, e a tolerância ao alumínio, com base no comprimento máximo das raízes após doze dias de crescimento em soluções nutritivas. O cultivar de centeio e o de triticale mostraram maior tolerância ao alumínio. Os cultivares de trigo BH-1146, IAC-21, IAC-5 e IAC-24 apresentaram-se como tolerantes e Anahuac, como sensível. O sintoma da toxicidade de alumínio ficou acentuado pelo aumento das concentrações de alumínio e fósforo para todos esses cultivares. 'IAC-5' foi considerado eficiente na utilização de fósforo; 'IAC-21' e 'IAC-24', moderadamente eficientes, e 'Anahuac', Ineficiente, em soluções contendo baixos níveis de fósforo na presença de Al3+.Five wheat cultivars, one triticale and one rye cultivar were studied in aerated nutrient solution with one tenth of the salt concentration of a complete nutrient solution, pH = 4.0 with five levels of aluminum (0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 mg/l combined with five levels of phosphorus (0; 3.1; 6.2; 12.4 and 31 mg/l. As controls, it was used a complete nutrient solution and distilled water. The aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring the primary root lenght of the seedlings after a 12-days growth period in the different treatment solutions. The rye cultivar (Branco and the triticale cultivar (TCEP 77138 were the most tolerant as far as aluminum toxicity is concerned, independently of the phosphorus concentrations into the solutions. The wheat

  14. An evaluation of the spring finger solder joints on SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 connector assemblies (MC3617,W87).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Hlava, Paul Frank; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-08-01

    The SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 circular JT Type plug connectors are used on a number of nuclear weapons and Joint Test Assembly (JTA) systems. Prototype units were evaluated for the following specific defects associated with the 95Sn-5Sb (Sn-Sb, wt.%) solder joint used to attach the beryllium-copper (BeCu) spring fingers to the aluminum (Al) connector shell: (1) extended cracking within the fillet; (2) remelting of the solder joint during the follow-on, soldering step that attached the EMR adapter ring to the connector shell (and/or soldering the EMR shell to the adapter ring) that used the lower melting temperature 63Sn-37Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy; and (3) spalling of the Cd (Cr) layer overplating layer from the fillet surface. Several pedigrees of connectors were evaluated, which represented older fielded units as well as those assemblies that were recently constructed at Kansas City Plant. The solder joints were evaluated that were in place on connectors made with the current soldering process as well as an alternative induction soldering process for attaching the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely reflected the different extents to which the connector was mated to its counterpart assembly. In all cases, the spring finger solder joints on the SA1358-10 connectors were remelted as a result of the subsequent EMR adapter ring attachment process. Spalling of the Cd (Cr) overplating layer was also observed for these connectors, which was a consequence of the remelting activity. On the other hand, the SA2052-4 connector did not exhibit evidence of

  15. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  16. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  17. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  18. Origem e avaliação de trigo 'Tapajós' (IAC 72, 'Anhumas' (IAC 227 e 'Yaco' (IAC 287 para o estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the agronomic and technologic characteristics of the wheat cultivars: IAC 72 Tapajós, IAC 227 Anhumas and IAC 287 Yaco in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1994-01-01

    ível ao A1(3+. Nos testes de panificação, os volumes específicos comparativos dos cultivares IAC 287 e IAC 227 foram 5,64 e 3,76% superiores ao do padrão (grão comercial respectivamente, e o IAC 72 foi inferior a este. Na avaliação final comparativa, somente o IAC 287 igualou-se ao padrão (100%.The wheat cultivars IAC 72 Tapajós, IAC 227 Anhumas and IAC 287 Yaco were evaluated in relation to grain yield, response to infection by leaf and stem rusts (under field and greenhouse conditions and leaf spots, in experiments carried out in limed and acid soils, in upland and under sprinkler irrigation. All these evaluations were performed in different regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1987 to 1991. The cultivars were also studied for tolerance to iron, aluminum and manganese toxicities, using nutrient solutions, in the laboratory. Assays for physical, rheological and bread quality were made with the flours of each cultivars. In upland conditions, the results showed that IAC 227 produced 20% and IAC 72, 5% more than BH 1146, used as control. Under the same condition, cultivars IAC 287 showed a grain yield of 10% greater than the control Anahuac. However, under sprinkler irrigation, IAC 287 showed an increase in grain yield of 7 and 6% as compared to the control cultivars Anahuac and IAC 24, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the cultivars IAC 72 was susceptible to races G20 and G21 of the causal agent of stem rust. The cultivars IAC 227 showed susceptibility to races G11, G15 and G17 of stem rust. BH 1146 was sensitive while IAC 287 and Anahuac were resistant to all tested races. Concerning to the reactions to races of Puccinia recondita, the cultivars IAC 72, IAC 227, BH 1146 and Anahuac were susceptible and IAC. 287 behaved as resistant under greenhouse conditions. These results were confirmed under field conditions. All studied cultivars were susceptible to the causal agent of leaf spots. IAC 72 presented as moderately sensitive to A1(3+ and Mn2

  19. Avaliação dos níveis de clorofila em folhas de tomateiro da cultivar Santa Clara, do mutante ‘firme’ e do híbrido F1 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2110 Chlorophyll level evaluation in tomatoes leaves of Santa Clara cultivar, of ‘firme’ mutant and hybrid F1 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Shimoya

    2003-04-01

    breeding programs, aiming to increase the shelf life of the fruit were identified. However, plants from the mutant ‘firme’ have precocious fealf senescence and reduction of the average fruit size when in homozygous background. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the pigment levels in the leaves on different development positions and stage, utilizing the method described by Lichtenthaler (1987 and the SPAD (Soil Plant Analytical Division Value in heterozygous mutant related to the progenitor Santa Clara cultivar and the homozygous mutant ‘firme’. Thus, two experiments containing two plants per vase grown in greenhouse and arranged at complete randomized way were set up. The data obtained through the Lichtenthaler (1987 method showed that the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments were degraded earlier in the homozygous mutant ‘firme’ in comparison to Santa Clara cultivar. While using the SPAD the heterozygous plants had similar rates of chlorophyll degradation to the Santa Clara cultivar. Based on data, it was possible to conclude that the mutation in heterozygous stage containing Santa Clara in its background had its effects on biochemical characteristics restored

  20. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  1. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    in 2005 from Uraí-PR of Burkett, Frotscher and Moneymaker cultivars, were evaluated in order to identify and quantify associated microorganisms in the nuts and fruit cover, as well to observe the differences among the microorganisms that colonize the different cultivars. The fruits were evaluated at post-harvest, thirty days kept in natural temperature, through filter paper method, being submitted or not to surface assepsy. The fungi Cladosporium caryigenum, rancification promoter to the almonds was observed on almonds and covers on the cultivars Burkett, Frotscher and Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., was observed in high concentration, on almonds as well as on the cover of all the studied cultivars; Cephalothecium roseum, responsible for the pink mildew, in almonds in the Frotscher cultivar. Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., responsible for mold and aflatoxins formation, were observed in high amount on almonds of the Frotscher cultivar and in almonds and cover of Frotscher, Burkett and Moneymaker, respectively. The highest percentage of loss in yield was observed on the Burkett cultivar, cause of the incidence of Colletotrichum sp., agent responsible for antracnosis on the almonds which provokes causer darkness and deterioration of final product, leading it to discarding.

  2. GGE双标图在烤烟新品种重要经济性状筛选布局中的初步应用%Application of GGE Biplot to Evaluate Economic Characters of Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰宏; 谢升东; 蒲文宣; 王毅; 戴秀梅; 孙渭; 张玉芹; 王轶

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the yield ability, stability, and eco-distribution of tobacco cultivars effectively, genotype main effect and genotype-environment interaction (GGE) biplot was introduced as a new and powerful approach to analyze the leaf yields of 11 flue-cured tobacco (cultivars or lines) tested at 7 planting areas of middle flavor type. The results showed that the GGE biplot was highly representative, which explained 71.9%of the total variation of production value and 64.4%of the total yield variation. The cultivars with highest yields and of most stability and most adaptability were“Bina 1”and“Guiyan 1”. The 7 test sites were broadly classified into 3 environments, as region one including Zunyi, Wulong, and Sangzhi, region two including Xunyang, and Mengyin, region three including Guiding and Xianfeng, in which the best genotypes were“Bina 1”,“Qinyan 98”, and“HB032”respectively. The result of some genotypes specifically adapted to certain environments is useful for special cultivars screening.%为深入研究和评价烤烟新品种的丰产性、稳定性和品种生态布局,通过引入新型分析工具 GGE 模型,对2011年中间香型烟叶产区7个试点、11个烤烟新品种(系)的产量和产值进行了直观比较分析。结果表明,GGE双标图解释了产量总变异的71.9%和产值总变异的64.4%,具有真实代表性。GGE双标图显示,参试材料间丰产和稳产性差异很大,有些材料对某些环境具有特殊适应性。11个新品种(系)中,毕纳1号和贵烟1号总体表现为丰产、稳定和广适,同时毕纳1号、秦烟98和HB032分别为区1(遵义、武隆、桑植)、区2(旬阳、蒙阴)和区3(贵定、咸丰)的丰产新品种(系)。这为中间香型烟叶产区烤烟新品种的筛选和评价提供了借鉴。

  3. Melhoramento do trigo: XII. Comportamento de novas linhagens e cultivares no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XII. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    -18',foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty one inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-17, and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experiment Center and Capão Bonito Experiment Station, during the years of 1982 and 1983, at Tietê Experiment Station, in 1982 and at Floresta Negra Farm, Maracaí, in 1983. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergente to maturation, percentage of layed plants, head length, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts were evaluated under field conditions and tests of resistance to stem and leal rusts and to aluminum were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. Considering the trials planted under sprinkler irrigation, at Campinas, the lines IAC-60 and IAC-67 showed good performance regarding to grain yield. In Capão Bonito, represented by acid soils, the lnes IAC-66, IAC-60 and IAC-69 showed high grain yield. The lines IAC-64, IAC-68, IAC-71 and IAC-60 presented good productivity at Tietê Experiment Station and IAC-67, IAC-63 and IAC-64 were more adapted to high soil fertility showing the best grain yields at Maracaí. The lines IAC-52, IAC-53, IAC-54, IAC-55, IAC-56, IAC-57, IAC-58, IAC-60, IAC-64, IAC-65, IAC-67, IAC-71 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 exhibited semi-dwarf type when compared to the tall cultivar BH-1146. In relation to stem rust, the lines IAC-62 and IAC-65 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 showed very good resistance presenting at seedling stage, resistance to seven rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. The line IAC-64 was resistant to four and IAC-52 and IAC-55 to three races of leaf rust in the seedling stage under greenhouse condition. The lines IAC-51, IAC-56, IAC-61, IAC-62, IAC-63 and IAC-67 presented

  4. Avaliação de cultivares de berinjela em armazenamento refrigerado Post-harvest quality of eggplant cultivars in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de diferentes cultivares de berinjela foram armazenados a 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% UR, por períodos de 7, 14 e 21 dias (+ 2 dias a 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR, com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento pós-colheita destes frutos. As cultivares estudadas foram Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli e Ciça. Verificaram-se diferenças nas respostas das diferentes cultivares em relação à perda de peso, pressão de turgescência e qualidade global durante o armazenamento refrigerado. A frigoconservação dos frutos foi viável até 7 dias para todos as cultivares. O armazenamento por período superior a 7 dias dependeu da cultivar. A cultivar Super F-100 foi a que apresentou a maior capacidade de armazenamento (21 dias.Our objective was to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of nine eggplant cultivars. Fruits were stored at 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% RH, for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days (including 2 days of simulated commercialization at 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH. The cultivars studies were Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli and Ciça. We measured changes in weight loss, turgor pressure and visual quality during the cold storage period. Low temperature storage of the fruits was acceptable up to 7 days for all cultivars. Storage above 7 days was dependent of the cultivar. The cultivar Super F-100 presented the largest storage capacity.

  5. Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Menezes Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf. (Syn. Urochloa were evaluated for their adaptation to water deficit and the stress response mechanisms in a greenhouse experiment. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars were evaluated under two water availability conditions, with or without water restriction. The harvests were carried out 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after the start of water restriction. For both cultivars, the water deficit stress caused a reduction in shoot biomass and leaf area and an increase in the percentage of roots in the deeper soil layers. The B. brizantha cv. Marandu reached critical levels of leaf water potential in a shorter period of water restriction than did the B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. The osmoregulation and deepening of the root system are mechanisms of adaptation to water stress observed in both Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars. Besides that, the Marandu cultivar also increases its leaf senescence and, consequentially, decreases its leaf area, as a response to water deficit.

  6. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  7. Descrição de características agronômicas e avaliação de épocas de colheita na produtividade da mamoneira cultivar IAC 2028 Description of agronomic characteristics and harvest time evaluation in the yield of castor bean cultivar IAC 2028

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Fanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona pode ser usada como matéria-prima para energia renovável, no entanto, torna-se necessário o uso de máquinas agrícolas adaptadas a sua colheita. Ao longo do ciclo são produzidos racemos de várias ordens, que se desenvolvem sob diferentes condições ambientais, que podem provocar variações na produtividade total da cultura. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar características agronômicas importantes à colheita mecânica bem como a interferência das épocas de colheita na produtividade da mamoneira. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento de campo, em blocos casualizados com 11 tratamentos x 5 repetições utilizando-se a cultivar indeiscente IAC 2028 , no ano agrícola de 2005/06 no Centro Experimental Central, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, Campinas (SP. Avaliaram-se a produtividade, o número de frutos e de sementes por racemo bem como a massa de mil sementes. Na avaliação das características agronômicas foi constatada uma grande desuniformidade de medidas entre as plantas, o que pode dificultar a colheita mecânica. Os demais resultados mostraram que o racemo secundário foi o que mais influenciou na produtividade total obtida e a colheita dos racemos, frutos e sementes, nas condições deste experimento, pode ser realizada em uma única etapa, sem que ocorram perdas de produtividade.The crop of castor bean can be used like raw material for renewable energy, however, becomes necessary the use of agricultural machines adapted to its harvest. During the crop growth racemes are produced under different environmental conditions which can cause variations in productivity of the crop. The purpose of this work was to evaluate important agronomic characteristics to mechanical harvest as well as the effect of time of harvest in productivity of castor bean. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with eleven treatments and five replications, with cultivar IAC 2028 , during the agricultural year of 2005

  8. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  9. Cultivar effect on the sweet cherry antioxidant and some chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, sugars and organic acids content of sweet cherry cultivars (Bianca, Burlat, Johanna 1, Johanna 2, Kordia, Kunzes Kirsche, Merton Premier, Napoleon, Orleans, Regina, Rivan, Schneiders Spate Knorpelkirsche, Summit, Trebnitzer Lotkirsche grown in Poland. Significant differences were observed between tested cultivars for all studied parameters.

  10. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

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    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Evaluation and Breeding of a New Sugarcane Cultivar Funong41%甘蔗新品种福农41号的选育与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓祖湖; 徐良年; 林彥铨; 罗俊; 林兆里; 林炜乐; 陈如凯

    2014-01-01

    福农41号是从组合 ROC20×粤糖91-976经多年选育出的中熟高产高糖强宿根甘蔗新品种,并于2014年通过国家鉴定。多年多点试验结果表明:福农41号出苗较好,苗壮,分蘖力较强,植株较高,中大茎至大茎,易脱叶,57号毛群不发达;抗黑穗病,中抗花叶病,宿根性好,耐寒性和宿根性比 ROC22强,群体结构的自我调节能力强,主茎与分蘖茎差异小,生长整齐,适宜机械化生产。多年多点试验结果表明,福农41号平均蔗茎产量、含糖量和甘蔗蔗糖分都比对照 ROC16和 ROC22高。%New sugarcane variety Funong 41 was selected from the cross ROC20×YT91-976. It was a new sugarcane cultivar released by Ministry of Agriculture in 2014 with high yield, high sucrose content, good ratooning ability and wide adaptability. The results from different sites for several years showed that it had many good characteristics, such as good germination, strong tillering, mid-high plant, mid-big stalk, easy to trash, few hair group, resistance to smut, mid resistance to mosaic, strong resistance to adversity. Its low-temperature resistance and ratooning ability was better than ROC22. It has the high ability for group self-adjustment. The difference between main stem and tiller stem is little, and suitable for mechanized production. The results from different sites for several years showed that the cane yield, sucrose content and sugar yield of Funong41 all higher than that of the checks ROC16 and ROC22.

  13. Characterization of the constituents and antioxidant activity of Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica IAC-259 cultivar) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Samuel T; Gosmann, Grace; Saffi, Jenifer; Presser, Márcio; Richter, Marc F; Bergold, Ana M

    2007-11-14

    Freeze-dried extracts from Camellia sinensis var. assamica IAC-259 cultivar named Brazilian green tea were prepared by hot water and ultrasound-assisted extractions using leaves harvested in spring and summer. Their caffeine and catechin contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. The antioxidant activity of the major green tea compounds and Brazilian green tea extracts was evaluated using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The levels of caffeine were higher in the summer samples (p extract not only epigallocatechin gallate but also epicatechin gallate (p Antioxidant activities of the Brazilian green tea extracts were not significantly different among seasons and extraction systems. The antioxidant data (IC50) of the Brazilian green tea extracts showed a significant correlation with their epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate contents (p < 0.05).

  14. Evaluation of Productivity and Stability of Soybean Cultivars in China's Huang-Huai-Hai Region%黄淮海地区大豆产量及其稳定性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦君; 杨春燕; 谷峰; 张耀斌; 冯燕; 唐晓东; 刘长友; 张孟臣

    2013-01-01

    [目的]解析黄淮海地区大豆育成品种产量构成因素对产量的贡献及其品种与环境的互作,鉴定代表性品种高产与稳产性,为黄淮海大豆育成品种在生产及育种中的有效利用提供理论依据.[方法]利用能够直观分析农作物双向数据的GGE (genotype+genotype-by-environment interaction)双标图,根据GGE中的“环境之间的关系”(“environmental vector” view)、“哪个赢在哪里”(“which-won-where” view)及“高产性和稳产性”(“mean VS stability”view)分析参试品种的高产特性与不同年份试验的代表性,解析黄淮海区域有代表性的94个夏大豆品种在2008-2010年份的产量与产量组成因子.[结果]不同年份相同区域的试验品种表现差异很大,品种与环境存在互作.单株粒重、单株粒数、单株荚数、百粒重是产量的主要贡献性状,其中,影响产量最重要的因素是单株粒重.三年中,受不同年度环境影响较小、稳产性较好且高产的品种有冀9号-3L-2、冀豆17、徐豆10号、中作00-484和7651-1.[结论]在产量构成因素中,对产量影响的最重要因子是单株粒重,其次为单株粒数、单株荚数和百粒重;相同区域不同年份间品种产量差异较大,品种与环境之间存在互作.%[Objective] The purpose of the study was to analyze the factors contributing to soybean yield,the cross interaction between gene and environment,and evaluation of productivity and stability of soybean cultivars in the Huang-Huai-Hai region in order to provide a theoretical basis for the effective utilization of soybean cultivars in production and breeding.[Method] GGE (genotype + genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot is a kind of software that would show the result of interaction between genotype and genotype-by-environment,in this study,94 summer soybean cultivars were grown in controlled conditions for three years from 2008 to 2010.The growth and yield data were analyzed

  15. Desempenho agronômico de quatro cultivares de almeirão Agronomic performance of four chicory cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura são escassas as informações sobre as principais cultivares de almeirão (Cichorium intybus cultivadas no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de almeirão na região de Campinas-SP. As cultivares avaliadas foram Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga e Pão-de-Açúcar, em experimento realizado em canteiros no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, de dezembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 com mudas transplantadas. O delineamento experimental no campo foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 50 dias após o transplante foram avaliadas cinco plantas de cada parcela quanto à altura, número de folhas, massa fresca e seca, e em duas dessas plantas avaliou-se a área foliar. Foi avaliado, também, o sabor, com e sem tempero, por seis provadores. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à altura das plantas, área foliar e sabor. 'Pão-de-Açúcar' apresentou em magnitude maior rendimento agronômico (516,0 g planta-1, seguida pela 'Folha Amarela' (432,7 g planta-1. Esta constitui-se em uma alternativa para o mercado, uma vez que apresenta desempenho semelhante ao das principais cultivares de almeirão comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo.In the literature there is little information about the main chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus grown in Brazil. The present paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of the chicory cultivars in the region of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga and Pão-de-Açúcar cultivars were evaluated, in an experiment carried out in field conditions in the Experimental Center of the Instituto Agronômico, from December 2009 to January 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 replications. At 50 days after transplanting five plants of each plot were evaluated for the height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight and two of these plants

  16. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  17. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Byskov, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    NDFI (P0.05) and similar proportion of large particles (P>0.01) compared with later harvest. Rumination time per kg NDFI decreased with higher NDFI per kg BW (Pdigestibility of NDF...... was greater in hay than in silage from the same harvest probably due to field loss and therefore confounded effects of conservation method. This study of high digestibility grass/clover silage and hay showed that NDF content and NDFI per kg BW affect fecal particle size and rumination time per kg NDF......, and suggests implementation of NDFI per kg BW in systems evaluating physical structure in diets....

  18. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, em Cruz Alta-RS, na safra 2000/01. Testaram-se duas condições de competição (ausência ou presença de nabo forrageiro durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da soja, combinadas com 11 cultivares da cultura. O efeito da competição com nabo é variável entre os cultivares, caracterizando variabilidade genética que permite selecionar genótipos portadores de habilidade competitiva superior. A competição com nabo reduz a estatura de planta, o comprimento médio dos ramos e a produtividade de grãos de soja. Entre os genótipos de soja utilizados, o cultivar MSoy 6101 destaca-se quanto à habilidade competitiva pela maior produtividade potencial de grãos na ausência de competição e pela capacidade de mantê-la diante da competição com nabo.The strong dependence on herbicides for weed control in soybean has led to the selection of tolerant and/or resistant weed plants. Besides the use of herbicides, integrated management includes techniques such as cultivar competitive ability to control weed plants. This work aimed to evaluate cultivar response to competition with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and to identify carriers of superior competitive ability. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Cruz Alta-RS, during the 2000/01 season. Two competition conditions (absence and presence of forage turnip during the soybean vegetative growth stage were tested in combination with 11 soybean cultivars. The effect of forage

  19. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    the same time, flow variability in the river has decreased and the abundance of total benthic macroinvertebrates at the Tailrace site has increased. The condition of trout in spring (averaged across all sampled trout) was positively correlated with fall and winter flow variability (including within-day skewness, within-season skewness and/or change in flow between days) at both locations. No negative correlations between trout condition and any measure of flow variability were detected. The length and weight of rainbow trout at the Little Hole site were negatively correlated with increasing fall and winter flow volume. The condition of brown trout at Little Hole and the condition of brown and rainbow trout at Tailrace were not correlated with flow volume. Macroinvertebrate variables during October were either positively correlated or not correlated with measures of trout condition at the Tailrace and Little Hole sites. With the exception of a positive correlation between taxa richness of macroinvertebrates in January and the relative weight of brown trout at Tailrace, the macroinvertebrate variables during January and April were either not correlated or negatively correlated with measures of trout condition. We hypothesize that high flow variability increased drift by dislodging benthic macroinvertebrates, and that the drift, in turn, resulted in mostly lower densities of benthic macroinvertebrates, which benefited the trout by giving them more feeding opportunities. This was supported by negative correlations between benthic macroinvertebrates and flow variability. Macroinvertebrate abundance (with the exception of ephemeropterans) was also negatively correlated with flow volume. The change in trout condition from fall to spring, as measured by the ratio of spring to fall relative weight, was evaluated to determine their usefulness as a standardized index to control for the initial condition of the fish as they enter the winter period. The ratio values were less

  20. Consistência do padrão de agrupamento de cultivares de milho Clustering pattern consistency of corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a consistência do padrão de agrupamento obtido a partir da combinação de duas medidas de dissimilaridade e quatro métodos de agrupamento, em cenários formados por combinações de número de cultivares e número de variáveis, com dados reais de cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. e com dados simulados. Foram usados os dados reais de cinco variáveis mensuradas em 69 experimentos de competição de cultivares de milho, cujo número de cultivares avaliadas oscilou entre 9 e 40. A fim de investigar os resultados com maior número de cultivares e de variáveis, foram simulados, sob distribuição normal padrão, 1.000 experimentos para cada um dos 54 cenários formados pela combinação entre o número de cultivares (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 e o número de variáveis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10. Foram realizadas análises de correlação, de diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e de agrupamento. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente de correlação cofenética. Há decréscimo da consistência do padrão de agrupamento com o acréscimo do número de cultivares e de variáveis. A distância euclidiana proporciona maior consistência no padrão de agrupamento em relação à distância de Manhattan. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento entre os métodos aumenta na seguinte ordem: Ward, ligação completa, ligação simples e ligação média entre grupo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency obtained from the combination of the two dissimilarity measures and four clustering methods, in scenarios consist of combinations number of cultivars and number of variables, with real data in corn cultivars (Zea mays L. and simulated data. We used real data from five variables measured in 69 trials involving corn cultivars, the number of cultivars ranged between 9 and 40. In order to investigate the results with more cultivars and

  1. Investigation on Pasting Characteristics of Spring-sown Chinese Bread Wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven spring wheat Triticumaestivum cultivars and advanced lines from spring-sown spring wheat regions, at twelve locations in 1998 and 1999, were used to investigate pasting properties of Chinese spring wheats. Starch pasting properties were closely associated with noodle quality. Significant differences were observed for all pasting characteristics. Samples collected from Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Bameng, Yongning, and Urumqi had better pasting quality than those from other locations. Genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction had large effects on all pasting characteristics. Significant correlations among pasting characteristics were observed and peak viscosity was considered the most important pasting characteristics.

  2. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  3. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan

    2014-08-01

    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  4. PERFORMANCE OF GLADIOLUS (Gladiolus grandiflora L.) CULTIVARS UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BAGH AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Shaukat, Syed; Shah, Syed; Syed SHOUKAT

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of most suitable cultivar under the climatic conditions of Bagh. Five cultivars of Gladiolus namely Amsterdam, Applause, Fidelio, Peter pears and Priscilla were evaluated for their adoptability and performance. Results on vegetative characteristics showed that cultivars Applause and Amsterdam took less number of days for sprouting, Fidelio and Priscilla produced more plants per corm and Applause obtained maximum plant height. Results on flo...

  5. Population Structure and Genotype–Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Michael Bonman, J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B.; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  6. Population structure and genotype-phenotype associations in a collection of oat landraces and historic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Rosemarie Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L. remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent; with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae resistance, days to anthesis and growth habit (winter/spring. In addition, two novel loci were

  7. Ambiguous genetic relationships among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars: the effects of outcrossing, sample source and size, and method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prior analysis of eight coconut cultivars with 15 microsatellite (SSR) markers drew unexpected relationships between two of the out-crossing tall cultivars evaluated: ‘Atlantic Tall’ and ‘Panama Tall’. We further investigated the relationships between these eight cultivars by increasing the number...

  8. Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Mazzeo, Maria F; Minasi, Paola; Peluso, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Siciliano, Rosa A; Carbone, Virginia

    2014-07-02

    Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.

  9. Physical and chemical characterization of fruits of mulberry cultivars from genus Morus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Okamoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry cultivars fruits (Morus spp.. The experiment was conducted at Marilia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was evaluated fruits of ten mulberry cultivars, IZ 1/1, IZ 1/2, IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12, IZ 2/1, IZ 3/1, IZ 4/1, IZ 15/1, Korin and Miura. The physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry fruits varied according to cultivar. Cultivar Korin stood out because showed higher soluble solids content and higher acidity, important requirements for better tasting fruit. When considering the volume for processing, the cultivars IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12 and IZ 15/1 had a higher mass.

  10. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-A1a and its effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sato, Mikako; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The Ppd-A1 genotype of 240 Japanese wheat cultivars and 40 foreign cultivars was determined using a PCR-based method. Among Japanese cultivars, only 12 cultivars, all of which were Hokkaido winter wheat, carried the Ppd-A1a allele, while this allele was not found in Hokkaido spring wheat cultivars or Tohoku-Kyushu cultivars. Cultivars with a photoperiod-insensitive allele headed 6.9-9.8 days earlier in Kanto and 2.5 days earlier in Hokkaido than photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. The lower effect of photoperiod-insensitive alleles observed in Hokkaido could be due to the longer day-length at the spike formation stage compared with that in Kanto. Pedigree analysis showed that 'Purple Straw' and 'Tohoku 118' were donors of Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a in Hokkaido wheat cultivars, respectively. Wheat cultivars recently developed in Hokkaido carry photoperiod-insensitive alleles at a high frequency. For efficient utilization of Ppd-1 alleles in the Hokkaido wheat-breeding program, the effect of Ppd-1 on growth pattern and grain yield should be investigated. Ppd-A1a may be useful as a unique gene source for fine tuning the heading time in the Tohoku-Kyushu region since the effect of Ppd-A1a on photoperiod insensitivity appears to differ from the effect of Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a.

  11. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirement of Four Apricot Cultivars of Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh hoshyar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Dormancy is one of the most important stages in the life cycle of temperate plants and plants are required to exit from it with supply of chill unit. Flowering is defined with chilling and heat requirement. Owing to low chilling requirement, blooming happens too early and cold temperatures produce an important loss of yield by frost. In temperate fruits, awareness of the need buds to avoid winter frost is one of the main objectives in breeding programs. Studies concerning chilling and heat requirements are thus of special interest in these species, being very important for the choice of parents in breeding programs to create superior varieties of winter and spring frost (late flowering and resistant cold provide. Utah is one of the most important model was introduced in 1974 by Richardson and colleagues. Effective temperature on cold storage in Utah model is 1/9-5/2. This is 6/1-9/12 in North Carolina and 8/1-9/13 in low chilling. Temperatures above 16 have negative effect on accumulation in Utah model. Later models were developed according to the Utah model that the Low chilling requirement (18 and the North Carolina (31 models are among them. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. is belonging to warm temperate regions and due to the lack of compatibility and apricot spring frost in Khorasan Razavi province, the identification of varieties and genotypes with high compatibility and high thermal and cooling requirements to reduce the risk of early frost and increase production efficiency, seems important. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for chilling and heat requirement in apricot cultivars. Material and methods: In this research, chilling and heating requirements of four local cultivars of apricot were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. This experiment was conducted at agricultural research station Golmakan. A factorial (two-factor experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with tree

  12. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  13. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  14. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  15. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  16. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  17. Processing potential of jellies from subtropical loquat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira CURI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit, and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for jelly processing, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different loquat cultivars (Fukuhara, Kurisaki, Mizumo, Mizuho and Mizauto grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly. Based on sensory acceptance the most suitable loquat cultivars for jelly processing are Kurisaki and Mizuho. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic, less sweet, less firm or softer loquat jelly, clearer with a more intense red color.

  18. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  19. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  20. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  1. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

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    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  2. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

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    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  3. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

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    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  4. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

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    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  5. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

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    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  6. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  7. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  8. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  9. 'Gloriosa': cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada 'Gloriosa': crisphead tropicalized cultivar

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    Fernando C. Sala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Gloriosa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. americana tropicalizada e resistente a Thielaviopsis basicola. Foi selecionada a partir de variantes da cultivar Lucy Brown, pelo método genealógico. Progênies S1 a S6 foram selecionadas para resistência a T. basicola, características hortícolas, tolerância ao pendoamento precoce e adaptação ao cultivo de verão. Apresenta ciclo precoce de 40 a 50 dias pós-transplante, pendoamento lento, cabeças grandes e três camadas de folhas externas. Possui tolerância a Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians e suporta o cultivo nos períodos de elevadas temperaturas e pluviosidade. Trata-se da primeira cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada no Brasil.'Gloriosa' is a tropicalized crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. resistant to Thielaviopsis basicola. It was derived by selection from cv. Lucy Brown variants by pedigree method. Progenies S1 to S6 were selected for T. basicola resistance, desirable horticulture traits, slowbolting and adaptation for Brazilian summer crop. It presents a precocious cycle within 40 to 50 days of being planted, slowbolting, large head and three layers of frame levels. It is tolerant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians and is able to be grown under high temperature and rainy summer in southern of Brazil. It is the first crisphead lettuce type developed for tropical regions of Brazil.

  10. Liquid corn and fish fertilizers are good options for fertigation in blackberry cultivars grown in an organic production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organic fertilizer source on growth, fruit quality, and yield of two cultivars ('Marion' and 'Black Diamond') blackberry grown organically for the processed market. The planting was established in spring 2010 and was certified organic in 2012. Plants were irrigated using a drip line un...

  11. Early evaluation and on field conditions of resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet of plants from Grande naine (AAA cultivar, obtained through out tissue culture and mutations induction

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    Lourdes R. García

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in the Plants Biotechnology Institute of the Central University of Las Villas. The plant material from the cv. Grande Naine (AAA was treated with physical mutagenic agents(gamma radiation 60Co source to induce genetic variability. The behaviour of the population to the black Sigatoka was evaluated. A somaclone was selected by its disease resistance and was in vitro multiplied and the plants were acclimatized to evaluate its behaviour facing the disease on greenhouse conditions and in a second cycle of multiplication in the field. The results showed that in the majority of the plants were not found differences respect cv Grande Naine, just one presented similar reaction to cv. ‘FHIA 18’ (AAAB (partially resistant as for the variable evaluated, being obtained a frequency of 0.018% for this character. This plant was named IBP 446. After 60 days of application of the mycelial homogenized of M. fijiensis in micropropagated plants of this somaclone, differences in the respect affectation states were found at susceptible witness in greenhouse conditions. When plants of the IBP 446 were evaluated in a second cycle of multiplication differences were found with the susceptible control only at flowering, while they behaved similar at susceptible control in the crop. Key words: early detection, breeding, mutation, Black Sigatoka

  12. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

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    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  13. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

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    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  14. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

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    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  15. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

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    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  16. DNA typing and genetic relations among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccacci, P; Akkak, A; Botta, R

    2006-06-01

    In this work, 78 hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars from various germplasm repositories were studied at 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in order to identify the genotypes and investigate their genetic relations. Polymorphism at SSR loci was evaluated on the basis of number of alleles (mean: 9.4), expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.78), and power of discrimination (mean: 0.91). Several synonyms reported in the literature were confirmed, and new cases of synonymy were identified. The parentage of North American cultivars 'Butler', 'Ennis', and 'Royal', the French selection 'Fercoril-Corabel', and 'Impératrice Eugenie' was investigated on the basis of the alleles present at 16 loci and analysis at 8 additional loci. A dendrogram generated from cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouped cultivars according to their pedigrees or geographical origins. There was an evident differentiation of the northern European cultivars from the southern European ones and from the Turkish cultivars. The latter clustered close to but separate from the Italian and Spanish clusters. It is very likely that exchanges of cultivars occurred between the central and western Mediterranean basin as a result of human migration and trade. A database containing the SSR profiles of the most important hazelnut cultivars will be useful for identification of cultivars and synonyms, legal protection, and parentage analysis.

  17. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  18. Cultivar variability of patatin biochemical characteristics: table versus processing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jan; Bártová, Veronika; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sedo, Ondrej

    2012-05-02

    Biochemical characteristics of patatin proteins purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from tubers of 20 potato cultivars were studied to evaluate their genotype differences with respect to utility groups, table potato cultivars (TPCs) and processing potato cultivars (PPCs). Both groups of cultivars showed similar values of protein content in dry matter (3.98-7.39%) and of patatin relative abundance (5.40-35.40%). Three mass levels (∼40.6, 41.8, and 42.9 kDa) of purified patatins were found by MALDI-TOF MS within all cultivars. Differences among mass levels corresponding with the mass of sugar antenna (∼1.2 kDa) confirmed the previous concept of different glycosylation extentsin patatin proteins. It was showed that the individual types of patatin varying in their masses occur in the patatin family in a ratio specific for each of the cultivars, with the lowest mass type being the major one. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated wide cultivar variability in number of patatin forms. Especially 2D-PAGE showed 17-23 detected protein spots independently on the utility group. Specific lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity of purified patatins from the individual tested cultivars varied between 0.92 and 5.46 μmol/(min mg). Patatin samples within most of the TPCs exhibited higher values of specific LAH activity than samples of PPCs. It may be supposed that individual patatin forms do not have similar physiological roles.

  19. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  20. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTER ALICE FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple is widely consumed and appreciated not only due to its taste and aroma, and also to its nutritional, functional and antioxidant properties, including its vitamin C and carotenoid contents. Brazil is one of the largest world’ pineapple producer, and Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars are the most commonly grown and marketed, but their susceptibility to fusariosis can compromise cultivation. New cultivars resistant to this pathogen are available to meet the demands of pineapple producers and consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pineapple fruits of Imperial, Victoria, IAC Fantástico and Gomo de Mel cultivars, as well as traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars. Fruits grown in the Triângulo Mineiro region were evaluated by colorimetry, determination of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds by spectrometry, antioxidant activity by ABTS and carotenoid profile by HPLC. Regarding color, Gomo de Mel cultivar showed lower brightness and higher value of parameter b*, indicating a more intense yellow color in this fruit. This result is consistent with the highest carotenoid concentration in this cultivar. Another cultivar that stood out was Imperial, which, while maintaining high carotenoid levels, also showed high concentrations of vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activity. Victoria cultivar showed low levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, even lower than IAC Fantástico cultivar, which showed levels of bioactive compounds similar to traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars.

  1. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  2. reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent rice yellow mottle virus strain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    undermine dissemination of new technologies and sustained productivity of the ... most virulent on RYMV susceptible cultivar (IR64), and thus used to constitute study treatment evaluated in the ..... (New Rice for Africa) - a compendium: Africa.

  3. Effect of Harvest Year and Altitude on Nutritional and Biometric Characteristics of Blueberry Cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correia, Sofia; Gonçalves, Berta; Aires, Alfredo; Silva, Ademar; Ferreira, Luís; Carvalho, Rosa; Fernandes, Hortense; Freitas, Cândida; Carnide, Valdemar; Paula Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to evaluate the influence of harvest year and altitude on chemical composition of four blueberry cultivars, in order to create rentable opportunities for producers and minimize...

  4. Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt A McCartney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat.

  5. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  6. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  7. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  8. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS ESTIMATED BY SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dvojković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presence and utilization of the genetic variability in the breeding programmes is prerequisite for their successfulness. Important factor for crop improvement is knowledge about the genetic diversity which providing a basis for the precise selection of parental combinations. Since beginning of 20th century, generation of wheat breeders and scientists in Croatia developed numerous advanced and successful wheat cultivars. Previous researches aimed to genetic diversity evaluation in Croatia were conducted by means of morphological traits, pedigree data (coefficients of parentage, proteins (glutenins and gliadins and RAPD DNA markers. DNA markers detect directly variation of DNA sequence for particular loci and they are not under influence of environment, epistatic and pleiotropic effects. Microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeats; SSRs, as highly polymorphic, informative and codominant DNA marker system, have been extensively used for genetic diversity studies on wheat world wide. A set of 98 wheat cultivars released in Croatia during the period 1905-2007, and 24 foreign cultivar (included because of their ancestral significance or as standards, were screened by 45 microsatellite markers, covering all three wheat genomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the microsatellites-based genetic diversity with emphasize on cultivars created at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, as well as to investigate SSR application for selection of genetically the most distant parental pairs. Preliminary data obtained by means of SSR markers showed a satisfactory level of genetic diversity and usefulness of microsatellites for parental selection.

  10. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  11. Incidência e severidade da malformação floral em seis cultivares de mangueira Incidence and severity of mango flower malformation in six cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Oliveira Dias

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência e a severidade da malformação floral em diferentes cultivares de mangueira (Mangifera indica L., em condições de clima semi-árido, no município de Santa Maria da Vitória, Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi conduzido no mês de julho de 2001, em um cultivo comercial formado por diversas cultivares divididas em talhões. Os tratamentos foram compostos por seis cultivares assim distribuídas: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3- Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6-Van Dyke. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi desenvolvido, os menores índices de incidência e severidade da malformação floral foram obtidos pela cultivar Rosa que não apresentou sintomas, seguida pela 'Bourbon'. A cultivar Haden apresentou os maiores índices da doença.The present work was developed with the objective to evaluate the incidence and the severity of mango flower malformation in different cultivars, in conditions of semi-arid region, in Santa Maria da Vitória, Bahia State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in july, 2001, in a mango orchard composed of different cultivars. The used treatments cultivars were: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3 Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6- Van Dyke. In the conditions that this work was carried out, the highest percentage of incidence and severity of flower malformation was gotten by Haden variety. Rosa and Bourbon cultivars presented minimum occurrence of the disease.

  12. Avaliação do crescimento e da maturação pós-colheita de pêras da cultivar shinsseiki Evaluation of growth and postharvest ripening of shinsseiki pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO RICARDO BOLTE LOMBARDI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer características do crescimento e verificar os efeitos pós-colheita de etileno exógeno em frutos da pereira asiática (Pyrus pirifolia 'Shinsseiki'. Em intervalos de 14 dias a partir da plena floração, foram medidos o comprimento e o diâmetro de 20 frutos marcados em 10 plantas de pomar estabelecido em Canguçu, RS. Quando atingiram o máximo desenvolvimento, 168 frutos foram colhidos e submetidos à imersão, por cinco minutos, em soluções com zero, 50, 100 e 150 mg L-1 de ácido 2cloroetil fosfônico (CEPA. Em seguida, foram armazenados por 18 dias à temperatura ambiente, e submetidos a sete avaliações, em intervalos de três dias. Durante a fase de crescimento, foram observados uma curva de crescimento do tipo sigmoidal simples, evolução do ganho de peso e dos teores dos sólidos solúveis totais (SST, redução da acidez titulável total (ATT e da firmeza da polpa. Nos tratamentos póscolheita observaram-se rápida intensificação da cor na epiderme, com o aumento nas doses de CEPA, significativa perda de peso, redução na firmeza da polpa e aumentos graduais nos valores da ATT e do SST. A relação SST/ATT manteve-se constante. As pêras da cultivar Shinsseiki apresentam comportamento climatérico e a concentração de 50 mg L-1 de CEPA já é suficiente para antecipar a maturação em 9 a 12 dias.The objective of this work was to determine fruit development and postharvest ripening of Asian pears cv. Shinsseiki (Pyrus pirifolia treated with different concentrations of 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (CEPA. Fruit growth was evaluated at 14 day intervals starting from full bloom; length and diameter of 20 marked fruits were measured in ten plants from an orchard established in Canguçu, RS, Brazil. At maximum growth, 168 fruits were harvested and submitted to immersion for five minutes in solutions of zero, 50, 100 and 150 mg L-1 of CEPA. After the treatment, pears were held at room

  13. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Steven L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Watson, Bruce D. (Yakima Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2003-05-01

    4 and 5. In addition, male reproductive success was more than twice as variable as that seen in females. Some males apparently never spawned and others produced more than 7,000 offspring an amount that was more than double the quantity generated by the most successful female. Behavioral observations showed that a number of factors besides male origin influenced their reproductive success. One was relative body size; larger males tended to dominate smaller opponents and therefore had greater access to females. However, male dominance was not always related to relative size. The ability to attack and chase opponents was, however, positively related to reproductive success. We also discovered that the reproductive status of females and the social status of males were often reflected by their nuptial coloration. Territorial females typically had a single broad purple black stripe, light green or brown backs and white or gray ventral surfaces. Dominate males on the other hand, were generally a uniform dark brown or black color. The percentage of time that a male possessed a dark color pattern was positively linked to his reproductive success, as was the percentage of time he was observed courting or defending a female. The number of times a male was chased or attacked by a female also affected his reproductive success, in this situation the greater the frequency of such attacks the lower the reproductive success of the male. The pedigree analyses also disclosed that both hatchery and wild precocious males were able to fertilize eggs and produce offspring under natural spawning conditions. In conclusion we found differences in the reproductive competency of hatchery- and wild origin spring chinook. Wild females were better at depositing their eggs and having those eggs produce fry. In one study group wild males were more successful at producing offspring than hatchery males. Additional replications of such evaluations are being carried out to determine if the differences

  14. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on intake, digestibility, and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B M; Taweel, H Z; Smit, H J; Elgersma, A; Dijkstra, J; Tamminga, S

    2005-09-01

    The effects of 8 diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on dry matter (DM) intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield (MY) of dairy cows were evaluated in the summer of 2000 and 2001. Each summer, herbage was harvested daily and stall-fed to 12 dairy cows during six 2-wk periods. Six cultivars were fed in 3 periods (1, 3, and 5) according to a double 3 x 3 Latin square design. In the other periods (2, 4, and 6), 2 cultivars were fed in a repeated measurement design. Herbage mass and leaf blades in the sward canopy varied among cultivars, but differences were not consistent between years. The largest differences in herbage composition were found in water-soluble carbohydrate content, followed by crude protein content. only small differences were found in the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. A higher water-soluble carbohydrate content was found in 2 cultivars in both years, whereas ranking of cultivars in crude protein and NDF content was not consistent with years. Dry matter intake and MY were not affected by cultivar. In both years, DM digestiblity was high (>77%), with very small differences among cultivars in 2000 (<0.5%) and larger differences in 2001 (up to 4%). This was associated with a delayed heading date in 2001, resulting in larger differences in leaf blades and NDF content among cultivars. It may be concluded that the 8 cultivars used in our experiments do not provide grass breeders with encouraging evidence to include selection criteria for an increased DM intake, DM digestibility, and MY in their grass breeding schemes.

  15. Avaliação da capacidade reprodutiva de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros visando a obtenção de porta-enxertos Evaluation of reproductive capacites from some quinces cultivate of seeking for rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Campo Dall'Orto

    2007-04-01

    reproduction has fundamental importance to the purposes of the genetic improvement, mainly in the verification of the plants viability, obtained by seeds. The present work has as objective to verify the reproduction capacity and development of quince cultivars. Mature fruits of eight quinces cultivates were collected ('Sugar', 'Champion', 'Cheldow', 'Manning', 'Mato Dentro', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Portugal' and 'Smyrna'. The seeds were extracted, getting the average of the weight and of the number of seeds for fruit, washed in water and dried for 48 hours, placed in Petri dishes containing humidified cotton and stratification in refrigerating with 5ºC of temperature, the percentage of seeds germinated in five week collections after the 87th day were collected. The seeds germinated were transferred for nursery conditions with 50% of brightness After four months of the plantation, the first revenue evaluation was made, being later on the dumb ones transplanted for plastic recipients of 28 x 35 cm, containing soil previously treated. After three months the transplanted was evaluated and after eight months of that collection, the last evaluation was made, collected the height and the diameter, being calculated the standard deviation and the percentage of seedlings capable the accomplishment of the grafting. The medium number of seeds for fruit varied of 16.8 to 38.2, while the weight of 100 seeds varied between 3.6 and 4.2 g; 'Mato Dentro', 'Cheldow', 'Champion' and 'Portugal' quinces, presented higher percentages of seeds germination; 'Champion' quince presented higher seedlings revenue and number of viable plants the after the grafting.

  16. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  17. Genotype-dependent regulation of drought-responsive genes in tolerant and sensitive sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Manassés Daniel; de Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2017-10-30

    Drought is the most damaging among the major abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic studies allow a global overview of expressed genes, providing the basis for molecular markers development. Here, the HT-SuperSAGE technique allowed the evaluation of four drought-tolerant cultivars and four-sensitive cultivars, after 24h of irrigation suppression. We identified 9831 induced unitags from roots of the tolerant cultivars with different regulations by the -sensitive cultivars after the applied stress. These unitags allowed a proposal of 15 genes, whose expressed profiles were validated by RT-qPCR, evaluating each cultivar independently. These genes covered broad metabolic processes: ethylene stress attenuation (ACCD); root growth (β-EXP8); protein degradation [ubiquitination pathway (E2, 20SPβ4); plant proteases (AP, C13)]; oxidative detoxification (TRX); fatty acid synthesis (ACC); amino acid transport (AAT), and carbohydrate metabolism [glycolysis (PFK, TPI, FBA); TCA cycle (LDP, MDH); pentose phosphate pathway (TKT)]. The expressed profiles showed a genotype-dependent regulation of the target genes. Two drought-tolerant cultivars (SP83-2847; CTC6) presented each one, nine of the induced genes. Among the -sensitive cultivars, CTC13 induced only one, while SP90-1636 induced two genes. These genes should help breeders to identify accessions managing drought stress tolerance responses, showing better ethylene stress attenuation, energy allocation, amino acid transport, and protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  19. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  20. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  1. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  2. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  3. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  4. Características qualitativas de cultivares de cebola no sul de Minas Gerais Qualitative characteristics of onion cultivars in southern Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Júlio de Rezende Chagas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a composição físico-química e química de cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio na Fazenda Experimental de Lavras da EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, no período de março a setembro de 1995. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 6 tratamentos, constituídos pelas cultivares Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu e Texas Grano 502. Após a cura, avaliaram-se o pH, sólidos solúveis e totais (%, acidez titulável (%, ácido pirúvico (µmol/g, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores (% e índice industrial dos bulbos. As cultivares Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro e Jubileu apresentaram as maiores concentrações de sólidos totais e solúveis. A acidez mais elevada foi observada nas cultivares Crioula (0,370% e Pira Ouro (0,315%. Os maiores índices industriais foram apresentados pelas cultivares Crioula (0,87 e Baia Periforme (0,75, e os menores, pelas cultivares Texas Grano 502 (0,51 e Granex 33 (0,32.This study was carried out from March to September of 1995, in the Experimental Field of EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, Brazil, with the objective of determining the physico-chemical and chemical composition of onions from different cultivars (Allium cepa L.. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with four repetitions and six cultivars as follow: Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu and Texas Grano 502. After the cure it was evaluated the pH, soluble and total solids (%, titrate acidity (%, pyruvic acid (µmol/g, total sugar, reducers and non reducers (% and industrial index. The cultivars Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro and Jubileu showed the largest concentrations of total and soluble solids. The highest acidity indexes were observed in the cultivars Crioula (0.370% and Pira Ouro (0.315%. The largest industrial indexes were found in the cultivars Crioula (0.87 and Baia Periforme (0.75, and the smallest ones in the

  5. Yields and resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases in the field, and cultivar responses to pathogens under controlled environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling FANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Devastating outbreaks of crown and root diseases have impacted severely on commercial strawberry production in Western Australia (W.A.. Studies were conducted to evaluate the yields, and resistance of three commercial strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases, both in fumigated and non-fumigated field beds, and to determine the responses of eight commercial cultivars to individual pathogens under controlled conditions. In the field, cv. Camino Real showed the greatest fruit yield both in fumigated and non-fumigated beds, and was the most disease-resistant cultivar. Each cultivar had a greater fruit yield and a lower amount of plant decline in fumigated beds, compared with non-fumigated beds. Both for fumigated and non-fumigated beds, the amount of plant decline increased from August to November, particularly in non-fumigated beds. Under controlled conditions, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Camarosa most susceptible to wilt-causing Fusarium oxysporum. Against binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Phoma exigua, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Aromas most susceptible. Cultivar Camino Real was the most resistant to Gnomonia fructicola and Phytophthora cactorum and cv. Festival most resistant to Pythium ultimum. Against Macrophomina phaseolina, cv. Albion was the most resistant with cv. Camarosa the most susceptible. Cultivar Camarosa, the most widely grown cultivar in W.A., was most susceptible to F. oxysporum, while cv. Camino Real was resistant to F. oxysporum both in the field and the controlled environment conditions. Cultivar Festival is the most resistant cultivar to F. oxysporum and a range of different pathogens. The Australian bred cv. Juliette was as susceptible as cv. Camarosa to F. oxysporum, but relatively resistant to binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A. This is the first study, not only to define the relative yield potentials of different cultivars in a situation where crown and root disease

  6. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  7. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  9. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  10. Caracterização de cultivares de Coffea arabica mediante utilização de descritores mínimos Characterization of Coffea arabica cultivars by minimum descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Tosoni da Eira Aguiar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 70% do café produzido e comercializado mundialmente é oriundo de Coffea arabica. A espécie apresenta base genética estreita sendo as cultivares bastante aparentadas e originárias em sua maioria das tradicionais cultivares Típica e Bourbon. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar a eficiência de descritores mínimos na caracterização de cultivares de cafeeiros e como diferenciadores entre cultivares a serem submetidas ao processo de proteção de cultivares no Brasil. Foram avaliadas trinta e oito características botânicas ou tecnológicas das plantas, folhas, flores, frutos, sementes, assim como três características agronômicas. Utilizaram-se vinte e nove cultivares de cafeeiros selecionadas pelo Instituto Agronômico, sendo avaliadas trinta plantas de cada cultivar. Os resultados evidenciaram que apenas com a utilização das características porte, cor do fruto, resistência ao agente da ferrugem, Hemileia vastatrix e ciclo de maturação é possível obter uma discriminação eficiente dos diferentes grupos de cultivares avaliadas. A cor das folhas jovens e o diâmetro da copa revelaram-se importantes descritores na discriminação de cultivares do grupo Mundo Novo. Não foi possível, porém, identificar descritores eficientes na discriminação das cultivares dos grupos Catuaí Vermelho, Catuaí Amarelo e Icatu Vermelho.The species Coffea arabica is responsible for 70% of the world coffee production. The majority of cultivars has a narrow genetic origin, being derived basically from two old cultivars: Tipica and Bourbon. This investigation was carried out aiming at the characterization of selected cultivars of the Instituto Agronomico according to standard descriptors. Thirty five morphological or technological traits of canopy, leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds and three agronomic traits were evaluated in twenty nine cultivar lines of the current breeding program. The variables plant height, fruit

  11. Studies on Taste Evaluation Indices for Fresh Apple Juice Based on 159 Cultivars%基于159个品种的苹果鲜榨汁风味评价指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 李海飞; 李静; 王昆; 李志霞; 毋永龙

    2012-01-01

    Using 159 cultivars of apple as samples,relationships among taste,titrable acids(Ta), soluble solid(sSSo),soluble sugar(sSSu),soluble solids/titrable acid(sSSo/Ta),and soluble sugar/titrable acids(SSu/Ta) of fresh apple juice were investigated,and the suitable quantitative evaluation indices for taste of fresh juice and their grading standards were established. The results denoted that:Taste value (Tv),Ta,SSo,SSu,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice had different dispersion,their coefficient of variation were between 12.2% and 60.7%;Both Ta and SSo of fresh apple juice distributed normally, SSu also distributed normally after 2 cultivars were removed,while Tv distributed near normally;Among Tv,Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice,there were highly significant simple linear equations or power functions with coefficient of determination up to 0.8811–0.9740;Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta were all suitable quantitative evaluation indices for taste of fresh apple juice,among which Ta is the most handy and accurate one;Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice were all divided into 5 grades(the corresponding taste of fresh apple juice were respectively sweet,sour-sweet,sour-sweet moderately, sweet-sour,and sour),and the average cultivar ratio of the 5 grades were 3.35%,20.55%,40.67%, 22.64%,and 12.79%,respectively.%以159个苹果品种为试材,探讨了鲜榨汁风味、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比及糖酸比之间的相互关系,明确了苹果鲜榨汁风味的适宜定量评价指标及其分级标准。苹果鲜榨汁风味值、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比和糖酸比离散度不同,变异系数在12.2%~60.7%;鲜榨汁可滴定酸含量和可溶性固形物含量均符合正态分布,在去掉两个拖尾品种后可溶性糖含量也符合正态分布,风味值近似正态分布;风味值、可滴定酸含量、固酸比和糖酸比之间存在极显著的一

  12. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  13. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  14. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  15. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  16. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  17. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  18. Preliminary Screening and Evaluation of Bacterial Wilt-resistance Cherry Tomato Cultivars%抗青枯病樱桃番茄品种的初步筛选及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉莎; 刘建平; 胡规媛; 莫秀文; 杜彩娴; 王红; 梁少丽; 吕顺; 李洪波; 郑汉文

    2016-01-01

    对28个樱桃番茄品种的田间抗病性、植株类型、单果质量、果色、可溶性固形物含量等主要经济性状进行调查。试验结果表明,感病品种红艳发病最重,发病率为73.67%,其次是红箭、红日和金艳,发病率分别为23.33%、21.67%和20.33%,其他品种发病率都在20%以下;28个品种的果实颜色、大小、口感等差异明显,除黑宝石映泰及黄金蛋可溶性固形物含量在4.10%以下外,其他品种可溶性固形物含量都达5.20%以上。综合分析,筛选出绿天使、粉仙、红娘9号、绿圆、格丽贝、红椭圆等11个抗青枯病且经济性状优良的樱桃番茄品种,为优质抗青枯病樱桃番茄的选育和推广提供了参考。%This experiment investigated the main economic characteristics of 28 cherry tomato cultivars including disease resistance, plant type, single fruit weight, fruit color, soluble solid content, etc. The results showed that the sensitive cultivar Hongyan had the highest disease incidence, and its disease incidence was 73.67%, followed by Hongjian, Hongri, and Jinyan with the disease incidence of 23.33%, 21.67% and 20.33% respectively, while disease incidence of other tomatoes cultivars were below 20%. 28 cherry tomato cultivars were obvious differences in fruit color, size, taste, etc. Soluble solid content of most tomato cultivars were more than 5.20% besides Heibaoshiyingtai and Huangjingdan, which soluble solid content were blow 4.10%. Other 11 bacterial wilt-resistance cherry tomato cultivars including Lvtianshi, Fenxian, Hongniang No.9, Lvyuan, Gelibei, Hongtuoyuan and so on with excellent economic characteristics were selected out. This study would provide references for cultivar breeding and promotion of cherry tomato.

  19. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  20. RESPONSE OF CABBAGE CULTIVARS TO BLACK ROT INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars were ... and stable cultivar(s) with adequate resistance to black rot caused by ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics: ... black rot development in introduced cabbage.

  1. Variation in Growth, Physiology, and Yield of Six Sugarcane Cultivar from across the Globe grown in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is an important crop in south Florida and across the world. Evaluation of cultivars with diverse genetic background under similar location can help us in understanding cultivar response to environment and in identifying various physiological traits that...

  2. Northern highbush blueberry cultivars differed in yield and fruit quality in two organic production systems from planting to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Northern highbush blueberry cultivars were evaluated in a certified organic research site. The treatments included cultivar and amendment-mulch and “weed mat”. Plant traits and yield were collected from the 2nd through 8th growing seasons. Adding on-farm compost as a pre-plant amendment and as part...

  3. Produção de mudas de cultivares de morangueiro em duas épocas de coleta Runners production of strawberry cultivars in two collection dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tessarioli Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande importância das mudas na implantação de um cultivo de morango, pouca importância tem sido dada a estudos experimentais nesta fase da cultura. Avaliou-se o comportamento de sete cultivares de morangueiro na fase de produção de mudas, em duas épocas, sob condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completamente casualizados, com 14 tratamentos e 4 repetições através de um esquema fatorial 7 x 2. Os fatores estudados foram cultivar (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka e Korona e épocas de coleta das mudas (14/03/1997; 15/04/1997. Determinou-se a quantidade de mudas produzidas por metro quadrado e a classificação das mudas em quatro categorias: Extra, Primeira, Segunda e Descarte. Houve diferenças quanto a quantidade de mudas de morangueiro produzidas por metro quadrado, de acordo com a cultivar. As cultivares Dover e Campinas produziram maior quantidade de mudas do que as cultivares Korona, Chandler, Princesa Isabel, Toyonoka e Pajaro, independentemente da época de coleta. A coleta de mudas na segunda época (15/04/97 proporcionou a obtenção de mudas de qualidade superior à observada na primeira época (14/03/97, independente da cultivar.In spite of the great importance of runners in the formation of new strawberry fields, little importance has been given to experimental studies of this phase of the crop. There were evaluated seven strawberry cultivars in the stage of runner production, during two different collection dates under field conditions, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with 14 treatments and 4 replications, using a factorial scheme of 7 x 2. The variables were the cultivars (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka and Korona and the dates of runner collection (14/031997;15/04/1997. The runners were considered according to four categories: Extra

  4. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  5. Instability of ramulosis reaction of cotton cultivars with respect to protection and registration procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva-Mann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction to ramulosis is a descriptor in the protection and registration of cotton cultivars. This descriptoris however not as homogeneous, distinguishable and stable as desired, since it depends on the isolates and the edaphoclimaticconditions. To evaluate the stability of this descriptor for cotton cultivars the Specific combining ability (SCA, generalcombining ability (GCA and the general aggressiveness (GA were estimated for the cultivars EPAMIG 5 - Precoce 1, IAC-22, EPAMIG 4 - Redenção, CNPA – ITA 96 and CNPA – ITA 90, which were inoculated with isolates of Colletotrichum gossypiivar. cephalosporioides, causal agents of ramulosis. The symptoms were evaluated 10 and 40 days after inoculation. Thesignificance of the variables SCA, GCA and GA indicated variability of horizontal resistance and isolate aggressiveness. Thisperformance suggests specific responses of the cultivars to the contact with different pathogen isolates and consequently,instability of this descriptor.

  6. Genetic diversity of some apple cultivars in the south of Syria based on morphological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Al-Halabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to evaluate genetic diversity among five local and six introduced apple cultivars in the germplasm which located in the South of Syria based on 29 morphological characters of leaf and fruit. The analysis of variance showed significant differences at P < 0.05 for all measured parameters, however the mean values of Limb length and width, fruit weight, length, and width indicated to a wide range of diversity between local and introduced cultivars, that the introduced cultivars have mostly the highest mean value while the local cultivars have the lowest mean values, that clearly found in the local apple cultivar Ksairi (K which revealed the lowest mean value of fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL and fruit diameter (FD in the comparison with all studied cultivars. Likewise, principal component analysis (PCA was used and the first 4 principal components accounted for 76.4% of the total variance, with eigen values 29.2%, 18.8%, 16.9% and 11.5% respectively. The main important characters in PC1 are correlated with the high mean value of width of stalk cavity (WP, fruit weight (FW, fruit diameter (FD, fruit length (FL, core length (CL, width of calyx cavity (WC, core width (CW, depth of stalk cavity (DP, stalk diameter (SD, seed width (SeW and leaf margin (LM. PC2 discriminated among cultivars depending on Fruit shape (FS, leaf shape (LS, over color (OC, maturity time (MT, core shape (CS, limp length (LL and leaf base (LB which were able to differentiate between all studied cultivars . PC3 is correlated with the high mean value of Stalk length (SL, titratable acidity (TA, total sugar (TS, and total soluble solids (TSS. PC4 is correlated with the high mean value of depth of calyx cavity (DC, leaf apices (LA and fruit cross section (FCS. Cluster analysis was also used that divided the studied cultivars into two clusters, the first cluster included all local apple cultivars, in addition to Leaz Golden (LG cultivar, however AbouGhabra (AG

  7. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  8. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wi and S2GxYindicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  9. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  10. Assessment of Tolerance of Late-Flowering Almond Cultivars to Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bybordi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tolerance to salinity in almond, this factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications in greenhouse of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in East Azerbaijan province. The first factor included almond cultivars (Mangha, Nonpareil, Eskandar, Araz and Sahand, and the second factor was salinity levels (electrical conductivity of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. In this experiment, the plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, chlorophyll index and concentration of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium were measured. The results showed that the highest plant height belonged to Eskandar and Sahand cultivars. With increasing the salinity level, nitrogen concentration of the leaves decreased. Leaves of Mangha cultivar had the highest chlorine content. Although calcium concentrations of the leaves in various salinity levels were in the same statistical group, but calcium concentration was increased in higher salinity levels. Araz cultivar had the highest concentration of magnesium in its leaves. Interaction of salinity × cultivar for phosphorus content showed that Araz cultivar produced the highest phosphorus content in its leaves at salinity level of 16 dS/m. Statistical results of sodium to potassium ratio, which is an index for resistance to salinity, showed that Araz was the most tolerant almond cultivar against salinity.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN SOME IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING SDS-PAGE

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    Sayed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is most adapted tree to grow in desert areas. It has always been looked on as a key source of stability, survival and evolution of the oasis agro-system since it constitutes the basic features of the ecological pyramid in desert regions. Determining genetic variability and cultivars identification in date palm are two major important factors in breeding programs, characterization of germplasm, and conservation purposes. The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE for 9 cultivars in Shahdad region in Iran. A total of 16 alternative protein bands with different mobility rates were identified within a molecular weight range of 11 KDa to 350 KDa. Then, electrophorogram for each cultivar was scored, and Jaccard‘s Similarity Index was calculated. Relying on UPGMA and NJ methods, genetic diversity of cultivars was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for protein bands. Moreover, genetic distance was calculated for all of the cultivars.  It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in genetic diversity studies and classification of cultivars. The cultivars from Shahdad were well separated from each other. This might have been done due to their unique genetic build-up. The cluster analysis displayed five major classes. In order to precise this assumption, data were computed to perform a PCA. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated their validity in establishing genetic diversity. When PCA was studied, the previously described results about Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram were also visualized.

  12. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers.

  13. Processamento de tomate seco de diferentes cultivares Dried tomato processing of different cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco apresenta um consumo crescente, principalmente como ingrediente de pizzas e lasanhas, e na forma de aperitivo. A pesquisa avaliou o processo de produção de tomate seco de quatro cultivares comerciais (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia e a qualidade dos produtos prontos. O tomate foi fatiado em quatro cortes longitudinais, sentido pedúnculo-ápice, e as fatias tiveram suas massas loculares removidas. O secador foi regulado nas primeiras três horas para 100ºC, seguido de 80ºC até completar a secagem do produto, o qual apresentou uma umidade residual em torno de 60%. A cv. Delícia produziu a maior perda de 39,8% durante o preparo das fatias frescas, sendo que as perdas para as demais cultivares variaram entre 32,7 a 34,3%. Os rendimentos dos tomates inteiros em produtos prontos foram iguais a: cv. Débora Plus 9,1%; cv. Santa Cruz 8,9%; cv. Delícia 8,6%; e cv. Italiano 8,3%. O maior tempo de secagem de 9 horas e 25 minutos foi para a cv. Delícia; as demais apresentaram um mínimo de 8 horas e 10 minutos (Italiano e um máximo de 8 horas e 35 minutos (Santa Cruz. Os tomates secos das cultivares Italiano e Débora Plus apresentaram-se levemente adocicados; o da cv. Santa Cruz foi ainda menos; e, esta característica foi de difícil percepção para o da cv. Delícia, que também teve uma mastigação não suave e mais prolongada. Apesar da diferença, os produtos tomates secos obtidos a partir dessas cultivares não diferiram significativamente quanto ao paladar quando degustados por provadores não treinados.Consumption of dried tomatoes has been increasing, mainly as an ingredient of pizzas and lasagnas, and also as an appetizer. This study evaluated the production process of four commercial varieties (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia and the quality of the finished products, which had a moisture content of around 60%. The tomatoes were sliced into four longitudinal cuts in the stalk-apex direction and

  14. Abordagem Bayesiana das curvas de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro Bayesian approach in the growth curves of two cultivars of common bean

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    Sebastião Martins Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia Bayesiana para ajustar o modelo não-linear logístico para dados de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, "Neguinho" e "Carioca". O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo que os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas cultivares e as subparcelas foram constituídas por 17 períodos de avaliações, do plantio até aos 85 dias. A metodologia permitiu comparar as curvas de crescimentos sem utilizar a teoria assintótica e estes resultados mostraram um maior incremento em altura para a cultivar "Carioca".In this paper the Bayesian methodology was used to fit the logistic nonlinear model to growth data of two common bean cultivars, 'Neguinho' and 'Carioca'. The experiment was a split plot under a completely randomized design with twenty replicates, being the main treatments constituted by cultivars and the sub plots constituted by seventeen periods of evaluations, from planting to 85 days. The methodology allowed comparing the growth curves without using the asymptotic theory, and these results showed a larger height increment for the 'Carioca' cultivar.

  15. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal S M Sabir

    Full Text Available Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for

  16. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    lisa, apresentando folhas de tamanho uniforme e bem arranjadas. Entre as de folha crespa solta destacaram-se as cultivares. Verônica e Marisa. A cultivar Lucy Brown do tipo americana (crisp head também foi bastante produtiva.Due to the environmental conditions verified in the state of Acre, characterized by the occurrence of high temperatures and precipitation, cultivars traditionally used by the producers present low yield and poor quality. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the behavior of the new lettuce cultivars available in the market, in terms of agronomic characteristics and yield, in the climatic and soil conditions of Rio Branco. Two trials were accomplished in the Embrapa Acre experimental farm, in a dark red claysoil, of loamy texture. The first from May to July 1996 (dry season and the second from December 1996 to February 1997 (rainy season. The cultivars Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa and Verônica were evaluated. 'Regina 71' and 'Elisa' were only included on the dry season trial. The experimental design was a randomized block, with three replications. During the dry season, the cultivars Simpson, Lucy Brown and Regina 71 presented the largest average weights (373; 362 and 341 g, respectively and commercial yields (49.8; 48.3 and 45.5 t/ha, respectively. In general, the cultivars with smooth leaves with or without head presented larger nematoid (Meloidogyne javanica attack index, when compared to the curly type ones. In the rainy season trials, the cultivars Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá and Piracicaba-65 presented the greatest average weights and commercial yields. However, the obtained averages were very inferior to that verified in the trials of the dry period, varying from 164 to 198 g for average weight, and from 21.9 to 25.9 t/ha for commercial yield. Of those cultivars tested on the dry season, Regina 71 (butter head

  17. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  18. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  19. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Regina Lúcia Felix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Antônio Jussie da Silva Solino; Eliana Mara Napoli Corrêa de Paula da Silva; Maísa Pinto Bravin

    2015-01-01

    The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was co...

  20. Diversidade genética em cultivares locais e comerciais de feijão baseada em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity in cultivars and landraces of common bean based on RAPD markers analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marti Emygdio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética dentro e entre cultivares locais e comerciais de feijão, por meio de marcadores RAPD, e avaliar a capacidade destes em agrupar genótipos de feijão de acordo com o centro de domesticação e coloração de semente. Foram avaliadas 35 cultivares, 13 comerciais e 22 locais, de diversas regiões do Rio Grande do Sul. As distâncias genéticas foram obtidas pelo complemento do coeficiente de similaridade de Sorensen-Dice e a representação simplificada destas distâncias realizada mediante um dendrograma. Marcadores RAPD foram eficientes ao agrupar cultivares de acordo com o centro de domesticação, mas não foram capazes de separar as cultivares de acordo com a coloração da semente. Cultivares locais e comerciais, mesoamericanas, foram agrupadas separadamente. Cultivares comerciais, em cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul apresentam alto grau de similaridade.The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity within and among cultivars and landraces of common bean from RAPD markers analysis, and to evaluate the capacity of this markers in clustering common bean genotypes according to domestication centers and seed color. Thirty five common bean genotypes including 13 commercial cultivars and 22 landraces, from State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were evaluated. Genetic distances were calculated using Sorensen-Dice's similarity coefficient, displayed in a dendrogram. RAPD markers were efficient in separating cultivars and landraces according to domestication centers, but not according to seed color. Mesoamerican commercial cultivars and landraces have been clustered in different groups. A high degree of similarity was observed among cultivars in use in Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  2. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  3. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Steven L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Watson, Bruce D. (Yakima Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2003-05-01

    4 and 5. In addition, male reproductive success was more than twice as variable as that seen in females. Some males apparently never spawned and others produced more than 7,000 offspring an amount that was more than double the quantity generated by the most successful female. Behavioral observations showed that a number of factors besides male origin influenced their reproductive success. One was relative body size; larger males tended to dominate smaller opponents and therefore had greater access to females. However, male dominance was not always related to relative size. The ability to attack and chase opponents was, however, positively related to reproductive success. We also discovered that the reproductive status of females and the social status of males were often reflected by their nuptial coloration. Territorial females typically had a single broad purple black stripe, light green or brown backs and white or gray ventral surfaces. Dominate males on the other hand, were generally a uniform dark brown or black color. The percentage of time that a male possessed a dark color pattern was positively linked to his reproductive success, as was the percentage of time he was observed courting or defending a female. The number of times a male was chased or attacked by a female also affected his reproductive success, in this situation the greater the frequency of such attacks the lower the reproductive success of the male. The pedigree analyses also disclosed that both hatchery and wild precocious males were able to fertilize eggs and produce offspring under natural spawning conditions. In conclusion we found differences in the reproductive competency of hatchery- and wild origin spring chinook. Wild females were better at depositing their eggs and having those eggs produce fry. In one study group wild males were more successful at producing offspring than hatchery males. Additional replications of such evaluations are being carried out to determine if the differences

  4. NUTRIENT DEMAND BY THE CARROT CROP IS INFLUENCED BY THE CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Filomena Batista Almeida Aquino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers must carefully choose the cultivar to be grown for a successful carrot crop. The yield potential of the cultivar may influence nutrient demand and should be known to plan for fertilization application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cultivar effect on carrot yield and on the nutrient content and quantities allocated to leaves and roots. Three experiments were set up in two crop seasons in Rio Paranaíba, MG, Brazil. In the first season, typical summer, 10 summer cultivars were sown. In the second season, summer-winter (transition, two experiments were set up, one with summer cultivars and the other with winter cultivars. The treatments consisted of the carrot cultivars distributed in randomized blocks with four replications. Fresh and dry matter of the roots and leaves was quantified. Yield was calculated based on fresh matter of the roots. The nutrient content in leaves and roots was determined at the time of harvest. These contents and the dry matter production of roots and leaves were used to calculate nutrient uptake and export. The greatest average for total and commercial yield occurred in the crop under summer conditions. Extraction of N and K for most of the cultivars in the three experiments went beyond the amounts applied through fertilizers. Thus, there was contribution of nutrients from the soil to obtain the yields observed. However, the amount of P taken up was considerably less than that applied. This implies that soil P fertility will increase after cropping. The crop season and the cultivars influenced yield, nutrient content in the leaves and roots, and extraction and export of nutrients by the carrot crop.

  5. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) - Theoretical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Buonomo, Roberta; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    The development of plant-based Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) is a requirement for the realization of long-duration exploratory-class manned missions in so far as they help fulfilling astronauts' needs including nutritional demands, air regeneration and psychological support. The program ESA - MELiSSA (European Space Agency - Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean is one of the four crops studied within this program as a candidate for cultivation in forthcoming BLSS. Within this project, the aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the selection of soybean candidate cultivars for BLSS. Our scope was to identify an objective and repeatable procedure to choose the best cultivar at each time, overcoming the variability of the market supply. This purpose was pursued with an approach based on a two-steps procedure: (a) the development of an objective criterion for the selection of the most suitable soybean cultivars (cultivated varieties) based on theoretical considerations and (b) the behaviour evaluation of the 4 best cultivars with a cultivation trial in a controlled environment. In this paper, we report the first phase of the selection procedure. We started with a literature survey to look for data about environmental needs, potential yields and nutritional traits of soybean cultivars already tested in cultivation trials (disregarding Gene Modified Organisms). Afterwards, a preliminary screening based on information about the main European companies and the most commercialized cultivars, as well as on the criteria suggested by ESA, allowed to select 93 cultivars among the 297 admitted in EU. Finally, an algorithm, based on the relevance of each considered characteristic, was created to attribute a score to each cultivar and to rank it for the identification of the best cultivars for subsequent cultivation trials.

  6. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  7. PEG渗透胁迫下12个豇豆品种萌芽期抗旱性评价%Evaluation of drought resistance of 12 cultivars of Vigna unguiculata under PEG osmotic stress during seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小玉; 张凤银; 李俊芳

    2016-01-01

    以20%聚乙二醇(PEG)溶液为渗透介质模拟干旱胁迫条件,研究12个豇豆品种种子萌发特性及抗旱性.结果表明,20%PEG作用下,除鄂豇豆12号发芽势提高3.9%外,其他供试豇豆品种发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数以及活力指数均有不同程度下降,且萌发期豇豆幼苗生长受到抑制.运用隶属函数法综合评价12个豇豆品种种子萌发期抗旱性,各品种豇豆耐旱级别分别为:1级(耐旱型)为天德一号,2级(较耐旱型)为碧园春贵、鄂豇豆12号,3级(中间型)为海亚特、扬研8号、柳风、扬研2号、柳翠,4级(干旱较敏感型)为早翠,5级(干旱敏感型)为美国地豆、紫魁、矮虎.%The germination characteristics and drought resistance evaluation of 12 cultivars of Vigna unguiculata were studied by simulated drought stress conditions with 20% PEG-6000 solution. Results showed that the germination rate, germination potential, germination index and vigor index decreased except Ejiangdou12 whose germination potential improved with 3.9%, and the growth of V. unguiculata seedlings was inhibited under 20%PEG osmotic stress. Using the membership function method, the results showed that the drought resistance levels of 12 varieties of V. unguiculata during germination were classified as, level 1 (resistant, Tiande1), level 2 (tolerant, Biyuanchungui and Ejiangdou12), level 3 (middle type, Haiyate, Yangyan8, Liufeng, Yangyan2 and Liucui), level 4 (slightly drought sensitive, Zaocui), level 5 (drought sensitive, America Didou, Zikui and Aihu).

  8. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  9. Avaliação das cultivares Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho de Coffea arabica L. em Campinas, SP Evaluation of the cultivars Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo and Bourbon Vermelho of Coffea arabica L., in Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar a diversidade genética da cultivar Mundo Novo, progênies S1 de 92 novas plantas matrizes, selecionadas em 1952, no município de Urupês (SP, foram estudadas em experimento instalado no Centro Experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas, utilizando-se como testemunhas 12 progênies S2 de Mundo Novo, seis de Bourbon Amarelo e sete de Bourbon Vermelho. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso com 21 repetições, parcelas de uma única cova e uma planta por cova, tendo sido realizadas colheitas consecutivas durante 33 anos. Foram mensuradas também as seguintes variáveis: índice de avaliação visual, precocidade de maturação dos frutos, porcentagem de sementes dos tipos chato, moca e concha e tamanho das sementes mediante determinação da peneira média. Diferenças significativas foram verificadas na produção dentro e entre grupos de Mundo Novo S1, Mundo Novo S2, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho, sendo a média de produção das progênies S1, 6% superior à do grupo Mundo Novo S2. Foram observadas nas progênies de Mundo Novo S1 e S2, respectivamente, produtividade 39% e 30% superior à do Bourbon Amarelo e 112% e 99%, respectivamente, à do Bourbon Vermelho. Entre as 30 progênies mais produtivas, 4 pertencem à geração S2 e as restantes à geração S1 de Mundo Novo, indicando a eficiência da primeira seleção realizada em 1943. De modo geral, verificaram-se nas melhores progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo maturação média, sendo CP447, a mais precoce e CP502, a mais tardia. Apenas a progênie CP474 conseguiu peneira média superior às demais. Com o presente trabalho, concluiu-se que as progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo têm ótima capacidade produtiva, boa longevidade e excelente rusticidade. As novas seleções evidenciaram ainda mais o valor dessa cultivar, sendo uma das mais produtivas que se conhece em C. arabica.Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo is the most outstanding coffee

  10. Selection of common bean land cultivars based on agronomic performance, cooking time, and mineral concentration

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    Narielen Moreira de Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of common bean land cultivars with respect to their agronomic performance, cooking time and nutritional quality has scarcely been evaluated in breeding programs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate 19 common bean land cultivars for their agronomic traits, cooking time, and mineral concentration in grains to identify cultivars for potential use by a higher number of farmers or even breeding programs. Two field experiments were conducted in Alegrete and Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 season. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with three replications. A total of 23 cultivars were evaluated; 19 land cultivars were obtained from smallholder farmers from RS, and there were four control cultivars (Carioca, Pérola, Valente, and Guapo Brilhante. The traits evaluated included the cycle, insertion of the first pod, grain yield, cooking time, and concentrations of calcium, iron, zinc, and copper in the grains. The data were subjected to joint variance analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, and the Z index. The common bean cultivars showed differences in the cycle, insertion of the first pod, grain yield, cooking time, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in grains, and the Z index. The cultivars Preto Miúdo and Cavalo Rajado had a high grain yield, i.e., greater than 2,900 kg ha-1. The land cultivars were classified as having early and intermediate cycles, and all had cooking times less than 30 min. Palha Roxa, Carioca Vermelho, and Perdiz had high concentrations of calcium, iron, zinc, and copper in the grains, an intermediate cycle, and low grain yield. Positive correlations of moderate magnitude were observed between the calcium and iron (r= 0.597, iron and zinc (r= 0.570, and zinc and copper (r= 0.548 concentrations. Indirect selection for high iron or zinc concentrations in grains will be effective for obtaining common bean cultivars with a higher

  11. Variantes somaclonais da cultivar de arroz Bluebelle resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclonal variants of rice cultivar Bluebelle

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    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2001-05-01

    the induction of callus from the immature panicles, regeneration, evaluation and selection of R2 plants for blast resistance. The same procedure was repeated using three selected R2 plants. The disease assessment and selection of blast resistant plants were done in R2 and R4 generations in blast nursery. In greenhouse tests with three isolates obtained from the cultivar Metica1 belonging to pathotypes IB41 and IB45 of P. grisea, all of the 47 somaclones R6 were resistant. They showed differential reaction to five isolates of somaclones and were resistant to one isolate derived from cultivar Bluebelle, while cultivar Bluebelle was susceptible to all isolates. These results indicated genetic variation for blast resistance in second step of induction and regeneration of plants. Of these 47 somaclones R6, 22 showed a high degree of vertical resistance in blast nursery tests conducted at four locations and can be utilized as new blast resistant sources.

  12. Evaluation of development of three cultivars of coral bells (Heuchera after application of organic means of improving soil properties and mineral fertilizers on post-mining area of the Dąbrowskie Coal Basin

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    Gabriela Sąkol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of improving soil properties using a liquid organic means: Eko-użyźniacz, based on manure vermicompost, and traditional fertilizer Azofoska on three cultivars of coral bells: ‘Chatterbox’, ‘Marmelade’ and ‘Purple Petticoats’. The plants were field cultivated on post-mining area of the Dąbrowskie Coal Basin from 2009 to 2011. Even though, the doses of nutriens from mean of improve soil properties were low the plants were visually appealing. The effect of Azofoska or Eko-użyźniacz used were not significant (α = 0.05 in diameter of plants, numbers of shoots and inflorescences. All of the cultivars gave more flower shoots in the second vegetation period. Plants of coral bells grow well after a treatment of Eko-użyźniacz, which means that use of this treatment is addequate for post-mining soils.  

  13. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  14. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  15. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  16. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  17. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

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    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  18. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  19. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

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    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  20. Ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi Ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea

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    Terezinha Ferreira Xavier

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se as cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" cultivadas em sacos plásticos com 5kg de areia. A adubação mineral, isenta de N, foi realizada na véspera da semeadura e as sementes foram inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp, estirpe BR 2001. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias após emergência das plantas, sendo determinados o número, a massa seca e o tamanho dos nódulos e a matéria seca da parte aérea. As cultivares apresentaram maior número de nódulos aos 30 e 50 dias após a emergência. A massa e o tamanho dos nódulos aumentaram durante o ciclo das cultivares. A matéria seca da parte aérea aumentou até o estádio de formação de vagens, diminuindo até o final do ciclo fenológico. As cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" apresentam comportamento semelhante em relação à nodulação pela estirpe utilizada.The aim of this paper was at evaluating the ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and was used the cultivars BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivated in plastic pots with 5 kg of sand. The mineral fertilization, without N, was made before the sowing and the seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp, strain BR 2001. The evaluations were made to the 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after plant emergence, being measured nodule number, dry mass and size and shoot dry mass. The cultivars showed higher nodule number to 30 and 50 days after plant emergence. Nodule dry mass and size increased significantly during the cycle of cultivars. Shoot dry mass increased to stage of formation of pods, decreasing until the end of the phenological cycle. BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivars present similar behavior in relation to nodulation by used strain.

  1. EFEITO DA IRRIGAÇÃO NO RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE FIBRAS EM CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO HERBÁCEO

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    JOÃO HENRIQUE ZONTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate seed cotton yield, fiber yield, and fiber quality traits of cotton cultivars grown under different irrigation levels in Brazil. The experiment was conducted over two years in the region of Apodi – RN, with sprinkler irrigation. Treatments comprised of 4 irrigation levels i.e., 130, 100, 70 and 40 % of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc and 4 cotton cultivars i.e., FiberMax 993, BRS 286, BRS 336 and BRS 335. The experimental design was factorial with randomized complete block design and four replicates. Yield, lint percent and fiber quality traits determined were evaluated. Different responses were observed for cultivars at various irrigation levels. Cultivars grown under limited irrigation exhibited a decline in the seed cotton yield, lint percent, and fiber quality. Cultivars with the highest yield and lint percent were FiberMax 993 and BRS 286. Within irrigation level of 40 % ETc, the medium fiber cultivars produced short fibers whereas the long fiber cultivar, BRS 336, produced medium fiber length. Overall, the different levels of water deficits did not significantly affect fiber quality of the four cultivars tested as all fiber quality traits re- mained acceptable for the domestic textile industry.

  2. Spring of women?

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