Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Bingham, Andrea M.; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R.
Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November–April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1–5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. PMID:26336227
Ortiz, Diana I; Wozniak, Arthur; Tolson, Marsha W; Turner, Pearl E; Vaughan, David R
A 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at The Wedge Plantation located in coastal South Carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. Mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. A total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between August, 1997, and July, 1998. The most abundant species was Culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (n = 12,185). Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) was isolated from 2 pools collected in August, 1997; one pool of Oc. taeniorhynchus (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.6/1,000) and a second of Culiseta melanura (MIR = 3.8/1,000). This report represents the first record of an EEE isolation from Oc. taeniorhynchus and Cs. melanura in South Carolina.
Andreadis, Theodore G; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C
The overwintering ecology of Culiseta melanura was studied in a seasonally flooded evergreen forest swamp in south central Connecticut in an effort to clarify which larval stages successfully overwinter in the northeastern USA, and to determine the degree to which larval development and/or mortality occur during the winter months. A total of 8,626 immature Cs. melanura were collected weekly for analysis from subterranean crypts and cavities located under the roots of trees from December 13, 2011 to May 31, 2012. Despite the formation of ice on the surface water at the entrance holes to the crypts, water temperatures within the cavities remained above freezing (average = 1.8 degrees C) throughout the coldest winter months of January and February. A heterogeneous population of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars were recovered throughout the winter and early spring in the same relative proportions (30%, 30%, 40%, respectively), with no significant change in their comparative abundance during this period, providing unequivocal evidence that all 3 instars successfully overwinter in the region. Findings further demonstrate that larvae undergo no development during the winter and do not appear to be impacted by any measurable mortality. The cessation of larval diapause and a resumption of development was observed in mid-April and was coincident with a gradual increase in water temperature within the crypts to 9 degrees C, in agreement with a previously calculated developmental thermal minimum of 8.5 degrees C for Cs. melanura. This resulted in a protracted period of pupation that encompassed a minimum of 5 wk, followed by a staggered emergence of adults and an overlap of the residual overwintering population with larvae of the 1st summer generation.
Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M; Abadam, Charles F; Akaratovic, Karen I; Kiser, Jay P; Andreadis, Theodore G
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally
Full Text Available Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs. melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1 identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2 assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3 investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%, European Starling (11.2%, Carolina Wren (4.3%, and Common Grackle (4.3%. EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may
Bingham, Andrea M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R
Field studies of the ecology of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) in the southeastern United States have demonstrated that Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab) is the most common mosquito at many enzootic sites and is often infected with the virus. However, the competence of Cx. erraticus for EEEV has not been explored in detail. Culex erraticus females were collected from the field and fed upon EEEV-infected chicks. The infected mosquitoes were provided honey for nutrition and to monitor for time to infectiveness. Of the mosquitoes that survived the 14-d postfeeding period, 89% were infected and 84% had evidence of a disseminated infection, though titers were generally low. EEEV was first detected in honey 6 d postinfection and was detected in samples collected from 94% of the mosquitoes with a disseminated infection overall. These data and others were then employed to estimate the relative vectorial capacity of Cx. erraticus at an EEEV enzootic site in Alabama. The vectorial capacity of Cx. erraticus at this site was 44% of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), the accepted enzootic vector, suggesting Cx. erraticus may play a role in transmitting EEEV in areas where it is abundant and Cs. melanura rare.
El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O
The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.
First parasitological surveys of Myxozoa are performed on the sparid saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758) and the serranid painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Bay of Bizerte and the Gulf of Tunis respectively in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean. In this study, 6 bivalvulid myxosporean species belonging to the 3 genera Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892, Myxodavisia Zhao, Zhou, Kent & Whipps, 2008 and Zschokkella Auerbach, 1910, are isolated infecting their hosts. Two species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex O. melanura (Prevalence (P) = 36%) and Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex O. melanura (P = 13%) infected the saddled seabream and four species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex S. scriba (P = 11.7%), Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex S. scriba (P = 6.7%), Myxodavisia sp. (P = 8.3%) and Zschokkella sp. (P = 5.6%) infected the painted comber. These myxosporeans differ, in vegetative stages and/or in mature spores, from all the previously known congeneric species, and are described here on the basis of their morphological and morphometric features, their host and tissue specificities and their biogeographical distribution. This is the first report of myxosporean infections in O. melanura and S. scriba. The occurrence of two ceratomyxid species in each host species supports that the genus Ceratomyxa is host-specific not only in sparids but also in serranids, which agrees with data previously obtained from Sparidae in Mediterranean Sea and from Serranidae in GBR, Australia. A member of the myxosporean genus Myxodavisia is recorded from the Mediterranean Sea for the first time, and Zschokkella spp. infections have not previously been recorded from a host in Serranidae. During the examination, a several cases of Co-infection among myxosporeans, both with two and three species, are provided and statistically studied. Indeed, 5% of the breams and 9.4% of the combers are infected with more than one myxosporean parasite. The relationship between myxosporean infections and some biological
Full Text Available Five black-tailed marmoset Callithrix (Mico melanura (Primates - Callitrichidae individuals were monitored by radiotelemetry as part of a project on translocated wildlife affected by flooding the Manso River reservoir in the state of Mato Grosso, western Brazil (14° 52' S and 55° 48' W. The animals were monitored for eight months from October 2000 through August 2001. Only one death was recorded among the translocated animals. Two pairs established their home ranges in the new area, after some exploratory behavior. The new home range sizes varied from 0.72 to 4.27 km². The home ranges of male and female overlapped in the case of both pairs by 0.59 to 2.30 km². Trips were always made in pairs and not individually. The results indicate the feasibility of a successful translocation program for this species, as long as the animals are translocated to a similar habitat nearby.
Full Text Available Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs.Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007.Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs."nMethods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007."nResults: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata."nConclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.
Zahirnia A H
Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx
Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall
Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen
Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.
Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)
Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.
Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...
Muslu, Hasan; Kurt, Ozgür; Özbilgin, Ahmet
To identify the mosquito species and the potential mosquito-related infectious diseases in Manisa province, mosquito larvae were collected from aquatic habitats in Manisa between October 2008 and October 2009. Mosquito larvae were collected from the surface water of study sites with a standard larvae collection spoon. The 1st and 2nd stage larvae brought to the laboratory were kept until they become adults, and their species were identified during 3rd or 4th larvae stages. In addition, species identification was made for 3rd or 4th stage larvae as well as pupae in aquatic samples, as well. A total of 8098 larvae samples were collected during the study and Culex (Culex) pipiens and Culex (Neoculex) martini were found to be the predominant species in Manisa. Three Culex [Culex (Culex) pipiens, Culex (Neoculex) martini, Culex (Maillotia) deserticola], two Culiseta [Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata, Culiseta (Allotheobaldia) longiareolata] and one Anopheles [Anopheles (Cellia) superpictus] species were identified. Anopheles superpictus, the vector of malaria; Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, the vectors of tularemia and arbovirus infections such as West Nile Virus infection, were identified in Manisa province. Conduction of similar larger-scale studies will contribute to the prevention of vector-borne diseases in our region.
Aartsen, van B.; Zeegers, Th.
The rearing of the botfly Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera: Oestridae) After several failures we finally succeeded in rearing botflies Cephenemyia from third-instar larvae. From a red deer shot at 13 March 1998 about one hundred larvae of Cephenemyia auribarbis (Meigen, 1824) were collected. Ten
Full Text Available The paper presents an account on the Tabanidae (Diptera from Chhattisgarh, which includes 16 species representing five genera under three subfamilies: Pangoniinae, Chrysopsinae and Tabaninae. Among these species, Haematopota latifascia Ricardo is new addition to the fauna of Chhattisgarh. The distributional area of the collection localities, key characters are also provided.
Aartsen, van B.
New and rare flies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera) In this paper an overview is given of captures of rare and interesting Diptera, belonging to different families, mainly from the years 19941996. In total 46 species are presented, of which 13 are new to the Dutch fauna (marked with an *), viz.: Spania
A new horsefly for the Netherlands: Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) The horsefly Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands. New features for the recognition of the males and some notes on the biology are given.
Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic
Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species).
Acari Arachnida Hyalomma Anatolicumn Anatolicumn Dermacentor andersoni Acari Arachnida Dermacentor varabilis Amblyimma Cajennese Rhipicephalus sanguineus...Mansonia spp. Diptera Insecta Culex spp. Culiseta spp. Pediculus humanus Anopluraa Insect Ixodides Dermacentor spp. Acari Arachnida Rhipicephalus spp
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo
Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.
Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris
Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.
Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.
Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad
The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae...
Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A
The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.
Washington, DC, 1979. Bia, F.J., Thornton, G.F., Main, A.J., Fong, C.K.Y. and Hsiung, G.D. Western equine encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex...Shope, R.E. and Woodall, J.P. Ecological interaction of wildlife, man and a virus of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex in a tropical...J.J. and Wallis, R.C. Infection and transmission of eastern equine 9 7 encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Am. J
Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E
An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV.
Estep, Laura K.; Christopher J W McClure; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Hicks, Tyler L; Thomas R Unnasch; Hill, Geoffrey E
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. We examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of EEEV in Alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of E...
viruses from many parts of the world. 7 %, 1.1%vl ’ e- "., Distribution of reagents. The reference center distributed 970 ampoules of reference sera...eight pools of Culiseta melanura collected during 1984 as part of a field study on Lyme disease and other zoonoses in Connecticut. A ninth strain was...dense amorphous masses, were present also in the cytoplasm. Smooth-surfaced reticula occurred in the cytoplasm and contained viral particles in
Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza
Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.
Alahmed, A M; Al Kuriji, M A; Kheir, S M; Alahmedi, S A; Al Hatabbi, M J; Al Gashmari, M A M
From March 2004 to February 2006, a mosquito survey was conducted in Makka Al Mukarrama Region, in the western part of Saudi Arabia, and 19 species which belong to 4 genera, were collected: Aedes (2 species), Anopheles (8 species), Culex (8 species) and Culiseta (1 species). The mosquitoes were Aedes caspius, Ae. aegypti, Anopheles d'thali, An. gambiae, An. multicolor, An. rhodesiensis, An. sergenti, An. stephensi, An. subpictus, An. turkhudi, Culex arbieeni, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus and Culiseta longiareolata. Cx. arbieeni was reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia from Al Taif District. The physical properties of water of mosquito's larval breeding sites showed the total dissolved salts (TDS) varied between 70-15552 ppm, pH ranged between 5.4-11.2 and water temperature varied between 15 degrees C in winter to 40.7 degrees C in summer. There was no correlation between these physical properties and the distribution of mosquito larvae. Light traps collected 1858 mosquitoes, and adult Culex were the most prevalent as 1658 (89.24%) were collected, followed by 121 (6.51%) Aedes, 68 (3.66%) Anopheles and 11 (0.59%) Culiseta. The effects of temperature and rainfall on seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in the study area are discussed.
Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A
Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.
Valente, V. L. S.
Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.
Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.
Sukontason Kabkaew L
Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...
Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander
Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.
Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.
Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van B.
Ceratitis cosyra, an African fruitfly found in the Dutch province of Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae) A single specimen of Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) cosyra (Walker, 1849) was collected near Papenvoort (utm ld4768) with a malaisetrap in the period 4-6 september 1993 (leg. L. Witmond). Up till now it was
Diptera Ð Culicidae). Guayaquil Univ., Guayaquil, Ecuador. Levi-Castillo, R. 1945. Los anofelinos de la Republica del Ecuador, vol. 1: 1Ð172. Artes ...BritishMuseumNatural History, Lon- don, England. Vargas, L., and A. Martinez Palacios. 1956. Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion. Secretaria
A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...
Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van B.
Ceratitis cosyra, an African fruitfly found in the Dutch province of Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae) A single specimen of Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) cosyra (Walker, 1849) was collected near Papenvoort (utm ld4768) with a malaisetrap in the period 4-6 september 1993 (leg. L. Witmond). Up till now it was
A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.
Hugo de Souza Lopes
Full Text Available The male genitalia of nine species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera - Goniophyto honsuensis Rohdendorf, 1962, Tricharaea brevicornis (Wiedemann, 1830, Chaetoravinia derelicta (Walker, 1852, Austrohartigia spinigena (Rondani, 1864, Chrysagria duodecimpunctata Townsend, 1935, Boettcheria bisetosa Parker, 1914, Lipoptilocnema lanei Townsend, 1934, L. crispina (Lopes, 1938 and Euboettcheria alvarengai Lopes & Tibana, 1982 - were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM and the main morphological features are descirbed.
Qualls, Whitney A.; Müller, Günter C.; Revay, Edita E.; Allan, Sandra A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Beier, John C.; Smith, Michal L.; Scott, Jodi M.; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D.; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A.; Xue, Rui-De
The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: > 70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Ae. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and > 50% reduction for An. crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Cx. erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries. PMID:24361724
Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Beier, John C; Smith, Michal L; Scott, Jodi M; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A; Xue, Rui-De
The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.
Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.
Med. Res. 10: 430-75. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: l-139. Philippine nematocerous...Culicidae. p. 266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ
Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.
Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V
Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.
Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro vengono riportate le informazioni essenziali su tassonomia e biologia nonché sugli aspetti ecologici degli adulti dei Culicidi italiani. Attualmente la fauna culicidica italiana comprende 64 specie appartenenti a 2 sottofamiglie e 8 generi. Alla sottofamiglia Anophelinae appartiene soltanto il genere Anopheles, presente con 16 specie raggruppate in due sottogeneri. Alla sottofamiglia Culicinae appartengono i rimanenti 7 generi: Aedes con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Coquillettidia con 2 specie, Ochlerotatus con 20 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Culex con 12 specie raggruppate in 4 sottogeneri, Culiseta con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Orthopodomyia e Uranotaenia con una specie ognuna. In questo contesto vengono fornite le chiavi di identificazione specifica per le zanzare adulte, in italiano e in inglese. Le chiavi sono corredate da un’ampia iconografia (figure 1-75. Alle chiavi fa seguito la diagnosi morfologica dell’adulto di ogni specie con note sulla relativa biologia e distribuzione. Per ulteriori approfondimenti viene riportata la bibliografia completa sulle zanzare della fauna italiana dal 1960 ed i precedenti lavori più autorevoli.
Amir Hossein Zahirnia
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.
Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A
The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.
Castro, L R; Austin, A D; Dowton, M
We investigated the putative association between the parasitic lifestyle and an accelerated rate of mt genetic divergence, compositional bias, and gene rearrangement, employing a range of parasitic and nonparasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera. Sequences were obtained for the cox1, cox2, 16S, 28S genes, the regions between the cox2 and atp8 genes, and between the nad3 and nad5 genes. Relative rate tests indicated generally that the parasitic lifestyle was not associated with an increased rate of genetic divergence in the Diptera but reaffirmed that it was in the Hymenoptera. Similarly, a departure from compositional stationarity was not associated with parasitic Diptera but was in parasitic Hymenoptera. Finally, mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements were not observed in any of the dipteran species examined. The results indicate that these genetic phenomena are not accelerated in parasitic Diptera compared with nonparasitic Diptera. A possible explanation for the differences in the rate of mt molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera is the extraordinary level of radiation that has occurred within the parasitic Hymenoptera but not in any of the dipteran parasitic lineages. If speciation events in the parasitic Hymenoptera are associated with founder events, a faster rate of molecular evolution is expected. Alternatively, biological differences between endoparasitic Hymenoptera and endoparasitic Diptera may also account for the differences observed in molecular evolution.
351-401. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States Museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: 1-139, 2 pls. Diptera, Fam. Culicidae. In P...266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ. Press Hawaii
Kees van Achterberg
Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.
Hollander, den J.
An account is given on the African species of the subgenus Tipula (Diptera, Tipulidae) present in the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology (Zoological Museum), Amsterdam, and a new species, T. (Tipula) lourensi, is described.
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.
Radka Břízová; Adriana L. Mendonça; Lucie Vanícková; Alana L. Mendonça; Carlos Eduardo Da Silva; Aleš Tomčala; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; Vanessa Simões Dias; Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo; Michal Hoskovec; Blanka Kalinová; Ruth R. Do Nascimento
ABSTRACT The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex is presently one of the most studied pest models in terms of speciation and population mating compatibility...
Hernández Triana, L.M.
Systematics of the blackfly subgenus Trichodagmia ENDERLEIN (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) in the New World The systematics of the New World subgenus Trichodagmia has been reassessed by employing an integrated taxonomic approach based upon revisionary taxonomy, phylogenetic (cladistics) analysis
VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure- Activity Relationship of...deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using theK...corresponding C12:0 and C12:1 homologues. KEYWORDS fatty acid, biting deterrence, repellent, structure-activity relationship, Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes transmit
Ps. ferox SLE Mammals Day 2 km 0, 8 0 0 Distributionandbionomicsbasedonandgeneralized from information inCarpenter andLaCasse(1955), Darsie ...competence of Culexunivittatus(Diptera:Culicidae) forWestNile virus. J. Med. Entomol. 30: 449Ð456. Darsie , R. F., and R. A. Ward. 1981. IdentiÞcation and...Mitchell, and G. B. Craig Jr . 1993. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) at a temperate North American site. J. Med. Entomol. 30
Fabio de Oliveira Roque
Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.
Full Text Available The male and female of Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, the type species of the genus Brumptomyia França & Parrot, 1921 (Diptera: Psychodidae - phlebotominae are redescribed from syntypes in the British Museum (Natural History.É apresentada a redescrição de sinotipos macho e fêmea de Brumptomya brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, a espécie típica do gênero Brumptomyia França e Parrot, 1921 (diptera: Psychodidae - Phlebotominae.
Wilson Michael D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.
Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi
Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An inventory of chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae data collected from 221 lake basins or reservoirs is detailed together with major physical and chemical characteristics of these waterbodies. Aquatic species of Chironomidae must rise to the water surface for adult emergence. Floating exuviae are transported by wind and water currents to lakeshores. Species data were obtained by collecting lake marginal floating pupal exuviae representing juvenile stages dwelling from across the lake. Among the 450 species found, several were new records for the British Isles.
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...
Valéria Cid Maia; G. Wilson Fernandes; Henrique Magalhães; Jean Carlos Santos
Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae) in Brazil Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Lopesiini), L. mimosae Maia, sp. nov. and L. pernambucensis Maia, sp. nov., that induce galls on Mimosa hostilis Benth. (Mimosaceae) are described and illustrated based on material from "caatinga" in Pernambuco, Brazil.
Valéria Cid Maia
Full Text Available Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae in Brazil Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Lopesiini, L. mimosae Maia, sp. nov. and L. pernambucensis Maia, sp. nov., that induce galls on Mimosa hostilis Benth. (Mimosaceae are described and illustrated based on material from "caatinga" in Pernambuco, Brazil.
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena
We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.
Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali
Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632
Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben
Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.
Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon
Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.
Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja
Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.
Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.
Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent
Lavrukova Olga Sergeevna
Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the complex of synanthropic sarcophagus Diptera and the influence of urbanization on its composition and structure. On human corpses nine species belonging to four families were found. They developed in different parts of the corpses. Calculations were produced using PCA. The basis of the population of Diptera consists of three species - Calliphora vicina, Lucilia caesar and Protophormia terraenovae. Significant seasonal aspects resulting in changes in species composition, circumstances of finding a corpse and its condition play the main role in the formation of the complex of sarcophagus Diptera. The most successful in reproduction, development and occupation of ecological niches are those species that can be easily adapted to changing circumstances with a wide range of food.
Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.
Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y
Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.
Briscoe, Andrew G; Sivell, Duncan; Harbach, Ralph E
Dixidae, meniscus midges, belong to the suborder Nematocera of the order Diptera. The family includes 197 known species classified in nine genera. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Dixella aestivalis (Meigen) from the United Kingdom is reported here, along with its annotation and comparison with the genome of an unidentified species of Dixella from China. The circular genome consists of 16 465 bp and has a gene content consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding, A + T-rich, control region. The mitochondrial genome of D. aestivalis can be used to identify genetic markers for species identification, and will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus, family Dixidae and suborder Nematocera.
Fonseca, Dina M.
Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520
Silvio Shigueo Nihei
Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.
Márcia S. Couri
Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.
Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28
Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil
Valéria Cid Maia
Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.
Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil
Alessandro C. Angelo
Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.
Morphological observations on the egg and first instar larva of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebidae Observações morfológicas do ovo e da larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae
Antônio Cesar Rios Leite
Full Text Available Descriptions are given of the egg and first intar larvar of Metacutereba apicalis (Diptera: Cuterebridae when viewed by light and scanning electronic microscopes.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Metacuterebra apicalis (Diptera, Cuterebridae são descritos a nível de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.
A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...
Kariithi, H.M.; Ince, I.A.; Boeren, S.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Parker, A.G.; Aksoy, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.
Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to
Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz
On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.
The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se......The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology...
Full Text Available A female specimen of Phaeotabanus litigiosus (Diptera: Tabanidae collected on Marambaia Island was found with a tumor in the abdominal integument. Histopathological examination revealed an epithelial dysplasia with anisokariosis and hyperchromasia. This is the first record of a neoplasm found in tabanid collected from natural environment. Key Words: Atlantic island; displasia; horse fly; insect disease; insect vector; neotropical region
Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A
The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.
Rodrigo Vieira; José Manuel Ayala Landa
Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae). The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.
Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.
Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...
Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...
O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A
The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).
Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini.
Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre
Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.
Nematocera . University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 618 pp. Family Culicidae; see A. Stone and M.D. Delfinado, 1973. 359 Edgren, D.C., V.S...Culicidae, in Delfinado, M.D. and D.E. Hardy (Eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, Vol. 1: Nematocera , pp. 266-343. University Press
Silvio Shigueo Nihei
Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.
Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.
Elliott, R 1968. Studies on man-vector contact in some ma- larious areas in Colombia. Bull. WHO 38: 239-253. Falleroni, D. 1926. Fauna anofelica italiana ...Presencia de1 A. (N.) darlingi (Diptera: Cu- licidae), en alrededores de la ciudad de Iquitos Loreto- Peru. Bol. Sot. Per. Enf. Inf. Trop. 5: 10-12
Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the
Márcia S. Couri
Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.Neodexiopsis Malloch da Bolivia com descrição de uma espécie nova (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae é um gênero muito bem representado na região Neotropical, conhecido por quase 100 espécies. Na Bolívia, ele é conhecido por apenas quatro espécies: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata e N. recedens, todas descritas por Stein. O estudo do material da América do Sul depositado no Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, permitiu a descrição de uma nova espécie para a ciência. Uma chave para o reconhecimento das cinco espécies presentes na Bolívia é fornecida.
Augusto Loureiro Henriques
Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.
Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.
and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...
Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus ar
Full Text Available Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae. The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.
The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...
The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...
Chironomid (Chironomidae: Diptera checklist from Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina Lista de los quironómidos (Chironomidae: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina
Full Text Available This paper presents the first inventory of modern and subfossil taxa of the Family Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera from Nahuel Huapi National Park in Patagonia, Argentina. The catalogued fauna contains 104 species in 48 genera and 6 sub-families for modern fauna and 52 morphotypes in 36 genera and 4 subfamilies for sub-fossil fauna.Este trabajo presenta el primer catálogo de taxones modernos y subfósiles de la familia Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi en Patagonia, Argentina. La fauna catalogada contiene 104 especies en 48 géneros y 6 subfamilias para la fauna moderna y 52 morfotipos en 36 géneros y 4 subfamilias para la fauna subfósil.
Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera
Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil
Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throu...
Yang, Y Z; Zhang, D
Portschinskia magnifica (Diptera: Oestridae) is an endangered subcutaneous parasitic fly that is mainly distributed in Eurasia. The external morphology of the main adhesive attachments that include the pretarsus and tarsus is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Two types of tenent setae that are characterised as spoon-like tip and pointed-like tip, which can increase the contact points for attachment to a surface, are described in this study. Hairs around the bristle of the empodium in P. magnifica are much denser than those of other flies, and thus, we proposed that the dense hairs around the empodium may be a more efficient way to perform the sensory function. Compared with saprophagous flies that are reported previously, the microsculpture of the unguitractor plate is obviously different in that microplates are scale-like and similar to those of the water bug, Ranatra linearis. In addition, microtrichia found in the lateral region of the unguitractor plate provides stronger fixation between two surfaces. These results provide anatomical information that allows us to understand the role of the pretarsus as an attachment device.
Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg
Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.
Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140
Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna
To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.
Edwin K. Murungi
Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.
Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani
Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."
Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M
The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.
Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting
The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.
Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark
The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for time since death estimates has been severely limited, as morphological identification is difficult and thermobiological histories are inadequately documented. A molecular identification method involving the sequencing of a 658-bp 'barcode' fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 85 specimens, representing 16 Australian species from varying populations, was evaluated. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura-two-parameter distance model and a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree generated. All species were resolved as reciprocally monophyletic, except Sarcophaga dux. Intraspecific and interspecific variation ranged from 0.000% to 1.499% (SE = 0.044%) and 6.658% to 8.983% (SE = 0.653%), respectively. The COI 'barcode' sequence was found to be suitable for the molecular identification of the studied Australian Sarcophagidae: 96.5% of the examined specimens were assigned to the correct species. Given that the sarcophagid fauna is poorly described, it is feasible that the few incorrectly assigned specimens represent cryptic species. The results of this research will be instrumental for implementation of the Australian Sarcophagidae in forensic entomology.
Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R
The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by WHO for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern Iran.Methods: Mosquito larval and adult collections were carried out using different methods provided by WHO including dipping and hand catch techniques. The susceptibility level was assessed to DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%.Results: Totally, 749 adults and 5060 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected comprising seven species of adult and larvae, including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, Culex hortensis, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiaerolata. Frequency of larvae and adults of An. maculipennis was very low, so susceptibility tests on this species did not performed. Results showed that Cx. theileri, Cs. longiaerolata and Cx. pipiens were resistant to DDT 4%, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, and propoxur 0.1% whereas found tolerant to deltamethrin 0.05% and malathion 5%. The LT50 and LT90 values for five insecticides were calculated.Conclusion: We suggest the same study in different parts of the world to obtain the data due to bionomic and susceptibility status of dirofilariasis vectors. This information will help the health authorities for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.
McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A
In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.
Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia
The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.
Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben
DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.
María M. Ronderos
Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.Pupa e adulto macho previamente desconhecidos de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. A pupa de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972 foi coletada em macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae na Ilha da Marchantaria próximo a Manaus, Brasil e o adulto macho criado foi descrito, fotografado e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Esta é a primeira descrição para a pupa do gênero Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.
Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B
In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039
Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal
Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427 = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.
Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.
Full Text Available The head of adult dipterans is mainly characterized by modifications and more or less far-reaching reductions of the mouthparts (e.g., mandibles and maxillae, linked with the specialization on liquid food and the reduced necessity to process substrates mechanically. In contrast, the compound eyes and the antennae, sense organs used for orientation and for finding a suitable mating partner and oviposition site, are well developed. Some evolutionary novelties are specific adaptations to feeding on liquefied substrates, such as labellae with furrows or pseudotracheae on their surface, and the strongly developed pre– and postcerebral pumping apparatuses. In some dipteran groups specialized on blood, the mandibles are still present as piercing stylets. They are completely reduced in the vast majority of families. Within the group far-reaching modifications of the antennae take place, with a strongly reduced number of segments and a specific configuration in Brachycera. The feeding habits and mouthparts of dipteran larvae are much more diverse than in the adults. The larval head is prognathous and fully exposed in the dipteran groundplan and most groups of lower Diptera. In Tipuloidea and Brachycera it is partly or largely retracted, and the sclerotized elements of the external head capsule are partly or fully reduced. The larval head of Cyclorrhapha is largely reduced. A complex and unique feature of this group is the cephaloskeleton. The movability of the larvae is limited due to the lack of thoracic legs. This can be partly compensated by the mouthparts, which are involved in locomotion in different groups. The mouth hooks associated with the cyclorrhaphan cephaloskeleton provide anchorage in the substrate.
Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.
Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos
Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica
Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas
Sugeng Juwono Mardihusodo
Quality of public health is greatly influenced by a lot of environmental factors, especially biotic factors among wich is a group of hematophagus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) showing high competence as disease vector(s). The vector mosquitoes belong to different species of different genera: *Anopheles, Aedes, Culex*, and *Mansonia.*In hypersensitive individuals, mosquito bites may induce pain and itching on the skin where the mosquito suck blood, allergic dermat...
Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O
Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.
Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N
The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chuntian; Wang, Xinhua
The genus Parerigone (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed. Five new species from China, P. atrisetosa sp. nov., P. flava sp. nov., P. flavisquama sp. nov., P. laxifrons sp. nov. and P. wangi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Parerigone flavihirta (Chao & Sun) is proposed as a new synonym of P. takanoi Mesnil. Diagnosis of species examined and a key to the 15 species of Parerigone are provided.
Maria V. Urso-Guimarães
Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.
Cardoso, V V; Moreira, J C F; Oliveira, A K
Ovarian sizes (length and width) were measured in young females of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) subjected or not to the inhibitor alpha-difluormethylornithine (alpha-DFMO). The most effective concentration of alpha-DMFO used was 50 mM and the ovarian measurements (length and width) of the treated females were smaller than those of females not treated with alpha-DMFO. These data may suggest some relationship between ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and sexual maturation in A. fraterculus.
María M. Ronderos
Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.
female)‘, P ( pupa ), L (larva) and E (egg). An asterisk (*) to the right of the symbols indicates an accompanying illustration. Type-depositories are...Acta Parasitol. Sinica 2:397-403. Chen Han-Bin. 1980. Study on the Culex vishnui subgroup in China with discussions on the taxonomic status of C...Danilov, V.N. 1982. Mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Ethiopian zoogeographical region 2. A new species of Mansonia (CoquiZtettidia) and a key
Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s...
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el primer catálogo de taxones modernos y subfósiles de la familia Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi en Patagonia, Argentina. La fauna catalogada contiene 104 especies en 48 géneros y 6 subfamilias para la fauna moderna y 52 morfotipos en 36 géneros y 4 subfamilias para la fauna subfósil.
Letícia Barros de Alencar
Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.
Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker
This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.
The breeding places of Phlebotomus in Panama (Diptera: Psychodidae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54:317–322. Hoel, D. F., D. L...Jones, T.M., A. Balmford, and R.J. Quinnell. 2000. Adaptive female choice for middle-aged mates in a lekking sandfly. Proceedings of the Royal Society ...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters
Brown, Brian; Hash, John; Hartop, Emily; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton
Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema h...
Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela,Diogo Silva
Forcipomyia (Pterobosca) incubans Macfie (1937) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is recorded here for the first time for Brazil. Females were collected in the Brazilian Neotropical Savanna parasitizing the wings of Erythrodiplax juliana Ris (1911), Erythrodiplax aff. anomala Brauer (1865) and Erythemis credula Hagen (1861), all Libellulidae dragonflies. A map of potential distribution of this species in the New World is also provided. The results suggest that its distribution may range from souther...
and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...species was collected at Tir on oiled paper in December 1962. Nothing is known of its habits. Phlebotomus (Sergentomyia) clydei Sinton . This...39: 103. Kirk & Lewis, 1951, Trans. R. En!. Soc. Lond.l02: 413. Type species: Phlebotomus hospitii Sinton , by orig. desig. New synonymy
Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.
Valeria Alejandra Labud
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.
Full Text Available Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran.Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010.Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap.Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult.
Márcia Souto Couri
Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.
Carlos José Einicker Lamas
Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.
Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega
Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.
Neolasioptera ramicola, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera associated with Physalis angulata (Solanaceae Neolasioptera ramicola, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera associada com Physalis angulata (Solanaceae
Valéria Cid Maia
Full Text Available Neolasioptera ramicola Maia, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induces stem galls on Physalis angulata (Solanaceae is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall based on material from Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Neolasioptera ramicola Maia, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera que induz galhas caulinares em Physalis angulata (Solanaceae é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, male, fêmea e galha com base em material coletado em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.
Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc
In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into
Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K
A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.
The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...
Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)
Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)
Phlebotomine sand ßies are the vectors of the proto- zoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. Sand ßies also are vectors of the disease agents Bartonella ...terrestrial larvae of several species of Diptera, including house ßies, Musca domestica L.; face ßies, Musca autumnalis De Geer; stable ßies, Stomoxys cal
Angela Romito; Susan Eggert; Jeffrey Diez; J. Wallace
Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilation efficiency (AE),...
Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.
Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to
Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.
In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by
Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...
House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...
Panov, A A
Nematoceran Diptera are nonuniform in the structure of their mushroom bodies. Members of the more basal families (Ptychopteridae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae) have bipartite mushroom bodies, characteristic of members of the other mecopteroid complex orders. In members of Bibionomorpha (Bibionidae and Anisopodidae), tripartite mushroom bodies have been found characteristic of Brachycera Orthorrhapha.
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...
Carlos Brisóla Marcondes
Full Text Available A check-list of new species, descriptions of other sex of previously described species, redescriptions, proposals of synonymy, and new status for species previously in synonymy or described as subspecies for american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, for the period 1975-1993, and not included in the revision of Martins el at. (1978, are presented.
Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...
Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...
The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...
Østergaard, J.; Belau, C.; Strauch, O.; Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.; Ehlers, R.U.
Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess
Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.
Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...
Østergaard, J.; Belau, C.; Strauch, O.; Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.; Ehlers, R.U.
Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess
aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 ( Insecta , Diptera); proposed validation and interpretation under the plenary powers of the species so named. Z. N. (S.) 1216...Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology. Part II. Filariasis. Mem. Lpool. Sch. Trop. Med. 4 (Ap. ) ii: l-14. Huang: Aedes
Charron, Maud V P; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline
Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally.
Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A
In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and
Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline
Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929
Gustavo R. SPINELLI
Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.
216 Cu7ex verutus, a new species of the subgenu s1 Cu7ex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Sierra Leone Ralph E. Harbach’ Walter Reed Biosystematics...sp. from Sierra Leone are described and illus- trated. The new species is compared to other members of the guiarti group. This paper describes a...new species of Cu7ex collected in Sierra Leone by Dr. Yiau-Min Huang and Mr. James Pecor during field studies conducted in 1984. The species has been
Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo
The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.
Al-Talafha, Hazem; Yaakop, Salmah Binti; Ghani, Idris Bin Abd
Horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Malaysia consists currently of 120 species belonging to eight genera. The present study added four new records to this hematophagous family. The new records were Tabanus crassus (Walker, 1850), T. griseipalpis Schuurmans Stekhoven (1926), T. melanognathus (Bigot, 1890), and T. mesogaus Burton (1978). Tabanus auricircus Philip (1979) was recorded here for the first time from peninsular Malaysia, whereas T. perakiensis Ricardo (1911) was recorded from Sabah for the first time. Key characters for new records were illustrated based on the examined materials and range of distribution for each species was given.
Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D
The 27 Californian species of the genus Melanagromyza Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are reviewed, including descriptions of three new species (Melanagromyza californiana sp. nov., M. chemsaki sp. nov. and M. gonzalesina sp. nov.) and the first record for one species (Melanagromyza martini Spencer) for California and the USA. All species in California are described or redescribed, with illustrations and photographs, and a key to the species is presented. Maps for the species in California, along with host distributions, are provided, with comments on biology and host plants.
Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K
Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.
Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E
The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.
El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M
This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.
Lebart-Pedebas, M C
The origin and the development of the tubular tergo-trochanteral muscle (TTD) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera: Nematocera). Unlike the flight muscles, the TTD was found to develop from myoblasts located around a larval axon, without contribution from a larval muscle. The myoblasts fuse together to form myotubes. Innervation of the TTD arises from the larval axon. The myotubes send out sarcoplasmic extensions towards the axon branches issued from the larval axon. The first differentiated synapses are described. The TTD begins to grow later than the flight muscles. The implications of this developmental lag are discussed.
Martin N. Andersson
Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the
Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.
The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458
Gustavo Borges Ferro
Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.
Eunice A. Bianchi Galati
Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.
Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.
Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S
Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.
Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B
Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.
collected in light traps and dog-baited traps. Mosq. News 33:39-41. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1949. Pupae of the anopheline mosquitoes of the north- eastern...United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. de Entomol. 20:509-30. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1973. A record of changes in mosquito taxonomy in the United States...of America, 1955-1972. Mosq. Syst. 5:187-93. 60 Darsie , R. F., Jr ., D. MacCreary, and L. A. Stearns. 1951. An annotated list of the mosquitoes of
Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti . Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...mg/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95 mg/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55 mg/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97 mg/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of
Full Text Available Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.
MENDONÇA M. de S., Jr.
Full Text Available Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae. The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs.
Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.
Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil
Wilson Werner Koller
Full Text Available Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33% was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter and October-December (spring.Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, conhecida como mosca-varejeira, ocorre no continente americano e apresenta importância médico-veterinária e forense. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a flutuação sazonal dessa espécie na região do Pantanal. De dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007 foram realizadas coletas de dípteros na fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal sul-mato-grossense. Foram utilizadas quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento, iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas permaneceram ativas durante todo o período de estudo, e coletas foram realizadas semanalmente. Foram capturados 159.397 califorídeos, sendo C. macellaria (57,33% a espécie mais abundante. C. macellaria foi observada em todos os meses do ano, apresentando comportamento bimodal com picos populacionais em maio/julho (final de outono/início de inverno e outubro/dezembro (primavera.
Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders
Lílian Botelho Praça
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.
Karlla Patrícia Silva
Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.
Leonardo Silvestre Gomes Rocha
Full Text Available RESUMO Conopidae é uma família pouco estudada e de sistemática controversa entre os Diptera. Os adultos são nectarívoros e as larvas têm hábito parasitóide em Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Blattaria e Diptera. São conhecidas 800 espécies e 56 gêneros com distribuição mundial. Uma lista de 15 espécies em quatro gêneros registradas para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, elaborada com base na bibliografia disponível e no material identificado de diversas coleções brasileiras, é fornecida. As coletas estão concentradas no município de Maracaju em bioma de Cerrado, com apenas uma exceção. Faz-se necessário incrementar as coletas em outras regiões e outros ambientes do estado, para que lacunas de amostragem sejam preenchidas.
Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G
The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.
Raja M. Zuha
Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.
Kang, Zehui; Zhang, Xiao; Ding, Shuangmei; Tang, Chufei; Wang, Yuyu; de Jong, Herman; Cameron, Stephen L.; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding
Tipulomorpha has long been a problematic taxon in terms of familial composition, phylogenetic relationships among families and position relative to other ‘lower’ Diptera. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing provides a powerful basis for phylogenetic studies. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome datasets representing the families Pediciidae, Limoniidae and Cylindrotomidae using high-throughput sequencing technologies. We assembled cDNA libraries for Pedicia vetusta (Alexander) (Pediciidae), Rhipidia sejuga Zhang, Li and Yang (Limoniidae) and Liogma simplicicornis Alexander (Cylindrotomidae). Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 28,252, 44,152 and 44,281 unigenes, from the three respective species. Based on sequence similarity searches, 12,475 (44.16%), 20,334 (46.05%) and 17,478 (39.47%) genes were identified. Analysis of genes highly conserved at the amino acid sequence level revealed there were 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes across the analyzed species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes indicated that the relationship between the four major infraorders of lower Diptera was: Culicomorpha + (Tipulomorpha + (Psychodomorpha + (Bibionomorpha + Brachycera))). Trichoceridae belongs within Tipulomorpha as the sister-group of Tipuloidea. Highly supported relationships within the Tipuloidea are Pediciidae + (Limoniidae + (Cylindrotomidae + Tipulidae)). Four-cluster likelihood mapping was used to study potential incongruent signals supporting other topologies, however, results were congruent with the ML tree. PMID:28264066
Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun
Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A + T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A + T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea.
Andere, Anne A; Platt, Roy N; Ray, David A; Picard, Christine J
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are important medical, veterinary and forensic insects encompassing 8 % of the species diversity observed in the calyptrate insects. Few genomic resources exist to understand the diversity and evolution of this group. We present the hybrid (short and long reads) draft assemblies of the male and female genomes of the common North American blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The 550 and 534 Mb draft assemblies contained 8312 and 9490 predicted genes in the female and male genomes, respectively; including > 93 % conserved eukaryotic genes. Putative X and Y chromosomes (21 and 14 Mb, respectively) were assembled and annotated. The P. regina genomes appear to contain few mobile genetic elements, an almost complete absence of SINEs, and most of the repetitive landscape consists of simple repetitive sequences. Candidate gene approaches were undertaken to annotate insecticide resistance, sex-determining, chemoreceptors, and antimicrobial peptides. This work yielded a robust, reliable reference calliphorid genome from a species located in the middle of a calliphorid phylogeny. By adding an additional blow fly genome, the ability to tease apart what might be true of general calliphorids vs. what is specific of two distinct lineages now exists. This resource will provide a strong foundation for future studies into the evolution, population structure, behavior, and physiology of all blow flies.
Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal
Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.
Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João
The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.
Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney
Jean Patrick Bonani
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.
Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori
Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.
Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae
Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.
Raúl E. Campos
Full Text Available This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae from South America (Neotropical Region. New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Sudamérica (Región Neotropical el género Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae. Se aporta información sobre su ciclo biológico en condiciones naturales y se mencionan cuatro especies del género Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, como plantas hospedadoras de los estados inmaduros. Los ejemplares de Stenomicra sp. fueron colectados en Sierra de la Ventana, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)
The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...
Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil
Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.
Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil
This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.
Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae) em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: fanniidae) no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Vanessa Alves Alvarenga
Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae), no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Cur...
卢兆荣; 邓耀华; 陈之梓
调查中在上海浦东芦苇荡里的死螃蜞体内发现三龄幼虫,经饲养羽化出浦东拟黑麻蝇Beziella pudongensis Fan,Chen et Lu,sp.n.(武夷科学,待发表)雄、雌成虫.本新种三令幼虫记述,亦是拟黑麻蝇属中的幼虫首次报道. 本新种与黑尾黑麻蝇Helicophagella melanura(Meigen)的雄虫虽貌似而不近缘,本文从它们三龄幼虫的体壁、口咽器、前气门、后气门、后突起群的突形等都有很大差异,而生态习性也显然不同,黑尾黑麻蝇幼虫常在人、畜粪中发现,是住区常见蝇种之一,而浦东拟黑麻蝇幼虫仅在大片芦苇荡地表的死螃蜞体内发现.两者绝非近缘属、种.%The third stage larva here described were collected from a dead body of amphibious crab in a reedy marsh at Pudong, Shanghai, China. After rearing them, both sexes of Beziella pudongensis Fan, Chen et Lu (as new species in press, the paper will be published in the journal"Wuyi Science" ) were identified.The third stage larva of the genus Beziella Enderlein is described for the first time.Present species in male is superficially similar to that of Helicophagella melanura (Meigen),but not closely related. According to present study, the characteristics including cephalopharyngeal sclerites, anterior and posterior spiracles, perispiracular tubercles etc. between them are well different. They also differ in bionomics that H. melanura is well known as a common synanthropic fly breeding mainly in human and animal excrement, whereas the larvae of present species being found from a dead amphibious crab on ground in a broad reedy marsh near sea wall. Evidently, they are not close relatives.
X. Q. Bao; E. Cattan
This work presents our understanding of insect wings, and the design and micromachining of artificial wings with golden ratio-based and tapered veins. The geometric anisotropy of Leading Edge Veins (LEVs) selected by Diptera has a function able to evade impact. As a Diptera example, the elliptic hollow LEVs of cranefly wings are mechanically and aerodynamically significant. In this paper, an artificial wing was designed to be a fractal structure by mimicking cranefly wings and incorporating cross-veins and discal cell. Standard technologies of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) were employed to materialize the design using the selected material. One SU-8 wing sample, light and stiff enough to be comparable to fresh cranefly wings,was presented. The as-prepared SU-8 wings are faithful to real wings not only in weight and vein pattern, but also in flexural stiffness and mass distribution. Thus our method renders possible mimicking with good fidelity of natural wings with complex geometry and morphology.
Beckenbach, Andrew T
The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.
Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M
A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.
Full Text Available Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae. The Mesembrinellinae (Diptera, Calliphoridae are exclusively Neotropical with nine genera comprising 36 recognized species, including the genus Thompsoniella Guimarães with a single species, T. anomala Guimarães. We describe a new species, Thompsoniella andina sp. nov., from the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Colombia (Cordillera Central of the Andes, between 2600 - 2700 m and redescribe T. anomala. A key to the nine genera of Mesembrinellinae and a key to the males of the two species of Thompsoniella are provided. Color photographs to illustrate the two species of Thompsoniella and drawings of the male genitalia of both species are also provided. Here we record Thompsoniella for the first time in Colombia.
Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas
We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region.
Estep, Laura K; McClure, Christopher J W; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; Hicks, Tyler L; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hill, Geoffrey E
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. We examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of EEEV in Alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of EEEV. Preferred hosts of Culex erraticus, a putative bridge vector of EEEV, were American robin (Turdus migratorius), Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), barred owl (Strix varia), and northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottis). Our results provide insight into the relationships between vectors of EEEV and their avian hosts in the Southeast and suggest that the northern cardinal may be important in the ecology of EEEV in this region.
Ben Hamouda, M H; Ben Salah, H
The parasitic incidence of Opius concolor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on a replacement host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Trypetidae) was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis methods. A noticeable modification of C. capitata proteins was observed when parasited by O. concolor. But the most important phenomenon is the finding of common antigens between the host and the parasite. These results are discussed with regard to trophic and parasitic behaviour of the parasite.
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes
A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.
Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M
This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.
Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio
This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.
Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa
Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.
The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...
Abesh Chakraborty; Atanu Naskar; Panchanan Parui; Dhriti Banerjee
The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, ED...
Christine Lambkin; Justin Bartlett
Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini a...
Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa
Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.
Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.
Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.
Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V
A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to
Parry, N J; Mansell, M W; Weldon, C W
Seasonal, spatial, and habitat responses of carrion-associated Diptera assemblages can provide valuable information about the presence or absence of species and their relative abundance, and thereby enhance understanding of their responses to environmental variables and how this may have an impact on forensic investigations. Three different nature reserves (localities) within the Municipality of Tshwane, South Africa, were selected to determine whether species assemblages of carrion-feeding flies differ between seasons, localities, and habitat types. A total of 59,511 adult Diptera, identified to 35 species in eight different families, were collected using modified Redtop hanging traps, baited with liver and fish, during four seasons in three different habitat types. Species assemblages differed temporally, with season being the main factor determining species diversity and not locality or habitat. However, savanna and human-disturbed habitats supported a higher abundance and species richness than grassland habitats. Areas adjacent to the localities, such as large urban expanses in Dinokeng or agricultural holdings in Rietvlei, led to an increase in the abundance and mean species richness of carrion-associated Diptera, and in increased numbers of pest or invasive species such as Chrysomya megacephala (F.). Despite this, the overall species assemblages present in human-disturbed areas were very similar to those recorded in natural habitats.
"Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares
Luis M. Hernández
Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium
Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.
Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth
During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera.
Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A
The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.
Ronald Rodrigues Guimaraes
Full Text Available Abstract. Tabanids collections were conducted on Marambaia Island, Atlantic Forest biome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Thirty-one species were identified belonging to 16 genera. Seasonal variation and its relationship with the most important climatic factors during 1981 and 2013 and observations on the bionomics of each species are presented. Variação sazonal e abundância de tabânidas (Diptera, Tabanidae na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Resumo. Coletas de tabânidas foram realizadas na ilha de Marambaia, bioma da Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Trinta e uma espécies foram identificadas pertencentes a 16 gêneros. São apresentadas a variação sazonal, observações sobre bionomia e a relação com os fatores climáticos mais importantes durante os anos de 1981 e 2013.
Kari Roesch Goodman
Full Text Available The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification.
Full Text Available Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future.
Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sanit, Sangob; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom
Although tropical climate of Thailand is suitably endowed with biodiversity of insects, flies of medical importance is not well investigated. Using information from literature search, fly survey approach and specialist's experience, we review database of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), one of the priorities flesh fly species of medical importance in Thailand. This review deals with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important morphological characteristics of egg, larva, puparia and adult were highlighted with illustration and/or micrographs. Search pertaining to molecular analysis used for fly identification and developmental rate of larvae were included. Medical involvement of larvae was not only myiasis-producing agent in humans and animals, but associated with human death investigations. This information will enable us to accurate identify this species and to emphasis the increase medically important scene in Thailand.
Wagner, Rüdiger; Bellstedt, Ronald
The aquatic insect collection of the late Dr. W. Joost contained two new species of Thaumaleidae (Diptera) from the Caucasus Mountains: Thaumalea monikae sp. n. and Thaumalea biacuminata sp. n. These two new species are herein described, and the most abundant species in Dr. Joost's collection, Thaumalea martinovskyi Joost, 1979, is redescribed based on the type material. Figures of male and female genitalia for all species are provided. All three species show morphological similarities to taxa from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Thaumalea monikae is related to the European T. bezzii-species group, T. biacuminata to the T. serrata-group, and T. martinovskyi to T. kyladica Wagner, 1981 and T. malickyi Theischinger, 1979 from the Eastern Mediterranean area.
Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan
Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.
Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos
The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.
Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N
Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.
Li, Xuankun; Li, Wenliang; Ding, Shuangmei; Cameron, Stephen L; Mao, Meng; Shi, Li; Yang, Ding
The superfamily Lauxanioidea is a significant dipteran clade including over 2500 known species in three families: Lauxaniidae, Celyphidae and Chamaemyiidae. We sequenced the first five (three complete and two partial) lauxanioid mitochondrial (mt) genomes, and used them to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group. The lauxanioid mt genomes are typical of the Diptera, containing all 37 genes usually present in bilaterian animals. A total of three conserved intergenic sequences have been reported across the Cyclorrhapha. The inferred secondary structure of 22 tRNAs suggested five substitution patterns among the Cyclorrhapha. The control region in the Lauxanioidea has apparently evolved very fast, but four conserved structural elements were detected in all three complete mt genome sequences. Phylogenetic relationships based on the mt genome data were inferred by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. The traditional relationships between families within the Lauxanioidea, (Chamaemyiidae + (Lauxaniidae + Celyphidae)), were corroborated; however, the higher-level relationships between cyclorrhaphan superfamilies are mostly poorly supported.
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes
The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.
dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786
Luz, C; Tai, M H H; Santos, A H; Rocha, L F N; Albernaz, D A S; Silva, H H G
The ovicidal activity of 21 hyphomycete fungi species against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested. Fungi with ovicidal activity developed on high numbers of eggs (> or =70%) during 25 d of exposure. A clear ovicidal activity with low values of hatch (1.3-40%) was observed after 25 d of incubation with Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries) Fries, Paecilomyces carneus (Duché & Heim) Brown & Smith, Paecilomyces marquandii (Massee) Hughes, Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Penicillium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Evlachovaea kintrischica Borisov & Tarasov. More than 63% of eggs hatched after 25-d exposures to 11 other fungi species deemed as ineffective. These are the first results to show the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against eggs of Ae. aegypti, and they suggest their potential as control agents of this vector.
Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L
Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.
Koenraadt, C J M
Adult body size is a central life history character in mosquito fitness studies. I evaluated the predictive values of pupal cephalothorax length, cephalothorax width, and wet weight for adult size (wing length) of male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Cephalothorax length was the most consistent and accurate predictor of adult size. Width of the cephalothorax and wet weight were more variable, and they significantly decreased shortly before adult emergence. I propose that cephalothorax length could be used as a proxy for adult size to test how physical and biological factors such as resource-limited environments and competition affect mosquito fitness with the advantage that the specimen does not need to be killed.
Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy
For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro
Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.
Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.
Guilherme S. SCHÜHLI
Full Text Available A survey of the Muscid (Diptera fauna of the Mbaracayú forest is presented. The forest is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located in Cuenca Alta del Río Jejuí, Canindeyú department, eastern Paraguay. The paper constitutes the first Muscid survey for Paraguay and contributes for the main priorities of the Paraguayan Plan Estratégico del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas. The specimens were sampled in five different biomes within the park area during 1996. The sampling method employed continuous sampling with malaise traps. The survey accounted for 22 genera and 52 species, comprising four genera (Dolichophaonia Carvalho, Haematobia Le Peletier, Sarcopromusca Townsend, and Stomoxys Geoffroy and 21 species not yet registered for Paraguay. The results included sampled specimens information including biome, date and taxonomic position.
Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana
A sizeable part of the large majority of animal life on Earth is the outcome of a fewevolutionary bursts of a certain lineage of insects: the episodic radiations of flies. Dipteransconstitute one of the most familiar groups of insects, since they are ubiquitous and of worldwidedistribution...... in Sarcophaginae are informative in resolvingphylogenetic relationships at various taxonomic levels. Despite the many interesting aspects in theevolution, biogeography, morphology, and biology of these flies, the evolutionary relationshipswithin this dipteran radiation are very poorly understood and the few...... to other regional faunas in the Afrotropical, Australasian, and Oriental regions.Hopefully, this thesis will inspire similar phylogenetic studies on other fly families, to betterunderstand Diptera radiations and how to troubleshoot challenging rapid evolutionary radiations.First and foremost...
Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.
陈小爱; 李嵩; 李昌本; 赵寿元; Aksoy; Serap
The flies of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from different Glossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genus Glossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genus Glossina where fusca group species formed the deepest branch followed by morsitans and palpalis groups, respectively. The placement of Glossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest that Glossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with the morsitans group species.
Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.
Kevin M. O'Neill
Full Text Available The robber fly Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran was studied in SW Montana, where it was an opportunistic predator of relatively small insects from 25 families in 7 orders. The most common prey were Diptera (44% and Homoptera (21%, with Cicadellidae, Bibionidae, and Formicidae comprising 44% of the prey. The elaborate courtship behavior of males included audible airborne visual displays that made use of silvery-white combs of hairs on the males' foretarsi. While perching, the flies exhibited both lateral and dorsal basking postures, and were apparently capable of strong flight only when direct sunlight was available. I compare the foraging and courtship behaviors of C. willistoni to those of other Cyrtopogon, and their thermal responses to those of other robber flies in the same habitat.
Silvestri, L; Antoniazzi, L R; Couri, M S; Monje, L D; Beldomenico, P M
Species of Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae) are Neotropical dipterans that include species with parasitic larvae which feed on nestling birds. To date, all Philornis species that have been recorded from Argentina have parasitic subcutaneous larvae. Here, for the first time for Argentina, we report the finding of Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968, a fly with a nest-dwelling, semi-haematophagous larva. This record, from the humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina in the nest of a saffron finch Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, substantially extends the known distribution of this species. We also report the consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of three of the specimens for future reference and comparison. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Argentina is part of the historical range of P. downsi or, alternatively, represents a recent expansion of its range, perhaps due to climatic changes or other factors of global environmental variation.
Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark
Carrion-breeding insects, such as flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), can be used as evidence in forensic investigations. Despite their considerable forensic potential, their use has been limited because morphological species identification, at any life stage, is very challenging. This study investigated whether DNA could be extracted and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences obtained for molecular identification of each immature life stage of the forensically important Australian flesh fly, Sarcophaga (Sarcorohdendorfia) impatiens (Walker). Genomic DNA extracts were prepared from all larval instars and puparia. Amplification of the barcoding region was successful from all extracts, but puparia amplicons were weak. All sequences were identified as S. impatiens with 99.95% confidence using the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD). Importantly, crop removal was necessary to eliminate PCR inhibition for specimens from late second and early third instars. Similar results are expected for immatures of other carrion-breeding species, enhancing the use of evidence from immature flies in forensic investigations.
Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J
From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David
The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.
Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.
Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.
Gornostaeva, R M; Zhukova, L I
The tested overalls for protection in hot climate may be recommended only for the protection of people engaged in work involving little movement (fishermen, watchmen, etc.). For wider use of such overalls in hot regions the design should be changed, the alterations are described in the paper. Further trials of the overalls should be carried out with its modified design; this costume provides adequate mechanical protection from the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking Diptera and it will be widely used in the tropics, where blood-sucking Diptera contribute much to infection transmission.
Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R
Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera.
Rochlin, I.; Harding, K.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.
Five years of CDC light trap data from Suffolk County, NY, were analyzed to compare the applicability of human population density (HPD) and land use/cover (LUC) classification systems to describe mosquito abundance and to determine whether certain mosquito species of medical importance tend to be more common in urban (defined by HPD) or residential (defined by LUC) areas. Eleven study sites were categorized as urban or rural using U.S. Census Bureau data and by LUC types using geographic information systems (GISs). Abundance and percent composition of nine mosquito taxa, all known or potential vectors of arboviruses, were analyzed to determine spatial patterns. By HPD definitions, three mosquito species, Aedes canadensis (Theobald), Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker), and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), differed significantly between habitat types, with higher abundance and percent composition in rural areas. Abundance and percent composition of these three species also increased with freshwater wetland, natural vegetation areas, or a combination when using LUC definitions. Additionally, two species, Ae. canadensis and Cs. melanura, were negatively affected by increased residential area. One species, Aedes vexans (Meigen), had higher percent composition in urban areas. Two medically important taxa, Culex spp. and Aedes triseriatus (Say), were proportionally more prevalent in residential areas by LUC classification, as was Aedes trivittatus (Coquillett). Although HPD classification was readily available and had some predictive value, LUC classification resulted in higher spatial resolution and better ability to develop location specific predictive models.
Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...
Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence
Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...
The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...
Simpson, Karl W.
A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker
Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...
Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael
Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause biting nuisance to livestock and humans and are vectors of a range of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Despite their economic significance, the delineation and identification of species where only morphology is co...
Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...
Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...
The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.
strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...
Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...
Population fluctuations of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae in commercial guava orchards = Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae em pomares comerciais de goiabeira
Luciana Baú Trassato
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate population fluctuations in Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae for two commercial guava orchards, cultivars Paluma and Japanesa, in an area of savanna, in Boa Vista, in the State of Roraima, Brazil, and relate these to plant phenology, relative humidity (%, temperature (°C and rainfall in the region, from December 2011 to November 2012. The fruit flies were captured using McPhail traps, with 300 ml of 30% passion fruit juice as food bait, which was renewed every week at the time the flies were collected and taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Roraima to be sorted, counted, separated by sex and placed into a 70% alcohol solution for later identification of the species A. striata. The population fluctuations of the pest were calculated using the MAD index (Fly / Trap / Day and the values for temperature (°C, relative humidity (% and cumulative rainfall (mm. The correlation between the number of females and the climatic variables was calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Using the Student t-test, the contribution of climatic factors to the population of A. striata was verified by multiple regression analysis. The greatest MAD indices for the Paluma cultivar are in April, August and September, and for the Japonesa cultivator, in April, May and July, coinciding with the fruiting period of the guava. Relative humidity has a positive influence on population fluctuations in A. striata. = Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a flutuação populacional de Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae em dois pomares comerciais de goiabeira das cultivares Paluma e Japonesa, em área de savana, em Boa Vista, Roraima, além de relacioná-la com a fenologia das plantas, umidade relativa do ar (%, temperatura (°C e pluviosidade da região, no período de dezembro de 2011 a novembro de 2012. A captura das moscas-das-frutas foi realizada por meio de armadilhas McPhail, cujo
Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran
Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.
Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como inimigo natural de Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae em fezes bovinas Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as natural enemy of Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae in catlle dung
Full Text Available This paper reports, for the first time, the occurrence of the parasite Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Archisepsis scabra (Diptera: Sespsidae found in cow manure in the municipality of Cachoeira Dourada, GO, Brazil (18º29´S and 49º´W. Manure samples, collected at two-week intervals, were taken to the laboratory, and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of adult flies or their parasites. The parasitism prevalence was 5.7%.
Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Otacílio Moreira Silva Filho; Francilene Cardoso Alves Fortes; Rélia Rodrigues Brunes; Rauer Ferreira Borges; Patricia Luzia Pereira Gonçalves; Juliana Fischer Laurindo
Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae)em Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoi...
Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars. La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R0) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E
The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.
Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy
The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given.
Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin
A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.
Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos
The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.
Rafaela Lopes Falaschi
Full Text Available Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M. pediferus Edwards, 1940.
Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.
Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.
Prat i Fornells, Narcís; Rieradevall i Sant, Maria
Este volumen especial de la col·lección F.E.M.- Guies está dedicado a la familia Chironomidae (INSECTA: DIPTERA). Esta guía tiene por objeto reconocer los principales morfotipos larvarios de quironómidos de los ríos mediterráneos utilizando caracteres macroscópicos que pueden ser observados a la lupa binocular (hasta 100x) ya que así es posible identificar las larvas a nivel de género o grupos de géneros. De esta manera, sin realizar preparaciones microscópicas se puede llegar a tener una cie...
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 97, 1–16. Edwards, F.W. (1917) Notes on Culicidae, with descriptions of new species...Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B), 32, 165–170. McIntosh, B.M., Weinbren, M.P., Worth, C.B. & Kokernot, R.H. (1962...the Entomological Society of Washington , 46, 205–225. Theobald, F.V. (1912) No. V.– Diptera, Culicidae. Transactions Linnean Society of London (2), 15
Gilasian, Ebrahim; Ziegler, Joachim; Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad
Minthodes susae Gilasian & Ziegler sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), from southwestern Iran, is described and illustrated, and compared with M. brevipennis (Brauer & Bergenstamm) from Turkey. A lectotype is recognised for Pseudomintho brevipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm (currently a species of Minthodes) and its designation is attributed to Mesnil. Minthodes pictipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm is newly recorded from Iran and Turkey, and M. latifacies Herting is reported from Iran for the first time. An identification key to the four Minthodes Brauer & Bergenstamm species known to occur in Iran is provided. Finally, new data are given on the intraspecific variation of Minthodes atra (Kugler).
de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L
The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.
Carrero Sarmiento, Diego Armando
Resumen: Los cultivos de granadilla en Colombia y en particular en la zona de estudio, son frecuentemente afectados por el insecto plaga Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae). El daño consiste principalmente en la caída de botones, flores y frutos, afectando significativamente la producción y generando importantes pérdidas económicas. En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio para estimar las fluctuaciones poblaciones de la plaga en cultivos de granadilla, en el departamento de Boyacá. A...
Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru
Abraham G. Caceres
Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present
Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae
Josiane Somariva Prophiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.
Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae in Buenos Aires, Argentina Avispas parasitoides (Hymenoptera a partir de puparios de moscas sarcosaprófagas (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae en Buenos Aires, Argentina
Full Text Available Emergence of parasitoid Hymenoptera from experimental rearings of sarcosaprophagous Diptera (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae attracted to beef baits were recorded in Buenos Aires (Argentina from 1998 to 2003. Four taxa were identified: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae and Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Only the first two species were abundant in all years. The number of added monthly emergences of each species is presented and correlated with monthly mean maximum-minimum temperatures.Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.
Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera:Hippoboscidae on Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Full Text Available Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia, representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis.The record of Pseudolynchia canariensis on two Rufous Crab-Hawk in situ taken care of the Hospital Veterinarian of the RioZoo Foundation. The nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the Laboratory of Diptera, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The findings of P canariensis out natural hosty (Columba livia it represents a contribution to the studies of the family Hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by P canariensis.
Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz (Diptera: Culicidade em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory
Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli
Full Text Available As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05, quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni. O ácido anacárdio (A. occidentale mostrou-se larvicida na concentração de 10 ppm e o extrato bruto de A. sativum foi eficaz contra as larvas na concentração de 1 ppm.The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26,6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (x = 0,05 at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina serobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni. Anacardic acid (A. occidentale was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract at 1 ppm.
Seong Hwan Park
Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.
Marcos-García, M A; García-López, A; Zumbado, M A; Rotheray, G E
When assessing the species richness of a taxonomic group in a specific area, the choice of sampling method is critical. In this study, the effectiveness of three methods for sampling syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests is compared: Malaise trapping, collecting adults with an entomological net, and collecting and rearing immatures. Surveys were made from 2008 to 2011 in six tropical forest sites in Costa Rica. The results revealed significant differences in the composition and richness of syrphid faunas obtained by each method. Collecting immatures was the most successful method based on numbers of species and individuals, whereas Malaise trapping was the least effective. This pattern of sampling effectiveness was independent of syrphid trophic or functional group and annual season. An advantage of collecting immatures over collecting adults is the quality and quantity of associated biological data obtained by the former method. However, complementarity between results of collecting adults and collecting immatures, showed that a combined sampling regime obtained the most complete inventory. Differences between these results and similar studies in more open Mediterranean habitats, suggest that for effective inventory, it is important to consider the effects of environmental characteristics on the catchability of syrphids as much as the costs and benefits of different sampling techniques.
Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690
Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G
Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.
Sugeng Juwono Mardihusodo
Full Text Available Quality of public health is greatly influenced by a lot of environmental factors, especially biotic factors among wich is a group of hematophagus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae showing high competence as disease vector(s. The vector mosquitoes belong to different species of different genera: *Anopheles, Aedes, Culex*, and *Mansonia.*In hypersensitive individuals, mosquito bites may induce pain and itching on the skin where the mosquito suck blood, allergic dermatitis leads up to dermatosis, even persistently, causing nuisance. Through the mosquito bites, man may risk to being infected with pathogens causing Malaria, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF, Chikungunya, Japanese Encephalitis (JE, and Lymphatic filariasis, specifically in areas where the mosquito-borne disease (MBD is (are endemic. Survival of a mosquito vector species of disease vector is much dependent on its environment, mainly on the availability of a number of suitable habitats for its pre-adult stages, larvae and pupae. Number, type and size of the larval habitats as well as quality of water in the mosquito breeding places apparently determine rates of survival and density of the mosquito breeding in it which generally positively correlate with the increase of the MBD transmission. Therefore, mosquito mainly a disease vector could be used as one of the bioindicators of environment health and its significant increase in density is predictive of the probable occurrence of a MBD epidemic in a communityliving in an endemic area.
Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S
Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.
Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge
Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
João Antonio C. Zequi
Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.
Eunice A. Bianchi Galati
Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.
De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V
Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.
Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.
A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.
Zayed, Alia; Soliman, Mustafa M; El-Shazly, Mohamed M
Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for approximately 20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 +/- 1 degrees C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 +/- 1 degrees C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.
Macêdo Maria E
Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.
Valéria Cid Maia
Full Text Available Vinte e três espécies de Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são conhecidas, todas como indutoras de galhas. A maioria das espécies é Neotropical, também com distribuição Neártica, Afrotropical e Australasiana. A diversidade do gênero no Brasil é avaliada com base na literatura e dados da coleção de Cecidomyiidae do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. O gênero está representado no Brasil por 23 espécies (18 descritas e 5 não determinadas, o que corresponde a 78% do total de espécies descritas e 95% da fauna neotropical fauna. Estes dados mostram que o gênero é representado no Brasil. A maioria das espécies (78% induz galhas foliares. Gema e caule foram outros órgãos vegetais galhados. As espécies estão associadas a dez famílias botânicas, sendo mais comuns em Burseraceae, Clusiaceae e Fabaceae. A maior parte foi coletada em Mata Atlântica, principalmente em restinga, e o Rio de Janeiro suporta o maior número de espécies registradas. A distribuição geográfica de três espécies é ampliada.
Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György
Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.
Thompson, Rhoe A.
Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.
Zhang, Chun-Tian; Shima, Hiroshi; Wang, Qiang; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter
The species of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae) from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions are revised. Ten described species are recognized, viz. B. atkinsoni (Baranov) (new records for Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand), B. ficorum (Townsend), B. fortis (Rondani), B. impigra Kolomiets (new record for China), B. kolomyetzi Mesnil, B. malayana Malloch, B. morosa Mesnil, B. robusta Malloch, B. steini (Brauer et Bergenstamm) and B. triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and nine species are described as new to science, B. brevicauda Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. carinata Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. chinensis Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Vietnam), B. flava Zhang et Wang sp. nov. (China), B. kurahashii Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Laos and Thailand), B. micronychia Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Japan; previously misidentified from China as B. irrorata (Meigen)), B. papei Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Malaysia), B. setigera Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China) and B. verticalis Shima et Zhang sp. nov. (China). Billaea fasciata (Townsend, 1928) is treated as a junior synonym of B. ficorum (Townsend, 1916), syn. nov. Billaea irrorata is no longer recorded from the eastern Palearctic. A key to 19 species of Billaea from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions and 101 figures of male terminalia, bodies, heads and abdomens are given.
Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier
This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49.
Negre, B; Simpson, P
The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) has been a useful paradigm for the study of pattern formation and its evolution. achaete-scute genes have duplicated and evolved distinct expression patterns during the evolution of cyclorraphous Diptera. Are the expression patterns in different species driven by conserved regulatory elements? If so, when did such regulatory elements arise? Here, we have sequenced most of the AS-C of the fly Calliphora vicina (including the genes achaete, scute and lethal of scute) to compare noncoding sequences with known cis-regulatory sequences in Drosophila. The organization of the complex is conserved with respect to Drosophila species. There are numerous small stretches of conserved noncoding sequence that, in spite of high sequence turnover, display binding sites for known transcription factors. Synteny of the blocks of conserved noncoding sequences is maintained suggesting not only conservation of the position of regulatory elements but also an origin prior to the divergence between these two species. We propose that some of these enhancers originated by duplication with their target genes.
Rotheray, Graham E
Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided.
Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ståhls, Gunilla
Three species of genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae: Eristalinae) from China are described as new to science, Cheilosia bullabucca Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n., C. lamproptera Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. and C. yunnanensis Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. We provide species descriptions and keys for their identification. The phylogenetic placements of the taxa was estimated based on their morphological characteristics and by analysing the taxa under parsimony using a mtDNA COI sequence dataset including a comprehensive set of Palaearctic previously generated Cheilosia spp. sequences representing all major subgenera. Based on both their morphological affinities and the molecular data. The Chinese taxa were placed in the subgenera Eucartosyrphus (C. bullabucca), Cheilosia s. str. (C. oblonga), Floccocheila (C. versicolor) while C. yunnanensis was not resolved as member of Cheilosia s. str. based on DNA despite sharing morphological characteristics with the subgenus. As the name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) prima Barkalov & Cheng from China is a junior homonym of Cheilosia (Cartosyrphus) prima Hunter, 1896 from the Nearctic region, for the Chinese species the new name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) primaria Barkalov & Ståhls nomen nov. is proposed.
Lebart-Pedebas, M C
The origin and development of the dorso-ventral flight muscles (DVM) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera; Nematocera). Chironomus was chosen because unlike Drosophila, its flight muscles develop during the last larval instar, before the lytic process of metamorphosis. Ten fibrillar DVM were shown to develop from a larval muscle associated with myoblasts. This muscle is connected to the imaginal leg disc so that its cavity communicates with the adepithelial cells present in the disc; but no migration of myoblasts seems to take place from the imaginal leg disc towards the larval muscle or vice versa. At the beginning of the last larval instar, the myoblasts were always present together with the nerves in the larval muscle. In addition, large larval muscle cells incorporated to the imaginal discs were observed to border on the area occupied by adepithelial cells, and are probably involved in the formation of 4 other fibrillar DVM with adepithelial cells. Three factors seem to determine the number of DVM fibres: the initial number of larval fibres in the Anlage, the fusions of myoblasts with these larval fibres and the number of motor axons in the Anlage. The extrapolation of these observations to Drosophila, a higher dipteran, is discussed.
Amanda Ciprandi Pires
Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.
Salmela, Jukka; Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu
The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D.suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.
Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C
True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.
Popko, David A; Han, Suk-Kyun; Lanoil, Brian; Walton, William E
The succession of the planktonic bacterial community during the colonization by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes of 0.1-ha treatment wetlands was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methodology. Relationships between apparent bacterial diversity and ecological factors (water quality, total bacterial counts, and immature mosquito abundance) were determined during a 1-mo flooding period. Analysis of DGGE banding patterns indicated that days postflooding and temporal changes in water quality were the primary and secondary determinants, respectively, of diversity in bacterial communities. Lower levels of diversity were associated with later postflood stages and increases in ammoniacal nitrogen concentration and total bacterial counts. Diversity was therefore most similar for bacteria present on the same sampling date at wetland locations with similar flooding regimes and water quality, suggesting that wastewater input was the driving force shaping bacterial communities. Comparatively small changes in bacterial diversity were connected to natural processes as water flowed through the wetlands. Greater immature mosquito abundance coincided with less diverse communities composed of greater total numbers of bacteria. Five individual DGGE bands were directly associated with fluctuations in mosquito production, and an additional 16 bands were associated with hydrological aspects of the environment during the rise and fall of mosquito populations. A marked decline in mosquito numbers 21 d after inundation may have masked associations of bacterial communities and mosquito recruitment into the sparsely vegetated wetlands. DGGE was an effective tool for the characterization of bacteria in mosquito habitat in our study, and its potential application in mosquito ecology is discussed.
Full Text Available The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae used in this study included B. dorsalis, B. arecae, B. propinqua, B. pyrifoliae, B. verbascifoliae, and three new species complexes are species E, species K and species P. Bactrocera tau was used as an out-group. A total of 424 adults, which emerged from pupae collected from natural populations in Thai land, were prepared for wing measurements. Morphometric analysis was performed on measurements of wing vein characters. Wing images were captured in digital format and taken through digital image processing to calculate the Euclidean distance between wing vein junctions. Discriminant and cluster analyses were used for dichotomy of classification processes. All 424 wing specimens were classified to species in terms of the percentage of "grouped" cases which yielded about 89.6% accurate identificati on compared with the formal description of these species. After clustering, the percentage of "grouped"cases yielded 100.0%, 98.9%, 98.1%, 95.2% and 84.6% accurate identification between the B. dorsalis complex and B. tau; B. arecae and Species E; B. dorsalis and B. verbascifoliae; B. propinqua and B. pyrifoliae; and species K and species P, respectively. This method of numerical taxonomy may be useful for practical identification of other groups of agricultural pests.
Savini, G; Goffredo, M; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; Cafiero, M A; Baldi, L; de Santis, P; Meiswinkel, R; Caporale, V
Between July and September 2002 there were outbreaks of bluetongue on three sheep holdings in the communities of San Gregorio Magno (Salerno, Campania), Laviano (Salerno, Campania) and Carpino (Foggia, Puglia), and the involvement of bluetongue virus (btv) was confirmed serologically and virologically. The mortality rate was at least 11 per cent and involved btv serotype 2 (btv-2) and serotype 9 (btv-9). These holdings were also surveyed for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors; approximately 10,000 midges belonging to 15 species were captured, but they did not include a single specimen of the classical Afro-Asiatic bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola. Species belonging to the Obsoletus complex dominated the light-trap collections, and Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle and Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer constituted 90 per cent of all the Culicoides species captured. Fifty-six pools of the Obsoletus complex (excluding C dewulfi), each containing 100 individual midges and containing only parous and gravid females, were assayed for virus. btv-2 was isolated from three pools from San Gregorio Magno and Carpino, and btv-9 was isolated from one pool from Laviano. These results indicate that a species other than C imicola is involved in the current re-emergence of bluetongue in the Mediterranean Basin, but whether it is C obsoletus sensu stricto or C scoticus, or both, is uncertain.
Julio Marcos Melges Walder
Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.
Follett, Peter A
The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.
Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li
The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73％ of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.
Daniel D.D. Carmo
Full Text Available Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este trabalho apresenta uma hipótese filogenética heurística cujos resultados podem servir como base para o entendimento da grande diversificação morfológica das terminálias masculina e feminina dos ragionídeos, apontando para a solução de algumas controvérsias a respeito da morfologia das estruturas reprodutivas do grupo.
McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H
The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.
Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.
Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811
Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata
The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.
Full Text Available Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided.
Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai
The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.
Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.
J. S. Carneiro
Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.
Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A
Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Boykin, Laura M; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Dean, David; Beerli, Peter
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.
Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J
An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.
Moya, Pilar; Flores, Salvador; Ayala, Ildefonso; Sanchis, Juan; Montoya, Pablo; Primo, Jaime
Chemosterilisation with lufenuron bait stations is a recently developed technique that is being implemented for Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemosterilising effect of lufenuron against four economically important Latin American fruit flies species: Anastrepha ludens (Loew.), A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wiedemann and A. striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to design a similar strategy for their control. Sexually mature adults were treated by ingestion with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30.0 mg g(-1) of lufenuron in the diet. In addition, conspecific crosses with only one of the sexes being treated (30.0 mg g(-1)) were performed in order to appraise the contribution of each sex to the sterilising effect. In all cases, fecundity was not affected by the treatments, as opposed to fertility where all Anastrepha species studied were significantly affected, although to different extents. The conspecific crosses showed that treated males of A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina were not able to transmit the sterility to their respective untreated females. Only in the case of A. striata did crossing treated males with untreated females significantly reduced egg hatch. Although further investigations are required, the present results demonstrate that the use of lufenuron for controlling A. striata could be potentially viable.
Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Mauricio Batistella Pasini
Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.
Nelms, Brittany M; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Carroll, Brian D; Macedo, Paula; Kluh, Susanne; Reisen, William K
Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, the primary summer vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), also may serve as overwintering reservoir hosts. Detection of WN viral RNA from larvae hatched from eggs deposited by infected females during late summer and fall may provide evidence for the vertical passage of WNV to overwintering cohorts. To determine whether vertical transmission to the overwintering generation occurs in populations of Culex mosquitoes throughout California, larvae from naturally infected females were tested by family for WN viral RNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during August through October 2011. Viral RNA was detected in 34 of 934 Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. pipiens complex females that laid viable egg rafts. From these egg rafts, first-instar larvae from nine families tested positive, yielding an overall field vertical transmission rate of 26% (n = 34). To determine whether the WNV may be lost transtadially during development to the adult stage, first-instar larvae and adult progeny from experimentally infected Cx. pipiens complex females were assessed for the presence and quantity of WN viral RNA. Most (approximately 75%) WNV infections were lost from positive families during larval development to the adult stage. In field and laboratory studies, only infected mothers with mean cycle threshold scores Culex mosquitoes collected throughout California during late summer and fall, with females having high titered infections capable of passing WNV onto their progeny destined for overwintering.
Harrington, Laura C; Poulson, Rebecca L
Understanding the ecology and behavior of different mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) is essential for identifying their role in disease transmission cycles and public health risk. Two species of Culex mosquitoes in the northeastern United States, Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald, have been implicated in enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). Despite the difficulty of differentiating these two species as adults, many public health workers and vector biologists collecting adults in the field separate these species based on external morphology. This approach is often used rather than examination of dissected male genitalia or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics due to time or cost constraints. We evaluated the reliability of seven published morphological characters to differentiate adults of these species by comparing blindly scored morphology with PCR-based confirmations. Our study demonstrates that morphological identification of Cx. pipiens is marginal and often not reliable for Cx. restuans. We also examined error rates with molecular-based approaches. DNA samples were contaminated with as little as one leg from another species. We conclude that to fully understand the respective roles of Culex species in the epidemiology of WNV and other pathogens, more attention should be paid to these considerations for accurate species identification.
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751
Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.
Wormington, Jillian D; Juliano, Steven A
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD.
Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L
Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.
Gusmão Desiely Silva
Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.
Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J
Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin.
Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394
Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.
Full Text Available Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad peritoneal. El segundo caso se asoció con una paciente que estuvo en una unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, sospechosa de una intoxicación con salicilatos, quien fue sometida a intubación para brindarle respiración mecánica asistida. La paciente expulsó varias larvas de mosca por su cavidad oral, lo que ameritó una aspiración orotraqueal, de la cual se obtuvo más larvas. En ambos casos se trató de larvas maduras de tercer estadio, que se evidenciaron en un periodo mayor o igual a cinco días a partir del internamiento en el nosocomio, lo que tipifica ambos casos como miasis nosocomiales.
Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.
Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James
A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.
Eduar Elías BEJARANO
Full Text Available NUEVOS HALLAZGOS DE FLEBOTOMÍNEOS (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE EN LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIAEl componente entomológico de la leishmaniasis ha sido poco estudiado en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, incluido el departamento del Magdalena, donde a la fecha están registradas trece especies de Lutzomyia. En la presente nota se informa el hallazgo de tres especies y un subgénero más en la región. Se recolectaron 885 flebotomíneos en Seywiaka y las veredas Las Tinajas y Calabazo, estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (117-130 m.s.n.m.. El 84% de los ejemplares se obtuvieron con trampa CDC, el 11% con trampa Shannon y el 5% fueron capturados, en reposo, con un dispositivo eléctrico de succión. Se identificaron nueve especies, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. evansi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. dubitans, Lu. shannoni, y Lu. micropyga, la más abundante fue Lu. gomezi (69%, seguida por Lu. panamensis (14%. También se recolectaron ejemplares de la serie Lu. osornoi del subgénero Helcocyrtomyia. Entre el material hallado sobresalen Lu. carpenteri, Lu. dubitans y Lu. dysponeta como primeros registros para el departamento del Magdalena, además de Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia sp., que representa el primer hallazgo del subgénero en el Caribe colombiano.
Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.
Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa
Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.
Daniel S Albeny
Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions
Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.
Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D
Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.
Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D
Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.
Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A
Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.
Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline
A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://126.96.36.199:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.
Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M
Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are severe pests of vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Previous studies revealed low leafminer parasitism across different agroecological zones in Kenya. The present paper reports on the composition of leafminer parasitoids at different elevations, in different seasons, and on different host crops. Surveys were conducted monthly from January to November 2012, and nine parasitoid species were recovered. Total mean parasitism in the study sites was 31.23 ± 1.03% from a total of 20 different vegetable Liriomyza-infested crops belonging to seven families. Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Phaedrotoma scabriventris, a newly released parasitoid, and Opius dissitus Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the most abundant at all elevations, accounting for 67.3, 18.6, and 9.2% of total parasitoids, respectively. Elevation, season, and host crop significantly affected the parasitoid species present and their abundance. Diglyphus isaea was more abundant at the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons compared with the low-elevation, whereas the lower-elevation favored higher abundance of P. scabriventris and O. dissitus during the long rainy season compared with the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons. Of all the host crops surveyed, parasitoids were more abundant on tomato, local kidney bean, snow pea and French bean than other crops. The total parasitism rate observed in this study suggests a considerable improvement in leafminer parasitism compared with previous surveys in Kenya. The implications of these findings for leafminer management in vegetable and ornamental production in Kenya are discussed.
Full Text Available New faunistic data on the distribution of 50 species of the family Agromyzidae from the Afrotropical Region are given. Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849 and Phytomyza ranunculi (Schrank, 1803 are firstly recorded for the Afrotropics and 47 species are firstly recorded for the following countries: Angola, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. For each country the number of known species are put together in a table. An updated Afrotropical checklist is added. The most peculiar genitalia of the redetected Ophiomyia dhofarensis are discussed in connection with other species, among them: Ophiomyia yunnanensis comb. nov. [= Ophiomyia dumosa syn. nov.]. Ophiomyia nigrimaculata comb. nov. is treated taxomically, too. The type-species of the Pseudonapomyza acanthacearum-group is re-defined. Ranunculus was firstly confirmed as host plant genus of Phytomyza subeximia which develops between its seeds, a rare substrate in the genus. Napomyza strana stat. rev. was redetected in an altitude of 3353 m a.s.l. An eclector collecting method is described which lets estimate the natural proportional abundance of Agromyzidae compared with all other Diptera in the groundlevel vegetation of a country.
ISABEL CRISTINA CADAVID-SANCHEZ
Full Text Available Enterobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae causing enteric diseases can be carried and dispersed through insects that act as mechanical vectors, especially flies (Insecta: Diptera. In this study, enterobacteria associated with synanthropic flies were isolated and identified; four different urban areas in the municipality of Medellín were surveyed. Thirteen taxa of calyptrate flies belonging to four families were identified and classified according to the Mechanical Vector Risk Index (MVRI value, which is proposed in this study. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1819, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 are of high risk; Fannia sp., Atherigona orientalis Schiner, 1868, and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 of moderate risk; remaining species were classified as low or no risk. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium according to the number of isolations (32%, followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (12%, Pasteurella pneumotropica (11%, and Kluyvera spp. (8%. Raoultella ornithinolitica, Stenotrophomponas maltophilia, and Chryseobacterium menigosepticum were isolated for the first time from flies. Finally, 22 new records of bacteria associated with eight fly species are documented. These results allow us to foresee the existence of a generalist pattern in the interaction between flies and bacteria and indicate that synanthropic flies have a quantifiable potential as vectors of infectious diseases according to the index proposed.
Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem
House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.
Milić Dubravka M.
Full Text Available Predicting species distribution in different climates is most often made by climate models (“climate envelope models” - CEM which are using the current geographical distribution of species and climate characteristics of the area. Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae can act as bioindicators and monitors of climate change and habitat quality. Cheilosia Meigen, 1822 is one of the largest hoverflies genera, with about 450 described species. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of six species from Cheilosia proxima group on the Balkan Peninsula (Cheilosia aerea Dufour, 1848, C. balkana Vujić, 1994, C. gigantea Zetterstedt, 1838, C. pascuorum Becker, 1894, C. proxima Zetterstedt, 1843 and C. rufimana Becker, 1894 using maximum entropy modeling (Maxent. It is observed that parameters with highest influence on the analyzed species are Altitude and BIO 15 (Precipitation Seasonality for all species, except C. rufimana. Parameter that also substantially influenced for all species, except C. pascuorum, is BIO 18 (Precipitation of Warmest Quarter. The models of current distribution have shown that the most important area of the Balkan Peninsula, for species from Cheilosia proxima group, is Dinaric mountains. Information obtained in this paper can help in future monitoring of species, as well as for the conservation measures, especially for endemics and rare species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002 i br. 43002
Valéria Cid Maia
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Machaeriobia Rübsaamen, 1915 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae from Brazil. Machaeriobia Rübsaamen, 1915 is a Neotropical genus, until now known from a single species, M. machaerii (Kieffer, 1913, described from Brazil (State of Santa Catarina. That species induces spherical leaf galls on Machaerium sp. (Fabaceae and its geographical distribution is still restricted to the type-locality. A new galling species, Machaeriobia gemmae, associated with Machaerium macaense (Fabaceae, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female based on material collected in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species is unique for its one or two-segmented palpi, deeply notched aedeagus, pupa with free dorsal abdominal spines, larva with reduced spatula and two apically sclerotized terminal lobes. We synonymize Anadiplosis Tavares, 1916 under Machaeriobia Rübsaamen, 1915. Six wasp species (Hymenoptera are associated with the galler: Tanaostigmodes carinatus La Salle 1987 and Tanaostigmodes sp. (Tanaostigmatidae, Galeopsomyia sp. (Eulophidae, Calorylea sp. (Eurytomidae, and two undetermined species of Eurytomidae.
Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A
Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available A new species of Giovanella Bonatto (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae from Colombia. The Mesembrinellinae are exclusively Neotropical, with 33 nominal species distributed in nine genera. Only the genera Mesembrinella, Eumesembrinella, Huascaromusca and Laneella had until now been recorded in Colombia. In this work we present a new species of Giovanella Bonatto, 2005, genus with only one species, G. bolivar Bonatto, differing from the new species G. carvalhoi sp. nov., in the characters: legs entirely dark chestnut; thorax with dorsocentrals setae 1:2; abdomen with T5 with discal bristles poorly differentiated; T6 symmetric and paraphallus not extended and with denticules. Giovanella carvalhoi sp. nov. is from Cordillera Oriental, from the Departments of Caquetá (Amazonian foothills and Santander, Colombia, collected between 22002400 m., and associated with decomposing organic matter. A key for the identification of males and females of the two species of Giovanella, illustrations of the genitalia and photographs of male and female of new species are also presented.
Rosângela MR Barbosa
Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.
Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo
The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.
Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Umirah, Nur Shahirul; Abas, Ahmad
Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.
Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich
An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.
Marilza S. Costa
Full Text Available Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti.
Brown, Brian V; Hash, John M; Hartop, Emily A; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza
Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown.
Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Castellón, Eloy G; De Souza, Maria de Fátima; Menezes, Alexandre A Lara; Queiroz, José Wilton; Macedo e Silva, Virgínia Penéllope; Jerônimo, Selma M B
The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. Cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between Lu. longipalpis population densities and abiotic factors of temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and rainfall. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed for males and females, with intervals of 6 mo between population peaks for males and 12 mo for females. Peak female population densities lagged 3 mo behind the maximum annual temperature. Female population density was negatively correlated with relative humidity. An increase in average wind velocity was followed by a decrease in the number of females for 2 wk. Understanding the relationship between the seasonal population dynamics of Lu. longipalpis and abiotic factors will contribute to the design of better control measures to decrease transmission of L. infantum and consequently the incidence of leishmaniasis.
Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo
In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available During the months of June to September 2006, collections of tabanids (Diptera:Tabanidae and ticks were conducted in the Caucasia municipality, Antioquia,Colombia. Tabanids were caught on horses during daylight using hand nets and pots atthe ecotone zone between secondary forests and paddock habitats. Ticks were collecteddirectly from cattle by hand. The purpose of the study was to identify possible vectorsof bovine trypanosomosis, and register the diversity and abundance of tabanids inthe zone. The arthropods were brought to the laboratory for taxonomic determinationand protozooans searching in proboscis, midgut, and salivary glands of flies. Inthe case of ticks, protozoans were searched in hemolymph. One hundred and fortytabanids belonging to four genera and nine species were caught. Among the species,Lepiselaga crassipes was the most abundant (43.6%, with the highest abundancein July and a biting peak at 14:00 h. The highest diversity of tabanids was observedduring September. Three tabanids were found infected with flagellates morphologicallycompatible with Trypanosoma vivax. 315 ticks belonging to Boophilus microplusspecies were collected, all of them negative to flagellates. These results suggest T.vivax transmission by tabanids in the study area. However, the specific status ofthe parasites should be determined by molecular techniques and the transmissionmechanism should be established too by controlled studies
Sabanoğlu, Burcu; Sert, Osman
This study was conducted from March 2006 to 2007. The aim of the study was to determine the forensically significant Calliphoridae (Diptera) species and their seasonal distribution in Ankara province at Beytepe Campus. Pig carcasses were killed by a veterinary using pentobarbital sodium with intervals from 2 to 3 weeks to a month. Samples were collected from the carcass everyday in the morning, in the afternoon, and at sunset. Temperature and parameters of weather, such as cloudy, sunny, rainy, and snowy, were recorded at each visit. Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) species, which belong to Calliphoridae family, were collected. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. The species were determined on carcass between the following times; P. sericata, from April to November; C. albiceps, from May to November; Ca. vomitoria, from February to June and from September to December; and Ca. vicina, from February to May and in June and September. Calliphoridae fauna and its annual seasonal distribution in Turkey on 12 pig carcasses were reported for the first time in this study.
Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria
Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is known as the secondary screwworm because it causes secondary or facultative myiasis when the larvae feed on necrotic tissues. This fly has a significant medical and veterinary importance since it has been reported to transport eggs of Dermatobia hominis (human botfly), which can cause significant economic losses to livestock. Since this screwworm has been collected colonizing both pig carcasses and human cadavers, it is considered one of the most important species for forensic entomology studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characteristics which can help identify the immature forms of the flies. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the eggs, all the larval instars, and the puparia of Cochliomyia macellaria using SEM. The egg is ellipsoid and the dorsal surface is concave. The islands inside the median area had no anastomosis, but some perforations could be observed. From the second larval instar onwards, besides the intersegmental spines, other bands of spines were observed at the abdominal segments. Two spiracular openings were visible on the first and second larval instars, which were not expected. These characteristics are specific to Cochliomyia genus. The number and the general aspect of the spine tips in the cephalic region, the intersegmental bands on the abdomen, and the number of the spiracular openings could together help identify C. macellaria.
Смирнов, А.; Егоров, С.; Абарыкова, О.; Петров, Ю.
As a result of the studies of the urban ecosystem of the city of Zhytomyr we have found out 21 species (5 genera) of mosquitoes. The Aedes genus is the most numerous (47 %, 15 species) with Ae. cinereus Mg. being dominant. Representatives of the Anopheles genus amount 37 %, 2 species, An. maculipennis Mg. being dominant. The Culex genus is less numerous (16 %, 2 species) with Cx. pipiens pipiens L. being dominant. Representatives of the Mansonia (M. richiardii Fic.) and Culiseta (Cs. аnnulata...
Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie
Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.
Astakhova, L N; Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G
The heat shock proteins belonging to the Hsp90 family (Hsp83 in Diptera) play a crucial role in the protection of cells due to their chaperoning functions. We sequenced hsp90 genes from three species of the family Stratiomyidae (Diptera) living in thermally different habitats and characterized by extraordinarily high thermotolerance. The sequence variation and structure of the hsp90 family genes were compared with previously described features of hsp70 copies isolated from the same species. Two functional hsp83 genes were found in the species studied, that are arranged in tandem orientation at least in one of them. This organization was not previously described. Stratiomyidae hsp83 genes share a high level of identity with hsp83 of Drosophila, and the deduced protein possesses five conserved amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of the Hsp90 family as well as the C-terminus MEEVD sequence characteristic of the cytosolic isoform. A comparison of the hsp83 promoters of two Stratiomyidae species from thermally contrasting habitats demonstrated that while both species contain canonical heat shock elements in the same position, only one of the species contains functional GAF-binding elements. Our data indicate that in the same species, hsp83 family genes show a higher evolution rate than the hsp70 family.
Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza
Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.
Full Text Available Among the natural predators, larval stages of the mosquito Lutzia fuscana (Wiedemann, 1820 (Diptera: Culicidae bear potential as a biological control agent of mosquitoes. An estimation of the predatory potential of the larva of L. fuscana against the larva of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae was made to highlight its use in vector management. Laboratory experiments revealed that the larva of L. fuscana consumes 19 to 24 A. aegypti larvae per day, during its tenure as IV instar larva. The consumption of A. aegypti larvae was proportionate to the body length (BL and body weight (BW of the predatory larva L. fuscana as depicted through the logistic regressions: y = 1 / (1 + exp(-(-2.09 + 0.35*BL and y = 1 / (1 + exp(-(0.4+ 0.06*BW. While the prey consumption remained comparable among the days, the net weight gained by the L. fuscana larva showed a decreasing trend with the age. On the basis of the results, it is apparent that the larva of the mosquito L. fuscana can be used in the regulation of the mosquito A. aegypti through augmentative release, particularly, in the smaller mosquito larval habitats.
Simão D. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p
Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano
In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R
Abstract Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management.
Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-François; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali
Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex antennatus are of epidemiological significance. Anopheles arabiensis is widely distributed throughout the country and its geographic distribution has increased northwards in recent years, shifting its northern limit form 17°32'N in the 1960s to 18°47'N today. Its presence in the central region of Tagant highlights the great ecological plasticity of the species. Conversely, the distribution of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles melas has shrunk compared to that of the 1960s. Anopheles rhodesiensis and An. d'thali are mainly confined in the mountainous areas (alt. 200-700 m), whereas Anopheles pharoensis is widely distributed in the Senegal River basin. Culex poicilipes and Cx. antenattus were naturally found infected with Rift valley fever virus in central and northern Mauritania following the Rift valley outbreaks of 1998 and 2012. Recently, Ae. aegypti emerged in Nouakchott and is probably responsible for dengue fever episodes of 2015. This paper provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the existing literature on mosquito species known to occur in Mauritania and highlights areas where future studies should fill a gap in knowledge about vector biodiversity. It aims to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes particularly in the field of medical entomology to inform evidence-based decision-making for vector control and management strategies.
Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical
Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J
We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.
Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J
Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest.
Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D
The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed.
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.
Kostreski, Nicholas I.
In the quest to understand the forces generated by micro aerial systems powered by oscillating appendages, it is necessary to study the kinematics that generate those forces. Automated and manual tracking techniques were developed to extract the complex wing and body motions of dipteran insects, ideal micro aerial systems, in free flight. Video sequences were captured by three high speed cameras (7500 fps) oriented orthogonally around a clear flight test chamber. Synchronization and image-based triggering were made possible by an automated triggering circuit. A multi-camera calibration was implemented using image-based tracking techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the insect were generated from the 2-D images by shape from silhouette (SFS) methods. An intensity based segmentation of the wings and body was performed using a mixture of Gaussians. In addition to geometric and cost based filtering, spectral clustering was also used to refine the reconstruction and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to find the body roll axis and wing-span axes. The unobservable roll state of the cylindrically shaped body was successfully estimated by combining observations of the wing kinematics with a wing symmetry assumption. Wing pitch was determined by a ray tracing technique to compute and minimize a point-to-line cost function. Linear estimation with assumed motion models was accomplished by discrete Kalman filtering the measured body states. Generative models were developed for different species of diptera for model based tracking, simulation, and extraction of inertial properties. Manual and automated tracking results were analyzed and insect flight simulation videos were developed to quantify ground truth errors for an assumed model. The results demonstrated the automated tracker to have comparable performance to a human digitizer, though manual techniques displayed superiority during aggressive maneuvers and image blur. Both techniques demonstrated
Salem, Abeer M; Adham, Fatma K; Picard, Christine J
Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis-C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps-C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps-C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.
Yenice, Mustafa Gürkan; Demir, Tülin; Babür, Cahit; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Kılıç, Selçuk
Myiasis which is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, is caused by dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it occurs relatively frequently in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America. Myiasis is usually associated with poor general health and hygiene, restricted mobility and ulcerating lesions. The pathophysiology of the human infection differs depending on the fly species and where the larvae are located. It could be external or internal, and the invasion by the maggot could be obligatory, facultative and sometimes acci-dental. Myiasis is a self-limiting infestation with minimal morbidity in the vast majority of cases. Urogenital myiasis, associated with urinary obstruction, poor hygiene of the local site and ulcerating lesions has been infrequently reported. In this report, a case of 29 year-old male patient who presented with genitourinary myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera), was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of urinary incontinence of one week duration and presence of small, thin, motile, grayishwhite objects in his urine. Physical examination, blood and urine examination and stool microscopy revealed no pathology. No growth was detected in his urine culture. The examination of discharged larva in urine sample at Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory led to the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis. No risk factor was identified in the patient who had proper hygienic conditions, was living in urban area and was of high socioeconomic status. This case was presented to withdraw attention to myiasis which is frequent in Turkey, however, is usually overlooked.
Singh, Baneshwar; Crippen, Tawni L; Zheng, Longyu; Fields, Andrew T; Yu, Ziniu; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K; Dowd, Scot E; Flores, Micah; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M
Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata were also characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study suggest that the majority of bacteria associated with these flies belong to phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, and most bacteria are maintained intragenerationally, with a considerable degree of turnover from generation to generation. In both species, second-generation eggs exhibited the highest bacterial phylum diversity (20 % genetic distance) than other life stages. The Lucilia sister species shared the majority of their classified genera. Of the shared bacterial genera, Providencia, Ignatzschineria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Morganella, and Myroides were present at relatively high abundances. Lactobacillus, Proteus, Diaphorobacter, and Morganella were the dominant bacterial genera associated with a survey of the salivary gland of L. sericata. TEM analysis showed a sparse distribution of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the salivary gland of L. sericata. There was more evidence for horizontal transmission of bacteria than there was for trans-generational inheritance. Several pathogenic genera were either amplified or reduced by the larval feeding on decomposing liver as a resource. Overall, this study provides
Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R
Tympanate hearing has evolved in at least 6 different orders of insects, but had not been reported until recently in the Diptera. This study presents a newly discovered tympanal hearing organ, in the parasitoid tachinid fly, Ormia ochracea. The hearing organ is described in terms of external and internal morphology, cellular organization of the sensory organ and preliminary neuroanatomy of the primary auditory afferents. The ear is located on the frontal face of the prothorax, directly behind the head capsule. Conspicuously visible are a pair of thin cuticular membranes specialized for audition, the prosternal tympanal membranes. Directly attached to these membranes, within the enlarged prosternal chamber, are a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae. These sensory organs are unique among all auditory organs known so far because both are contained within an unpartitioned acoustic chamber. The prosternal chamber is connected to the outside by a pair of tracheae. The cellular anatomy of the fly's scolopophorous organ was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The bulba acustica is a typical chordotonal organ and it contains approximately 70 receptor cells. It is similar to other insect sensory organs associated with tympanal ears. The similarity of the cellular organization and tympanal morphology of the ormiine ear to the ears of other tympanate insects suggests that there are potent constraints in the design features of tympanal hearing organs, which must function to detect high frequency auditory signals over long distances. Each sensory organ is innervated by a branch of the frontal nerve of the fused thoracic ganglia. The primary auditory afferents project to each of the pro-, meso-, and metathoracic neuropils. The fly's hearing organ is sexually dimorphic, whereby the tympanal membranes are larger in females and the spiracles larger in males. The dimorphism presumably reflects differences in the acoustic behavior in the two sexes.
Zuha, R M; Supriyani, M; Omar, B
Analysis on fly artifacts produced by forensically important blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera:Calliphoridae), revealed several unique patterns. They can be divided into fecal spots, regurgitation spots and swiping stains. The characteristics of fecal spots are round with three distinct levels of pigmentation; creamy, brownish and darkly pigmented. Matrix of the spots appears cloudy. The round spots are symmetrical and non-symmetrical, delineated by irregular and darker perimeter which only visible in fairly colored fecal spots. Diameter of these artifacts ranged from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. Vomit or regurgitation spots are determined by the presence of craters due to sucking activity of blowflies and surrounded by thickly raised and darker colored perimeter. The size of these specks ranged from 1 mm to 2 mm. Matrix of the spots displays irregular surface and reflective under auxiliary microscope light. Swiping stains due to defecation by flies consists of two distinguishable segments, the body and tail. It can be seen as a tear drop-like, sperm-like, snake-like and irregular tadpole-like stain. The direction of body and tail is inconsistent and length ranged between 4.8 mm to 9.2 mm. A finding that should be highlighted in this observation is the presence of crater on tadpole-like swiping stain which is apparent by its raised border characteristic and reflective under auxiliary microscope light. The directionality of this darkly brown stain is random. This unique mix of regurgitation and swiping stain has never been reported before. Highlighting the features of artifacts produced by flies would hopefully add our understanding in differentiating them from blood spatters produced from victims at crime scenes.
Full Text Available A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences - almost 20% of the total - this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification.We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to blast against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification.
Yee, Wee L
Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.
Davidson, G; Chandler, D
Laboratory experiments were done to measure the susceptibility of larvae and adults of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Muscidae: Anthomyiidae) to 27 isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from four genera [Beauveria Vuillemin, Lecanicillium (Petch) Zare & W. Gams, Metarhizium Sorokin, and Paecilomyces Bainier]. A novel bioassay was developed for D. antiqua larvae by using a diet based on mixed vegetable powder. When evaluated in a virulence screen, the fungal isolates caused less mortality of D. antiqua larvae than adults. Only three isolates caused > 50% mortality of larvae, whereas 12 isolates caused > 50% mortality of adults. Fungal species was a statistically significant factor affecting the mortality of larvae but not of adults. The fungal isolates causing the most mortality of larvae tended to belong to Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Two M. anisopliae isolates (389.93 and 392.93) were evaluated in dose-response bioassays. The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against larvae were 6.1 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 389.93 and 7.6 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 392.93. The emergence of adult flies from pupae was reduced at high concentrations of conidia (3.0 x 10(8) and 1.0 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against adults were 1.7 x 10(7) and 4.0 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Some of the fungal isolates examined may have potential as biological control agents of larvae of D. antiqua and related species.
Diwakar Singh Dinesh
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae, the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC, column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9 [th] fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the
Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C
Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein.
Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R
Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.
Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.
Lasa, Rodrigo; Velázquez, Olinda E; Ortega, Rafael; Acosta, Emilio
One of the most important factors for the success of a mass trapping strategy to control a fruit fly involves the selection of an effective trap-lure combination. Because different species of fruit flies respond differently to the physical characteristics of a trap and to bait volatiles, the evaluation of commercial traps and lures that have proved useful against other tephtrids is necessary to determine their efficacy for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Under caged conditions, a commercial hemispherical trap with lateral holes (Maxitrap Plus) proved more attractive to A. ludens (both sexes) than five other commercial traps that were all baited with hydrolyzed protein. Among these traps, bottom invaginated traps and traps with invaginated lateral holes constructed with transparent cylinders had the best physical retention properties. When evaluated under field conditions, the lure was critical for the efficacy of the trap, and one of the traps that performed poorly in attraction and retention cage tests (MS2) resulted as one of the most effective traps when baited with CeraTrap lure. Considering the use of different trap models under field conditions, CeraTrap liquid bait was more effective in A. ludens capture than Biolure dry synthetic bait, but both lures were not replaced during the entire course of the experiment. The percentage of captured females was also slightly higher using CeraTrap lure (67.2%) than using Biolure baits (54.5-58.8%). In field tests, 75-81% of females were mated and no significant differences were observed among trap-lure combinations. Trap selectivity against nontarget adult lacewings also differed among trap-lure combinations.
Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue
In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.
Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan
The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) causes serious damage that affects fruit production. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this destructive pest. However, the resistance of B. dorsalis to these compounds has become a serious problem. This study tested six sweeteners for their toxicity to B. dorsalis. B. dorsalis fed on erythritol, aspartame and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality than those fed on sucrose. Flies fed on erythritol died faster than did the control flies (water). However, no dose-dependent effects were observed at the concentrations tested. These three sweeteners decreased the climbing ability of B. dorsalis. Notably, adults fed on saccharin exhibited significantly decreased climbing ability after 12 h compared with those fed on sucrose. Additionally, these three sweeteners had a negative effect on the frequency and duration of the flies' behaviour patterns (flying, walking, grooming and inactivity). Saccharin not only induced a marked reduction in the frequency of flights and walks but also induced decreases in the time spent flying and walking and increases in inactivity compared with sucrose. Erythritol induced a reduction in movement and increased the time spent inactive compared with the control and other treatments. Three sweeteners had significant negative effects on the survival of B. dorsalis. Erythritol was toxic to B. dorsalis. Aspartame and saccharin also decreased the survival and behaviour of adult flies and may be toxic to (or contribute to poor nutrition in) B. dorsalis. These sweeteners could therefore be developed as additive ingredients in baits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Resumo. Uma nova espÃ©cie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae Ã© descrita com base em espÃ©cimes machos. As espÃ©cies deste gÃªnero de sarcofagÃdeos apresentam distribuiÃ§Ã£o majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espÃ©cies ocorrendo tambÃ©m nas regiÃµes NeÃ¡rtica, AustralÃ¡sia e OceÃ¢nica. As espÃ©cies deste gÃªnero podem ser encontradas associadas Ã matÃ©ria orgÃ¢nica em decomposiÃ§Ã£o (fezes de mamÃferos ou aves â€“ espÃ©cies coprÃ³filas e podem apresentar importÃ¢ncia forense quando associadas a carcaÃ§as (fauna atraÃda e, em alguns casos, espÃ©cies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hÃ¡bito em vista lateral e da terminÃ¡lia em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral sÃ£o apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao â€œgrupo Xarcophagaâ€ (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contÃ©m similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido Ã conformaÃ§Ã£o da terminÃ¡lia, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.
Maricel ANGULO LEWYLLE
Full Text Available Las moscas de los establos, Stomoxys calcitrans (L. (Diptera:Muscidae son insectos hematófagos que representan un problema, no solo por su hemato - fagia y transmisión de patógenos, sino además, porque su impacto económico en las producciones pecuarias es relevante. En Argentina aún no existe una cría de la plaga. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y describir la primera cría de Stomoxys calcitrans en el país y registrar la duración de cada estadio bajo condi - ciones controladas de laboratorio. Los adultos fueron exitosamente criados en una cámara de cría (28 ± 1 ºC y 47 ± 1 %RH bajo un fotoperiodo de 14 h: 10 h (Luz: Oscuridad, mientras que los estadios inmaduros se criaron a 25 ± 2 ºC y luz na - tural. El ciclo desde los huevos hasta la emergencia de adultos duró 16,75 ± 2,9 días. El tiempo de desarrollo requerido para alcanzar el nuevo estado fue de: 2,0 ± 0,8, 6,75 ± 1,3 y 7,75 ± 1,7 días para huevos, larvas y pupas; respectivamente. Los adultos vivieron 16,5 ± 1,91 días. El período de preoviposición fue de 5,0 ± 0,8 días. La supervivencia de larvas y pupas fue de 93,28% y 70,25%, respectivamen - te. Estos resultados pueden ser usados como referencia por otras colonias que se establecieren en un futuro en el país.
Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes
Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.
Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.
Full Text Available Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae. The genus Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is redescribed. Two genera are considered as its junior synonyms: Echinomasicera Townsend, 1915 syn. nov. and Parachaetopsis Blanchard, 1959 syn. nov. Thirty two especies are treated, as follows: 18 described as new, Leschenaultia aldrichi, sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina, L. arnaudi sp. nov. (Haiti, La Salle, L. bergenstammi sp. nov. (Peru, San Martin, L. bessi sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina, L. bigoti sp. nov. (Peru, Huanuco, L. blanchardi sp. nov. (Equador, Cuenca, L. braueri sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso, L. brooksi sp. nov. (Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, L. coquilletti sp. nov. (Brazil, Santa Catarina; L. cortesi sp. nov. (Venezuela, Maracay, L. currani sp. nov. (Brazil, São Paulo, L. loewi sp. nov. (Mexico, Vera Cruz, L. macquarti sp. nov. (U. S. A., Arizona, L. reinhardi sp. nov. (Canada, Quebec, L. sabroskyi sp. nov. from (U. S. A., California, L. schineri sp. nov. (U. S. A., California, L. thompsoni sp. nov. (Mexico, Mexico City, L. townsendi sp. nov. (Mexico, Puebla, and 14 known species, for these, diagnoses are given: L. adusta (Loew, 1872; L. americana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893; L. bicolor (Macquart, 1846 = L. fusca (Townsend, 1916 syn. nov.; = Parachaetopsis proseni Blanchard, 1959 syn. nov.; L. ciliata (Macquart, 1848; L. exul (Townsend, 1892; L. fulvipes (Bigot, 1887; L. grossa Brooks, 1947; L. halisidotae Brooks, 1947; L. hospita Reinhard, 1952; L. hystrix (Townsend, 1915 comb. nov., L. jurinioides (Townsend, 1895; L. leucophrys (Wiedemann, 1830 = Leschenaultia latifrons (Walker, 1852 syn. nov. = Parachaeta nigricalyptrata (Macquart, 1855 syn. nov.; L. montagna (Townsend, 1912; L. nuda Thompson, 1963. One species was not examined, Leschenaultia nigrisquamis (Townsend, 1892, and two were not recognized, L. trichopsis (Bigot, 1887 and L. hirta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Keys for Nearctic and Neotropical species
Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2).
Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter
Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.
Yousef, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E
We determined the virulence and insecticidal activity of the hypocrealean fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain EAMb 09/01-Su and its crude extract against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and we evaluated the combined use of the fungus with its crude extract. We also determined the effect of fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH of the M. brunneum culture medium on the insecticidal activity of the crude extract. When C. capitata adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension, the strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 100% mortality with a mean lethal time (LT50) of 5.6 d and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.84 f#x2013; 10(7) conidia per milliliter. Fermentation time significantly affected the lethality of the crude extract when it was provided to C. capitata per os. The highest level of mortality (73.3%) and the shortest median survival time (25.5 h) was obtained from 15-d-old cultures. The crude extract was demonstrated to be thermostable, given that the mortality was >50% at 48 h when the extract had been heated to 100°C for 3 h. Lastly, the optimum initial pH for maximum crude extract activity in terms of mortality ranged between 7 and 9. Additivity was observed for all M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain crude extract combinations tested, indicating compatibility between products. We concluded that the M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain is a promising tool for medfly control alone or in combination with its crude extract. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highlydestructive pest in sweet and sour cherry orchards with a distribution area throughoutEurope and the temperate regions of Asia. It occurs regularly in all production regions ofthese fruit species in Serbia, damaging up to 10% of cherries in commercial production,while damage can go up to 100% in orchards and on solitary threes unprotected by controlmeasures.In Serbia, European cherry fruit fly most often attacks and damages fruits of the lateripeningcultivars of sweet cherry (Van, Stela, Hedelfinger, Bing, Lambert, Drogan’s Yellow.After a sweet cherry harvest, adults migrate to sour cherry where they continue feedingand ovipositing in half-mature sour cherries (prevailingly the domestic ecotype Oblačinska.During their activity period, larvae damage the fruits, so that they can no longer be consumedeither fresh or processed. The high percentage of sour cherries damaged by R. cerasihas become a factor limiting exports because the intensity of infestation of this fruitexceeds permissible limits. Pesticide use for controlling this pest, especially in integratedproduction, is based on a very poor selection of insecticides which cause problems withresidual ecotoxicity. Consequently, alternative measures for controlling European cherryfruit fly have been intensively studied over the past few years.This work surveys up-to-date results of various studies on the European cherry fruit flyas a very important pest in Serbia and other South and Mid-European countries. The workcontains detailed descriptions of its biological characteristics, flight phenology, infestationintensity and possibilities of fly control in sweet and sour cherry production areas.
Brodin, Y; Ejdung, G; Strandberg, J; Lyrholm, T
As for many other regions, environmental and biodiversity monitoring of the brackish Baltic Sea suffers from low species resolution for several taxa. One such case is the benthic larvae of midges Chironomidae (Diptera), which are estimated to constitute about 30% of the macrozoobenthos species of the Baltic Sea and are important indicators of environmental quality. We assessed the usefulness of COI (cytochrome oxidase I) gene barcoding to improve species resolution and its potential for implementation in monitoring programmes. Neighbour-Joining, Maximum parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses all provided high congruency with morphological analyses of adult males for almost all 42 species studied. Barcoding was helpful to elucidate some cases of taxonomical difficulties, such as synonyms. In contrast to the high identification accuracy when using our local database, there were a number of cases where matching with GenBank and BOLD provided puzzling results. For reliable species identification at least 15-30 specimens from 5-10 well-distributed sites within the geographical range of the species might be needed in a database to adequately cover the intraspecific variability of chironomids. Implementation of DNA barcoding, as applied here, in monitoring would result in an increase from at present less than 10% to more than 90% successful chironomid species identification of Baltic Sea benthic samples, as it also would for many nearby lakes. Routine monitoring of benthic environmental samples based on Next-Generation sequencing techniques would provide a cost effective way to obtain a taxonomically much more complete assessment of environmental quality and biodiversity, as required by EU directives and national legislation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.
Hoel, D F; Kline, D L; Hogsette, J A; Bernier, U R; El-Hossary, S S; Hanafi, H A; Watany, N; Fawaz, E Y; Furman, B D; Obenauer, P J; Szumlas, D E
Four types of commercial mosquito control traps, the Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP), the Sentinel 360 (S360), the BG-Sentinel (BGS), and the Mega-Catch Ultra (MCU), were compared with a standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a small farming village in the Nile River Valley 10 km north of Aswan, Egypt. Each trap was baited with either carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion of butane gas (MMP), dry ice (CDC and BGS traps), light (MCU and S360), or dry ice and light (CDC). Traps were rotated through five sites in a5 x 5 Latin square design, repeated four times during the height of the sand fly season (June, August, and September 2007) at a site where 94% of sand flies in past collections were Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli). A total of 6,440 sand flies was collected, of which 6,037 (93.7%) were P. papatasi. Of the CO2-baited traps, the BGS trap collected twice as many P. papatasi as the MMP and CDC light traps, and at least three times more P. papatasi than the light-only MCU and S360 traps (P MMP 56.8 (+/- 9.0) > CDC 52.3 (+/- 6.1) > MCU 38.2 (+/- 6.4) > S360 12.6 (+/- 1.8). Results indicate that several types of commercial traps are suitable substitutes for the CDC light trap in sand fly surveillance programs.
Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.
Faiman, Roy; Cuño, Ruben; Warburg, Alon
The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the updraft orientation only. Both updraft traps (iCDC and MMX) were deployed with their opening ∼10 cm from the ground while the opening of the downdraft (CDC) trap was ∼40 cm above ground. Comparisons were conducted in two arid locations where different sand fly species prevail. In the Jordan Valley, 3,367 sand flies were caught, 2,370 of which were females. The predominant species was Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, Scopoli 1786 (>99%). The updraft-type traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 118 and 67.1 sand flies per trap night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 32.9 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. In the Judean desert, traps were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. A total of 565 sand flies were caught, 345 of which were females. The predominant species was P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot 1917 (87%). The updraft traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 25.6 and 17.9 sand flies per trap per night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 7.8 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. The female to male ratio was 1.7 on average for all trap types. In conclusion, updraft traps deployed with their opening close to the ground are clearly more effective for trapping sand flies than downdraft CDC traps in open habitats.
Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Parisi, Antonio; Traversa, Donato; Otranto, Domenico
This study reports a combined analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA target regions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Mediterranean region. A ∼900 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial DNA encompassing regions within cytb and nd1 gene and the complete ITS2 ribosomal region (∼500 bp) were sequenced and characterized for Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Sergentomyia minuta, captured in two sites of southern Italy. From one to eight mitochondrial haplotypes and from one to three ITS2 sequence types were found for the examined specimens according to the different sand fly species. The mean interspecific difference in the mitochondrial sequences was of 16.1%, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation from 0.1 to 2.8%. A higher interspecific difference (mean 25.1%) was recorded for the ITS2 sequence, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation up to 4.9%. The sequence types alignment of ITS2 region showed that all phlebotomine specimens possessed a split 5.8S rRNA, consisting of a mature 5.8S rRNA and a 2S rRNA separated by a short transcribed spacer. Phylogenetic analysis of the Phlebotomus spp. sequences, herein determined and of those available in GenBank™ were concordant in clustering P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. papatasi with the same species collected from different geographic areas of the Mediterranean basin in four main clades for mtDNA and ITS2, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of multilocus sequencing, provides a dataset for the molecular identification of the most prevalent phlebotomine sand flies in southern Europe and defines the phylogenetic relationships among species examined.
Hallett, Rebecca H; Chen, Mao; Sears, Mark K; Shelton, Anthony M
Insecticide field trials were conducted in Ontario, Canada, and New York state to identify insecticides effective against the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new invasive pest in North America. Field trials indicated that foliar applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, and dimethoate could provide control of C. nasturtii. Foliar insecticide applications were effective in keeping damage within marketable limits in all cabbage and some broccoli trials during the early phase of regional colonization by C. nasturtii (2001-2002). However by 2005-2006, treatments were rarely able to maintain damage levels within marketable limits. Low efficacy suggested the possibility of insecticide resistance in Canadian C. nasturtii populations, but laboratory assays revealed no evidence for resistance. Thus, eventual control failures on a season-long basis were apparently due to very high populations during later phases of colonization in Ontario. Early season applications (e.g., seed treatments, greenhouse plug tray drenches and/or band sprays) of neonicotinoid insecticides proved effective for 3-5 wk after transplanting in New York. These early season treatments would require supplemental control with foliar insecticides, but would reduce the number of foliar applications required and thus reduce insecticide usage. Our results suggest that acceptable control with foliar insecticides will be difficult where C. nasturtii populations are high, because of multiple and overlapping generations, and difficulty in achieving adequate spray coverage. An integrated pest management program that uses cultural control methods and host plant resistance, with judicious use of insecticides, is needed for sustainable management of this newly invasive pest.
Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.
DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that
Morphometric and Molecular Analyses of the Sand Fly Species Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotiminae) Collected from Seven Different Geographical Areas in the Southeastern United States
179 by month with breakdown by gender. Figure 4. Graphical representation of temperature , dew point,….. 180 relative humidity (RH), and...M. Provoa, R. A. de Freitas, C. B. Biancardi, and E. L. Castellan. 1985. Flagellate infections of Brazilian sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae...Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Brazil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 95 (3): 305 – 322. Azevedo, A. C. and E. F. Rangel. 1991. A study of sandfly
Barraud and Cx. <@is Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)l Sunthorn Sirivanakarn 2 ABSTRACT. All known stages of CuZex Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India and the...specimens collected by Be N. Mohan in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India in 1974 and by Eb L. Peyton and Y,-M. Huang in Sri Lanka in 1975% These collec...of topotypic specimens of CUZSX in the Nilgiri Hills have been a valuable contribution to the taxonomic knowledge of several Indian species. The
VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients
Pathol. Exot. 53: 531-542. 1968. Contribution a I’etude des moustiques du Maroc (Diptera, Culicidae) six especes nouvelles pour le pays. Cah. ORSTOM...quelques moustiques du Maroc. Arch. inst. Pasteur Maroc 2: 361-365. 1957. Sur Culex torrentium Martini. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 32: 438-442...De Grandpre, A.D. and D. D’E. De Charmoy 1900(1901). Les moustiques : anatomie et biologie. Contribution a I’etude des Culicides et principalement
Mengual, Ximo; Kazerani, Farzaneh; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Gilasian, Ebrahim
The genus Pelecocera Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) is revised. Type material of most species was studied to describe, illustrate and delimit the male of Pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov, recently discovered from Iran. This is the first known specimen of this species since 1914, when the type female was collected. The diagnostic characters of P. persiana are provided, along with an identification key for Pelecocera species. The lectotype of Pelecocera latifrons Loew is designated.
Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue...e.g.,WHO2009, Bhatt et al. 2013). Dengue is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti (L.) in urban endemic regions. Ae. aegypti , which is also a vector
Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin
Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the
Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....
Wakid, Majed H.
Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Abstract About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae, some of them nearly full-grown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces, and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host.
Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....
Hartop, Emily; Brown, Brian; Disney,R. Henry
Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. p...
Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A
The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.
Zimmer, JY.; Saegerman, C.; Martinelle, L.; Losson, B.; Leroy, P; Haubruge, E.; Francis, F.
Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium w...
Gustavo R. Spinelli
Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National
Ana Cristina Tissot
Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in
Full Text Available In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma. However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent with the Gondwana sequential break-up. A second analysis, assuming the Fanniidae origin during early Paleocene (65 Ma, showed congruence with recent geological events and with the Muscidae diversification, a closely related Muscoidea family. Our hypothesis suggests that the Fanniidae originated in Paleogene and they were affected by few events of vicariance and several expansions during Cenozoic.En un estudio sobre biogeografía de Fanniidae, Domínguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argumentaron que la familia era de origen Pangeico, Jurásico superior/Cretáceo inferior (~146 Ma. Sin embargo, literatura reciente sobre Diptera, confirma que la radiación de Schizophora ocurrió durante el Cenozoico. Fanniidae es un taxón ampliamente distribuido y fue interpretado bajo el paradigma de máxima vicarianza; la consecuencia, fue un análisis sin hipótesis alternativas, pero de origen pangeico. Nosotros verificamos que la narrativa histórica de Fanniidae es incongruente con la quiebra secuencial de Gondwana. Un segundo análisis, asumiendo el origen de Fanniidae durante el Paleoceno inferior (65 Ma, mostró congruencia con eventos geológicos recientes y con la diversificación de Muscidae, una familia de Muscoidea próximamente relacionada. Nuestra hipótesis sugiere que Fanniidae se originó en el Paleógeno y fueron afectados por pocos eventos de vicarianza y muchas expansiones durante el Cenozoico.
Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil
Carlos Henrique Marchiori
Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidaeem Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh., 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae e Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae foram de 4,3, 1,5 0,9 e 0,6%, respectivamente. A porcentagem total de parasitismo observada foi de 7,4%. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de S. nigra em pupas de F. pusio no Brasil.The aim of this study was to report the insect species parasitizing Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, between August 2003 and May 2004. Flies were attracted to baits consisting of human feces, bovine liver and fish, with the pupae being isolated by the flotation method, in water, and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentages presented by Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were 4.3, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. The total percentage of parasitism was 7.4%. This study reports the first occurrence of S. nigra in pupae of F. pusio in Brazil.
Calliphoridae (Diptera from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico
Juan C. Mariluis
Full Text Available Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, which shows a strong preference for those sampling sites either not inhabited or less influenced by human activities. Sex ratio was female biased for all species, except for Sarconesia chlorogaster, which exhibited a male prevalence over females.Durante fines de la primavera-verano de 2004-2005, se analizó la composición, abundancia relativa y proporción de sexos de especies de Calliphoridae (Diptera en las localidades de Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado y Puerto San Julián (Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Tres sitios de muestreo afectados diferencialmente por la intervención humana fueron seleccionados en cada localidad. En las áreas urbanas, las especies exóticas Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy y Phaenicia sericata (Meigen fueron dominantes. Por el contrario, las nativas Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy y Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann predominaron tanto en áreas inhabitadas como en aquellas con bajo impacto humano. En los cebos utilizados para las capturas, se observó mayor proporción de hembras en todas las especies, excepto Sarconesia chlorogaster que mostró mayor proporción de machos.
Belyanina, S I
Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.
Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.
Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787 parasitando estádios imaturos de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Brasil. Utilizaram-se armadilhas contendo como isca vísceras de galinha. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. Foram obtidas 29 pupas de C. albiceps, quatro das quais emergiram parasitóides. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 13,7%.
da Silva, Flavia Corvello; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; da Silva, Onilda Santos; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio A; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; von Poser, Gilsane Lino
In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 μg/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 μg/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 ± 0.04 and 0.56 ± 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.
Bickel, Daniel J
The Costa Rican Systenus Loew (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Medeterinae) are described, illustrated and keyed, and comprise nine new species: Systenus divericatus sp. nov., S. eboritibia sp. nov., S. emusorum sp. nov., S. flavifemoratus sp. nov., S. maculipennis sp. nov., S. naranjensis sp. nov., S. parkeri sp. nov., S. tenorio sp. nov., and S. zurqui sp. nov. Eight species are known only from Malaise traps at a locale in Guanacaste Province, in contrast to a single species collected as part of the long running INBio survey of the Costa Rican insect fauna. On a global scale, Systenus is uncommon in collections, possibly the result of its known larval tree hole habitat and adult arboreal associations, making the genus less likely to be captured by ground-level trapping. This makes the high level of sympatry at one site even more remarkable and suggesting that more cryptic species-rich arboreal faunas await discovery.