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Sample records for culicoides spp diptera

  1. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  2. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A

  3. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in Virginia.

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    Schmidtmann, E T; Holbrook, F R; Day, E; Taylor, T; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-09-01

    Immature Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sampled from aquatic habitats throughout Virginia, reared to adults, and examined by isozyme electrophoresis to assess their taxonomic status. Data from 22 counties showed that C. v. variipennis is widespread and common, the predominant taxon throughout Virginia, and genetically similar to C. v. variipennis in Maryland. Because C. v. variipennis is considered an inefficient vector of the bluetongue viruses, this observation is consistent with the low seroprevalence of bluetongue in indigenous livestock of the mid-Atlantic region. Culicoides v. sonorensis Wirth & Jones, considered to be the primary North American vector of the bluetongue viruses, was recovered in large numbers only from a wastewater lagoon at a dairy in southeastern Virginia, but also was detected at low levels in 6 other counties. Comparison of genetic distances and patterns of discriminating alleles among Virginia populations of C. v. variipennis and C. v. sonorensis showed that respective subspecies are genetically distinct and show no evidence of introgression, irrespective of geographic- and habitat-level sympatry. The persistence of a pure C. v. sonorensis population in a dairy wastewater lagoon may reflect physico-chemical factors that influence the distribution of immature C. variipennis complex populations. A better understanding of the distribution of the C. variipennis complex will benefit regionalization of U.S. exports of livestock and livestock germplasm to bluetongue-free countries.

  4. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  5. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  6. Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae na cidade de Recife capturados com isca luminosa

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    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae were recorded frorn a mangrove area in the town of Recife, Brazil. The midges were collected by 6 light traps during the period of a whole year, 1954-1955. The predominant species were C. maruim, C. guyanensis and C. insignis. The first one represented 73.7% of the total collected. Seasonal variations were markedly observed, with higher number of midges appearing during the period of March to July.

  7. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

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    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  9. Investigation of Culicoides spp. preference for light colour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catches from white and green light were not found to differ significantly and the interaction between light colour and source was not found to be significant. Possible trap development and action thresholds are discussed. Keywords: Culicoides midge vector, African Horse Sickness, light colour, light emitting diodes ...

  10. First Record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and Diversity of Species within the Schultzei Group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

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    Bakhoum, Mame T.; Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G.; Bellis, Glenn A.; Gottlieb, Yuval; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert J.; Diop, Mariame; Mall, Iba; Seck, Momar T.; Allène, Xavier; Diarra, Maryam; Gardès, Laëtitia; Bouyer, Jérémy; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit. PMID:24386366

  11. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  12. Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient.

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    Rigot, T; Drubbel, M Vercauteren; Delécolle, J-C; Gilbert, M

    2013-03-01

    The spatial epidemiology of Bluetongue virus (BTV) at the landscape level relates to the fine-scale distribution and dispersal capacities of its vectors, midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although many previous researches have carried out Culicoides sampling on farms, little is known of the fine-scale distribution of Culicoides in the landscape immediately surrounding farms. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Culicoides populations at increasing distances from typical dairy farms in north-west Europe, through the use of eight Onderstepoort-type black-light traps positioned along linear transects departing from farms, going through pastures and entering woodlands. A total of 16 902 Culicoides were collected in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. The majority were females, of which more than 97% were recognized as potential vectors. In pastures, we found decreasing numbers of female Culicoides as a function of the distance to the farm. This pattern was modelled by leptokurtic models, with parameters depending on season and species. By contrast, the low number of male Culicoides caught were homogeneously distributed along the transects. When transects entered woodlands, we found a higher abundance of Culicoides than expected considering the distance of the sampling sites to the farm, although this varied according to species. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae under Future Climate Scenarios.

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    Anna Zuliani

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA and south-central Alberta (Canada between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021-2040 and 2050 (2041-2060. Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors. Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and

  14. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  15. Diel activity and preferred landing sites in Culicoides biting midges attacking Fjord horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, in the central part of The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) attack rates, biting rates, and preferred landing sites were determined for a pair of Fjord horses maintained permanently at pasture in an area devoid of cattle. Eleven body regions of the

  16. Sympatry in the Culicoides variipennis complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a taxonomic reassessment.

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    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J; Schmidtmann, E T; McKinnon, C N; Bobian, R J; Grogan, W L

    2000-01-01

    We report sympatry among larval populations of the Culicoides variipennis complex in widespread and diverse aquatic habitats throughout the United States. Six sites in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas were co-inhabited by C. v. occidentalis and C. v. sonorensis, whereas 8 sites in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, and Texas were co-occupied by C. v. sonorensis and C. v. variipennis. No intermediate forms were identified either electrophoretically or morphologically in adults reared from field-collected larvae and pupae. The absence of intergrades in zones of sympatry represents sufficient evidence to confirm species status for Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) and Culicoides occidentalis Wirth & Jones, and to elevate Culicoides sonorensis to species rank (NEW STATUS). Culicoides v. albertensis Wirth & Jones is a synonym of C. sonorensis (NEW SYNONYMY); C. v. australis Wirth & Jones also is confirmed as a synonym of C. sonorensis. We also demonstrated a correlation between population taxonomic status as determined by electrophoresis and adult morphology.

  17. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

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    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  19. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E; Allison, Andrew B; Carter, Deborah L; Drolet, Barbara S; Klement, Eyal; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-17

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4-16 days post feeding (dpf). Midges with a virus titer of ≥ 10(2.7) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14-16 dpf midges. From 4-16 dpf, 45% (156/350) of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>10(7) TCID(50)/ml) were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10-16 dpf, 32% (35/109) of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14-16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates that North America has a susceptible ruminant and

  20. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other......Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  1. Torix group Rickettsia are widespread in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), reach high frequency and carry unique genomic features.

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    Pilgrim, Jack; Ander, Mats; Garros, Claire; Baylis, Matthew; Hurst, Gregory D D; Siozios, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the heritable bacteria of invertebrate vectors of disease as they present novel targets for control initiatives. Previous studies on biting midges (Culicoides spp.), known to transmit several RNA viruses of veterinary importance, have revealed infections with the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia and Cardinium. However, rickettsial symbionts in these vectors are underexplored. Here, we present the genome of a previously uncharacterized Rickettsia endosymbiont from Culicoides newsteadi (RiCNE). This genome presents unique features potentially associated with host invasion and adaptation, including genes for the complete non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway, and others predicted to mediate lipopolysaccharides and cell wall modification. Screening of 414 Culicoides individuals from 29 Palearctic or Afrotropical species revealed that Rickettsia represent a widespread but previously overlooked association, reaching high frequencies in midge populations and present in 38% of the species tested. Sequence typing clusters the Rickettsia within the Torix group of the genus, a group known to infect several aquatic and hematophagous taxa. FISH analysis indicated the presence of Rickettsia bacteria in ovary tissue, indicating their maternal inheritance. Given the importance of biting midges as vectors, a key area of future research is to establish the impact of this endosymbiont on vector competence. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Breeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Losson, Bertrand; Saegerman, Claude; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknow...

  3. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

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    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condi

  4. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

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    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  5. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a deltamethrin pour on formulation (Butox® 7.5 mg/ml pour on) for the control of Culicoides midges in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Weiher, Wiebke

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the main vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus disease, which are infectious diseases of ruminants. Recently, both viral diseases occurred for the first time in Germany and caused substantial suffering and large economic losses, primarily in sheep flocks. None of the currently available insecticides is registered to control infestations with Culicoides midges in ruminants. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a pour on fo...

  6. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light tr...... light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.......Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...

  7. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse E; Bødker, René

    2013-03-15

    Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light traps. Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas with greater light intensity, and in Model III Culicoides evaluate light sources in the field of view and fly towards the strongest. Model II and III incorporated the directionally dependent light field created around light traps with fluorescent light tubes. All three models were fitted to light trap collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups. Model II could only fit data from one of the setups, while Model III fitted data from both experimental setups. The model with the best fit, Model III, indicates that Culicoides continuously evaluate the light source direction and intensity. The maximum range of attraction of a single 4W CDC light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.

  8. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    new species initially separated by DNA barcoding with mitochondrial COI can be distinguished by morphological characters. In this context a key to Scandinavian subgenus Culicoides using wing and maxillary palp characters is presented. The key is including the three new species Culicoides boyi...... is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... following the bluetongue outbreak in 2006–2009. These studies revealed potentially new species and “species-complexes” with large genetic and morphological variability. Here we use molecular barcoding, together with morphological analysis, to study subgenus Culicoides Latreille from Scandinavia with focus...

  9. Cold storage effects on egg hatch in laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-09-01

    The effects of cold storage (5 degrees C) on the hatching rates of laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis eggs were examined. Mortality increased with storage time. Average maximum embryo survivorship for 4 trials was 55.0 +/- 4.2 (+/- SEM) days. Alternating daily cycles of high and then low mean hatching rates occurred and possibly were due to location differences in temperature within the temperature-controlled rearing system. During cold storage at 5 degrees C, C. v. sonorensis eggs may be kept for ca. 28 days with an anticipated hatching rate of about 50%.

  10. First-generation physical map of the Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, R A; Brown, S E; McHolland, L E; Tabachnick, W J; Knudson, D L

    1999-11-01

    Recombinant cosmids labeled with biotin-11-dUTP or digoxigenin by nick translation were used as in situ hybridization probes to metaphase chromosomes of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett). Paired fluorescent signals were detected on each arm of sister chromatids and were ordered along the 3 chromosomes. Thirty-three unique probes were mapped to the 3 chromosomes of C. variipennis (2n = 6): 7 to chromosome 1, 20 to chromosome 2, and 6 to chromosome 3. This work represents the first stage in generating a physical map of the genome of C. variipennis.

  11. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  12. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  13. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Pérez de León, A A; Hearne, C; McHolland, L; Yun, L; Tabachnick, W

    2003-01-01

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and healed within 24-48 hours. Animals developed nonpruritic erythematous papules 5 days after feeding that persisted until the study ended at 12 days after feeding. Papules corresponded histologically to foci of epidermal hyperplasia and superficial interstitial dermatitis with intraepidermal micropustules and scattered intraepidermal polykaryons. The principal ultrastructural changes were spongiosis in germinal epithelium and neutrophilic-histiocytic exocytosis. No viral agents or broken mouthparts were identified in lesions. The dermatitis may represent a host reaction to persisting insect salivary secretion and should be considered as an additional consequence of blood feeding in future studies involving biting midges.

  14. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  15. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  16. Microgeographic and temporal genetic variation in populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1992-05-01

    Seven Colorado populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides varipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 19-21 isozyme loci. Permanent populations, which overwinter as larvae, showed little temporal genetic change at 19 loci. PGD and MDH showed seasonal changes in gene frequencies, attributable to selection at two permanent populations. Two temporary populations showed low heterozygosity compared with permanent populations. Independent estimates of gene flow, calculated using FST and the private allele method, were Nm* = 2.15 and 6.95, respectively. Colorado C. variipennis permanent populations showed high levels of gene flow which prevented significant genetic differentiation due to genetic drift. Temporary populations showed significant gene frequency differences from nearby permanent populations due to the "founder effect" associated with chance colonization.

  17. Spatial abundance and clustering of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , and cluster locations shifted between catch nights. No significant temporal autocorrelation was detected. CAR models for both species groups identified a significant positive impact of humidity and significant negative impacts of precipitation and wind turbulence. Temperature was also found to be significant...... abundance pattern of these two species groups in the field by intensive sampling with a grid of light traps on 16 catch nights. Neighboring trap catches can be spatially dependent on each other, hence we developed a conditional autoregressive (CAR) model framework to test a number of spatial and non...... of Culicoides moved around in a dynamic pattern varying between catch nights. This conforms with the modeling but was not explained by any of the tested covariates. The mean abundance within these clusters was up to 11 times higher for the Obsoletus group and 4 times higher for the Pulicaris group compared...

  18. Quantifying Dispersal of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Vectors between Farms Using a Novel Mark-Release-Recapture Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field...

  19. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: IV - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A observação de 211 pacientes com reação intensa à picada do Culicoides, que procuraram tratamento na Clínica dermatológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade da Bahia, durante os anos de 1959 e 1962, permitiu o estudo clínico dessa Dermatozoonose, cujos dados são aqui apresentados. A lesão parece ser de natureza alérgica e devido ao aspecto polimorfo pelo qual se apresenta, essa Dermatose pode lembrar o Prorigo, a Escabiose, as Lesões liquenoide; quando a manifestação é mais intensa torna-se uma verdadeira eczematização; quando há infecção secundária, lembra o impetigo folicular. O estudo histológico da lesão revelou ser ela a de uma inflamação crônica, com vascularites e preivascularites dermo-epidérmica, provàvelmente de natureza alérgica. Para que haja a formação da lesão, são necessários: a substância inoculada pelo inseto e o componente alérgico do indivíduo. Não se conhece a natureza da substância inoculada pelo inseto e as seguintes hipóteses são apresentadas para explicá-la: substâncias enzimáticas ou a histamina existentes nas glândulas salivares do Culicoides. Após a picada do Culicoisdes forma-se no local uma pequena área eritematosa que logo após se transforma em pápula; as pápulas podem desaparecer ou transformarem-se em vesículas; estas ao se romperem dilaceram a superfície cutânea, descamam-na ou pode advir uma infecção secundária e transformam-se em pústulas.

  20. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  1. Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Mills

    Full Text Available Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (qPCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.

  2. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  3. Handling small arbovirus vectors safely during biosafety level 3 containment: Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) and exotic bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-05-01

    Equipment and procedures are described for biosafety level 3 (BL-3) containment work with small, zoophilic arthropods. BL-3 classified pathogens always must be manipulated in biological safety cabinets. Procedures, including physical barriers and handling methods, that prevent the escape of potentially virus-infected insects are discussed, and the use of a monitoring system for insect security is explained. The inability to recover escaped minute, flying insects poses a major difference from similar work with larger insects, such as mosquitoes. Methods were developed for the safe and secure handling of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones infected with exotic bluetongue viruses during BL-3 containment.

  4. Sources of variation in an enzyme-linked immunoassay of bluetongue virus in Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J; Mecham, J O

    1991-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoassay for detecting bluetongue virus in infected Culicoides variipennis was evaluated using a nested analysis of variance to determine sources of experimental error in the procedure. The major source of variation was differences among individual insects (84% of the total variance). Storing insects at -70 degrees C for two months contributed to experimental variation in the ELISA reading (14% of the total variance) and should be avoided. Replicate assays of individual insects were shown to be unnecessary, since variation among replicate wells and plates was minor (2% of the total variance).

  5. Genetic variation in laboratory and field populations of the vector of bluetongue virus, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory colonies and several natural populations of the biting midge Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 21 electrophoretic loci. The laboratory colonies maintained high levels of genetic variation measured by average expected heterozygosities (He = 0.142 +/- 0.008), although levels were lower than those observed in field collections (He = 0.198 +/- 0.009). A field population from Colorado, analyzed five times over a 1-yr period, showed a consistent trend in the change in gene frequencies at two loci. Genetic comparisons between natural populations were consistent with the existence of two subspecies. C. variipennis variipennis and C. variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones.

  6. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  7. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  8. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    Laboratory-reared Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) through intrathoracic inoculation. After 10-d incubation at 25 degrees C, these insects were allowed to blood feed on four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation with 10(8) tissue culture infective dose50 VSNJV. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. The results demonstrate the ability of C. sonorensis to transmit VSNJV to livestock. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected C. sonorensis allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with VSNJV. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This is probably because of different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. A significant difference was found in the serum acute-phase protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in animals that received VSNJV through C. sonorensis transmission. These animals had previously been exposed to insect attack in the field compared with intralingually inoculated animals and C. sonorensis-infected animals that had been protected from insect attack. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

  9. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Moussa; Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Assane G; Balenghien, Thomas; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Garros, Claire; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Allène, Xavier; Mall, Iba; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame T; Dusom, Ange M; Ndao, Massouka; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-21

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors. The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year. Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%). Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.

  10. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Ducheyne, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Fife, M.; Garros, C.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Kampen, H.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Losson, B.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Regge, de N.; Rijn, van P.A.; Sanders, C.; Schaffner, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Takken, W.; Werner, D.; Seelig, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  11. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? : Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  12. Functional validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in midgut tissue of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  13. Culicoides species associated with sheep in The Netherlands and the effect of a permethrin insecticide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, K.; Gemst, D.B.J.; Pieterse, M.C.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Culicoides spp. act as vectors for a number of viral diseases of animals including bluetongue in sheep. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) which Culicoides spp. are associated with sheep in The Netherlands; (2) the time of the day when they are most active; and (3) the effect of treatment

  14. Innate Mammalian Immune Response to Culicoides Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock and wildlife pests and as vectors of orbiviruses such as bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses, as well as vesicular stomatitis, bovine ephemeral fever and Schmallenb...

  15. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la

  16. [Field efficacy of repellent formulation containing para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemongrass against Culicoides pachymerus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Zipa, Yaneth; Pardo, Raúl Hernando

    2012-09-01

    Culicoides pachymerus is a major pest species for the inhabitants of the western Boyacá province of Colombia. The effect of a repellent lotion based on p-menthane-3,8-diol (16%) and lemongrass oil (2%) was evaluated against the bites of C. pachymerus. The repellent lotion was compared simultaneously with a control (no treatment) by human landing catches of C. pachymerus on the forearms of paired volunteers situated near human dwellings. Protection percentage and protection time for 3 to 6 h after repellent application was calculated. The test was repeated ten times. Only two females of C. pachymerus were collected on arms with the repellent treatment. In contrast, the mean biting rate in the untreated control was 47.7 midges/person/10 min. Mean protection percentage of the repellent was 100% up to 4 h and 99.5% up to 5 h. Protection time was 332.2 and 338.2 min in the two replicates where bites of C. pachymerus were confirmed. In the remaining eight replicates protection time exceeded the test duration. The repellent showed high efficacy against C. pachymerus, up to 5 h post-application.

  17. Recombinant culicoides obsoletus complex allergens stimulate antigen-specific T cells on insect bite hypersensitive Shetland ponies in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Willemse, T.; Rutten, V.; Tijhaar, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ponies may suffer from Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), an allergic IgE-mediated pruritic skin disorder, induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether recombinant Culicoides obsoletus allergens are able to activate T cells of

  18. Catálogo de Tipulomorpha (Diptera: tipulidae-limoniidae de Venezuela, con el registro de Brachypremna spp., Gonomyia spp. y Dicranomyia spp. en el estado Falcón | Catalogue of Tipulomorpha (Diptera: tipulidae- limoniidae of Venezuela, with record of Brachypremna spp., Gonomyia spp. and Dicranomyia spp. in Falcón state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The infraorden Tipulomorpha contains insects of the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera commonly called as crane flies. Based on information from the Catalogue of the Crane flies of World, in the presente article a revised and updated checklist of the Tipulomorpha (superfamily Tipuloidea registered from Venezuela is shown. Until now, 226 valid species of crane flies has been recorded, grouped into two families, 5 subfamilies and 40 genera, including family Tipulidae s.s., subfamily Tipulinae (genera Brachypremna: 6 species; Leptotarsus: 8 species; Nephrotoma: 3 species; Ozodicera: 3 species; Tipula: 28 species; Zelandotipula: 6 species and the subfamily Ctenophorinae (genus Pselliophora: 1 species; family Limoniidae, subfamily Chioneinae (genera Atarba: 6 species; Cheilotrichia: 1 species; Cryptolabis: 1 species; Ellipteroides: 2 species; Erioptera: 3 species; Eriopterodes: 1 species; Eugnophomyia: 1 species; Gnophomyia: 4 species; Gonomyia: 9 species; Molophilus: 5 species; Neognophomyia: 1 species; Rhabdomastix: 1 species; Sigmatomera: 1 species; Styringomyia: 1 species; Teucholabis: 15 species; subfamily Limnophilinae (genera Austrolimnophila: 1 species; Epiphragma: 10 species; Hexatoma: 11 species; Lecteria: 1 species; Limnophila: 5 species; Paradelphomyia: 1 species; Polymera: 3 species; Shannonomyia: 5 species;; and subfamily Limoniinae (Dicranomyia: 26 species; Elephantomyia: 1 species; Geranomyia: 25 species; Helius: 5 species; Neolimonia: 2 species; Orimarga: 4 species; Protohelius: 1 species; Rhipidia: 10 species; Toxorhina: 4 species; Trentepohlia: 4 species. In addition, the first records of Brachypremna spp., Gonomyia spp. and Dicranomyia spp. are described for the urban semiarid area from Falcon state, north-western region. Data on the geographical distribution of the species is provided, and bio-ecological, agronomic, medical relevance and research needs on the Venezuelan crane flies, are discussed.

  19. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  20. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lehiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae and black fly (Simuliidae, have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis.

  1. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  2. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  3. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  4. MODELO BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS MOSQUITOS CULEX SPP. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE EN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Torres Olave

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mosquitoes distribution and the presence of arboviruses are determined by temperature, rainfall, geographic barriers, and other factors that determine the distribution of Culex spp. and can influence the human arboviral. The objective of this study was to identify potential spatial distribution of Culex spp. The ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt Ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt, bioclimatic variables (WorldClim used for this process are derived from the monthly values of temperature and precipitation to generate biologically significant variables (representing annual trends and limiting factors for the distribution of species. The resulting maps can be interpreted as relative suitability areas, these areas are presented on the east coast of Mexico, mainly in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco. The results show that Bio 2 (mean monthly temperature range, Bio 7 (annual range of temperature and Bio 11 (mean temperature of the coldest quarter, determine the highest percentage range. Distribution modeling Culex spp. It is an approach to identify the most vulnerable areas in Mexico. It is necessary to strengthen and establish multidisciplinary programs for the prevention ofCulexspp transmitted diseases.

  5. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  6. A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew; Gubbins, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Denison, Eric; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Baylis, Matthew; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-04-22

    The response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. Recent integration of light emitting diodes (LED) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. This study investigates the responses of Culicoides to LED light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of light to make recommendations for use in surveillance. The abundance and diversity of Culicoides collected using commercially available traps fitted with Light Emitting Diode (LED) platforms emitting ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm wavelength), blue (430 nm), green (570 nm), yellow (590 nm), red (660 nm) or white light (425 nm - 750 nm with peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm) were compared. A Centre for Disease Control (CDC) UV light-suction trap was also included within the experimental design which was fitted with a 4 watt UV tube (320-420 nm). Generalised linear models with negative binomial error structure and log-link function were used to compare trap abundance according to LED colour, meteorological conditions and seasonality. The experiment was conducted over 49 nights with 42,766 Culicoides caught in 329 collections. Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle responded indiscriminately to all wavelengths of LED used with the exception of red which was significantly less attractive. In contrast, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus were found in significantly greater numbers in the green LED trap than in the UV LED trap. The LED traps collected significantly fewer Culicoides than the standard CDC UV light-suction trap. Catches of Culicoides were reduced in LED traps when compared to the standard CDC UV trap, however, their reduced power requirement and small size fulfils a requirement for trapping in logistically challenging areas or where many

  7. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  9. Laboratory evaluation of lactic acid on attraction of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The role of lactic acid was evaluated for attraction of Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tarsalis, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory using a dual-port olfactometer. When lactic acid was combined with chicken odor, attraction was increased for Cx. quinquefasciatus compared to chicken odor alone but not for Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti. Lactic acid combined with hand odor did not change attraction of Cx. tarsalis and Ae. aegypti but decreased attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The addition of lactic acid to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. Use of commercial lactic acid baits with CO(2) resulted in a similar trend except for Cx. nigripalpus which showed no difference. A blend of lactic acid, acetone, and dimethyl disulfide was attractive to Ae. aegypti (63.4%) but elicited low responses by all Culex spp. (1.3-26.8%). Addition of the blend to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. The mixture of compounds plus CO(2) was as attractive as a hand for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  11. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae at two dairy farms in northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Mayo

    abundance and dispersal of Culicoides midges is essential for the creation of models to predict BTV infection of livestock and to develop sound abatement strategies.

  12. Deposições de Óleo por Fêmeas de Centris analis (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini Parasitadas por Physocephala spp. (Diptera: Conopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Couto

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The aim of this work was to identify behaviors of oil deposition by females of the solitary bee Centris analis (Fabricius parasitized by Physocephala spp. This study was conducted at the Campus of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, using trap-nests in which the females built the brood-cells in nests made with black cardboard, introduced in wood blocks that were placed on two shelves at site of study. From the 26 females that nested in the area, 11 were found dead inside the empty trap-nests. Next, they were taken to the laboratory together with nine dead males, placed in glass tubes and were observed daily until the parasitoid Physocephala spp. (Diptera: Conopidae emerged. All nests built by the parasitized females had extra oil deposition on the last brood-cell occlusion. In addition, these females remained for 5.4 days at site of study after closing the nests, made extra oil depositions on the nest occlusions and closed 42 empty nests, without brood-cells. The data of this work suggest that the extra oil deposition by parasitized females, increase the difficulties to the success of the parasitoid Leucospis cayennensis Westwood, since there are 2 obstacles to be won: oil over the last partition and oil on the nest occlusion. It´s good to point out that defending the nests against parasitoids the females would be ensuring a new generation of conopids.

  13. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.

  14. Modelling the distributions and spatial coincidence of bluetongue vectors Culicoides imicola and the Culicoides obsoletus group throughout the Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Miranda, M A; Borrás, D; Calvo, J H; Lucientes, J

    2008-06-01

    Data obtained by a Spanish national surveillance programme in 2005 were used to develop climatic models for predictions of the distribution of the bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the Culicoides obsoletus group Meigen throughout the Iberian peninsula. Models were generated using logistic regression to predict the probability of species occurrence at an 8-km spatial resolution. Predictor variables included the annual mean values and seasonalities of a remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a sun index, interpolated precipitation and temperature. Using an information-theoretic paradigm based on Akaike's criterion, a set of best models accounting for 95% of model selection certainty were selected and used to generate an average predictive model for each vector. The predictive performances (i.e. the discrimination capacity and calibration) of the average models were evaluated by both internal and external validation. External validation was achieved by comparing average model predictions with surveillance programme data obtained in 2004 and 2006. The discriminatory capacity of both models was found to be reasonably high. The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were 0.78 and 0.70 for the C. imicola and C. obsoletus group models, respectively, in external validation, and 0.81 and 0.75, respectively, in internal validation. The predictions of both models were in close agreement with the observed distribution patterns of both vectors. Both models, however, showed a systematic bias in their predicted probability of occurrence: observed occurrence was systematically overestimated for C. imicola and underestimated for the C. obsoletus group. Average models were used to determine the areas of spatial coincidence of the two vectors. Although their spatial distributions were highly complementary, areas of spatial coincidence were identified, mainly in

  15. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  16. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  17. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  18. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Cêtre-Sossah, C; Mathieu, B; Meiswinkel, R; Gerbier, G

    2008-10-15

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with livestock were collected and an attempt was made to identify the vector(s) involved in BTV transmission by means of virus detection in wild-caught biting midges. Weekly sampling using standardized Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were performed simultaneously both outdoors and indoors in one BTV-free and three BTV-affected farms between September and December 2006. Culicoides were sorted according to farm, location (outdoors vs. indoors), time point (in weeks), species and physiological stage. BTV detection was conducted by RT-PCR on monospecific pools of non-bloodfed parous female Culicoides. The principal results showed: (i) the absence of the Mediterranean vector, C. imicola, (ii) the relatively low abundance of C. dewulfi and C. pulicaris, (iii) the widespread occurrence and abundance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus with longevity and behaviour compatible with BTV transmission, and (iv) all Culicoides pools tested for BTV were negative. In France, the very low levels of BTV-8 circulation were probably due to the limited introduction of the virus from affected neighbouring countries, and not due to the absence of local vector populations. A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C. dewulfi, can be active at night inside livestock buildings and not only outside, as originally believed. The endophagic tendencies of members of the Obsoletus group are discussed in light of the prolonged period of BTV transmission during the autumn of 2006 and the risk of BTV overwintering and

  19. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Gert J. Venter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  20. Intensity of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae attacks on Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Leaves Intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em folhas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of height of leaves in the canopy of plants, leaf organic compounds, concentrations of leaf nitrogen and potassium, leaf trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the attack intensity of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara crops by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae, under field conditions. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks, with three replications, each being one tomato crop. Analysis of variance and the Tukey’s multiple range test (5% significance were used to test the effect of canopy height, trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and on the number of T. absoluta eggs. Pearson’s correlation (5% significance was used to evaluate the relationships between leaf organic compounds, leaf N and K concentrations, leaf trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities and the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and the number of T. absoluta eggs. Highest insect attack occurred in the final stage of the culture. A higher number of Liriomyza spp. mines/leaf was recorded in the lower (1.50 than in the upper (0.02 level of the tomato plants, the opposite was observed for the number of T. absoluta eggs/leaf (0.13 and 0.57, respectively. The number of T. absoluta mines/leaf concentrated more on the median (10.23 and apical regions (8.63 than on the basal (4.93. No significant effect of the trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities of leaves was noted on T. absoluta and Liriomyza ssp. populations. Apparently, the terpenes affected oviposition of T. absoluta while leaf potassium affected Liriomyza spp. attack.Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar as influências da posição das folhas no dossel das plantas, dos compostos orgânicos foliares, das concentrações de nitrogênio e

  1. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides s...

  2. Culicoides and the global epidemiology of bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of the bluetongue viruses (BTV) is limited to geographic areas containing competent vector species. All BTV-competent species belong to the genus Culicoides. In the New World, two different BTV epidemiological systems (episystems) occur. Culicoides sonorensis is responsible for transmitting BTV serotypes in North America that differ from South American serotypes transmitted by C. insignis. There are other episystems in the world. The role of different Culicoides vector species and the underlying mechanisms governing their vector capacity for BTV are unknown. It is likely that these vary between Culicoides species and episystems. As a result, our ability to predict and/or mitigate BTV in different episystems will remain problematic. Several complex issues need to be resolved to provide risk assessment and mitigation for BTV. This will require a substantial investment in new research paradigms that investigate details of underlying controlling mechanisms in several species of Culicoides.

  3. Lulo cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae): a novel model to assay Leishmania spp. and vector interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Luzia Mc; Silva, Roger Mm; Pereira, Bernardo As; Guerra, Camila; Zapata, Angela C; Bello, Felio J; Finkelstein, Léa C; Madeira, Maria F; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Alves, Carlos R

    2011-11-14

    Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi are important parasites in the scenario of leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the life cycle of these parasites, the promastigote forms adhere to the midgut epithelial microvillii of phlebotomine insects to avoid being secreted along with digestive products. Lulo cells are a potential model that will help to understand the features of this adhesion phenomenon. Here, we analyze the interaction between Leishmania spp. promastigotes and Lulo cells in vitro, specifically focusing on adhesion events occurring between three Leishmania species and this cell line. Confluent monolayers of Lulo cells were incubated with promastigotes and adhesion was assessed using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that species from the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia have great potential to adhere to Lulo cells. The highest adherence rate was observed for L. (L.) chagasi after 24 h of incubation with Lulo cells (27.3 ± 1.8% of cells with adhered promastigotes), followed by L. (L.) amazonensis (16.0 ± 0.7%) and L. (V.) braziliensis (3.0 ± 0.7%), both after 48 h. In the ultrastructural analysis, promastigote adherence was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that, for parasites from both subgenera, adhesion occurs by both the body and the flagellum. The interaction of Lulo cells with Leishmania (L.) chagasi showed the participation of cytoplasmic projections from the former closely associating the parasites with the cells. We present evidence that Lulo cells can be useful in studies of insect-parasite interactions for Leishmania species.

  4. First molecular identification of the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides imicola in Europe and a review of its blood-feeding patterns worldwide: implications for the transmission of bluetongue disease and African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-DE LA Puente, J; Navarro, J; Ferraguti, M; Soriguer, R; Figuerola, J

    2017-12-01

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that affect wildlife, livestock and, occasionally, humans. Culicoides imicola (Kieffer, 1913) is considered to be the main vector of the pathogens that cause bluetongue disease (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in southern Europe. The study of blood-feeding patterns in Culicoides is an essential step towards understanding the epidemiology of these pathogens. Molecular tools that increase the accuracy and sensitivity of traditional methods have been developed to identify the hosts of potential insect vectors. However, to the present group's knowledge, molecular studies that identify the hosts of C. imicola in Europe are lacking. The present study genetically characterizes the barcoding region of C. imicola trapped on farms in southern Spain and identifies its vertebrate hosts in the area. The report also reviews available information on the blood-feeding patterns of C. imicola worldwide. Culicoides imicola from Spain feed on blood of six mammals that include species known to be hosts of the BT and AHS viruses. This study provides evidence of the importance of livestock as sources of bloodmeals for C. imicola and the relevance of this species in the transmission of BT and AHS viruses in Europe. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  6. Comparison of vertebrate cytochrome b and prepronociceptin for blood meal analyses in Culicoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eHadj-henni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI or Cytochrome b (Cyt b. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical.The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens. Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  7. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  8. Estructura genética en cinco especies de flebótomos (Lutzomyia spp. de la serie townsendi, grupo verrucarum, en Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claribel Hernández

    2008-12-01

    relaciones más conspicuas se observaron entre Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida y Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa. Adicionalmente, con un análisis de autocorrelación espacial (índice de Moran la mayoría de los alelos utilizados presentaron una estructura espacial muy débil o inexistente, lo que significa que los eventos de especiación entre las especies estudiadas se dieron en forma independiente de las distancias geográficas existentes actualmente entre ellas.Genetic structure in five Phlebotominae (Lutzomyia spp., townsendi series, verrucarum group, in Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae. Sixteen isoenzyme patterns were analyzed for five Colombian Lutzomyia species. The average unbiased expected heterozygosity levels ranged from 0.098 (Lu. youngi to 0.215 (Lu. torvida. The five species samples, taken all the isoenzymes employed, were significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by homozygous excess with classical as well as Markov chain exact tests. Possible causes: (1 Wahlund effect within populations due to subdivision and/or sampling. Endogamy could be discarded because these loci were affected by highly different levels of homozygous excess. (2 Null alleles could be not discarded, at least for some isoenzymes. The hierarchical Wright´s F analysis showed high and significant values for each parameter. The average F IT value was 0.655 with a conspicous homozygous excess at a global level (all species taken together; the average F IS value was significantly positive (0.515 as well, with homozygous excess within each species. The genetic heterogeneity between the fives species was noteworthy (F ST = 0.288, indicating clear genetic differentiation. The more related species pairs were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida (0.959 and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa (0.960; while Lu. torvida-Lu. youngi (0.805 and Lu. quasitownsendi-Lu. youngi (0.796 were the most divergent (Nei´s genetic identity matrix. UPGMA and Wagner algorithms showed that the most divergent species was Lu

  9. Treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies Culicoides nubeculosus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E; Rowlinson, M; Bartram, D; Carpenter, S; Mellor, P; Wall, R

    2010-04-19

    An in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (Deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v Fort Dodge Animal Health) against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Linneaus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and also from untreated controls. In laboratory assays groups of 10 adult female C. nubeculosus, Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 0.5g of hair for 3min. In all cases, little or no mortality was observed in insects kept in contact with the pre-treatment samples or the untreated controls. With post-treatment samples for C. nubeculosus, mortality was close to 80% 7 days after treatment and then declined gradually; mean mortality was still at around 50% for hair collected 35 days after treatment. In general, Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus appeared to be less susceptible to cypermethrin than C. nubeculosus and the attenuation of the toxic effect declined more quickly with time after treatment. There were differences in the toxicity of hair from different body regions, with hair from the back consistently inducing the highest mortality and hair from the legs the lowest; this effect was more pronounced for C. nubeculosus than Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus. The results demonstrate the potential for topical insecticide treatment to offer protection to horses against biting flies; but highlight the major differences that exist in susceptibility between different insect species.

  10. Culicoides and the Tartar Steppe: Il Deserto dei Tartari Culicoides and the spread of blue tongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houin, R

    2008-12-01

    Culicoides were described for the first time in England in 1713, but named by Latreille in 1809 only. Even so, they were better known as Ceratopogon until Kieffer reintroduced the name Culicoides. The family name became Ceratopogonidae, the description by Meigen (1803) being better adapted to that systematic level. Culicoides were considered simply as biting insects until it was found that they can carry filaria and viruses. In 1944, du Toit in Transvaal described their role in the transmission of blue-tongue virus. Blue-tongue disease has since extended progressively northward from South Africa, disseminated by Culicoides imicola. At the end of the 20th century, it reached the southern shores of the Mediterranean sea, and has since threatened the southern Europe. Surveillance and prevention procedures were put in place, but fortress Europe was taken breached when a different strain of the virus entered through Belgium in 2006. Transmitted by local Culicoides species that were aggressive and abundant, the disease spread quickly, in a disastrous epizootic southward through more than half of France. Westward, infected insects have been carried by wind over the Channel, introducing the disease to England.

  11. Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) response to olfactory attractant- and light emitting diode-modified Mosquito Magnet X (MM-X) traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E; Butler, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Mosquito Magnet-X traps were modified for use with blue, green, red, and blue-green-red light-emitting diodes and olfactory attractants to determine the response of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae) field populations to these attractants. Red and blue-green-red-baited traps captured the highest numbers of Lu. shannoni and Lu. vexator, respectively, although, there were no significant differences between the colors. Baiting the traps with CO, attracted significantly higher numbers of Lu. shannoni but showed no effect on Lu. vexator capture. In comparison with CO, alone, Lu. shannoni preferred 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexen-3-ol (0.05 g per trap) in combination with CO.

  12. [Culicoides nubeculosus, an experimental vector of a new trypanosome from psittaciforms: Trypanosoma barkeri n. sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltgen, F; Landau, I

    1982-01-01

    Two out of four Psittacula roseata from Thaïland harboured a trypanosome: T. bakeri n. sp. Laboratory reared Culicoides nubeculosus were fed on one of them. The trypanosomes developed well in this arthropod and metatrypomastigotes were observed five days after the blood meal. The inoculation of crushed Culicoides into one of the trypanosome-free Psittacula gave rise to a parasitaemia after a prepatent period of eleven days. This provides more evidence that Culicoides can act as vectors of avian trypanosomes.

  13. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

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    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  14. Ciclo de vida y colonización de Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector de Leishmania spp. en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Cabrera

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae, presente en un foco de Leishmania (V braziliensis en Reventones, Cundinamarca, reg- ión ubicada en el centro de Colombia. se crió y mantuvo por catorce generaciones bajo condiciones de laboratorio con una temperatura diaria entre 22-28 ""C y una humedad relativa entre 90 y 98%. Después de la emergencia, se llevaron machos y hembras a vasos de poliestireno (transparente y se mantuvieron en una nevera de icopor. La duración de cada uno de los estadios del ciclo de vida observado en las crías individuales fue: huevo 9-12 días (X = 10, 42, DE = 0,86; larva 17-11 días (X=9,9, DE=3,06; larva 11 7-13 días (X=9,5, DE= 3,06; larva III 4-12 (X=7,4, DE=1,50; larva IV 9-19 días (X=15,16, DE=2,66 y pupa 8-16 días (X=11, DE=1,89. El tiempo promedio para el desarrollo total del ciclo biológico fue de 63,36 días. La longevidad para las hembras presentó un rango entre 5 y 10 días (X=9,36 y para los machos entre 4 y 13 días (X=7,44. Con respecto a la productividad registrada a partir de un promedio de 30 hembras de Lutzomyia por vaso de cría, se obtuvo una producción mínima de 260 flebótomos en la quinta generación y una máxima de 4.51 1 en la décimotercera generación.

  15. Caracterización de Daños de Moscas del Género Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae en Passiflora spp. (Passifloraceae Cultivadas en Colombia / Characterization of Damage of the Genus Dasiops Flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae from Cultivated Passiflora (Passiflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikol Yohanny Santamaría Galindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las moscas del género Dasiops Rondani constituyen la plaga más limitante en cultivos de pasifloras en Colombia, por lo que el reconocimiento de especies es importante para la toma de decisiones de vigilancia y control. Se caracterizaron los síntomas y daños producidos por moscas Dasiops spp.. en botones florales y frutos de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss y curuba (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Nielsen y Jorgensen. En botones florales de maracuyá, gulupa y granadilla con longitud mayor a 1 cm, la infestación se manifestó con amarillamiento y arrugamiento general. En frutos de gulupa y granadilla, la infestación se evidenció por arrugamiento del epicarpio en frutos inmaduros. En curuba, la infestación en frutos se caracterizó por un estrechamiento en la parte basal, apical o media del fruto. La infestación en botones florales estuvo entre 0,0 y 9,9% en tanto que en frutos presentó un rango entre 0,3 y 28,5%. No obstante, en maracuyá y gulupa se registraron botones florales infestados pero sin los síntomas descritos; en tanto que en gulupa y granadilla se observó el mismo fenómeno en frutos. Este estudio provee a agricultores y técnicos herramientas para el reconocimiento de infestación por moscas Dasiops spp. en cultivos de pasifloras como elemento fundamental para la toma decisiones para la vigilancia y control fitosanitario. / Abstract. The flies of the gender Dasiops Rondani are the most limiting plague in pasifloras crops in Colombia, thus species identification is important for decision making for monitoring and control. The symptoms and damage caused by Dasiops spp. flies in flower buds and fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, sweet passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita

  16. Diptera: Agromyzidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.

  17. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  18. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...

  19. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  20. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  1. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Isolation of arboviruses, their identification and the identification of their culicoides vectors in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of the two-week mission were to provide assistance in studies to determine the incidence and importance of arbovirus infection in ruminants in Indonesia, specifically to help with identification of the vectors tat transmit bluetongue and related arbovirus infections, and to develop work plans for future studies under the project. The report contains detailed information on handling systems for Culicoides species, on identification of Culicoides to be used for viral isolation and on the isolation of virus from Culicoides

  2. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    ) pseudoheliophilus Callot & Kremer, 1961, new to the Faroese fauna. C. impunctatus was common at most of the farms, females contributing >95% of the catch. Apparently C. pseudoheliophilus has a more limited distribution in the Faroe Islands and was only recorded from nine byres. The relative distribution of female C...

  3. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  4. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate.

  5. Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Banta, G.; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors...... ranging from presence of different host species (cattle or sheep/goats), presence of small woody areas or wetlands in the surrounding landscape, and agricultural practice (organic or conventional) were included in the community analysis. Only differences in the Culicoides communities between conventional...... and organic practices were tested significantly different. Total numbers of Culicoides individuals were higher on the organic farms than on the conventional farms. The larger loads of biting midges on the organic farms may be due to free-ranging animals that attracted the midges on pastures and carried them...

  6. Alarcón-Elbal, P.M. & Lucientes, J. 2012. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae de España. Graellsia 68:353–362. doi:10.3989/graellsia.2012.v68.064. Bilk, S. Schulze, C. Fischer, M. Beer, M. Hlinak, A. & Hoffmann, B. 2012. Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA in malformed newborns. Vet. Microbiol. 159:236–238. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.035. De Blas, I., Ruiz-Zarzuela, I. & Vallejo, A. 2006. WinEpi: Working In Epidemiology. An Online Epidemiological Tool. Page in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, Australia. Cameron, A.R. & Baldock, F.C. 1998. A new probability formula for surveys to substantiate freedom from disease.. Prev. Vet. Med. 34:1–17. Doceul, V., Lara, E., Sailleau, C., Belbis, G. Richardson, J., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Dominguez, M., Hendrikx, P., Calavas, D., Desprat, A., Languille, J., Comtet, L., Pourquier, P., Eléouët, J.-F., Delmas, B., Marianneau, P., Vitour, D. & Zientara, S. 2013. Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe.. Vet. Res. 44:1–13. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-31. Elbers, A.R.W., Meiswinkel, R., van Weezep, E., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. & Engbert, A.K. 2013. Schmallenberg Virus in Culicoides spp. Biting Midges, the Netherlands, 2011. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19:106–109. doi:10.3201/eid1901.121054. Gariglinany, M.-M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D., Beer, M. & Desmecht, D. 2012. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120104. Greiner, E.C., Mo, C.L., Homan, E.J., Gonzalez, J., Oviedo, M.T., Thompson, L.H. & Gibbs, E.P. 1993. Epidemiology of bluetongue in Central America and the Caribbean: initial entomological findings. Regional Bluetongue Team. Med Vet Entomol 7:309–315. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.1993.tb00697.x. Hern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Villegas-Salas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus affects ruminants, which causes significant economic losses.  The virus is transmitted through vectors of the genus Culicoides; however, other studies do not rule out the possibility of sexual transmission due to its presence in semen. For this reason, the National Service of Animal Health of Costa Rica (SENASA imposed restrictions on the import of semen from animals from the European Union in 2013. Consequently, SENASA conducted a study to determine the presence or absence of antibodies against this virus in bovine, ovine and caprine samples. As a result, no antibodies against this virus were detected in the 748 samples tested. It was concluded that Schmallenberg virus was not circulating in Costa Rican ruminants during the tested period.

  7. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  8. The phenology and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. in different ecosystems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Verhulst, N.O.; Scholte, E.J.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Jongema, Y.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands has enjoyed a relatively free state of vector-borne diseases of economic importance for more than one century. Emerging infectious diseases may change this situation, threatening the health of humans, domestic livestock and wildlife. In order to be prepared for the potential outbreak

  9. Spatio-temporal optimization of sampling for bluetongue vectors (Culicoides) near grazing livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating the abundance of Culicoides using light traps is influenced by a large variation in abundance in time and place. This study investigates the optimal trapping strategy to estimate the abundance or presence/absence of Culicoides on a field with grazing animals. We used 45 light...... absence of vectors on the field. The variation in the estimated abundance decreased steeply when using up to six traps, and was less pronounced when using more traps, although no clear cutoff was found. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spatial clustering in vector abundance, we found no effect of increasing...... monitoring programmes on fields with grazing animals....

  10. Dermatite alérgica à picada de Culicoides em muar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I.B. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO A dermatite alérgica à picada de ectoparasitos é uma enfermidade alergoparasitária bastante comum entre animais domésticos, sendo relatada principalmente em pequenos ruminantes e em animais de companhia. Contudo, a doença é pouco diagnosticada na clínica de equídeos devido a similaridades nosológicas com outras dermatopatias. Objetivou-se, com este relato de caso, descrever a síndrome clínica, o plano diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica de um muar acometido por essa enfermidade. Atendeu-se, no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Pernambuco, uma mula de oito anos de idade, que apresentava lesões cutâneas pápulo-crostosas e pruriginosas com evolução clínica de dois anos. Em três situações anteriores, a doença havia sido tratada como dermatite fúngica por outros médicos veterinários. Para o diagnóstico, foram solicitados exame citopatológico e parasitológico de pele, cultivo bacteriológico e fúngico, análise histopatológica e hemograma. Os exames demonstraram uma dermatite superficial perivascular eosinofílica crônica, sendo indicada a terapia tópica com dimetilsufóxido, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A. O protocolo terapêutico mostrou-se satisfatório, permitindo completa remissão do quadro clínico. Este trabalho relatou achados clínicos e patológicos da dermatite alérgica à picada de Culicoides spp. em muar, além de alertar sobre a importância de exames complementares para a realização do diagnóstico diferencial e para o direcionamento terapêutico adequado.

  11. Landing sites and diel activity in Culicoides midges attacking Fjord horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Old World, African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis are transmitted to equids by Culicoides midges. AHS has a case-fatality-rate of 95% in horses. Though endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, AHS virus is able to incur northwards and to disseminate widely within Mediterranean countries.

  12. Culicoides-virus interactions: infection barriers and possible factors underlying vector competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, Culicoides midges vector arboviruses of economic importance such as Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. A limited number of studies have demonstrated the complexities of midge-virus interactions, including dynamic changes in virus titer and prevalence over...

  13. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faverjon, C.; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S.; Bødker, R.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Fischer, E.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical

  14. Culicoides obsoletus extract relevant for diagnostics of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Meulenbroeks, C.; Altena, van S.E.C.; Schurink, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Wagner, B.; Leibold, W.; Rohwer, J.; Jacobs, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis in horses caused by the bites of Culicoides species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of whole body extracts of C. obsoletus (the main species found feeding on horses in the Netherlands), C. nubeculosus

  15. Abundance modelling of invasive and indigenous Culicoides species in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Ducheyne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel methodology applied in Spain to model spatial abundance patterns of potential vectors of disease at a medium spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km using a countrywide database with abundance data for five Culicoides species, random regression Forest modelling and a spatial dataset of ground measured and remotely sensed eco-climatic and environmental predictor variables. First the probability of occurrence was computed. In a second step a direct regression between the probability of occurrence and trap abundance was established to verify the linearity of the relationship. Finally the probability of occurrence was used in combination with the set of predictor variables to model abundance. In each case the variable importance of the predictors was used to biologically interpret results and to compare both model outputs, and model performance was assessed using four different accuracy measures. Results are shown for C. imicola, C. newsteadii, C. pulicaris group, C. punctatus and C. obsoletus group. In each case the probability of occurrence is a good predictor of abundance at the used spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km. In addition, the C. imicola and C. obsoletus group are highly driven by summer rainfall. The spatial pattern is inverse between the two species, indicating that the lower and upper thresholds are different. C. pulicaris group is mainly driven by temperature. The patterns for C. newsteadii and C. punctatus are less clear. It is concluded that the proposed methodology can be used as an input to transmission-infection-recovery (TIR models and R0 models. The methodology will become available to the general public as part of the VECMAPTM software.

  16. Comparing larvicidal Effect of Methanol Extract of the Aerial Parts of Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L. and Oleander ( Nerium oleander L. plants on Anopheles spp Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is an infectious disease by fever and chills, anemia and splenomegaly genus Plasmodium parasite is the agent it. One of the easiest and least expensive methods to prevent this disease is removing the vector that usually by been done insecticides and chemical pesticides, but nowadays due to the damaging effects of by toxic chemicals is currently trying to organic toxic and plant compounds used to combat the pests. So in this study used from the Hyoscyamus niger L. and Nerium oleander L. to destroy the larvae of this vectors and positive results were compared these two plants together. Methods In this experimental study, H. niger and N. oleander collected and dried to extraction by methanol usingthe Rotary Evaporator. Mosquito larvae collected from stagnant water pits and ponds around the Birjand, Iran and order to apply the relevant identity tests and isolation of Anopheles spp mosquito larvae. Survival measurement were used to estimate LC50 values using Probit analysis in Excel 2010 and SPSS (ver 20 software. Results Both Hyoscyamus niger and Nerium oleander had positive effects on destroying the Anopheles spp larvae and between obtained results, the most effective extract for destroying the mosquitoes Anopheles spp larvae, was the flower extract of henbane (LC50 = 0/26 ppm and the weakest one, was the leaves extract of oleander (LC50 = 4/85 ppm. Conclusions According to the results, the flower extract of henbane is recommended as a toxic, organic and natural compounds to fight Anopheles spp mosquito larvae, which it is stronger and more effective compared to the other parts of these two plants.

  17. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  18. Identification of a salivary vasodilator in the primary North American vector of bluetongue viruses, Culicoides variipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Ribeiro, J M; Tabachnick, W J; Valenzuela, J G

    1997-09-01

    Several species of Culicoides biting midges are important pests and vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals. Bluetongue is the most economically important arthropod-borne animal disease in the United States. Culicoides variipennis is the primary North American vector of the bluetongue viruses. A reddish halo surrounding a petechial hemorrhage was noticed at the site of C. variipennis blood feeding in previously unexposed sheep and rabbits. Salivary gland extracts of nonblood-fed C. variipennis injected intradermally into sheep and rabbits induced cutaneous vasodilation in the form of erythema. A local, dose-dependent erythema, without edema or pruritus, was noted 30 min after injection. Erythema was inapparent with salivary gland extracts obtained after blood feeding. This observation suggested that the vasodilatory activity was inoculated into the host skin at the feeding site. The vasodilatory activity was insoluble in ethanol and destroyed by trypsin or chymotrypsin, which indicated that vasodilation was due to a protein. The association of cutaneous vasodilation with a salivary protein was corroborated by reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of salivary gland extracts by molecular sieving HPLC resulted in maximal vasodilatory activity that coeluted with a protein having a relative molecular weight (MWr) of 22.45 kD. The C. variipennis vasodilator appears to be biologically active at the nanogram level. This vasodilator likely assists C. variipennis during feeding by increasing blood flow from host superficial blood vessels surrounding the bite site. The identification of a salivary vasodilator in C. variipennis may have implications for the transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens and in the development of dermatitis resulting from the sensitization of humans and animals to Culicoides salivary antigens.

  19. A spatial simulation model for the dispersal of the bluetongue vector Culicoides brevitarsis in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel K Kelso

    Full Text Available The spread of Bluetongue virus (BTV among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected Culicoides midges, the vector of BTV. Biologically plausible models of Culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of BTV and are important for planning control and eradication strategies.A spatially-explicit simulation model which captures the two underlying population mechanisms, population dynamics and movement, was developed using extensive data from a trapping program for C. brevitarsis on the east coast of Australia. A realistic midge flight sub-model was developed and the annual incursion and population establishment of C. brevitarsis was simulated. Data from the literature was used to parameterise the model.The model was shown to reproduce the spread of C. brevitarsis southwards along the east Australian coastline in spring, from an endemic population to the north. Such incursions were shown to be reliant on wind-dispersal; Culicoides midge active flight on its own was not capable of achieving known rates of southern spread, nor was re-emergence of southern populations due to overwintering larvae. Data from midge trapping programmes were used to qualitatively validate the resulting simulation model.The model described in this paper is intended to form the vector component of an extended model that will also include BTV transmission. A model of midge movement and population dynamics has been developed in sufficient detail such that the extended model may be used to evaluate the timing and extent of BTV outbreaks. This extended model could then be used as a platform for addressing the effectiveness of spatially targeted vaccination strategies or animal movement bans as BTV spread mitigation measures, or the impact of climate change on the risk and extent of outbreaks. These questions involving incursive Culicoides spread cannot be simply addressed with non-spatial models.

  20. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CULICOIDES (JILINOCOIDES)(DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE) FROM THE GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTON. REG., CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUGuo-ping; HAOBao-shan

    2003-01-01

    A new species of Culicoides ( Jilinocoides ), C. ( J. ) guangxiensis sp. nov. from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China is described. The new species is closely allied to Culicoides qianweiensis Yu 1982,but is distinctly different in the presentation of the sensilla coeloconica, sensory pit of the palpus third segment,number of mandible teeth, pale spot on basal portion of wing and r-m pale spot on wing of female. The type spec-imen is deposited in the Institute of Military Medical Sciences, Shenyang Military District, Shenyang 110034,China.

  1. Laboratory survival and blood feeding response of wild-caught Culicoides obsoletus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) through natural and artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, M; Romeo, G; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; Savini, G

    2004-01-01

    In late summer 2002, live wild-caught midges of the Obsoletus Complex were collected using blacklight traps placed at a horse stable in Teramo (Abruzzo, Italy). For the survival study under laboratory conditions, 1,500 Obsoletus Complex midges were kept at 17 degrees C-25 degrees C and provided only with a sucrose solution. Of these, 150 (10%) survived for at least 40 days and 3 midges were still alive after 92 days. In addition, 10 midges survived 10 days at 4 degrees C. For the feeding trials, 40 blood-meals (9,440 midges) were administered, 27 of which were successful (67.5%); the feeding rate ranged from 0.3% to 16.7%, with a total of 592 engorged midges. Similar feeding rates (U Mann-Whitney test=129.5 p>0.05) were obtained when natural (day-old chicken skin) and artificial (stretched parafilm) membranes were used. To infect the insects, a field strain of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) serotype 2 isolated from the spleen of a sheep during the 2000 Italian outbreak was added to the blood-meal. Two different viral solutions, with titres of 10(6)TCID(50)/ml and 10(7)TCID(50)/ml, were prepared. Uninfected blood was significantly more appetising (U Mann-Whitney test=88.5 pdays. During the incubation period, the dead insects were collected daily and analysed for evidence of virus infection. Of the 251 engorged midges, 54 (21.5%) died in the feeding chambers or during sorting on the chill table, 136 died within the first 10 days and 61 survived longer. BTV was isolated only from those which died just after feeding (52.6%; 10/19) or 24 h later (47.8%; 11/23). Considering the small number of midges tested after 10 days of incubation, the prevalence of infection detected in this study (95% probability) would have been higher than 4.74%. These preliminary results appear very promising as this is the first time that midges of the Obsoletus Complex have been successfully fed under laboratory conditions.

  2. Validación de la PCR en la detección de parásitos de Leishmania (Viannia spp. en Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae como herramienta en la definición de especies vectores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santamaría

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available lntroducción. En leishmaniasis se acepta que la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR ha simplificado el proceso de incriminación vectorial. Sin embargo, pocas veces se ha determinado la sensibilidad y la especificidad de cada PCR en la detección y la identificación del parasito en los flebótomos. Objetivo. Evaluar la aplicabilidad de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, basada en los iniciadores 81 y 82, en la detecci6n e identificación de parasitos de Leishmania (Viannia en insectos vectores enteros sin disecar. Metodología. Se determinó la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la PCR empleando diluciones de cultivo de parasitos de Leishmania spp. Se estableció el número máximo de hembras de Lutzomyia que pueden ser procesadas a la vez sin disminuir la sensibilidad de la PCR, procesando el ADN de grupos de una a cinco hembras de Lutzomyia en presencia del ADN de las diluciones de cultivo de parasitos. Además, se comparó en grupos de flebótomos infectados experimentalmente, la sensibilidad de esta PCR en la detección de infección por Leishmania (Viannia frente al método de busqueda de flagelados por disección del insecto y examen microscópico. Resultados. La PCR detectó desde un parasito de Leishmania (Viannia y permiti6 el procesamiento de hasta tres insectos enteros sin alterar la sensibilidad. Los porcentajes de infección experimental detectados con las dos tecnicas fueron similares, 33,3% con la PCR y 30% con el examen microscópico. Además, se confirmó que los iniciadores 81 y 82 son especificos para especies del subgenero Leishmania (Viannia. Conclusión. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la sensibilidad y la especificidad de esta PCR y permiten recomendar su uso en la determinaci6n de infección natural con parasitos de Leishmania (Viannia en poblaciones silvestres de flebótomos.

  3. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify......: Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA...

  4. Studies on biting midges of the genus Culicoides in the Suez Canal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Bebars, M A; Sabry, A H; Ahmed, M M; Abdel Fattah, S A

    1989-06-01

    The importance of the biting midges of the genus Culicoides being in their role as vector of non periodic filarial worms of the genus Mansonella and Dipetalonema to man and pathogenic virus to livestock. Besides, their painful bite may disappear within an hour or cause an appreciable systemic reaction. In this paper, the four species recorded in the Suez Canal Zone (C. schultzei, C. puncticollis, C. pallidipennis & C. distinctipennis) were redescribed. Also, the hours of activity of the most common and abundant species, C. schultzei was studied. C. neavei Austin, 1912, representing a new record in Egypt.

  5. VP7: an attachment protein of bluetongue virus for cellular receptors in Culicoides variipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Wilson, W; Mecham, J; Murphy, K; Zhou, E M; Tabachnick, W

    1997-07-01

    The importance of VP7 of bluetongue virus (BTV) in the binding of BTV to membrane proteins of the BTV vector Culicoides variipennis was investigated. Core BTV particles, prepared from whole viruses, lacked outer proteins VP2 and VP5 and had VP7 exposed. More core particles and whole viruses bound to membrane preparations of adults of C. variipennis and KC cells, which were cultured from this vector insect, than to membrane preparations of Manduca sexta larvae. More core particles than whole viruses bound to membrane preparations of adults of C. variipennis and KC cells. Polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id), which were made against an antigen-combining region of an anti-BTV-10 VP7 antibody and functionally mimicked VP7, bound more to the membrane preparations of adults of C. variipennis and KC cells, and less to cytosol preparations. In Western overalay analysis, the Culicoides plasma membrane preparation reduced binding of an anti-VP7 monoclonal antibody to VP7. Whole and core BTV particles and the anti-Id bound to a membrane protein with a molecular mass of 23 kDa that was present predominantly in membrane preparations of adults of C. variipennis and KC cells. This protein was present in much lower concentrations in membrane preparations of C6/36 and DM-2 insect cells.

  6. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    of cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses to investigate wing shape as a means to infer species identification within this subgenus. In addition the congruence of morphological data with different phylogenetic hypotheses is tested. Five different species...

  7. Effects of temperature on virogenesis of bluetongue virus serotype 11 in Culicoides variipennis sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Tabachnick, W J; Holbrook, F R; Thompson, L H

    1995-01-01

    Culicoides variipennis sonorensis females were fed bluetongue virus serotype 11 mixed in sheep blood and were held at constant temperatures of 32, 27, 21 and 15 degrees C. Virogenesis, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), proceeded significantly faster at higher temperatures. Based on ELISA absorbance > or = 0.2, some flies first were categorized as infected after 1 day, 2 days and 4 days at 32, 27 and 21 degrees C, respectively. Peak levels of virus antigen were seen after 5-7, 7-13 and 18-22 days for flies held at 32, 27 and 21 degrees C, respectively. There was no significant virus replication in flies held at 15 degrees C for 22 days, but latent virus replicated and was detected easily (44% infection) 4-10 days after these flies were transferred to 27 degrees C. The implications for temperature effects on bluetongue epizootiology are discussed.

  8. Culicoides variipennis and bluetongue-virus epidemiology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1996-01-01

    The bluetongue viruses are transmitted to ruminants in North America by Culicoides variipennis. US annual losses of approximately $125 million are due to restrictions on the movement of livestock and germplasm to bluetongue-free countries. Bluetongue is the most economically important arthropod-borne animal disease in the United States. Bluetongue is absent in the northeastern United States because of the inefficient vector ability there of C. variipennis for bluetongue. The vector of bluetongue virus elsewhere in the United States is C. variipennis sonorensis. The three C. variipennis subspecies differ in vector competence for bluetongue virus in the laboratory. Understanding C. variipennis genetic variation controlling bluetongue transmission will help identify geographic regions at risk for bluetongue and provide opportunities to prevent virus transmission. Information on C. variipennis and bluetongue epidemiology will improve trade and provide information to protect US livestock from domestic and foreign arthropod-borne pathogens.

  9. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative.

  10. Factors affecting numbers of Culicoides in truck traps in coastal Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, D S; Edwards, P B; Barnes, A

    1998-10-01

    Truck trap collections of Ceratopogonidae were made over a period of 27 months (November 1973-February 1976) at Tingalpa Creek, in southeast Queensland, Australia. Six collections were made on each of 95 days, giving 570 observations and a total of 29,378 Culicoides. Two collections were made before, one at, and three after sunset. Separate analyses were made of the catches of thirteen entities: male and female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. marksi, C. marmoratus and C. victoriae, female C. henryi and C. longior, and total C. bundyensis. Catches were dominated by C. brevitarsis (35.2%) and C. marmoratus (32.3%) and, with C. victoriae, were taken on almost every collecting day over all seasons. Sex ratios (M:F) varied from 0:100 for C. longior to 130:100 for C. marksi. Collections of all entities, except female C. henryi, were greatest (50-70% of the daily catch) at sunset. In winter there was substantial activity in the hour before sunset. Time of day was the most important variable, accounting for 15-45% of the observed variation. Between-day differences were significant for all except C. austropalpalis, C. victoriae and male C. marksi. Culicoides brevitarsis, C. bundyensis and C. longior had highly significant annual cycles, C. victoriae and female C. austropalpalis had significant lunar cycles, and C. longior had a significant tidal cycle. Logarithms of catches of female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. henryi, C. marmoratus, and female and male C. victoriae were inversely related to linear wind speed. Log catches of female C. austropalpalis, C. brevitarsis, C. marmoratus and C. victoriae, and male C. marksi and C. victoriae were positively related to temperature (quadratic).

  11. Listado de las especies de Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea no Phlebotominae de Venezuela, con seis nuevos registros en el estado Falcón | Checklist of the non Phlebotominae Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea of Venezuela, with six new records in Falcon state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los psicódidos son insectos pequeños de distribución cosmopolita que incluyen taxa de importancia sanitaria. En el presente trabajo, se muestra un catálogo revisado y actualizado de las especies de la familia Psychodidae (Diptera, Nematocera, Psychodomorpha no Phlebotominae registradas para Venezuela. Hasta el presente se han reportado 31 especies, agrupadas en tres subfamilias, tres tribus y 12 géneros, incluyendo la subfamilia Bruchomyiinae, géneros Notofairchildia spp. (1 especie y Boreofairchildia spp. (1 especie; subfamilia Trichomyiinae, género Trichomyia spp. (2 especies; y la subfamilia Psychodinae, Tribu Setomimini, géneros Alepia spp. (5 especies, Arisemus spp. (5 especies, Australopericoma spp. (3 especies, Balbagathis spp. (3 especies, Didimioza spp. (1 especie, Micrommatos spp. (1 especie, Tonnoira spp. (1 especie, Tribu Psychodini, género Psychoda spp. (6 especies. Se describe por vez primera la presencia de P. alternata, P. alternicula, P. cinerea, P. savaiiensis y P. matogrossensis para el estado Falcón, región nor-occidental, así como también de Clogmia albipunctata de la Tribu Paramormiini. Se comenta sobre la importancia bio-ecológica, sanitaria y forense de los psicódidos no Phlebotominae, y las necesidades de investigación en el país.

  12. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  13. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Lühken

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc. at

  14. Sellers’ Revisited: A Big Data Reassessment of Historical Outbreaks of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness due to the Long-Distance Wind Dispersion of Culicoides Midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Durr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that outbreaks of bluetongue (BT and African horse sickness (AHS might occur via long-distance wind dispersion (LDWD of their insect vector (Culicoides spp. was proposed by R. F. Sellers in a series of papers published between 1977 and 1991. These investigated the role of LDWD by means of visual examination of the wind direction of synoptic weather charts. Based on the hypothesis that simple wind direction analysis, which does not allow for wind speed, might have led to spurious conclusions, we reanalyzed six of the outbreak scenarios described in Sellers’ papers. For this reanalysis, we used a custom-built Big Data application (“TAPPAS” which couples a user-friendly web-interface with an established atmospheric dispersal model (“HYSPLIT”, thus enabling more sophisticated modeling than was possible when Sellers undertook his analyzes. For the two AHS outbreaks, there was strong support from our reanalysis of the role of LDWD for that in Spain (1966, and to a lesser degree, for the outbreak in Cyprus (1960. However, for the BT outbreaks, the reassessments were more complex, and for one of these (western Turkey, 1977 we could discount LDWD as the means of direct introduction of the virus. By contrast, while the outbreak in Cyprus (1977 showed LDWD was a possible means of introduction, there is an apparent inconsistency in that the outbreaks were localized while the dispersion events covered much of the island. For Portugal (1956, LDWD from Morocco on the dates suggested by Sellers is very unlikely to have been the pathway for introduction, and for the detection of serotype 2 in Florida (1982, LDWD from Cuba would require an assumption of a lengthy survival time of the midges in the air column. Except for western Turkey, the BT reanalyses show the limitation of LDWD modeling when used by itself, and indicates the need to integrate susceptible host population distribution (and other covariate data into the modeling process

  15. Sellers' Revisited: A Big Data Reassessment of Historical Outbreaks of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness due to the Long-Distance Wind Dispersion of Culicoides Midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Peter A; Graham, Kerryne; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    The possibility that outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) might occur via long-distance wind dispersion (LDWD) of their insect vector ( Culicoides spp.) was proposed by R. F. Sellers in a series of papers published between 1977 and 1991. These investigated the role of LDWD by means of visual examination of the wind direction of synoptic weather charts. Based on the hypothesis that simple wind direction analysis, which does not allow for wind speed, might have led to spurious conclusions, we reanalyzed six of the outbreak scenarios described in Sellers' papers. For this reanalysis, we used a custom-built Big Data application (" TAPPAS ") which couples a user-friendly web-interface with an established atmospheric dispersal model (" HYSPLIT "), thus enabling more sophisticated modeling than was possible when Sellers undertook his analyzes. For the two AHS outbreaks, there was strong support from our reanalysis of the role of LDWD for that in Spain (1966), and to a lesser degree, for the outbreak in Cyprus (1960). However, for the BT outbreaks, the reassessments were more complex, and for one of these (western Turkey, 1977) we could discount LDWD as the means of direct introduction of the virus. By contrast, while the outbreak in Cyprus (1977) showed LDWD was a possible means of introduction, there is an apparent inconsistency in that the outbreaks were localized while the dispersion events covered much of the island. For Portugal (1956), LDWD from Morocco on the dates suggested by Sellers is very unlikely to have been the pathway for introduction, and for the detection of serotype 2 in Florida (1982), LDWD from Cuba would require an assumption of a lengthy survival time of the midges in the air column. Except for western Turkey, the BT reanalyses show the limitation of LDWD modeling when used by itself, and indicates the need to integrate susceptible host population distribution (and other covariate) data into the modeling process. A further

  16. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  17. Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtinë region of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betim Berisha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical bluetongue (BT caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV‑9 was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtinë to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotted against temperature data. Samples contained Obsoletus and Pulicaris Complexes but not C. imicola. The first specimens of Culicoides were collected in April and they continued to be detected until November. Generally, Obsoletus Complex was present in the largest numbers, with the exception of the middle of the year when the Pulicaris Complex predominated. The number of Culicoides trapped was directly linked to temperature (p<0.05 and records indicated that Culicoides activity ceased when minimum temperatures fell below 0°C; activity recommenced when minimum temperatures rose to approximately 6°C. These results indicate that there was a lack of a vector for BTV during winter for a period lasting approximately five months.

  18. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardulyn, P.; Goffredo, M.; Conte, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Meiswinkel, R.; Balenghien, T.; Sghaier, S.; Lohr, Y.; Gilbert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean

  19. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  20. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  1. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  2. Susceptibility of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis to infection by polymerase chain reaction-detectable bluetongue virus in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J; MacLachlan, N J; Thompson, L H; Hunt, G J; Patton, J F

    1996-05-01

    Cattle bloods containing only polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--detectable bluetongue-10 viral nucleic acid, but as determined by virus isolation techniques, not bluetongue-10 virus, were incapable of infecting intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides variipennis sonorensis. These insects also failed to transmit bluetongue-10 virus when fed on sheep. Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bluetongue. The biological significance of PCR-based detection assays and their effect on animal health regulations on the international trade of livestock and livestock germplasm is discussed. Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of humans and other animals.

  3. Investigation of possibilities for appearance of African horse sickness virus and changes in species of the genus "Culicoides" in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchev I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, Bulgaria has been free of African Horse Sickness (AHS. Contacts with and proximity to countries, in which it is assumed there are cases of the disease, necessitate surveillance of equine animals near the border strict control of outgoing and incoming animals, especially those returning to the country after a long stay abroad of participation in races. Instructions for carrying out veterinary activities in instances when the disease occurs in Bulgaria have been worked out, since there were occurrences of Blue tongue disease (the disease has the same epizootiological vectors of spreading in regions bordering with Turkey last year. The serological screening investigations of blood sera by ELISA of equine animals from the same villages and regions during one active period of flight of culicoides did not establish the presence of antibodies to this dangerous transmissive disease. The present study contributed to working out scientific-methodological diagnostic preparedness in Bulgaria as regards this exotic transmassive disease.

  4. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  5. Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtinë region of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Betim Berisha; Izedin Goga; William P. Taylor; Kurtesh Sherifi; Anthony J. Wilsmore; Driton Çaushi; Beqë Hulaj

    2010-01-01

    Clinical bluetongue (BT) caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV‑9) was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtinë to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotte...

  6. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  7. Assessing the Risk of Establishment of Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the United States and Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Yee, Wee L; Neven, Lisa G

    2018-05-28

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) (Rosaceae) in Europe and Asia. In 2016, R. cerasi was detected in Ontario, Canada, and in 2017 in New York State, USA, the first records of this pest in North America. The initial detections in Canada caused concern for the major cherry-growing states of Michigan, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. Establishment of R. cerasi in the United States could restrict cherry exports to other markets and increase costs needed for fly control, but it is unknown if R. cerasi can establish in U.S. commercial cherry regions. Here, we used the CLIMEX ecological niche model to determine the risk of establishment of R. cerasi in the United States and globally. Within the United States under a no-irrigation scenario, R. cerasi would establish in the East and West Coasts; however, under an irrigation scenario, its distribution would expand to the major cherry-growing regions in the interior of central and eastern Washington and in California. Results also showed that if introduced, R. cerasi would likely establish in eastern China, Japan, the Koreas, Australia, New Zealand, South America, South Africa, Mexico, and Canada. Host plant (Prunus spp. and Lonicera spp. [Caprifoliaceae]) presence, although not included in models, would affect fly establishment. Our results stress the importance of surveying for R. cerasi to prevent its spread and establishment within the United States and other countries.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine l...

  9. Genetic variation in populations of Culicoides variipennis complex in the six New England states, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J; Brady, R

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the identity and distribution of members of the Culicoides variipennis complex in the six New England states of the U.S.A., a region where bluetongue transmission has not been detected. Analyses of seven polymorphic isozyme-encoding loci showed that only C.v.variipennis, not considered to be a vector of the bluetongue viruses, was present. The populations of C.v.variipennis were significantly more hetero-zygous than C.v.sonorensis and C.v.occidentalis populations from similar studies in the state of California. Estimates of genetic diversity among populations of C.v.variipennis in New England were similar to C.v.sonorensis in the state of Colorado, but were significantly more genetically divergent than California populations of C.v.occidentalis. The impact of these findings on the status of New England as a possible bluetongue-free region for the purpose of international trade in ruminant livestock and their germplasm is discussed.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  11. [Parahaemoproteus desseri n. sp.; gametogony and schizogony in the natural host: Psittacula roseata from Thailand, experimental sporogony in Culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltgen, F; Landau, I; Ratanaworabhan, N; Yenbutra, S

    1981-01-01

    The gametogony and the tissue schizogony of Parahaemoproteus desseri are described in the natural host: Psittacula roseata; the schizonts develop in muscle fibres; they are large (up to 900 micrometer) and often sausage shaped with pseudo-septa. Experimental sporogony was studied in laboratory bred Culicoides nubeculosus (Ceratopogonidae). Oocysts are small and give rise to a small number of sporozoites. The morphological characteristics of the schizonts of our Parahaemoproteus are very similar to those of schizonts of Arthrocystis galli and therefore it is possible that the two genera are synonymous.

  12. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faverjon, C.; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical...... and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by ‘what-if’ scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before...

  13. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀ , Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀ , Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀ . Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp . (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on

  14. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  15. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-08-30

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.

  16. Anticoagulant activity in salivary glands of the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis by an inhibitor of factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, A A; Valenzuela, J G; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-02-01

    Blood feeding by the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis involves laceration of superficial host tissues, an injury that would be expected to trigger the coagulation cascade. Accordingly, the salivary glands of C.v. sonorensis were examined for the presence of an antihemostatic that prevents blood coagulation. Assays using salivary gland extracts showed a delay in the recalcification time of plasma devoid of platelets, indicating the presence of anticoagulant activity. Retardation in the formation of a fibrin clot was also observed after the addition of tissue factor to plasma that was preincubated with salivary gland extracts. Similarly, an inhibitory effect by salivary gland extracts was detected in assays that included factors of the intrinsic pathway. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of purified factor Xa toward its chromogenic substrate suggested that it was the target of the salivary anticoagulant of C.v. sonorensis. This was corroborated by the coincidence of anticoagulant and anti-FXa activities obtained by reverse-phase HPLC. The depletion of anti-FXa activity from salivary glands during blood feeding suggests that the FXa inhibitor functions as anticoagulant. Molecular sieving HPLC yielded an apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa for the salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis. Preventing the formation of thrombin through the inhibition of FXa likely facilitates blood feeding by maintaining the pool of blood fluid at the feeding site. The salivary FXa inhibitor of C.v. sonorensis could impair the network of host-defense mechanisms in the skin microenvironment by avoiding blood coagulation at the site of feeding.

  17. Vector competence of Culicoides bolitinos and C. imicola for South African bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, G J; Paweska, J T; Van Dijk, A A; Mellor, P S; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-10-01

    The susceptibility of field-collected Culicoides bolitinos to infection by oral ingestion of bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 3 and 4 (BLU 1, 3 and 4) was compared with that of field-collected C. imicola and laboratory reared C. variipennis sonorensis. The concentration of the virus per millilitre of bloodmeal was 10(5.0) and 10(6.0)TCID50 for BLU 4 and 10(7.2)TCID50 for BLU 1 and 3. Of 4927 C. bolitinos and 9585 C. imicola fed, 386 and 287 individual midges survived 10 days extrinsic incubation, respectively. Midges were assayed for the presence of virus using a microtitration assay on BHK-21 cells and/or an antigen capture ELISA. Infection prevalences for the different serotypes as determined by virus isolation ranged from 22.7 to 82.0% in C. bolitinos and from 1.9 to 9.8% in C. imicola; infection prevalences were highest for BLU 1, and lowest for BLU 4 in both species. The mean log10 TCID50 titre of the three BLU viruses per single fly was higher in C. bolitinos than in C. imicola. The results suggested that C. bolitinos populations are capable vectors of the BLU viruses in South Africa. A high correlation was found between virus isolation and ELISA results for the detection of BLU 1, and less for BLU 4; the ELISA failed to detect the presence of BLU 3 in infected flies. The C. v. sonorensis colonies had a significantly lower susceptibility to infection with BLU 1, 3 and 4 than C. bolitinos and C. imicola. However, since infection prevalence of C. v. sonorensis was determined only by ELISA, this finding may merely reflect the insensitivity of this assay at low virus titres, compared to virus isolation.

  18. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-05-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ≥ 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 10: 169-187. 1962. Entomologia medica, vol. I. Parte Geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Faculdade de Higiene e...Ronderos. 1962. Mosquitos de la Re- Ortiz, I. 1968. Apuentes de entomologia medica: 10s mos- publica Argentina. I. Tribu Anophelini (Diptera - Culic

  20. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in peninsular Malaysia. ... Abstract. A survey was carried out in mango orchards in Peninsular Malaysia with aimed to determine the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  3. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador. The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and “Leishmania sp. siamensis”. Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. PMID:28981860

  4. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) From Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cristina; Cevallos, Varsovia; Morales, Diego; Baldeón, Manuel E; Cárdenas, Paúl; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Ponce, Patricio

    2017-11-07

    The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador.The species of parasites identified in sand flies were Leishmania major-like, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania lainsoni, and "Leishmania sp. siamensis". Sand fly specimens of Brumptomyia leopoldoi, Mycropigomyia cayennensis, Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli, Nyssomyia trapidoi, Pressatia triacantha, Pressatia dysponeta, Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai, Psychodopygus panamensis, and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis were found positive for Leishmania parasite. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the disease in high-risk areas of Ecuador. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. [Genetic structure in five Phlebotominae (Lutzomyia spp.), townsendi series, verrucarum group, in Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Claribel; Ruiz-García, Manuel; Munstermann, Leonard; Ferro, Cristina

    2008-12-01

    Sixteen isoenzyme patterns were analyzed for five Colombian Lutzomyia species. The average unbiased expected heterozygosity levels ranged from 0.098 (Lu. youngi) to 0.215 (Lu. torrvida). The five species samples, taken all the isoenzymes employed, were significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by homozygous excess with classical as well as Markov chain exact tests. Possible causes: (1) Wahlund effect within populations due to subdivision and/or sampling. Endogamy could be discarded because these loci were affected by highly different levels of homozygous excess. (2) Null alleles could be not discarded, at least for some isoenzymes. The hierarchical Wright's F analysis showed high and significant values for each parameter. The average F(IT) value was 0.655 with a conspicous homozygous excess at a global level (all species taken together); the average F(IS) value was significantly positive (0.515) as well, with homozygous excess within each species. The genetic heterogeneity between the fives species was noteworthy (F(ST) 0.288), indicating clear genetic differentiation. The more related species pairs were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida (0.959) and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa (0.960); while Lu. torvida-Lu. youngi (0.805) and Lu. quasitownsendi-Lu. youngi (0.796) were the most divergent (Nei's genetic identity matrix). UPGMA and Wagner algorithms showed that the most divergent species was Lu. youngi, whereas the most related were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa. A spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I index) revealed a very weak, or inexistent spatial structure, which means that the speciation events between these species were independent from the geographic distances from where they currently live.

  6. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  7. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  8. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  9. A key and checklist to the Neotropical forensically important "Little House Flies" (Diptera: Fanniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fanniidae (Insecta: Diptera is a relatively small family (ca. 350 spp. with five genera, of which Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899 have Neotropical distributions. Some of these species are almost always found in forensic studies. Forensically relevant species have been neglected, despite recent forensic studies that suggest their importance for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI. Thus, current and updated keys to identify adults or larvae on carcasses are unavailable for the most important species. While immature stages are important in estimating PMI, evidence suggests that adults (Fanniidae as well as other families may also be useful for this purpose. Here we provide a key to males of the species of Fanniidae (found on corpses and other decomposing organic matter with a checklist of species that have been used in forensics in the Neotropical region. The key comprises all 38 species of Fannia and Euryomma that have already been successfully used in forensics, and species that are potentially useful for estimating PMI. These records were found after reviews of the literature and data from entomological collections. Photographs and illustrations of the main characters in the key are provided.

  10. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  11. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  12. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  13. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  14. Apyrase activity and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation inhibition by the salivary gland proteins of Culicoides variipennis, the North American vector of bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, A A; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-02-01

    Salivary gland homogenates of Culicoides variipennis, the primary vector of bluetongue (BLU) viruses in North America, were analyzed for apyrase activity. Apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) is an anti-hemostatic and anti-inflammatory salivary enzyme of most hematophagous arthropods. The enzyme activity was measured by the release of orthophosphate using ATP, ADP, and AMP as substrates with Ca2+ as the divalent cation. ATPase (11.5 +/- 1 mU/pair of glands), ADPase (7.3 +/- 0.7 mU/pair of glands), and insignificant (P < 0.05) AMPase (0.07 mU/pair of glands) activities were detected in female salivary glands. Male salivary glands contained lower amounts of ATPase and ADPase activity (P < 0.05). The ATPase and ADPase activities were greatest at pH 8.5, and were similarly activated by Mg2+. Molecular sieving HPLC of salivary gland homogenates generated a single peak which coincided with ATPase and ADPase, but no AMPase, activity; the protein has an estimated molecular mass of 35,000 Da. ATPase and ADPase activity, and total protein concentration, were reduced (P < 0.05) in the salivary glands of females after taking a blood meal from a sheep. Salivary gland homogenates also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. It is concluded that the salivary ATPase and ADPase activities of C. variipennis reside in one enzyme, and that this enzyme is likely an apyrase. The apyrase activity is thought to be responsible for the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, as indicated by the apparent discharge of apyrase from salivary glands into the host during blood feeding. This suggests that apyrase is one of the salivary proteins present in C. variipennis acting as antigens in the development of Culicoides hypersensitivity in ruminants and horses. Apyrase may inhibit an inflammatory response at the feeding site through the subsequent degradation of its end-product, AMP, to adenosine, a potent anti-inflammatory substance, by the ecto-5' nucleotidase

  15. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  16. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different

  17. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  18. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  19. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  20. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  1. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  2. Comprehensive inventory of true flies (Diptera) at a tropical site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Brown; Art Borkent; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Estimations of tropical insect diversity generally suffer from lack of known groups or faunas against which extrapolations can be made, and have seriously underestimated the diversity of some taxa. Here we report the intensive inventory of a four-hectare tropical cloud forest in Costa Rica for one year, which yielded 4332 species of Diptera, providing the first...

  3. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in mango orchards in northern Côte-d'Ivoire. OR N'depo, N Hala, A N'da Adopo, F Coulibaly, PK Kouassi, JF Vayssieres, M de Meyer ...

  4. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.

  5. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Brasileira de Malariologia e Doenças Tropicais 16, 329–348. Forattini, O.P. (1962) Entomologia médica. Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Vol.1...Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52, 671–673. Schultz, J., Müller, T., Achtziger, M., Seibel, P.N., Dandekar, T

  6. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  7. Culicoides antigen extract stimulates equine blood mononuclear (BMN) cell proliferation and the release of eosinophil adherence-inducing factor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvie, J; Foster, A P; Hamblin, A S; Cunningham, F M

    2001-04-01

    Intradermal injection of a Culicoides antigen extract (CAgX) induces T lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the skin of horses with sweet itch. Blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from normal ponies proliferate when stimulated by mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or antigen (tetanus toxoid, TT) and, as shown here, release soluble factor(s) that induce eosinophil adherence. CAgX also caused concentration dependent proliferation of BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies [stimulation index: 29 (13) and 17 (7) for BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies, respectively during the active phase of disease; 4 microg protein ml(-1)CAgX; 168 h]. A heat labile factor(s) which caused eosinophil adherence was also released [sweet itch ponies: 6.0 (1.6) per cent adherence versus 1.3 (0.4) per cent; normal ponies: 6.6 (0.5) per cent adherence versus 0.9 (0.1) per cent for supernatants from CAgX (4 microg protein ml(-1); 48 hours) stimulated versus unstimulated BMN cells, respectively]. These results suggest that soluble proteins released from T lymphocytes could affect eosinophil function in the lesional skin of sweet itch horses. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  8. Detection of bluetongue virus in the blood of inoculated calves: comparison of virus isolation, PCR assay, and in vitro feeding of Culicoides variipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, N J; Nunamaker, R A; Katz, J B; Sawyer, M M; Akita, G Y; Osburn, B I; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-01-01

    The interval after infection when bluetongue virus (BTV) was present in the blood of calves inoculated with BTV serotype 10 (BTV 10) was evaluated by virus isolation (VI) in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), BTV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in vitro blood feeding of vector Culicoides variipennis (C.v.) sonorensis. BTV nucleic acid was detected by PCR in blood cells for 16 to 20 weeks after infection whereas infectious virus was detected by VI in ECE for 2 to 8 weeks. BTV was detected in calf blood by in vitro feeding of C.v. sonorensis for only 0 to 2 weeks after inoculation of calves with BTV 10. Selected bloods which were positive by PCR analysis but not by VI in ECE were not infectious for sheep. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged viremia in BTV-infected cattle results from association of the virus with blood cells, especially erythrocytes. The fact that calf blood that contained viral nucleic acid as determined by PCR analysis, but not infectious virus as determined by VI in ECE, was not infectious for either the insect vector or sheep suggests that cattle whose blood contains BTV nucleic acid but not infectious virus are unimportant to the epidemiology of BTV infection.

  9. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverjon, C; Leblond, A; Lecollinet, S; Bødker, R; de Koeijer, A A; Fischer, E A J

    2017-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical distribution. Using stochastic spatiotemporal models of virus entry, we assessed and compared the probabilities of both viruses entering France via two pathways: importation of live-infected animals or importation of infected vectors. Analyses were performed for three consecutive years (2010-2012). Seasonal and regional differences in virus entry probabilities were the same for both diseases. However, the probability of EE entry was much higher than the probability of AHS entry. Interestingly, the most likely entry route differed between AHS and EE: AHS has a higher probability to enter through an infected vector and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by 'what-if' scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before their importation was the most effective in reducing the probability of AHS entry. On the other hand, the most significant reduction in the probability of EE entry was obtained by the implementation of quarantine before import for horses coming from both EU and non-EU countries. The developed models can be useful to implement risk-based surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Seasonal and interseasonal dynamics of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle and Culicoides sonorensis midges in northern California--implications for virus overwintering in temperate zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Mayo

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is the cause of an economically important arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The occurrence of BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, thus we determined the dynamics of BTV infection (using BTV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction among sentinel cattle and vector Culicoides sonorensis (C. sonorensis midges on a dairy farm in northern California throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal (overwintering periods of BTV activity from August 2012 until March 2014. The data confirmed widespread infection of both sentinel cattle and vector midges during the August-November period of seasonal BTV transmission, however BTV infection of parous female midges captured in traps set during daylight hours also was detected in February of both 2013 and 2014, during the interseasonal period. The finding of BTV-infected vector midges during mid-winter suggests that BTV may overwinter in northern California by infection of long-lived female C. sonorensis midges that were infected during the prior seasonal period of virus transmission, and reemerged sporadically during the overwintering period; however the data do not definitively preclude other potential mechanisms of BTV overwintering that are also discussed.

  11. Phytosanitary treatments against Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae): current situation and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003, it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent destroying fruits and creating re...

  12. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  13. Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Luo, Y; Bernhardt, P; Kou, Y; Perner, H

    2008-03-01

    The pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum Franch. was studied in the Huanglong Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. Although large bees (Bombus, Apis), small bees (Ceratina, Lasioglossum), ants (Formica sp.), true flies (Diptera) and a butterfly were all found to visit the flowers, only small bees, including three Lasioglossum spp. (L. viridiclaucum, L. sichuanense and L. sp.; Halictidae) and one Ceratina sp., carried the flower's pollen and contacted the receptive stigma. Measurements of floral architecture showed that interior floral dimensions best fit the exterior dimensions of Lasioglossum spp., leading to the consistent deposition and stigmatic reception of dorsally-placed, pollen smears. The floral fragrance was dominated by one ketone, 3-methyl-Decen-2-one. The conversion rate of flowers into capsules in open (insect) pollinated flowers at the site was more than 38%. We conclude that, while pigmentation patterns and floral fragrance attracted a wide variety of insect foragers, canalization of interior floral dimensions ultimately determined the spectrum of potential pollinators in this generalist, food-mimic flower. A review of the literature showed that the specialised mode of pollination-by-deceit in C. plectrochilum, limiting pollinators to a narrow and closely related guild of 'dupes' is typical for other members of this genus.

  14. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  15. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  18. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

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    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  19. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  20. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tant to the biting midges Culicoides pulicaris that 8% ethyl acetate was attractant to the Linn. and Culicoides puncticoUis Becker (Cera- vinegar fly...Drosoph- finding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae): a review. ila melanogaster Meigen to the products of ferment - Bull. Entomol. Res. 70:525-532. ing banana

  1. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  2. Vertebrate hosts and phylogenetic relationships of amphibian trypanosomes from a potential invertebrate vector, Culex territans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Crans, Wayne; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The blood meals of field-collected female Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) were concurrently assayed for the presence of trypanosomes and for vertebrate host identification. We amplified vertebrate DNA in 42 of 119 females and made positive identification to the host species level in 29 of those samples. Of the 119 field-collected Cx. territans females, 24 were infected with trypanosomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed the trypanosomes in the amphibian portion of the aquatic clade of the Trypanosomatidae. These trypanosomes were isolated from Cx. territans females that had fed on the frog species Rana clamitans, R. catesbeiana, R. virgatipes, and Rana spp. Results support a potential new lineage of dipteran-transmitted amphibian trypanosomes may occur within the aquatic clade. The frequency in which female Cx. territans acquire trypanosomes, through diverse feeding habits, indicates a new relationship between amphibian trypanosomes and mosquitoes that has not been examined previously. Combining Trypanosoma species, invertebrate, and vertebrate hosts to existing phylogenies can elucidate trypanosome and host relationships.

  3. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as bioindicators of heavy metals pollution in Shiroro Lake, Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoro, Francis O; Auta, Yohanna I; Odume, Oghenekaro N; Keke, Unique N; Mohammed, Adamu Z

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A-C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9-75mg/g), manganese (1.29-1.65mg/g), lead (0.00-0.10mg/g), iron (101-168mg/g) and copper (0.13-0.17mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0.05). Thirteen chironomid species were recorded, with Chironomus sp., Polypedilum sp. and Ablabesmyia sp. dominating the assemblage structure. Mouthpart deformities were significantly higher at Station A compared with Station C, and seasonally significantly higher during dry season compared with wet season. Elevated incidences of deformity were recorded in Chironomus spp larvae as compared to other genera therefore for further studies in this region assessments should be based solely on Chironomus species and ignoring the rest. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the contaminations and the biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  5. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  6. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  7. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  8. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  9. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  10. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  11. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  12. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  13. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  14. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  15. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  16. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  18. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone coding for a glutathione S-transferase class delta enzyme from the biting midge Culicoides variipennis sonorensis Wirth and Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, M A; Pollenz, R S; Droog, F N; Nunamaker, R A; Tabachnick, W J; Murphy, K E

    2000-12-01

    Culicoides variipennis sonorensis is the primary vector of bluetongue viruses in North America. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, converting reactive lipophilic molecules into soluble conjugates. Increased GST activity is associated with development of insecticide resistance. Described here is the isolation of the first cDNA encoding a C. variipennis GST. The clone consists of 720 translated bases encoding a protein with a M(r) of approximately 24,800 composed of 219 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar (64%-74%) to class Delta (previously named Theta) GSTs from the dipteran genera Musca, Drosophila, Lucilia and Anopheles. The cDNA was subcloned into pET-11b, expressed in Epicurian coli BL21 (DE3) and has a specific activity of approximately 28,000 units/mg for the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

  20. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  2. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  3. Infestation of Phaseolus Vulgaris (L) by the beanfly Ophiomyia Spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Management by Cultural Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayitare, Joseph Sibomana

    1993-04-01

    Cultural practices as management strategy for bean fly control were examined over four cropping seasons in 1991 and 1992 under farmer’s developed field conditions at Oyugis, in Homa Bay District of Western Kenya. In many parts of East and Central Africa, the bean fly is a major constraint to the production of the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris), its incidence causes yield losses averaging 47-87%, Control methods used against the pest are mostly insecticides based. Cultural control as a pest management strategy is a less considered area of research which needs to be studied, since it is the first line of defence against pest populations and results in little or no added cost. For this reason studies on five cultural practices (soil fertility, inter cropping, weeding regimes, plant spacing and planting time) on bean fly infestation were undertaken as possible control methods, Increase in nitrogen levels increased bean fly infestation by 12-66%. Phosphorus served as catalyst for nitrogen assimilation. The fertilized plants were more succulent, tender and had more nutrients and therefore offered better conditions for bean fly penetration into bean stems, fecundity and development. However, the infested plants in fertilized soils were able to compensate for the damage caused to them and grew quickly to pass the critical stages. Thus the bean fly infestation had little effect on grain yield. The effect of bean fly infestation on yield when no nitrogen and phosphorus were applied, was a 48% reduction in yield, Therefore, the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers reduced the effect of bean fly damage and increased grain yield. Inter cropping increased bean fly infestation compared to pure stands of beans. The micro climatic conditions (light intensity, temperature and relative humidity) created by inter cropping of beans with maize increased bean fly infestation compared to that in the bean mono crop. Weeding regimes had no effect on bean fly infestation, however weed-free, and weeding three weeks after plant emergence, provided better grain yield. Plant spacing studies showed an increase of bean fly infestation in wider spacings. The optimal plant density of 222,222/ha (30x15 cm) seemed to give the least bean fly infestation and a high grain yield. Early planting with the first rains reduced bean fly infestation and gave better grain yield. Two species of bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon and O. spencerella Greathead, were identified in Oyugis, where O. Spencerella was more predominant. Parasitoids regulated bean fly population in nature. Six species of parasitoids were identified, with Opius phaseoli being the dominant species. They were host density-dependent and reduced bean fly population by 14-24%, The experimental results indicate that the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, mono cropping system, optimal plant density of 222,222 plants/ha and early planting time were good cultural practices that can form a part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy to reduce bean fly infestation with consequent increase in bean production. (au)

  4. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  5. The Distribution of Culex spp (Diptera: Culicidae in Selected Endemic Lymphatic Filariasis Villages in Bandung District West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Data entomologis terkait aspek bionomik dan distribusi nyamuk vektor lymphatic filariasis di Kabupaten Bandung masih sangat sedikit meskipun kabupaten ini sudah mengimplementasikan POPM Filariasis dari tahun 2009. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengindentifikasi spesies nyamuk potensial penular lymphatic filariasis dan habitatnya di wilayah endemis filariasis yaitu Kecamatan Majalaya, Kabupaten Bandung. Survei dilaksanakan selama 2 bulan yaitu September – Oktober 2013 di dua desa Kecamatan Majalaya. Kegiatannya adalah pencidukan larva (termasuk plotting habitat, salinitas, temperatur air, pH, penangkapan nyamuk dewasa menggunakan metode human landing (dalam dan luar rumah serta resting (dinding rumah dan kandang ternak. Hasil penangkapan nyamuk memperoleh enam spesies yang berhasil diidentifikasi. Culex quinquefasciatus dan Cx. tritaeniorhynchus adalah nyamuk yang dominan tertangkap dengan puncak gigitan antara jam 21.00-01.00 WIB. Terdapat lima tempat perkembangbiakan potensial yang teramati disekitar desa tersebut yang terdiri dari kolam ikan yang terbengkalai dan persawahan dengan salinitas 0‰, temperatur air 28,5-29°C, pH 6-7. Meskipun MHD dan MBR vektor filariasis yaitu Cx. quinquefasciatus di wilayah tersebut relatif rendah, penularan masih dapat terjadi karena didukung dengan kondisi lingkungan dan keberadaan nyamuk vektor tersebut di wilayah iniKata kunci: lymphatic filariasis; tempat perkembangbiakan; Cx. quinquefasciatus; kepadatan, BandungAbstract. Bandung district has been implemented mass drug administration (MDA program since 2009, but little is known about entomological data especially about bionomic aspects and distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF mosquito vectors. This study was aimed to identify potential LF mosquito species and its potential breeding sites in two LF endemic villages in Majalaya, Bandung district. The observational study was conducted in September-October 2013. Mosquito larvae were collected by a scoop and adult mosquitos were captured through indoor-outdoor human-landing and resting collection to identify species diversity and density. Six species filariasis mosquito vectors were identified. The primary LF vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were found as dominant species with peak landing time between 9 p.m. – 1 a.m. Five potential breeding sites was identified near to villages including neglected fish-pool and paddy field with salinity 0‰, water temperature 28.5-29°C, pH 6-7. The Man-Hour Density (MHD and Man-Biting Rate (MBR of Cx. quinquefasciatus was relatively low, however, transmission may potentially occur due to their existence and the availability of favorable environmental conditions across the villages.Keywords: lymphatic filariasis; breeding site; Cx. quinquefasciatus; man-biting density, Bandung

  6. Assessment of PCR in the detection of Leishmania spp in experimentally infected individual phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHALSKY Érika M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in the investigation of the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasites in single phlebotomine sandflies. Three phlebotomine/parasite pairs were used: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania amazonensis and Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, all of them incriminated in the transmission of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA extraction was performed with whole insects, with no need of previous digestive tract dissection or pooling specimens. The presence of either mouse blood in the digestive tract of the sandflies or the digestive tract itself did not interfere in the PCR. Infection by as few as 10 Leishmania sp. per individual were sufficient for DNA amplification with genus-specific primers. Using primers for L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes, respectively, it was possible to discriminate between L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in experimentally infected vectors (L. migonei.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  8. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. in keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; de la Fuente, José; Biró, Nóra; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Meli, Marina L; Elek, Vilmos; Gönczi, Eniko; Meili, Theres; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. DNA was extracted individually or in pools. Anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living deer keds. Rickettsia helvetica or other, unidentified rickettsiae were also present in one pool of sheep keds, and in four pools of deer keds from both red deer and roe deer. This is the first account of polymerase chain reaction positivity of hippoboscid flies for A. ovis and rickettsiae. These results raise the possibility that-apart from cattle and roe deer as already reported-sheep and red deer might also play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of rickettsioses.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  12. Molecular screening of Leishmania spp. infection and bloodmeals in sandflies from a leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaku Ş, M; Pekağ Irba Ş, M; Demir, S; Eren, H; Töz, S; Özbel, Y

    2017-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages. Among all Phlebotomus specimens, Phlebotomus neglectus (39%) was noted as the most abundant species, followed by Phlebotomus tobbi (18%). Leishmania DNA was detected in pools from P. neglectus, P. tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata by kDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Leishmania DNA from Phlebotomus specimens was identified as L. infantum, but Leishmania DNA from Sergentomyia spp. could not be identified to species level by ITS-1 real-time PCR. The detection of Leishmania DNA in wild-caught P. neglectus and the high percentage (24.2%) of human DNA in engorged specimens suggests that P. neglectus is probably an important vector species for L. infantum in Aydın province. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  14. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  15. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  16. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  17. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  18. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  19. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  1. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  5. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  6. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  7. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  8. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  9. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human urine and chicken feces as fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attractants for resource-poor fruit growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime; Aluja, Martín; Vázquez, Alejandro; Equihua, Miguel; Varón, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated human urine and chicken feces, two naturally occurring, inexpensive, and readily available substances, as baits for the capture of Anostrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) by using glass McPhail traps. Two studies were performed simultaneously in a commercial mango orchard in Veracruz, México. In the first study, we compared a 50% water dilution of human urine against hydrolyzed protein, both compounds at the fresh and 5-d-old stages, and water alone (control treatment). In the second study, we tested fresh chicken feces mixed with water, a torula yeast/borax solution at three different ages (1-4, 5-9, and 10-15 d), and water (control treatment). Both human urine and chicken feces were attractive to Anastrepha adults compared with water alone, but attracted two and three times fewer adults than hydrolyzed protein and torula yeast/borax, respectively. However, unlike torula yeast/borax, aging of human urine did not decrease its attractiveness. Five-day old human urine attracted numerically more A. serpentina females than males, similar numbers of A. obliqua males and females, and significantly more sexually immature A. obliqua females than mature ones. Chicken feces proved to be as attractive as the aged torula yeast/borax treatments for A. obliqua and A. serpentina. We argue that because both human urine and chicken feces are cost-free and can be easily obtained, they are viable, low-technology alternatives to costly commercial attractants, particularly for low-income growers or backyard farmers in Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  11. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  12. Endophagy of biting midges attacking cavity-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, J; Synek, P; Svobodová, M

    2009-09-01

    Feeding behaviour, host preferences and the spectrum of available hosts determine the role of vectors in pathogen transmission. Feeding preferences of blood-feeding Diptera depend on, among others factors, the willingness of flies to attack their hosts either in the open (exophagy) or in enclosed places (endophagy). As far as ornithophilic blood-feeding Diptera are concerned, the biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are generally considered to be strictly exophagous. We determined which blood-sucking Diptera enter nest cavities and feed on birds by placing sticky foil traps inside artificial nest boxes. A total of 667 females of eight species of biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Latreille, 1809) were captured on traps during 2006-2007, with Culicoides truncorum (Edwards, 1939) being the dominant species. DNA blood analyses of blood-engorged females proved that midges actually fed on birds nesting in the boxes. Three species were identified as endophagous: Culicoides truncorum, Culicoides pictipennis (Staeger, 1839), and Culicoides minutissimus (Zetterstedt, 1855). Our study represents the first evidence that ornithophilic biting midges are endophagous. The fact that we caught no blackflies in the bird boxes supports the exophagy of blackflies. We believe that our findings are important for surveillance programmes focusing on Diptera that transmit various bird pathogens.

  13. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  15. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  16. A mathematical model applied for assisting the estimation of PMI in a case of forensic importance. First record of Conicera similis (Diptera: Phoridae) in a corpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, A M; Martínez-Sánchez, A; López, R; García de la Vega, J M; Rica, M; González, M; Disney, R H L

    2013-09-10

    We present a forensic case associated with skeletonized human remains found inside a cistern in a coastal town located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencian Regional Government, Spain). In order to analyse the particular environmental conditions that occurred during oviposition and development of the collected insects, estimated temperatures at the crime scene were calculated by a predictive mathematical model. This model analyses the correlation between the variability of the internal temperature depending on the variability of the external ones. The amplitude of the temperature oscillations inside the tank and the containment of the enclosure is reduced by the presence of water. Such variation occurred within about 2h due to the time required for heat exchange. The differential equations employed to model differences between outdoor and indoor temperatures were an essential tool which let us estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) that was carried out by the study of the insect succession and the development time of the collected Diptera specimens under the adjusted temperatures. The presence of live larvae and pupae of Sarcophagidae and empty pupae of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Piophilidae and the decomposition stage suggested the possibility that the remains were in the tank at least a year. We highlight the absence of Calliphora and Lucilia spp., and the first occurrence of the phorid Conicera similis in a human cadaver among the entomological evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal Distribution of Blowflies of Forensic Importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae, in Man-Size Domestic Pigs Carcasses, in the Forest Reserve Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the must forensic importance insect families is Calliphoridae (Diptera and different species of this family were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the experimental model used in this study. The experiments were performed with domestic pig models (approximately 60 kg in Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas. To minimize the effect of repeated samplings in the same model (a result of pseudoreplication, two models were used to answer two questions: 1 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae adults? 2 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae that effectively colonized the carcass? Six pseudoreplicates were studied in three periods: from 06/30/2005 to 07/30/2005 (less rainy season, from 10/18/2005 to 11/17/2005 (transition period between the two seasons and from 03/15/2006 to 04/14/2006 (rainy season. The immatures and adults collected were identified as forensic indicators. The decomposition process presented five stages (fresh, bloated, decay, adipocere-like and skeletonization. The first four days included the first three stages of decomposition and were the most attractive to the Calliphoridae. The three taxa that were most abundant, regular and with highest peaks in the first four samples of each experiment were, in ascending order: Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e Paralucilia spp.. Linear regressions showed low values of F and high values of P, indicating that rain did not influence the sampling results.

  18. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  19. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  20. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  1. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  2. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  4. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  5. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  6. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  7. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  8. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  10. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  11. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  13. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  15. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  16. Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie galhadora (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada com Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae Clinodiplosis costai, a new galler species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. Maia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera que induz galhas em folhas jovens de Paullinia weinmanniaefolia é descrita (larva, macho e fêmea com base em material do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil.Clinodiplosis costai, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induces galls on young leaves of Paullinia weinmanniaefolia is described (larva, male and female based on material from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil.

  17. Um novo gênero e espécie de Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cedidomyiidae associados com Piperaceae no Brasil A new genus and species of Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Piperaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, um novo gênero e espécie galhadora associada com Piper sp. (Piperaceae é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material obtido em Minas Gerais, Brasil.Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, a new gall maker genus and species associated with Piper sp. (Piperaceae is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male and female based on material obtained from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  18. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from Armenia, with description of Campsicnemus armeniacus sp.n.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Negrobov, O. P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Oboňa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-75 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Dolichopodidae * distributions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  19. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  1. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  2. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  3. Deteksi Keberadaan Phytophthora Spp. Di Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2014-01-01

    The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...

  4. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  5. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  6. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  7. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  8. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  10. New records of diptera families Anisopodidae, Bibionidae, Dixidae, Ptychopteridae and Scatopsidae from Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Dvořák, L.; Haenni, J.-P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-67 ISSN 0341-8391 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspots * Armenia * Diptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2016 http://pfeil-verlag.de/publikationen/spixiana-zeitschrift-fuer-zoologie-band-40/

  11. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  12. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  13. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  14. Records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Armenia, with the first Armenian checklist of these families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Starý, J.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 585 (2016), s. 125-142 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Limoniidae * Pediciidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8330

  15. Thalassomya gutae sp. n., a new marine chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Caroline Silva Neubern; Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Thalassomya Schiner, 1856 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae), T. gutae sp. n. is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The specimen was collected in the marine zone between tidemarks, in southeastern Brazilian coast and is the first species of this genus recorded to Brazil.

  16. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  17. Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the paramo ecosystems in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Augusto L; Ricarte, Antonio; Wolff, Marta

    2017-03-20

    Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae), Quichuana citara Montoya & Wolff sp. n. and Quichuana nigropilosa Montoya & Ricarte sp. n. are described from highlands of the Colombian Andes. Images of type material, including drawings of male genitalia are provided. An adjustment for the latest identification key for the Quichuana species and distribution maps for those species occurring in Colombia are given.

  18. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...

  19. Psychoda surcoufi, een motmug van compost, nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.

    2009-01-01

    Psychoda surcoufi, a mothfly of compost, new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Psychodidae) Psychoda surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 is reported as a new species for the Dutch checklist. Adults were collected in large numbers in a compost barrel from late February until April 2009, together with P. albipennis

  20. Systematics and phylogeny of Centrioncidae, a new afromontane family of Diptera (Schizophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus

  1. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  2. Attraction of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephitidae) to white light in the presence and absence of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of tephritid fruit flies to light and its role in fly biology and management has received little attention. Here, the objective was to show that western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is attracted to white light in the presence and absence of ammo...

  3. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-04-15

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea.

  4. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  5. Primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vasconcelos

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. This work makes reference to the first record of Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae found in carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L. in a residential yard located in the county of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The emerged flies were preserved in flasks containing 70% alcohol and identified by the characteristics of the anterior left leg and the male’s genitalia.

  6. First record of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Resumo. Registra-se pela primeira vez a presença de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre, Brasil, a partir de frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e de caramboleira (Averrhoacarambola L., aumentando o conhecimento dos registros geográficos dessa mosca na Amazônia brasileira.

  7. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  8. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae) parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  9. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  10. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  11. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  12. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  13. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO DEVOTO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate forests of southern South America in ten sites along an east-west rainfall gradient (37-40°S on the eastern slope of the Andes. We recorded nine species of Trichophthalma, which showed an overlapped distribution along the gradient and different degrees of floral specificity. Three species are reported for Argentina for the first time and three are first recorded as flower visitors to the local flora. Our results show that while in southern Africa tangle-veined flies are engaged in highly specialized pollination interactions with long-tubed species, the Trichophthalma spp. of Patagonia share their flowers with a diverse and rather unspecialized visitor fauna among which several species of flies, bees and birds are presentLos nemestrínidos constituyen una familia de Dípteros primitiva y de amplia distribución. El género Trichophthalma se encuentra en Australia y Sudamérica y es el único en la familia con una distribución disjunta típicamente gondwánica. La ecología y distribución de la mayoría de las especies sudamericanas permanecen virtualmente desconocidas. Estudiamos la diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de las especies del género Trichophthalma de los bosques templados del sur de Sudamérica en diez sitios ubicados a lo largo de un gradiente de precipitación este-oeste (37-40°S sobre la vertiente occidental de los Andes. Registramos nueve especies de Trichophthalma, las cuales mostraron una distribución superpuesta a lo largo

  14. [Amblyomma spp. case related to overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.

  15. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  16. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  17. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  19. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  20. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  1. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

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    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  2. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  4. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA E FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM BELMONTE, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÍRIAN DA SILVA SANTOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a mixed orchard in the municipality of Belmonte, in the southernmost region of Bahia and it aimed at characterizing the fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae population using faunistic analysis and studying its population fluctuation. The study was conducted from August 2007 to August 2009. Fruit fly captures were carried out using McPhail traps baited with protein hydrolisate at 5%. Weekly, the captured insects found in traps were transferred to plastic vials, one vial per trap, filled with 70% ethanol and taken to the laboratory for identification. A total of 9,709 fruit flies was captured, out of which 9,477 specimens were Anastrepha (5,908 females and 3,569 males and 232 specimens were Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (201 females and 31 males. Nine species of Anastrepha were recorded: Anastrepha bahiensis (Lima (2.59%, Anastrepha distincta (Greene (2.71%, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (59.37%, Anastrepha leptozona (Hendel (0.02%, Anastrepha manihoti (Lima (0.02%, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (2.98%, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann (0.07%, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (29.14%, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (0.22%, and C. capitata (2.88%. Anastrepha fraterculus and A. sororcula were the dominant species and only A. fraterculus was constant on the orchard. The values of the Simpson (0.51 and of Shannon (01.35 indices were intermediate and the modified Hill index was 0.49, indicating a medium diversity. The high est capturevalues of Anastrepha spp. occurred from July to December 2008, with a population peak in September.

  5. Diagnostic doses and times for Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Creswell, Joseph A; Anderson, J Laine; Reese, Conor K; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2016-04-15

    Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. Bioassays were conducted in 1,000-ml glass bottles each containing 10-25 sand flies from laboratory colonies of L. longipalpis or P. papatasi. Four pyrethroids, three organophosphates, two carbamates and one organochlorine, were evaluated. A series of concentrations were tested for each insecticide, and four replicates were conducted for each concentration. Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. For the pyrethroids and DDT, diagnostic doses were determined for both the exposure bioassay and after a 24-hour recovery period. Both species are highly susceptible to the carbamates as their diagnostic doses are under 7.0 μg/ml. Both species are also highly susceptible to DDT during the exposure assay as their diagnostic doses are 7.5 μg/ml, yet their diagnostic doses for the 24-h recovery period are 650.0 μg/ml for Lu. longipalpis and 470.0 μg/ml for P. papatasi. Diagnostic doses and diagnostic times can now be incorporated into vector management programs that use the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Lu. longipalpis and P. papatasi. These findings provide initial starting points for determining diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for other sand fly vector species and wild populations using the CDC

  6. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  7. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  8. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  10. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  13. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  14. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  15. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  16. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  17. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  18. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  19. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...

  20. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  1. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  2. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  3. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  4. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  5. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  6. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  7. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  8. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  9. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  10. Radiosensitization of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine). The only technology available commercially is ionizing radiation; however, the actual radiation dose required to inactivate pathogens is too high to be tolerated by the product without unwanted changes. This study shows a new approach in using MAP with 100% O(2), which is converted to ozone to radiosensitize

  11. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  12. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  13. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  15. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  16. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  17. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  18. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  19. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  20. Age estimation of Calliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, H E; Butcher, J B; Adam, C D; Day, C R; Falko, P D

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1 day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occ...

  1. [Means of the formation of gonotrophic relations in blood-sucking Diptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarina, N A

    1987-01-01

    Gonotrophic relations in low and higher bloodsucking Diptera are fundamentally different that results from an initial type of feeding and trophic behaviour. Trophic behaviour of low dipterous hematophages and gonotrophic harmony peculiar to them can be traced from entomophagy, that is from the predatory mode of life on account of small insects. By the type of the trophic behaviour low bloodsucking Diptera are predators with a typical moment contact with the prey. More primitive is a type of gonotrophic harmony characteristic of hunters for diffusely spread prey (incomplete blood portion provides the maturation of incomplete portion of eggs). Hunting for diffusely spread prey is characteristic of entomophages too. The appearance of gregarious ruminants facilitates the possibility of repeated contacts with prey and blood satiation threshold increases. This is a higher type of gonotrophic harmony providing a maximum realization of potential fecundity. The initial saprophagy of higher Diptera is associated with another type of trophic behaviour (long contact with food substratum) that is a prerequisite for quite a different way of evolution of host-parasite relationships in higher Diptera. This leads to more close connections with the host and excludes gonotrophic harmony. Females were the first to begin the exploitation of vertebrate animals. This is connected with the peculiarities of their behaviour during egg laying such as the stay near animals for laying eggs into fresh dung. Autogeneity, nectarophagy and aphagia are homologous phenomena which reflect the loss of an animal component of food or both components at the level of non-specialized saprophagy rather than secondary loss of bloodsucking. The scheme of gonotrophic relations is given.

  2. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  3. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  4. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu

    2006-01-01

    is eliminated in larvae carrying mutations in molting defective (mld), a gene encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein that is required for production of ecdysone during Drosophila larval development. Intriguingly, mld is not present in the Bombyx mori genome, and we have identified only one spook homolog in both...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  5. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  6. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  7. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the r...

  8. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  9. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  10. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  11. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  12. Passage of ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae through the midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    When virus and microfilariae are ingested concurrently by a mosquito, microfilariae (mf) may penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus directly into the mosquito hemocoel, allowing mosquitoes to become infectious much sooner than normal and enhancing transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M. ozzardi and dengue are sympatric, we wanted to know whether M. ozzardi mf had the ability to penetrate the midgut of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and thus play a potential role in the enhancement of dengue transmission. To test this, the F1 progeny from locally collected Ae. aegypti were fed on M. ozzardi-infected human males in an endemic village in northern Trinidad. Mosquitoes were dissected at various times after feeding and examined for mf in the midguts and thoraces. Microfilariae penetrated the midguts of 43% of 63 mosquitoes that ingested mf. Overall, 11% of mf penetrated the midgut by 17 h after being ingested. The intensity of midgut penetration was positively correlated to the numbers of mf ingested. Because midgut penetration is a key requirement for mf enhancement to occur, the potential exists that M. ozzardi could be involved in the enhancement of dengue virus transmission.

  13. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  14. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  16. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  18. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  19. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  20. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  3. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  4. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  5. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  6. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

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    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  7. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  8. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  9. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  10. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Direni Mancini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06% followed by Forcipomyia (26.94% and Atrichopogon (13.61%. Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%, while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  11. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  13. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks infesting cats: a large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.

  15. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  16. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  17. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  18. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  19. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  20. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  2. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  3. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  4. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  5. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  6. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  7. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se......The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology...

  9. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  10. [Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus: case report on an uncommon pathogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos

    2008-01-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.

  11. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  12. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  13. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  15. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  16. Effects of seasonality and resource limitation on organic matter turnover by Chironomidae (Diptera) in southern Appalachian headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Romito; Susan Eggert; Jeffrey Diez; J. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilation efficiency (AE),...

  17. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  18. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  19. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    All flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 X 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,348 species. These amount to more than half the number...

  20. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  1. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  2. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  3. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  4. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  5. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  6. Attraction, oviposition preferences, and olfactory responses of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to various host-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh market sweet corn produced in Florida is threatened by larval damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew, E. eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition and attraction bioassays were desig...

  7. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  8. Low-dose irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging for mango against the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...

  9. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  11. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  12. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  13. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  14. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... The reason was that there might be a certain maternal-specific marker just on one homologous chromosome, while the other one without this marker, among the highly heterozygous genome of Saccharum spp., and that the recombination of genes and chromosome happened in the period of meiosis might ...

  15. Susceptibility Breakpoint for Enrofloxacin against Swine Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134

  16. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  17. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  19. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  20. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  1. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  2. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  3. Taxonomic variation in oviposition by tailed frogs (Aschaphus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...

  4. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium. We observed that they were present in both seasons. The phylogenetic tree revealed that our isolated Azotobacter spp. was distantly related ...

  5. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  6. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  7. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  8. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  9. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  11. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  12. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  13. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  14. Identification and characterisation of Thiobacilli spp. from Chaliyar Estuary - Malabar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, O.; Kumaran, S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Thiobacilli spp. occurring in surface and bottom water and sediment from seven stations in the Chaliyar Estuary, for a period of one year, were isolated and cultured. A total of 231 sample of water and sediments were analysed of which 77 gave...

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  17. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Araujo, Elton L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Vegetais

    2009-01-15

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  19. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G.; Araujo, Elton L.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  20. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.

    1990-01-01

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  1. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  2. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Filho, Adalberto Alves; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2018-02-20

    Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected in peridomiciliary areas on the tourist route from September 2012 to August 2013. The captured females were subjected to molecular analyses for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Sand flies were infected with four Leishmania species: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) was found in Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho, 1939) (2.1%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (1.7%); Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Nicole, 1908) infected Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw, and Lainson, 1971) (20%), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon and Del Ponte, 1927) (4.3%), Lu. longipalpis (3.7%), and Lu. whitmani (0.8%); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Lainson & Shaw, 1972) was found in Lu. whitmani (0.58%), while Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni infected Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936) (3.4%), Lu. longipalpis (1.06%), and Lu. whitmani (0.29%). The occurrence of these parasites requires control measures to reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to contain a possible epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease.

  3. Single and concomitant experimental infectionsby Endotrypanum spp. and Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in the Neotropical sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis females received single and mixed infections with Endotrypanum and Leishmania. Two biological parameters were analyzed: the percentage of infected females and the distribution of flagellates in the gut of the females. The principal comparisons were performed between (1 two strains of Endotrypanum, (2 cloned versus primary sample of one strain of Endotrypanum, (3 Endotrypanum versus Leishmania guyanensis, and (4 the pattern of flagellates behaviour by optical microscopy in females with single or mixed infection versus the identification of parasites isolated from digestive tracts by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Flagellates of Endotrypanum showed distinct patterns of infection suggesting that there is variation between and within strains. The distribution of Endotrypanum and L. guyanensis differed significantly in relation to the colonization of the stomodeal valve. In co-infection with L. guyanensis, a large number of flagellates were seen to be plentifully infecting the stomodeal valve in significantly more specimens than in females infected by Endotrypanum only. However, the electrophoretic profiles of isoenzymes of parasites recovered from all co-infected specimens corresponded to Endotrypanum. This suggests that the mere correlation sand fly infection-biochemical analysis of isolates may induce parasitological incorrect consideration.

  4. Identificación de Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) grupo verrucarum por medio de microscopia electrónica de sus huevos

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra A, Diana; Vélez B, Iván Darío; Uribe S, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    En Colombia la microscopia electrónica de huevos de phlebotomineos para determinación de especies es nueva. Debido a la diversidad de especies e importancia médica del grupo verrucarum se estudiaron cuatro de estas especies: Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana y Lutzomyia longiflocosa. El modelo de superficie del huevo es poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi y Lutzomyia columbiana exhibieron un modelo pentagonal o hexagonal, Lutzomyia evansi polígonos elongados y Lutzomyia longifl...

  5. Identificación de Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae grupo verrucarum por medio de microscopia electrónica de sus huevos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sierra A

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la microscopia electrónica de huevos de phlebotomineos para determinación de especies es nueva. Debido a la diversidad de especies e importancia médica del grupo verrucarum se estudiaron cuatro de estas especies: Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana y Lutzomyia longiflocosa. El modelo de superficie del huevo es poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi y Lutzomyia columbiana exhibieron un modelo pentagonal o hexagonal, Lutzomyia evansi polígonos elongados y Lutzomyia longiflocosa un modelo poligonal frecuentemente rectangular. La microscopia electrónica de huevos es confiable para identificar especies del grupo verrucarum.The value of Colombian phlebotomine eggs for species determination was studied with a scanning electron microscope. The species diversity and medical importance of the verrucarum group were the bases to select Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana and Lutzomyia longiflocosa. The egg surface was poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi, and Lutzomyia columbiana had pentagonal or hexagonal patterns; Lutzomyia evansi elongated polygons and Lutzomyia longiflocosa irregular polygonal sculpturing, frequently rectangular. Egg scanning electron microscopy is reliable to identify species of the verrucarum group.

  6. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  7. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  8. Second Supplement to A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    104. Brunhes, J. 1977a. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores I. - Inventaire, &partition et description de quatre esptces ou sous-espscies...nouvelles. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 15:131-152. Brunhes, J. 1977b. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores 11. - Description de...Dieng. 1978. Aedes (Stegomyia) neoafricanus un nouvelle espzcie de moustique capture’e au Sgne’gal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae), Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M

  9. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  10. Gastric and intestinal myiasis due to Ornidia obesa (Diptera: Syrphidae in humans. First report in colombia

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    Gustavo López V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasis are parasitic infestations of animals and humans tissues and is caused by fly larvae. This kind of infestation has Public Health importance. In the Colombian biomedical literature the reports about myiasis in humans are scarce. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with gastrointestinal myiasis where the etiologic agents involved were Ornidia obesa and Ornidia sp (Diptera: Syrphidae. The taxonomic identification of the larvae was done at the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine and taxonomic confirmation was done at the laboratory of medicine veterinary and Zoology of Sao Pablo University. These two cases of myiasis are of first report in Colombia

  11. Bioefficacy of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidea) From Sarawak, Malaysia: A Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-28

    The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.

  12. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  13. Protomedetera, a new genus from the Oriental and Australasian realms (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Medeterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chufei; Grootaert, Patrick; Yang, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Protomedetera gen. n. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new genus of the subfamily Medeterinae, is described from the Oriental and Australasian realms based on four new species. Protomedetera singaporensis Grootaert & Tang, sp. n. is designated as type of the new genus. The genus is peculiar because of the small body size, the small globular first flagellomere (postpedicel), the simple male genitalia with indistinct or small epandrial lobe and half-hidden cercus. The following four new species are described and illustrated: P. biconvexa sp. n. , P. biseta sp. n. , P. glabra sp. n. , and P. singaporensis sp. n. A key to the species of the new genus is provided.

  14. Fecundity and life table of different morphotypes of Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Kumar, V; Ranjan, A; Das, P

    2011-10-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have shown some morphological variations in India and its subcontinents. The variable egg laying capacity was found in different morphotypes of P. argentipes with maximum in type III followed by type I and II. The fecundity was enhanced by providing 25% glucose soaked filter paper surface in all types. However, significant increase was found in type-I (P < 0.05). The differences in fecundity indicate the biological variations among P. argentipes population. The findings will be helpful in searching out the sibling species among P. argentipes population.

  15. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  16. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

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    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  17. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291 ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant - others:Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Diptera, Muscidae, Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder: Primeiro Registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder, is a muscid fly with records from Colombia and Brazil (Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions. In a survey of Diptera saprophagous in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, with animal organic bait were collected 46 specimens of C. maculosa. This is the first record of the species to Bahia and Northeastern of Brazil. The forensic importance and the anthropized status of C. maculosa have not been detached in the specialized literature and new studies should be improved to corroborate these conditions.

  19. First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    PATRICIA J THYSSEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification

  20. Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae

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    Ramon Luciano Mello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae. The Neotropical genera Stenopyrgota Malloch, 1929 and Tropidothrinax Enderlein, 1942 are reviewed. The genus Stenopyrgota is composed by the species S. mexicana Malloch, 1929 and S. crassitibia Aczél, 1956. The monotypic genus Tropidothrinax is composed by the species T. boliviensis Enderlein, 1942. The species of Stenopyrgota and Tropidothrinax are redescribed and illustrations of the main taxonomic characters are given. Illustrations of the type material of the species covered by this paper are presented for the first time.

  1. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  2. Report of Sphenochernes camponoti (Beier, 1970 (Pseudoscorpiones, Chernetidae in phoresy on Fanniidae (Diptera

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    André Felipe de Araujo Lira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoresy is a common dispersal behavior among pseudoscorpions. Neotropical pseudoscorpions, mainly from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, are known for their dispersal relationships with beetles and flies. Here, we report phoretic association among nymphs of Sphenochernes camponoti (Chernetidae and Fannia flies (F. pusio, F. yenhedi, and F. canicularis (Diptera, Fanniidae. Twelve flies, each carrying a young pseudoscorpion, were collected in Caatinga vegetation in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Sphenochernes camponoti is a myrmecophilous pseudoscorpion that lives in Camponotus and Acromyrmex colonies. Despite its association with ants, this pseudoscorpion uses other winged arthropods to disperse. This is the first report of phoresy by Sphenochernes camponoti.

  3. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai and Lutzomyia sallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Quaresma, Patrícia F; Lima, Ana C V M R; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2009-09-01

    Natural infections with Leishmania were found in females of the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Nyssomyia neivai) and Lutzomyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho) (= Evandromyia sallesi) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lassance, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Promastigotes were found in the pyloric region of the former species and in the abdominal midgut of the latter species. Insects found to be infected by microscopic examination were macerated in saline solution and inoculated into hamsters. Subsequent analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed both isolates to belong to the species Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas.

  4. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  5. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.

  6. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit rift valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Wilson, William C; Bennett, Kristine E

    2010-09-01

    To determine which arthropods should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Aedes dorsalis (Wiedemann), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones from the western, midwestern, and southern United States for their ability to transmit RVFV. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV, after which engorged mosquitoes were incubated for 7-21 d at 260C, then allowed to refeed on susceptible hamsters, and tested to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Other specimens were inoculated intrathoracically, held for 7 d, and then allowed to feed on a susceptible hamster to check for a salivary gland barrier. When exposed to hamsters with viremias > or =10(8.8) plaque-forming units/ml blood, Cx. tarsalis transmitted RVFV efficiently (infection rate = 93%, dissemination rate = 56%, and estimated transmission rate = 52%). In contrast, when exposed to the same virus dose, none of the other species tested transmitted RVFV efficiently. Estimated transmission rates for Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, and Ae. dorsalis were 10, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively, and for the remaining species were feeding preference, longevity, and foraging behavior should be considered when determining the potential role that these species could play in RVFV transmission.

  7. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  8. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

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    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  9. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  10. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  11. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  12. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

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    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  13. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  14. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  15. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Comparing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and grapevine (Vitis spp.) metabolic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) can negatively impact both herbaceous annual and woody perennial hosts. RKN infestations also may increase plant host susceptibility to other stresses such as those imposed by water deficits or various diseases. However, little is known about direct or ind...

  17. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  18. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  19. Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

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    Tryness Anastazia Mhone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.

  20. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.