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Sample records for cued recall test

  1. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...

  2. What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Pashler, Harold; Vul, Edward

    2006-10-01

    In two experiments, we investigated what types of learning benefit from a cued recall test. After initial exposure to a word pair (A+B), subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test (A-->?) with feedback, or a restudy presentation (A-->B). The final test could be cued recall in the same (A-->?) or opposite (?-->B) direction, or free recall of just the cues (Recall As) or just the targets (Recall Bs). All final tests revealed a benefit for testing as opposed to restudying. Tests produced a direct benefit for information that was retrieved on the intervening test (B). This benefit also "spilled over" to facilitate recall of information that was present on the test but not retrieved (A). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Comparison of the neural correlates of retrieval success in tests of cued recall and recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kayoko; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural correlates of successful retrieval on tests of word stem recall and recognition memory were compared. In the recall test, subjects viewed word stems, half of which were associated with studied items and half with unstudied items, and for each stem attempted to recall a corresponding study word. In the recognition test, old/new judgments were made on old and new words. The neural correlates of successful retrieval were identified by contrasting activity elicited by correctly endorsed test items. Old > new effects common to the two tasks were found in medial and lateral parietal, and right entorhinal cortex. Common new > old effects were identified in medial and left frontal cortex, and left anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Greater old > new effects were evident for cued recall in inferior parietal regions abutting those demonstrating common effects, whereas larger new > old effects were found for recall in left frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. New > old effects were also found for the recall task in right lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, where they were accompanied by old > new effects during recognition. It is concluded that successful recall and recognition are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of recollection-sensitive parietal regions, and that the greater activation in these regions during recall reflects the greater dependence of that task on recollection. Larger new > old effects during recall are interpreted as reflections of the greater opportunity for iterative retrieval attempts when retrieval cues are partial rather than copy cues. PMID:21455941

  4. Structure of Enhanced Cued Recall Task in the 7 Minute Screen Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Simon, Sara; Ladera-Fernandez, Valentina; Garcia-Garcia, Ricardo; Patino-Alonso, María C; Perea-Bartolome, M Victoria; Unzueta-Arce, Jaime; Perez-Arechaederra, Diana; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory in the 7 Minute Screen is assessed by the Enhanced Cued Recall (ECR) test. The ECR test is composed of three phases, Identification, Immediate Recall, and Free and Cued Recall. However, just the last phase is considered for the total score. We believe that collecting the performance data of the Identification and Immediate Recall phases could provide information regarding possible difficulties or impairments in the different aspects involved in the temporal mnesic process of acquisition of new information, such as in working memory or visual identification. The objective was to assess the goodness of fit for the three phases of the ECR test using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to show if each phase is separated from each other as a different aspect that participates in the mnesic process. A total of 311 participants greater than 65 years were included in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each individual phase. The analyses show that the ECR test consists of three separate phases that identify different steps of the mnesic process. Individual scores for each phase could allow for investigation of patient performance in different aspects of the memory process and could help in further neuropsychological assessment.

  5. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  6. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease: discriminative validity and correlation with semantic memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Mortensen, E L; Gade, A; Waldemar, G

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score >22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS-cog memory test was equivalent in very mild AD. This may be because CCR did not tap more semantic processes, which are impaired in the earliest phases of AD, than a test of free recall.

  7. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  8. Aging and strategic retrieval in a cued-recall test: the role of executive functions and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-06-01

    Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was provided to recall the words. An individual index of loss of performance when the number of cues was decreased was then calculated. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the executive functions measure (perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was a better candidate than the fluid intelligence measure (Cattell's culture fair test) to account for the age-related variance of the size of performance loss. These findings suggest that age differences in implementing strategic retrieval may be mainly due to a decline in executive functions.

  9. Assessment of free and cued recall in Alzheimer's disease and vascular and frontotemporal dementia with 24-item Grober and Buschke test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Milena; Isella, Valeria; Proserpi, Alice; Papagno, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the most common forms of dementia. It is well known that memory deficits in AD are different from those in VaD and FTD, especially with respect to cued recall. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the memory performance in 15 AD, 10 VaD and 9 FTD patients and 20 normal controls by means of a 24-item Grober-Buschke test [8]. The patients' groups were comparable in terms of severity of dementia. We considered free and total recall (free plus cued) both in immediate and delayed recall and computed an Index of Sensitivity to Cueing (ISC) [8] for immediate and delayed trials. We assessed whether cued recall predicted the subsequent free recall across our patients' groups. We found that AD patients recalled fewer items from the beginning and were less sensitive to cueing supporting the hypothesis that memory disorders in AD depend on encoding and storage deficit. In immediate recall VaD and FTD showed a similar memory performance and a stronger sensitivity to cueing than AD, suggesting that memory disorders in these patients are due to a difficulty in spontaneously implementing efficient retrieval strategies. However, we found a lower ISC in the delayed recall compared to the immediate trials in VaD than FTD due to a higher forgetting in VaD.

  10. Aging and Strategic Retrieval in a Cued-Recall Test: The Role of Executive Functions and Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was…

  11. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Priming guesses on a forced-recall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Janet M; Meade, Michelle L

    2004-07-01

    The forced-recall paradigm requires participants to fill all spaces on the memory test even if they cannot remember all the list words. In the present study, the authors used that paradigm to examine the influence of implicit memory on guessing--when participants fill remaining spaces after they cannot remember list items. They measured explicit memory as the percentage of targets that participants designated as remembered from the list and implicit memory as the percentage of targets they wrote but did not designate as remembered (beyond chance level). The authors examined implicit memory on guessing with forced recall (Experiment 1), forced cued recall with younger and older adults (Experiment 2), and forced free and cued recall under a depth-of-processing manipulation (Experiment 3). They conclude that implicit memory influences guesses of targets in the forced-recall paradigm.

  13. Biomarker validation of a cued recall memory deficit in prodromal Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Wolf, S; Reischies, F M; Daerr, M; Wolfsgruber, S; Jessen, F; Popp, J; Maier, W; Hüll, M; Frölich, L; Hampel, H; Perneczky, R; Peters, O; Jahn, H; Luckhaus, C; Gertz, H-J; Schröder, J; Pantel, J; Lewczuk, P; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J

    2012-02-07

    To compare cued recall measures with other memory and nonmemory tests regarding their association with a biomarker profile indicative of Alzheimer disease (AD) in CSF among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Data were obtained by the German Dementia Competence Network. A total of 185 memory clinic patients fulfilling broad criteria for MCI (1 SD deficit in memory tests or in nonmemory tests) were assessed with an extended neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), the word list learning task from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NP), and the Logical Memory (LM) paragraph recall test from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. CSF was obtained from all patients. A total of 74 out of 185 subjects with MCI (40%) had a CSF profile consistent with AD (Aβ(1-42)/tau ratio; CSF AD+ group). FCSRT measures reflecting both free and cued recall discriminated best between CSF AD+ and CSF AD- patients, and significantly improved CSF AD classification accuracy, as compared with CERAD delayed recall and LM delayed recall. Cued recall deficits are most closely associated with CSF biomarkers indicative of AD in subjects with MCI. This novel finding complements results from prospective clinical studies and provides further empirical support for cued recall as a specific indicator of prodromal AD, in line with recently proposed research criteria.

  14. Part-list cuing and the dynamics of false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbal, Daniel R; Bjork, Elizabeth L; Bjork, Robert A; Smith, Troy A

    2008-04-01

    False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle episodic and semantic contributions to this decline in false recall, we factorially manipulated the cues' serial position and their strength of association to the critical word. Presenting cues comprising words that had been studied early in a list produced a greater reduction in false recall than did presenting words studied late in the list, independent of the cues' associative strength, but only when recall of the cues themselves was prohibited. When recall of the cues was permitted, neither early-studied nor late-studied cues decreased false recall reliably, relative to uncued lists. The findings suggest that critical words and early-studied words share a similar fate during recall, owing to selective episodic strengthening of their associations during study.

  15. Neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent cued recall and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Isingrini, Michel; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Fay, Séverine

    2013-03-06

    In this experiment, event-related potentials were used to examine whether the neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent successful recall differed from those predicting successful source memory retrieval. During encoding, participants studied lists of words and were instructed to memorize each word and the list in which it occurred. At test, they had to complete stems (the first four letters) with a studied word and then make a judgment of the initial temporal context (i.e. list). Event-related potentials recorded during encoding were segregated according to subsequent memory performance to examine subsequent memory effects (SMEs) reflecting successful cued recall (cued recall SME) and successful source retrieval (source memory SME). Data showed a cued recall SME on parietal electrode sites from 400 to 1200 ms and a late inversed cued recall SME on frontal sites in the 1200-1400 ms period. Moreover, a source memory SME was reported from 400 to 1400 ms on frontal areas. These findings indicate that patterns of encoding-related activity predicting successful recall and source memory are clearly dissociated.

  16. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  17. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  18. Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dan L.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)

  19. Part-list Cuing and the Dynamics of False Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Bjork, Elizabeth L.; Bjork, Robert A.; Smith, Troy A.

    2008-01-01

    False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle episodic and semantic contributions to this decline in false recall, we factorially manipulated the cues' serial position and their strength of association to the critical word. Presenting cues comprising words that had been studied early in a list...

  20. Support for an auto-associative model of spoken cued recall: evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie; Eastburn, Mathew; Pringle, Alan J; Lorenz, Lina; Humphreys, Michael S

    2007-03-02

    Cued recall and item recognition are considered the standard episodic memory retrieval tasks. However, only the neural correlates of the latter have been studied in detail with fMRI. Using an event-related fMRI experimental design that permits spoken responses, we tested hypotheses from an auto-associative model of cued recall and item recognition [Chappell, M., & Humphreys, M. S. (1994). An auto-associative neural network for sparse representations: Analysis and application to models of recognition and cued recall. Psychological Review, 101, 103-128]. In brief, the model assumes that cues elicit a network of phonological short term memory (STM) and semantic long term memory (LTM) representations distributed throughout the neocortex as patterns of sparse activations. This information is transferred to the hippocampus which converges upon the item closest to a stored pattern and outputs a response. Word pairs were learned from a study list, with one member of the pair serving as the cue at test. Unstudied words were also intermingled at test in order to provide an analogue of yes/no recognition tasks. Compared to incorrectly rejected studied items (misses) and correctly rejected (CR) unstudied items, correctly recalled items (hits) elicited increased responses in the left hippocampus and neocortical regions including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC), left mid lateral temporal cortex and inferior parietal cortex, consistent with predictions from the model. This network was very similar to that observed in yes/no recognition studies, supporting proposals that cued recall and item recognition involve common rather than separate mechanisms.

  1. Noncompetitive retrieval practice causes retrieval-induced forgetting in cued recall but not in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundgeiger, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    Retrieving a subset of learned items can lead to the forgetting of related items. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) can be explained by the inhibition of irrelevant items in order to overcome retrieval competition when the target item is retrieved. According to the retrieval inhibition account, such retrieval competition is a necessary condition for RIF. However, research has indicated that noncompetitive retrieval practice can also cause RIF by strengthening cue-item associations. According to the strength-dependent competition account, the strengthened items interfere with the retrieval of weaker items, resulting in impaired recall of weaker items in the final memory test. The aim of this study was to replicate RIF caused by noncompetitive retrieval practice and to determine whether this forgetting is also observed in recognition tests. In the context of RIF, it has been assumed that recognition tests circumvent interference and, therefore, should not be sensitive to forgetting due to strength-dependent competition. However, this has not been empirically tested, and it has been suggested that participants may reinstate learned cues as retrieval aids during the final test. In the present experiments, competitive practice or noncompetitive practice was followed by either final cued-recall tests or recognition tests. In cued-recall tests, RIF was observed in both competitive and noncompetitive conditions. However, in recognition tests, RIF was observed only in the competitive condition and was absent in the noncompetitive condition. The result underscores the contribution of strength-dependent competition to RIF. However, recognition tests seem to be a reliable way of distinguishing between RIF due to retrieval inhibition or strength-dependent competition.

  2. Genetic influences on free and cued recall in long-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Heather E; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L; Todd, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) problems are associated with many psychiatric and neurological illnesses and are commonly measured using free and cued recall tasks. Although LTM has been linked with biologic mechanisms, the etiology of distinct LTM tasks is unknown. We studied LTM in 95 healthy female twin pairs identified through birth records in the state of Missouri. Performance on tasks of free recall of unrelated words, free and cued recall of categorized words, and the vocabulary section of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) were examined using structural equation modeling. Additive genetic and unique environmental factors influenced LTM and intelligence. Free recall of unrelated and categorized words, and cued recall of categorized words, were moderately heritable (55%, 38%, and 37%). WAIS-R vocabulary score was highly heritable (77%). Controlling for verbal intelligence in multivariate analyses of recall, two components of genetic influence on LTM were found; one for all three recall scores and one for free and cued categorized word recall. Recall of unrelated and categorized words is influenced by different genetic and environmental factors indicating heterogeneity in LTM. Verbal intelligence is etiologically different from LTM indicating that these two abilities utilize different brain functions.

  3. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  4. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

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    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  5. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  6. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  7. Examining variation in working memory capacity and retrieval in cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2009-05-01

    Two experiments examined the notion that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are partially due to differences in search set size in cued recall. High and low WMC individuals performed variants of a cued recall task with either unrelated cue words (Experiment 1) or specific cue phrases (Experiment 2). Across both experiments low WMC individuals recalled fewer items, made more errors, and had longer correct recall latencies than high WMC individuals. Cross-experimental analyses suggested that providing participants with more specific cues decreased the size of the search set, leading to better recall overall. However, these effects were equivalent for high and low WMC. It is argued that these results are consistent with a search model framework in which low WMC individuals search through a larger set of items than high WMC individuals.

  8. Recognition without cued recall (RWCR) phenomenon in Chinese characters: Effects of restudying and testing%汉字的无线索回忆再认效应:重复学习和重复测验的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永萍; 周楚; 李林; 郭秀艳

    2016-01-01

    采用无线索回忆再认范式, 对基于熟悉性的汉字语义特征再认进行了探索, 考察了重复学习和重复测验对汉字语义特征的无线索回忆再认效应(RWCR效应)的影响.实验1采用即时测验, 实验2采用延时测验, 结果发现:(1)无论即时还是延时测验, 汉字语义特征的再认均存在RWCR效应.(2)在即时测验时, 重复学习对熟悉性有显著影响, 重复测验对熟悉性没有影响; 重复学习和重复测验均提高回想成绩, 但二者无差异.(3)在延时测验时, 重复学习组和重复测验组的熟悉性评分均下降, 但前者下降快于后者; 重复测验组回想的遗忘率较低, 重复学习组回想的遗忘率较高.上述结果说明, 汉字的语义特征存在稳定的 RWCR效应, 且重复学习主要影响熟悉性, 重复测验主要影响回想.进一步证明了再认记忆的双加工理论.%Familiarity is thought to emerge when there is a match between the features currently presented and the features stored in memory, and it could be affected by both restudying and testing. It is still not clear whether all types of features can lead to familiarity. Though previous studies identified some types of features that could produce familiarity in the absence of recall, it is inconclusive as to whether semantic information gave rise to the familiarity feeling in recognition. No study has yet examined whether semantic features of Chinese can produce familiarity in the absence of recall. Furthermore, another open question remains as to whether the effects of testing and restudying on recollection and familiarity are dissociative. The RWCR paradigm provides a quantitative way to explore above questions. RWCR refers to the phenomenon that even when participants are unable to recall a studied item when cued at test, they can still reliably discriminate between cues that resemble studied items and cues that do not. In this research, we explored the RWCR effect in Chinese

  9. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes.

  10. Utility of California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, recall discriminability indices in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Jacobus; Nienhuis, Jacob B

    2007-03-01

    The performance of 23 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II; Delis et al., 2000) was compared with that of 23 matched healthy controls to determine whether recall discriminability indices, which take into account both correct target recall and intrusive errors, would provide better diagnostic classification than traditional variables that are based exclusively on correct recall. Patients with traumatic brain injury recalled fewer correct words, and also made more intrusive errors, on CVLT-II short and long delay, free and cued recall trials (p recall discriminability indices yielded a classification of clinical versus control participants (72%) that was not significantly different from one based on traditional variables (74%). We conclude that CVLT-II recall discriminability indices do not routinely provide an advantage over traditional variables in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  11. Reexamining the phonological similarity effect in immediate serial recall: the roles of type of similarity, category cuing, and item recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Lipinski, John; Aktunc, Emrah

    2005-09-01

    Study of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall (ISR) has produced a conflicting body of results. Five experiments tested various theoretical ideas that together may help integrate these results. Experiments 1 and 2 tested alternative accounts that explain the effect of phonological similarity on item recall in terms of feature overlap, linguistic structure, or serial order. In each experiment, the participants' ISR was assessed for rhyming, alliterative, and similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. The results were consistent with the predictions of the serial order account, with item recall being higher for rhyming than for alliterative lists and higher for alliterative than for similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these item recall differences are reduced when list items repeat across lists. Experiment 5 employed rhyming and dissimilar one-syllable and two-syllable lists to demonstrate that recall for similar (rhyming) lists can be better than that for dissimilar lists even in a typical ISR task in which words are used, providing a direct reversal of the classic PSE. These and other previously published results are interpreted and integrated within a proposed theoretical framework that offers an account of the PSE.

  12. The effect of encoding manipulation on word-stem cued recall: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Séverine; Isingrini, Michel; Ragot, Richard; Pouthas, Viviane

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the neural correlates of explicit retrieval from episodic memory would vary according to conditions at encoding when the words were presented in separate study/test blocks. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Deeply (semantically) studied words were associated with higher levels of recall and faster response times than shallowly (lexically) studied words. Robust ERP old/new effects were observed for each encoding condition. They varied in magnitude, being largest in the semantic condition. As expected, scalp distributions also differed: for deeply studied words, the old/new effect resembled that found in previous ERP studies of word-stem cued-recall tasks (parietal and right frontal effects, between 400-800 and 800-1100 ms post-stimulus), whereas for shallowly studied words, the parietal old/new effect was absent in the latter latency window. These results can be interpreted as reflecting access to different kinds of memory representation depending on the nature of the processing engaged during encoding. Furthermore, differences in the ERPs elicited by new items indicate that subjects adopted different processing strategies in the test blocks following each encoding condition.

  13. Neutral details associated with emotional events are encoded: evidence from a cued recall paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Knight, Aubrey G; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced emotional memory often comes at the cost of memory for surrounding background information. Narrowed-encoding theories suggest that this is due to narrowed attention for emotional information at encoding, leading to impaired encoding of background information. Recent work has suggested that an encoding-based theory may be insufficient. Here, we examined whether cued recall-instead of previously used recognition memory tasks-would reveal evidence that non-emotional information associated with emotional information was effectively encoded. Participants encoded positive, negative, or neutral objects on neutral backgrounds. At retrieval, they were given either the item or the background as a memory cue and were asked to recall the associated scene element. Counter to narrowed-encoding theories, emotional items were more likely than neutral items to trigger recall of the associated background. This finding suggests that there is a memory trace of this contextual information and that emotional cues may facilitate retrieval of this information.

  14. Effects of Immediate Recall Trial on One-Year Delayed Recall Performance in Rey Complex Figure Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2016-04-18

    This study aimed to examine the effects of the presence or absence of an immediate recall trial on university students' (n = 39) performance on the one-year delayed recall test in the Rey complex figure test (RCFT). Participants were divided into two groups that took either one or two tests, respectively. In the first year, the participants in the two-test condition completed a copy trial and an immediate recall trial, whereas those in the one-test condition underwent the copy trial only. In the second year, all participants completed a delayed recall test. Those in the two-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the one-test condition on the one-year delayed recall test. Thus, we found that omitting the immediate recall trial caused a decline in performance on the one-year delayed recall test. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was considered.

  15. Cued recall of alcohol advertising on television and underage drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, Susanne E; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 years of age; P advertising receptivity score independently predicted the onset of drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.69 [95% CI, 1.17-2.44]), the onset of binge drinking (AOR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1

  16. Total retrieval time and hypermnesia: investigating the benefits of multiple recall tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2005-03-01

    Hypermnesia is an increase in recall over repeated tests. A core issue is the role of repeated testing, per se, versus total retrieval time. Prior research implies an equivalence between multiple recall tests and a single test of equal total duration, but theoretical analyses indicate otherwise. Three experiments investigated this issue using various study materials (unrelated word lists, related word lists, and a short story). In the first experimental session, the study phase was followed by a series of short recall tests or by a single, long test of equal total duration. Two days later, participants took a final recall test. The multiple and single test conditions produced equivalent performance in the first session, but the multiple test group exhibited less forgetting and fewer item losses in the final test. In a fourth experiment, using a brief delay (15 min) between the recall sessions, the multiple recall condition produced greater hypermnesia as well as fewer item losses. In addition, final recall was significantly higher in the multiple than in the single test condition in three of the four experiments. Thus, single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent, but rather produce differences observable in subsequent recall tests.

  17. The Role of Reminding in the Effects of Spaced Repetitions on Cued Recall: Sufficient but Not Necessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared…

  18. Paradoxical effects of testing: repeated retrieval attempts enhance the likelihood of later accurate and false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B

    2006-03-01

    The testing effect is the finding that taking an initial test enhances the likelihood of later recall. The present report examines the extent to which this benefit of testing comes with a cost: an enhanced likelihood of erroneously recalling incorrect information. Subjects were given short lists of semantic associates (e.g., hill, valley, climb); each list converged upon a related nonpresented word (e.g., mountain). After presentation of some lists, the subjects received no initial test; after others, one initial free recall test; and after others, three successive free recall tests. The probabilities of final free recall (and the probability of reporting vivid recollection of the moment of encoding) of both studied and related, nonstudied words (e.g., mountain) were highest when three initial tests had been taken, intermediate following one initial test, and lowest when no initial test had occurred. The beneficial effects of testing carry the cost of increases in erroneous memory for related information.

  19. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  20. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  1. Overlap between the neural correlates of cued recall and source memory: evidence for a generic recollection network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Hiroki R.; Vilberg, Kaia L.

    2012-01-01

    Recall of a studied item and retrieval of its encoding context (source memory) both depend upon recollection of qualitative information about the study episode. The present study investigated whether recall and source memory engage overlapping neural regions. Subjects (N=18) studied a series of words which were presented either to the left or right of fixation. fMRI data were collected during a subsequent test phase in which three-letter word stems were presented, two-thirds of which could be completed by a study item. Instructions were to use each stem as a cue to recall a studied word and, when recall was successful, to indicate the word’s study location. When recall failed, the stem was to be completed with the first word to come to mind. Relative to stems for which recall failed, word stems eliciting successful recall were associated with enhanced activity in a variety of cortical regions, including bilateral parietal, posterior midline, and parahippocampal cortex. Activity in these regions was enhanced when recall was accompanied by successful rather than unsuccessful source retrieval. It is proposed that the regions form part of a ‘recollection network’ in which activity is graded according to the amount of information retrieved about a study episode. PMID:22288393

  2. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  3. Elaboration and the Testing Effect in Cued Recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Coppens (Leonora C.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ You will most likely remember learning lists of foreign vocabulary words (such as French) in high school. Most of my classmates and I did this by reading the entire list of words once and then covering the column with French words with a piece of paper. Reading one

  4. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  5. Hypnosis enhances recall memory: a test of forced and non-forced conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligstein, D; Barabasz, A; Barabasz, M; Trevisan, M S; Warner, D

    1998-04-01

    Visual memory recall in hypnosis was investigated. To address criterion shift problems in previous studies, both forced and non-forced recall procedures were used. Previous methodological weaknesses with regard to hypnotizability and hypnotic depth were also addressed. Over 300 volunteers were screened for hypnotizability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (Shor & Orne, 1962). Final high and low hypnotizability groups were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Participants in each hypnotizability group were randomly assigned to either forced or non-forced recall conditions and to hypnosis or waking conditions. Participants were shown 60 slides of line drawings and then tested immediately in 3 recall periods. Analysis of variance results showed that those exposed to hypnosis and to a forced recall procedure were significantly more confident of their responses to correct items than those exposed to a non-forced recall procedure or a waking condition. Participants exposed to hypnosis and forced recall procedures recalled more correct items than those exposed to a waking condition. The findings support the hypermnesic effects of hypnosis when participants are required to provide a fixed number of responses.

  6. The role of reminding in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall: sufficient but not necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Jacoby, Larry L

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared twice in List 2, and between-list repetitions that appeared once in List 1 and once in List 2. Our primary interest was in performance on between-list repetitions. Detection of between-list repetitions was encouraged in an n-back condition by instructing participants to indicate when a presented item was a repetition of any preceding item, including items presented in List 1. In contrast, detection of between-list repetitions was discouraged in a within-list back condition by instructing participants only to indicate repetitions occurring in List 2. Cued recall of between-list repetitions was enhanced when instructions encouraged detection of List 1 presentations. These results accord with those from prior experiments showing a role of study-phase retrieval in effects of spacing repetitions. Past experiments have relied on conditionalized data to draw conclusions, producing the possibility that performance benefits merely reflected effects of item selection. By bringing effects under task control, we avoided that problem. Our results provide evidence that reminding resulting from retrieval of earlier presentations plays a role in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. However, our results also reveal that such retrievals are not necessary to produce an effect of spacing repetitions.

  7. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).

  8. Recognition or Recall: What Reading Comprehension Tests Really Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    This study examined format differences in the measurement of fifth grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Children were given a multiple-choice reading comprehension test, followed 4 weeks later by a constructed response test on 2 of the same text passages. Results indicated that little comprehension of text content was transferred…

  9. A Multifactor Analysis of the Instructional Effect of Type of Instruction, Testing, Recall and Order of Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Hermes Teixeria; Dwyer, Francis M.

    This study investigated the effects of (1) verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; (2) visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; (3) verbal cueing vs. free recall on achievement; and (4) order of testing on subsequent achievement. Interactions among type of instruction, type of testing, and order of…

  10. Evidence of an amnesia-like cued-recall memory impairment in nondementing idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstyn, Nicola M J; John, Christopher M; Shepherd, Thomas A; Drakeford, Justine L; Clark-Carter, David; Ellis, Simon J; Mayes, Andrew R

    2015-10-01

    Medicated, non-dementing mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) patients usually show recall/recollection impairments but have only occasionally shown familiarity impairments. We aimed to assess two explanations of this pattern of impairment. Recollection typically improves when effortful planning of encoding and retrieval processing is engaged. This depends on prefrontally-dependent executive processes, which are often disrupted in PD. Relative to an unguided encoding and retrieval of words condition (C1), giving suitable guidance at encoding alone (C2) or at encoding and retrieval (C3) should, if executive processes are disrupted, improve PD recollection more than control recollection and perhaps raise it to normal levels. Familiarity, being a relatively automatic kind of memory, whether impaired or intact, should be unaffected by guidance. According to the second explanation, PD deficits are amnesia-like and caused by medial temporal lobe dysfunction and although poorer recollection, which is caused by hippocampal disruption, may be improved by guidance, it should not improve more than control recollection. Familiarity impairment will also occur if the perirhinal cortex is disrupted, but will be unimproved by guidance. Without guidance, recollection/recall was impaired in thirty PD patients relative to twenty-two healthy controls and remained relatively equally impaired when full guidance was provided (C1 vs C3), both groups improving to broadly the same extent. Although impaired, and markedly less so than recollection, familiarity was not improved by guidance in both groups. The patients showed elevated rates of subclinical depressive symptoms, which weakly correlated with recall/recollection in all three conditions. PD executive function was also deficient and correlated with unguided/C1 recollection only. Our results are consistent with a major cause of the patients' recall/recollection impairments being hippocampal disruption, probably exacerbated by

  11. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

  13. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: the differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J; Cleary, Anne M; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-25

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed.

  14. Short-term delayed recall of auditory verbal learning test is equivalent to long-term delayed recall for identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhua Zhao

    Full Text Available Delayed recall of words in a verbal learning test is a sensitive measure for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The relative validity of different retention intervals of delayed recall has not been well characterized. Using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Huashan version, we compared the differentiating value of short-term delayed recall (AVL-SR, that is, a 3- to 5-minute delay time and long-term delayed recall (AVL-LR, that is, a 20-minute delay time in distinguishing patients with aMCI (n = 897 and mild AD (n = 530 from the healthy elderly (n = 1215. In patients with aMCI, the correlation between AVL-SR and AVL-LR was very high (r = 0.94, and the difference between the two indicators was less than 0.5 points. There was no difference between AVL-SR and AVL-LR in the frequency of zero scores. In the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis, although the area under the curve (AUC of AVL-SR and AVL-LR for diagnosing aMCI was significantly different, the cut-off scores of the two indicators were identical. In the subgroup of ages 80 to 89, the AUC of the two indicators showed no significant difference. Therefore, we concluded that AVL-SR could substitute for AVL-LR in identifying aMCI, especially for the oldest patients.

  15. Using Speech Recall in Hearing Aid Fitting and Outcome Evaluation Under Ecological Test Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rosenbom, Tove; Ågren, Jessica; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning

    2016-01-01

    In adaptive Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) tests used in the audiological clinic, speech is presented at signal to noise ratios (SNRs) that are lower than those generally encountered in real-life communication situations. At higher, ecologically valid SNRs, however, SRTs are insensitive to changes in hearing aid signal processing that may be of benefit to listeners who are hard of hearing. Previous studies conducted in Swedish using the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall test (SWIR) have indicated that at such SNRs, the ability to recall spoken words may be a more informative measure. In the present study, a Danish version of SWIR, known as the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall Test in a New Language (SWIRL) was introduced and evaluated in two experiments. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the Swedish results demonstrating benefit from noise reduction signal processing for hearing aid wearers could be replicated in 25 Danish participants with mild to moderate symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The objective of experiment 2 was to compare direct-drive and skin-drive transmission in 16 Danish users of bone-anchored hearing aids with conductive hearing loss or mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. In experiment 1, performance on SWIRL improved when hearing aid noise reduction was used, replicating the Swedish results and generalizing them across languages. In experiment 2, performance on SWIRL was better for direct-drive compared with skin-drive transmission conditions. These findings indicate that spoken word recall can be used to identify benefits from hearing aid signal processing at ecologically valid, positive SNRs where SRTs are insensitive.

  16. Comparison between two tests of delayed recall for the diagnosis of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takada Leonel Tadao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of dementia is a challenge in populations with heterogeneous educational background. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracies of two delayed recall tests for the diagnosis of dementia in a community with high proportion of illiterates. METHOD: The delayed recall of a word list from the CERAD battery (DR-CERAD was compared with the delayed recall of objects presented as line drawings from the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (DR-BCSB using ROC curves. Illiterate (23 controls and 17 patients with dementia and literate individuals (28 controls and 17 patients with dementia were evaluated in a community-dwelling Brazilian population. RESULTS: The DR-BCSB showed higher accuracy than the DR-CERAD in the illiterate (p=0.029, similar accuracy in the literate individuals (p=0.527, and a trend for higher accuracy in the entire population (p=0.084. CONCLUSION: the DR-BCSB could be an alternative for the diagnosis of dementia in populations with high proportion of illiterates.

  17. Testing the associative-link hypothesis in immediate serial recall: Evidence from word frequency and word imageability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-08-01

    Two immediate serial recall experiments were conducted to test the associative-link hypothesis (Stuart & Hulme, 2000). We manipulated interitem association by varying the intralist latent semantic analysis (LSA) cosines in our 7-item study word lists, each of which consists of high- or low-frequency words in Experiment 1 and high- or low-imageability words in Experiment 2. Whether item recall performance was scored by a serial-recall or free-recall criterion, we found main effects of interitem association, word imageability, and word frequency. The effect of interitem association also interacted with the word frequency effect, but not with the word imageability effect. The LSA-cosinexword frequency interaction occurred in the recency, but not primacy, portion of the serial position curve. The present findings set explanatory boundaries for the associative-link hypothesis and we argue that both item- and associative-based mechanisms are necessary to account for the word frequency effect in immediate serial recall.

  18. Recall Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalls.gov Find recalls from around the world Global Recall Portal Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom ...

  19. Patient Recall, Interpretation, and Perspective of an Inconclusive Long QT Syndrome Genetic Test Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predham, Sarah; Hathaway, Julie; Hulait, Gurdip; Arbour, Laura; Lehman, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Patients' perceptions of inconclusive results have been previously investigated in cancer genetics. The differences in how patients recall and interpret an uninformative test result compared to a known pathogenic result can affect medical decisions post disclosure. However, there is little to no data available on patients' interpretation and perception of uninformative genetic results in inherited heart disease. We report the results of a qualitative analysis of 16 telephone interviews with participants who received a negative or a variant of unknown significance (VUS) result from Long QT syndrome (LQTS) genetic testing. Our results suggest that the type of result (negative versus VUS) does not affect recall, regardless of the reason for testing. When receiving a negative result, a majority of participants appropriately perceived no change in their diagnosis, while the perception of risk for family members varied. The majority of participants felt they maintained an awareness of their condition after the result disclosure, and that clinical follow-up was similar to that planned prior to the genetic test result. Further work is needed to determine if there are any differences between obtaining a VUS result versus a negative result in this population.

  20. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelièvre, Anna

    2009-09-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such "scanning" is articulatory in nature. Two experiments are presented in which the syllabic length of words preceding and following target positions were manipulated, to test the prediction of an articulatory-based mechanism that time to recall an item at a particular position will depend on the number of preceding long words. Although latency was dependent on target position, no word length effects on latency were observed. Additionally, the effects of word length on accuracy replicate recent demonstrations in serial recall that recall accuracy is dependent on the word length of all list items, not just that of target items, in line with distinctiveness assumptions. It is concluded that if scanning does occur, it is not carried out by covert or overt articulation.

  1. Sleep Can Reduce the Testing Effect: It Enhances Recall of Restudied Items but Can Leave Recall of Retrieved Items Unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Holterman, Christoph; Abel, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice in comparison to restudy of previously encoded contents can improve memory performance and reduce time-dependent forgetting. Naturally, long retention intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep immediately after…

  2. Sleep Can Reduce the Testing Effect: It Enhances Recall of Restudied Items but Can Leave Recall of Retrieved Items Unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Holterman, Christoph; Abel, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice in comparison to restudy of previously encoded contents can improve memory performance and reduce time-dependent forgetting. Naturally, long retention intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep immediately after…

  3. Brain Metabolism Correlates of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Ruffini, Livia; Spallazzi, Marco; Spotti, Annamaria; Barocco, Federica; Guzzo, Caterina; Marchi, Massimo; Gardini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) measures immediate and delayed episodic memory and cueing sensitivity and is suitable to detect prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating the segregation effect of FCSRT scores on brain metabolism of memory-related structures, usually affected by AD pathology, in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. A cohort of forty-eight MCI patients underwent FCSRT and 18F-FDG-PET. Multiple regression analysis showed that Immediate Free Recall correlated with brain metabolism in the bilateral anterior cingulate and delayed free recall with the left anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, whereas semantic cueing sensitivity with the left posterior cingulate. FCSRT in MCI is associated with neuro-functional activity of specific regions of memory-related structures connected to hippocampal formation, such as the cingulate cortex, usually damaged in AD.

  4. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  5. Recall strategies for the verbal fluency test in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M

    2014-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F [77]=2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F [77]=3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation and associative encoding in young and old adults: the effect of the strength of association between cues and targets on a cued recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Froger, Charlotte; Sacher, Mathilde; Isingrini, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The generation effect (i.e., better recall of the generated items than the read items) was investigated with a between-list design in young and elderly participants. The generation task difficulty was manipulated by varying the strength of association between cues and targets. Overall, strong associates were better recalled than weak associates. However, the results showed different generation effect patterns according to strength of association and age, with a greater generation effect for weak associates in younger adults only. These findings suggest that generating weak associates leads to more elaborated encoding, but that elderly adults cannot use this elaborated encoding as well as younger adults to recall the target words at test.

  7. Constrained prose recall and the assessment of long-term forgetting: the case of ageing and the Crimes Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan; Rawlings, Bruce; Hayes, Amie

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that some patients with apparently normal memory may subsequently show accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), with dramatic loss when retested. We describe a constrained prose recall task that attempts to lay the foundations for a test suitable for detecting ALF sensitively and economically. Instead of the usual narrative structure of prose recall tests, it employs a matrix structure involving four episodes, each describing a minor crime, with each crime involving the binding into a coherent episode of a specified range of features, involving the victim, the crime, the criminal and the location, allowing a total of 80 different probed recall questions to be generated. These are used to create four equivalent 20-item tests, three of which are used in the study. After a single verbal presentation, young and elderly participants were tested on three occasions, immediately, and by telephone after a delay of 6 weeks, and at one of a varied range of intermediate points. The groups were approximately matched on immediate test; both showed systematic forgetting which was particularly marked in the elderly. We suggest that constrained prose recall has considerable potential for the study of long-term forgetting.

  8. [New predictors in prodromal Alzheimer: Deferred phase in word recall of MIS test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labos, Edith; Trojanowski, Sofía; Schapira, Marcelo; Seinhart, Daniel; Renato, Alejandro

    2016-09-01

    The Memory Impairment Screen (MIS-A) is a validated test to detect Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other dementias. We have modified this test to suit a Spanish speaking population and added a new component, delayed recall (MIS-D). 1) To test a Spanish version of MIS-A and MIS-D. 2) To assess the discriminative validity of MIS-D as a screening tool for the amnestic variant of Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). A case-control study of a cohort of 739 aged 65 years old and over, of whom 436 were healthy controls and 303 had a diagnosis of aMCI. The MCI group was patients from the Geriatric Unit for the Elderly at the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires staffed by geriatricians. ANOVA test and test t de Student mean comparison. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NVP) were estimated for MIS-D and MIS-A. Normative values for MIS-A and MIS-D were obtained from the control population. Both age and education significantly affected these values (pMIS-A should be 7.5 and for MIS-D, 5.5. Comparison between control population and aMCI population using ROC curve gave a result of 5.5 in MIS-D, with 97% specificity and 76% sensitivity. MIS-D was positively predictive of Amci. An extension of the sample in other health care contexts would enable us to verify its clinical validity for other populations.

  9. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  10. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  11. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  12. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community.......To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  13. A normative study of the Italian printed word version of the free and cued selective reminding test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girtler, N; De Carli, F; Amore, M; Arnaldi, D; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Picco, A; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Brugnolo, A

    2015-07-01

    According to the new research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory impairment, not significantly improved by cueing, is the core neuropsychological marker, even at a pre-dementia stage. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory using semantic cues and is widely used in Europe. Standardization values for the Italian population are available for the colored picture version, but not for the 16-item printed word version. In this study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCSRT-16 obtained using linear regression techniques and generalized linear model, and critical values for classifying sub-test performance into equivalent scores. Six scores were derived from the performance of 194 normal subjects (MMSE score, range 27-30, mean 29.5 ± 0.5) divided per decade (from 20 to 90), per gender and per level of education (4 levels: 3-5, 6-8, 9-13, >13 years): immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), recognition phase (RP), delayed free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. This study confirms the effect of age and education, but not of gender on immediate and delayed free and cued recall. The Italian version of the FCSRT-16 can be useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  14. Children's recall of fast food television advertising-testing the adequacy of food marketing regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Bernhardt

    Full Text Available In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald's and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies.One hundred children aged 3-7 years were shown McDonald's and Burger King children's (MDC & BKC and adult (MDA & BKA meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010-11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk, and premiums/tie-ins.Premiums/tie-ins were common in children's but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children's ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk. Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children's vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77] p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002. For children's ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001.Children's net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice.

  15. Communication of laboratory data and diagnostic test results to hospitalized patients: a study of preferences and recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar MW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad W Athar,1 Christine Mativo,1 Regina Landis,2 Scott M Wright1 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Division of Hospital Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: To assess patients’ preferences with respect to different methods of receiving test results while they were hospitalized and to determine whether the different modes of communication of the test results were associated with better recall. Methods: Five discrete test results were shared with adult inpatients on general medicine service (blood pressure, white blood cell count, hematocrit, creatinine, and chest X-ray. The information was delivered by a physician in one of three ways: 1 verbally, 2 explained with a print out of the results, or 3 described while showing results on a computer monitor (electronic. The same physician returned within 3 hours to assess recall and satisfaction with the way patients received their results. Results: All the patients (100% receiving their results in written format were satisfied with the mode of communication as compared to electronic format (86% or verbally (79% (P=0.02. Fifty percent of patients in the computer format group could recall four or more test results at the follow-up, as compared to 43% in printed group and 24% who were informed of their results verbally (P=0.35. Conclusion: Patients most appreciated receiving test results in written form while in the hospital, and this delivery method was as good as any other method with respect to recall. Keywords: patient preference, patient satisfaction, patient-centered care

  16. Fine tuning of the digit symbol paired associate recall test for practitioner purposes in clinical and research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B

    2002-08-01

    Guidelines are presented to facilitate the use of the WAIS Digit Symbol measure of paired associate recall as a neuropsychological instrument. Currently three formal variants of the test exist with accompanying normative data (the original WAIS-R-NI form; a WAIS-R Short Form; a longer WAIS-III form), providing a potential source of confusion which may limit its application. To circumvent this, the present article critically evaluates: (i) variations in test forms and their advantages; (ii) available norms in terms of age and education, with pointers for more differentiated guidelines in this regard; and (iii) the desirability of incorporating a delayed recall variant of the test. Finally, a synopsis of data is presented that supports the screening potential of Digit Symbol paired associate recall in cases of mild neurocognitive dysfunction. For the purposes of this paper, the term WAIS is used with broad reference to all variations of the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (1955) upon which they were based, including the WAIS-R (1981) and WAIS-III (1997) updated editions, and the South African WAIS (1969). The terms South African WAIS (South African Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised), and WAIS-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), refer to these specific versions of the test.

  17. Recall of Information Separating Two Inconsistent Propositions: An Experimental Test of the "Cognitive Dumping" Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Henry T., III

    A study investigated free recall of information bounded by internally inconsistent sentences compared to the same information in consistent text versions. Data were elicited from 40 undergraduate students enrolled in classes in educational psychology. Subjects were instructed to read one consistent and one inconsistent (containing two propositions…

  18. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  19. Isothermal test as a WLR monitor for Cu interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amit P.; Pham, Van; Chan, Jay; Weidner, Jorg-Oliver; Heinig, Volker; Thierbach, Steffi

    2000-08-01

    The need for higher interconnect current densities has been increasing rapidly for advanced integrated circuits. Cu interconnects have emerged as viable candidates to replace Aluminium due to the lower sheet resistivity and increased electro migration lifetime of Cu. Previously, we had reported the use of the isothermal test as a WLR monitor for detecting process defects such as voids in the Aluminium interconnects. This paper further extends the application of the isothermal test methodology for detecting and characterizing process defects in Cu interconnect technology. Package electro migration test are time consuming and may be impractical in detecting process defects in a timely manner. Isothermal test, on the other hand, can be effectively used as a fast WLR process monitor. This paper reports the influence of direction of test current as well as different types of test structures, such as a single level NIST structure and a via chain structure and a via chain structure, on the isothermal test results for Cu interconnects. The isothermal test data has been shown to be helpful in evaluating the location and severity of the process defects through a proper choice of test structures. Joule heating due to high current density is found to be the major driving force for the sensitivity of isothermal test failures. A good correlation is also seen with the package electro migration data. A simple wafer level isothermal test has thus been successfully demonstrated as a reliability tool for process monitoring in Cu VLSI interconnects.

  20. Testing improvements in the chocolate traceability system: Impact on product recalls and production efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    hypothetical improvements of the traceability system within the chocolate production system and supply chain and we illustrate the resulting benefits by using a case study. Based on the case study, we quantify the influence of these improvements on production efficiency and recall size in case of a safety...... crisis by developing a simulation tool. These results are aimed to illustrate and quantify the additional benefits of traceability information, and could help food industries in deciding whether and how to improve their traceability systems....

  1. A MULTIPLE TESTING OF THE ABC METHOD AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SECOND-GENERATION MODEL. PART II, TEST RESULTS AND AN ANALYSIS OF RECALL RATIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTMANN, BERTHOLD

    AFTER A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE TEST PROGRAM (DESCRIBED MORE FULLY IN LI 000 318), THE STATISTICAL RESULTS TABULATED AS OVERALL "ABC (APPROACH BY CONCEPT)-RELEVANCE RATIOS" AND "ABC-RECALL FIGURES" ARE PRESENTED AND REVIEWED. AN ABSTRACT MODEL DEVELOPED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX WEBER'S "IDEALTYPUS" ("DIE OBJEKTIVITAET SOZIALWISSENSCHAFTLICHER UND…

  2. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  3. Testing the Motor Simulation Account of Source Errors for Actions in Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observing someone else perform an action can lead to false memories of self-performance – the observation inflation effect. One explanation is that action simulation via mirror neuron activation during action observation is responsible for observation inflation by enriching memories of observed actions with motor representations. In three experiments we investigated this account of source memory failures, using a novel paradigm that minimized influences of verbalization and prior object knowledge. Participants worked in pairs to take turns acting out geometric shapes and letters. The next day, participants recalled either actions they had performed or those they had observed. Experiment 1 showed that participants falsely retrieved observed actions as self-performed, but also retrieved self-performed actions as observed. Experiment 2 showed that preventing participants from encoding observed actions motorically by taxing their motor system with a concurrent motor task did not lead to the predicted decrease in false claims of self-performance. Indeed, Experiment 3 showed that this was the case even if participants were asked to carefully monitor their recall. Because our data provide no evidence for a motor activation account, we also discussed our results in light of a source monitoring account.

  4. Hippocampal, amygdala, and neocortical synchronization of theta rhythms is related to an immediate recall during rey auditory verbal learning test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Mirabella, Giovanni; Buttiglione, Maura; Sebastiano, Fabio; Picardi, Angelo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier P; Grammaldo, Liliana G; Buffo, Paola; Esposito, Vincenzo; Manfredi, Mario; Cantore, Giampaolo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that theta rhythms (3-8 Hz) are the fingerprint of hippocampus, and that neural activity accompanying encoding of words differs according to whether the items are later remembered or forgotten ["subsequent memory effect" (SME)]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that temporal synchronization of theta rhythms among hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex is related to immediate memorization of repeated words. To address this issue, intracerebral electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded in five subjects with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), under presurgical monitoring routine. During the recording of the intracerebral EEG activity, the subjects performed a computerized version of Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), a popular test for the clinical evaluation of the immediate and delayed memory. They heard the same list of 15 common words for five times. Each time, immediately after listening the list, the subjects were required to repeat as many words as they could recall. Spectral coherence of the intracerebral EEG activity was computed in order to assess the temporal synchronization of the theta (about 3-8 Hz) rhythms among hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal-occipital neocortex. We found that theta coherence values between amygdala and hippocampus, and between hippocampus and occipital-temporal cortex, were higher in amplitude during successful than unsuccessful immediate recall. A control analysis showed that this was true also for a gamma band (40-45 Hz). Furthermore, these theta and gamma effects were not observed in an additional (control) subject with drug-resistant TLE and a wide lesion to hippocampus. In conclusion, a successful immediate recall to the RAVLT was associated to the enhancement of temporal synchronization of the theta (gamma) rhythms within a cerebral network including hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal-occipital neocortex. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  6. Anorexia nervosa: selective processing of food-related word and pictorial stimuli in recognition and free recall tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Weisbrod, M; Schild, S; Bender, S; Walther, S; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S; Friederich, H C

    2008-07-01

    Maladaptive processing of food cues is considered pivotal in the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. However, the influence of hunger and differences in processing because of the type of stimuli remain largely unclear. Memory bias for food-related pictorial and semantic stimuli was assessed in a recognition and a free recall test in 16 anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, 16 control participants with food intake prior to the study (CG-FI) and 16 control participants with a fasting period prior to the study (CG-NF). Compared with CG-FI participants, both AN and CG-NF participants responded faster to food-related as compared with neutral words (p word but not for pictorial stimuli. No group differences were observed with respect to the number of correct retrievals in either the recognition or the free recall test. The present study found behavioral indications of abnormal processing of food-related and neutral stimuli in anorectic patients similar to those found in fasted healthy controls. Results are discussed in terms of self-schemata in eating disorders, competitive interference, and levels of processing. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobbenhuis Marielle AE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer referred to the Ovarian Screening Service at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London from January 2000- December 2008 were included. They were stratified into three risk-groups according to family history (high-, moderate- and low-risk of developing ovarian cancer and offered annual serum CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound screening. The high-risk group was offered genetic testing. Results The median age at entry was 44 years. The number of women in the high, moderate and low-risk groups was 397, 112, and 36, respectively. During 2266 women years of follow-up two ovarian cancer cases were found: one advanced stage at her fourth annual screening, and one early stage at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO. Prophylactic BSO was performed in 138 women (25.3%. Forty-three women had an abnormal CA125, resulting in 59 repeat tests. The re-call rate in the high, moderate and low-risk group was 14%, 3% and 6%. Equivocal transvaginal ultrasound results required 108 recalls in 71 women. The re-call rate in the high, moderate, and low-risk group was 25%, 6% and 17%. Conclusion No early stage ovarian cancer was picked up at annual screening and a significant number of re-calls for repeat screening tests was identified.

  8. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  9. The Effect of Composition of Different Ecotoxicological Test Media on Free and Bioavailable Copper from CuSO4 and CuO Nanoparticles: Comparative Evidence from a Cu-Selective Electrode and a Cu-Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ivask

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of (bioavailable copper in complex environmental settings, including biological test media, is a challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens-based biosensor for bioavailability analysis of CuSO4 and CuO nanoparticles (nano-CuO in seventeen different ecotoxicological and microbiologial test media. In parallel, free Cu in these test media was analysed using Cu-ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE. In the case of CuSO4, both free and bioavailable Cu decreased greatly with increasing concentration of organics and phosphates in the tested media. A good correlation between free and bioavailable Cu was observed (r = 0.854, p < 0.01 indicating that the free Cu content in biological test media may be a reasonably good predictor for the toxicity of CuSO4. As a proof, it was demonstrated that when eleven EC50 values for CuSO4 from different organisms in different test media were normalized for the free Cu in these media, the difference in these EC50 values was decreased from 4 to 1.8 orders of magnitude. Thus, toxicity of CuSO4 to these organisms was attributed to the properties of the test media rather than to inherent differences in sensitivity between the test organisms. Differently from CuSO4, the amount of free and bioavailable Cu in nano-CuO spiked media was not significantly correlated with the concentration of organics in the test media. Thus, the speciation of nano-CuO in toxicological test systems was not only determined by the complexation of Cu ions but also by differential dissolution of nano-CuO in different test conditions leading to a new speciation equilibrium. In addition, a substantial fraction of nano-CuO that was not detectable by Cu-ISE (i.e., not present as free Cu-ions was bioavailable to Cu-biosensor bacteria. Thus, in environmental hazard analysis of (nano particulate materials, biosensor analysis may be more informative than other analytical techniques. Our

  10. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  11. Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

  12. Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

  13. Elaboration versus suppression of cued memories: influence of memory recall instruction and success on parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah I; Brewer, James B

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of episodic memory retrieval consistently report task-evoked and memory-related activity in the medial temporal lobe, default network and parietal lobe subregions. Associated components of memory retrieval, such as attention-shifts, search, retrieval success, and post-retrieval processing also influence regional activity, but these influences remain ill-defined. To better understand how top-down control affects the neural bases of memory retrieval, we examined how regional activity responses were modulated by task goals during recall success or failure. Specifically, activity was examined during memory suppression, recall, and elaborative recall of paired-associates. Parietal lobe was subdivided into dorsal (BA 7), posterior ventral (BA 39), and anterior ventral (BA 40) regions, which were investigated separately to examine hypothesized distinctions in sub-regional functional responses related to differential attention-to-memory and memory strength. Top-down suppression of recall abolished memory strength effects in BA 39, which showed a task-negative response, and BA 40, which showed a task-positive response. The task-negative response in default network showed greater negatively-deflected signal for forgotten pairs when task goals required recall. Hippocampal activity was task-positive and was influenced by memory strength only when task goals required recall. As in previous studies, we show a memory strength effect in parietal lobe and hippocampus, but we show that this effect is top-down controlled and sensitive to whether the subject is trying to suppress or retrieve a memory. These regions are all implicated in memory recall, but their individual activity patterns show distinct memory-strength-related responses when task goals are varied. In parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampus, top-down control can override the commonly identified effects of memory strength.

  14. Word frequency effects in immediate serial recall of pure and mixed lists: tests of the associative link hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; LeBlanc, Jacinthe

    2005-12-01

    In immediate serial recall, high-frequency words are better recalled than low-frequency words. Recently, it has been suggested that high-frequency words are better recalled because of their better long-term associative links, and not because of the intrinsic properties of their long-term representations. In the experiment reported here, recall performance was compared for pure lists of high- and low-frequency words, and for mixed lists composed of either one low- and five high-frequency words or the reverse. The usual advantage of high-frequency words was found with pure lists and this advantage was reduced, but still significant with mixed lists composed of five low-frequency words. However, the low-frequency word included in a high-frequency list was recalled just as well as high-frequency words. Results are challenging for the associative link hypothesis and are best interpreted within an item-based reconstruction hypothesis, along with a distinctiveness account.

  15. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  16. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] pfast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  17. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  18. Temporal associative processes revealed by intrusions in paired-associate recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C.; Geller, Aaron S.; Rizzuto, Daniel S.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Although much is known about the factors that influence the acquisition and retention of individual paired associates, the existence of temporally defined associations spanning multiple pairs has not been demonstrated. We report two experiments in which subjects studied randomly paired nouns for a subsequent cued recall test. When subjects recalled nontarget items, their intrusions tended to come from nearby pairs. This across-pair contiguity effect was graded, spanning noncontiguously studied word pairs. The existence of such long-range temporally defined associations lends further support to contextual-retrieval models of episodic association. PMID:18605481

  19. Test of Cu base alloy Huadong sintering model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁华东; 方宁象; 遇元宏

    2001-01-01

    Through modular pressing and sintering, the Cu-C powder metallurgy samples were made and the process was investigated. The results show that there exist expanding mechanism and shrinking mechanism in sintering process, and whether the sintering body is shrinking or expanding depends on the interacting between the two mechanisms, and the HD sintering model is in keeping with the actual sintering process.

  20. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  1. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  2. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  3. Predicting dementia using socio-demographic characteristics and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Thibault; Baramova, Marieta; Gabelle, Audrey; Artero, Sylvaine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Berr, Claudine

    2017-03-23

    Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables. The predictive performance of crude, residual and risk scores was analyzed by comparing the areas under the ROC curve (AUC). In total, 1750 subjects were seen 5 years after completing the FCSRT. AD was diagnosed in 116 of them. Compared with the crude free-recall score, the predictive performances of the residual score and of the risk score were not significantly improved (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.82 and 0.88 vs 0.89 respectively). Using socio-demographic features in addition to the FCSRT does not improve its predictive performance for dementia or AD.

  4. Temporal texture of associative encoding modulates recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Levy, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  6. Three-word recall in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Melanie J; Lacritz, Laura H; Cicerello, Antionette R; Chapman, Sandra B; Honig, Lawrence S; Weiner, Myron F; Cullum, C Munro

    2004-11-01

    Three-word recall tasks are widely used as brief measures of verbal memory function, although interpretation of performance is complicated by variations in test instructions and procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine 3-word recall performance in samples of healthy subjects aged 5275 (M age = 70) and age 7692 (M age = 82) compared to patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) when explicit prompts to remember the words were given. Those in the younger aging group remembered significantly more words than those in the older sample after a brief delay (M= 2.8 and 2.3, respectively). However, the majority of control subjects recalled 2 or 3 words after the delay, with only 3% of the 5075 year old group and 17% of the 76+ year old group recalling 0 or 1 word on delayed recall. This is in stark contrast to the 87% of individuals with AD who recalled 0 or 1 word. Even though 3-word recall performance decreases with age, good recall (2 or 3 words) can be expected in most cases of normal aging.

  7. Pre-test metyrapone impairs memory recall in fear conditioning tasks: lack of interaction with β-adrenergic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careaga, Mariella B. L.; Tiba, Paula A.; Ota, Simone M.; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are essential for our adaptation to environmental changes and consequently for survival. Numerous studies indicate that hormones secreted during stressful situations, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulate memory functions, modulating aversive memory consolidation and retrieval, in an interactive and complementary way. Thus, the facilitatory effects of GCs on memory consolidation as well as their suppressive effects on retrieval are substantially explained by this interaction. On the other hand, low levels of GCs are also associated with negative effects on memory consolidation and retrieval and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The present study sought to investigate the consequences of blocking the rise of GCs on fear memory retrieval in multiple tests, assessing the participation of β-adrenergic signaling on this effect. Metyrapone (GCs synthesis inhibitor; 75 mg/kg), administered 90 min before the first test of contextual or tone fear conditioning (TFC), negatively affected animals’ performances, but this effect did not persist on a subsequent test, when the conditioned response was again expressed. This result suggested that the treatment impaired fear memory retrieval during the first evaluation. The administration immediately after the first test did not affect the animals’ performances in contextual fear conditioning (CFC), suggesting that the drug did not interfere with processes triggered by memory reactivation. Moreover, metyrapone effects were independent of β-adrenergic signaling, since concurrent administration with propranolol (2 mg/kg), a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not modify the effects induced by metyrapone alone. These results demonstrate that pre-test metyrapone administration led to negative effects on fear memory retrieval and this action was independent of a β-adrenergic signaling. PMID:25784866

  8. Pre-test metyrapone impairs memory recall in fear conditioning tasks: lack of interaction with β-adrenergic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella B.L. Careaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are essential for our adaptation to environmental changes and consequently for survival. Numerous studies indicate that hormones secreted during stressful situations, such as glucocorticoids (GCs, adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulate memory functions, modulating aversive memory consolidation and retrieval, in an interactive and complementary way. Thus, the facilitatory effects of GCs on memory consolidation as well as their suppressive effects on retrieval are substantially explained by this interaction. On the other hand, low levels of GCs are also associated with negative effects on memory consolidation and retrieval and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The present study sought to investigate the consequences of blocking the rise of GCs on fear memory retrieval in multiple tests, assessing the participation of β-adrenergic signaling on this effect. Metyrapone (GCs synthesis inhibitor, administered 90 min before the first test of contextual or auditory fear conditioning, negatively affected animals’ performances, but this effect did not persist on a subsequent test, when the conditioned response was again expressed. This result suggested that the treatment impaired fear memory retrieval during the first evaluation. The administration immediately after the first test did not affect the animals’ performances in contextual fear conditioning, suggesting that the drug did not interfere with processes triggered by memory reactivation. Moreover, metyrapone effects were independent of β-adrenergic signaling, since concurrent administration with propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not modify the effects induced by metyrapone alone. These results demonstrate that pre-test metyrapone administration led to negative effects on fear memory retrieval and this action was independent of a β-adrenergic signaling.

  9. Using Pictographs To Enhance Recall of Spoken Medical Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Peter S.; Bachrach, Rebecca; Witmer, Judith T.; Tringali, Carol A.; Bucher, Julia A.; Localio, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that pictographs can improve recall of spoken medical instructions. Junior college subjects (N=21) listened to two lists of actions, one of which was accompanied by pictographs during both listening and recall while the other was not. Mean correct recall was 85% with pictographs and 14% without, indicating that pictographs can…

  10. Utility of Green's Word Memory Test Free Recall Subtest as a Measure of Verbal Memory: Initial Evidence from a Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Osborn, Katie E; Mattingly, Michelle L; Vale, Fernando L; Benbadis, Selim R; Rodgers-Neame, Nancy T; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the Word Memory Test (WMT) Free Recall (FR) subtest as a conventional memory measure. Nineteen participants with pharmacoresistant left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 16 with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) completed the WMT, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition Logical Memory (LM) subtest during presurgical evaluation. LTLE participants performed significantly worse on FR subtest (p < .05, [Formula: see text]) and RAVLT Trial 7 (p < .01, [Formula: see text]), but not on LM subtest. Age was a significant covariate for FR (p < .01, [Formula: see text]). Logistic regression revealed FR plus age and RAVLT age-adjusted T-scores both yielded 77.1% classification accuracy and respective diagnostic odds ratios of 11.36 and 11.84. Receiver operating characteristic curves to classify seizure laterality found that RAVLT and FR were significant (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82 and 0.74), whereas LM was nonsignificant (AUC = 0.67). Cut scores and positive/negative predictive values were established for improved clinical classification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  12. In-vivo investigations and cytotoxicity tests on Ti/Zr-based metallic glasses with various Cu contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C H; Chen, C H; Huang, Y S; Huang, C H; Huang, J C; Jang, J S C; Lin, Y S

    2017-08-01

    The Ti/Zr-based metallic glasses (MGs) with various Cu contents are prepared, with nominal compositions of Ti45Zr40Si15 (Cu-free), Ti45Zr40Si10Cu5 (low-Cu), and Ti45Zr20Cu35 (high-Cu). The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and in-vitro biocompatibility of these MGs are investigated by means of nano-indentation, electrochemical analyses, MTS assays and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, as well as in-vivo biocompatibility in terms of scanning electron microscopy, micro-CT scans and histological observations. The results show that the electrochemical activity and biocompatibility of the MGs are sensitive to the Cu content. Following the electrocorrosion tests, an increase in ion concentration is observed in high-Cu MG. Eight independent in-vitro tests show that the higher ion concentration leads to a lower cell viability. The twelve-week in-vivo tests show that the Cu-free MGs can be a promising material for developing bio-implants. The high-Cu MG would release Ti and Zr ions with insignificant Cu ion following corrosion testing, enhancing an increased local osteoclast activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study.

  14. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-07-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends on the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimising retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels.

  15. The role of the thalamic nuclei in recognition memory accompanied by recall during encoding and retrieval: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Ranft, Alexander; Mathias, Klaus; Suchan, Boris

    2013-07-01

    The present functional imaging study aimed at investigating the contribution of the mediodorsal nucleus and the anterior nuclei of the thalamus with their related cortical networks to recognition memory and recall. Eighteen subjects performed associative picture encoding followed by a single item recognition test during the functional magnetic resonance imaging session. After scanning, subjects performed a cued recall test using the formerly recognized pictures as cues. This post-scanning test served to classify recognition trials according to subsequent recall performance. In general, single item recognition accompanied by successful recall of the associations elicited stronger activation in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and in the prefrontal cortices both during encoding and retrieval compared to recognition without recall. In contrast, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus were selectively active during the retrieval phase of recognition followed by recall. A correlational analysis showed that activation of the anterior thalamus during retrieval as assessed by measuring the percent signal changes predicted lower rates of recognition without recall. These findings show that the thalamus is critical for recognition accompanied by recall, and provide the first evidence of a functional segregation of the thalamic nuclei with respect to the memory retrieval phase. In particular, the mediodorsal thalamic-prefrontal cortical network is activated during successful encoding and retrieval of associations, which suggests a role of this system in recall and recollection. The activity of the anterior thalamic-temporal network selectively during retrieval predicts better memory performances across subjects and this confirms the paramount role of this network in recall and recollection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  17. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  18. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  19. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  20. The effects of social pressure on group recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B

    2003-12-01

    In two experiments, individual subjects worked in conjunction with two perceived group members to recall six 30-item categorized word lists. The perceived group members' recall levels were manipulated to establish either high or low group standards. After participating in the perceived group, subjects completed a surprise final individual recall test that covered all of the presented material. On the basis of the hypothesis that the subjects' performance would be affected by social pressure, it was predicted that subjects working in high-performing groups would recall more words than subjects working in low-performing groups on both the group recall tests and the final individual recall test. These predicted results were observed. Thus, a complete analysis of the group recall environment should include a consideration of conformity theory whereby subjects' memories can be affected by their group members' output levels.

  1. Exploring the Retrieval Dynamics of Delayed and Final Free Recall: Further Evidence for Temporal-Contextual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in free recall were explored based on a two-stage search model that relies on temporal-contextual cues. Participants were tested on both delayed and final free recall and correct recalls, errors, and latency measures were examined. In delayed free recall, participants began recall with the first word presented and tended to…

  2. Age differences in coupling of intraindividual variability in mnemonic strategies and practice-related associative recall improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schmiedek, Florian

    2017-09-01

    The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e.g., 23-DOGS), presented for brief exposures titrated to maintain below-ceiling performance throughout practice. Participants reported strategy use (e.g., rote repetition, imagery) after each test. Substantial IAV in strategy use was detected that was coupled with performance; lists studied with normatively effective strategies (e.g., imagery) generated higher PA recall than lists studied with less effective strategies (e.g., rote repetition). In comparison to younger adults, older adults' practice (a) relied more on repetition and less on effective strategies, (b) showed lower levels of IAV in effective strategy use, and (c) had lower within-person strategy-recall coupling, especially late in practice. Individual differences in pretest-posttest gains in PA recall were predicted by average level of effective strategy use in young adults but by strategy-recall coupling in older adults. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing variability in strategic outcomes during practice helps hone the effectiveness of strategic encoding behavior, and that older adults' reduced degree of pretest-posttest gains is influenced by lower likelihood of using and optimizing effective strategies through practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Telephone word-list recall tested in the rural aging and memory study: two parallel versions for the TICS-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Eva; Bandelow, Stephan; Hart, John; Henderson, Victor W

    2004-09-01

    Parallel versions of memory tasks are useful in clinical and research settings to reduce practice effects engendered by multiple administrations. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of three parallel versions of ten-item word list recall tasks administered by telephone. A population based telephone survey of middle-aged and elderly residents of Bradley County, Arkansas was carried out as part of the Rural Aging and Memory Study (RAMS). Participants in the study were 1845 persons aged 40 to 95 years. Word lists included that used in the telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS) as a criterion standard and two newly developed lists. The mean age of participants was 61.05 (SD 12.44) years; 39.5% were over age 65. 78% of the participants had completed high school, 66% were women and 21% were African-American. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between groups receiving different word list versions, and performances on the three versions were equivalent for both immediate (mean 4.22, SD 1.53) and delayed (mean 2.35 SD 1.75) recall trials. The total memory score (immediate+delayed recall) was negatively associated with older age (beta = -0.41, 95%CI=-0.11 to -0.04), lower education (beta = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.36 to 0.51), male gender (beta = -0.18, 95%CI = -1.39 to -0.90) and African-American race (beta = -0.15, 95%CI = -1.41 to -0.82). The two RAMS word recall lists and the TICS word recall list can be used interchangeably in telephone assessment of memory of middle-aged and elderly persons. This finding is important for future studies where parallel versions of a word-list memory task are needed. (250 words).

  4. Using recall to reduce false recognition: diagnostic and disqualifying monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false recognition. Manipulation checks indicated that the latter instructions did elicit a recall-to-reject strategy. However, false recognition was selectively reduced only when all the words from a category could be recalled (Experiment 1). When longer categories were used, thereby minimizing exhaustive recall, a recall-to-reject strategy was ineffective at reducing false recognition (Experiment 2). It is suggested that exhaustively recalling a category allowed subjects to disqualify the lure as having occurred, analogous to recall-to-reject demonstrations in other tasks. In contrast, partially recalling a category did not help to diagnose the lure as nonstudied. These findings constrain theories of recall-based monitoring processes. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  5. The stress-corrosion behavior of Al-Li-Cu alloys: A comparison of test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two powder metallurgy processed (Al-Li-Cu) alloys with and without Mg addition were studied in aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution during the alternate immersion testing of tuning fork specimens, slow crack growth tests using fracture mechanics specimens, and the slow strain rate testing of straining electrode specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography were used to demonstrate the character of the interaction between the Al-Li-Cu alloys and the selected environment. Both alloys are susceptible to SC in an aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution under the right electrochemical and microstructural conditions. Each test method yields important information on the character of the SC behavior. Under all conditions investigated, second phase particles strung out in rows along the extrusion direction in the alloys were rapidly attacked, and played principal role in the SC process. With time, larger pits developed from these rows of smaller pits and under certain electrochemical conditions surface cracks initiated from the larger pits and contributed directly to the fracture process. Evidence to support slow crack growth was observed in both the slow strain rate tests and the sustained immersion tests of precracked fracture mechanics specimens. The possible role of H2 in the stress corrosion cracking process is suggested.

  6. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hyun Sik

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness ...

  7. Manufacturing and testing of a Be/OFHCCu divertor module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M.; Youchison, D. L.; Akiba, M.; Watson, R. D.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.

    1996-10-01

    Beryllium, carbon-based materials and tungsten are considered as plasma facing materials for the next generation of fusion machines such as the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). Beryllium is one of the primary candidate materials because of its low atomic number and lack of tritium codeposition. However, joining of a beryllium armor to a copper heat sink remains a critical problem due to the formation of brittle intermetallics at the interface. To address this concern, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute manufactured a beryllium/Cu divertor module with Cr and Ni diffusion barriers. This Be/Cu module was tested in the electron beam test system of Sandia National Laboratories in the framework of the US—Japan Fusion Collaboration. The divertor module consisted of four beryllium tiles, 25 mm × 25 mm, and a square copper heat sink with convolutions like a screw nut inside the coolant channel. To evaluate the integrity of the brazed bonds under various heat fluxes, beryllium tiles of two different thicknesses, 2 and 10 mm, were bonded to the copper heat sink. Cooling conditions of 10 m/s water flow velocity at 1 MPa, and a water inlet temperature of 20°C were selected based on the thermal analysis. During high heat flux testing the 10 mm thick Be tiles detached at an absorbed heat flux around 5 MW/m 2 for several shots due to flaws at the braze joint confirmed by optical observation after manufacturing. One of the 2 mm thick Be tiles failed after 550 cycles at the steady state heat flux of 6.5 MW/m 2. Most likely the failure was caused by brittleness at the interface caused by the presence of BeCu intermetallics.

  8. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivask, Angela; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kapruwan, Pankaj; Stone, Vicki; Yin, Hong; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

  9. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  10. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  11. Recall of television commercials as a function of viewing context: the impact of program-commercial congruity on commercial messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the congruity between the involvement types of advertising commercial and a television program on the effectiveness of the commercial was studied. Participants (N = 103) viewed either a cognitive or an affective commercial for a product, which was embedded in either a cognitive or an affective television program. The results showed that the effects of the congruence influence the impact on memory. Free recall and cued recall were significantly influenced by the program-commercial congruity. Free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving program context than in the affectively involving program context. Similarly, free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the affectively involving commercial in the affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.

  12. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  13. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  14. HHF test with 80x80x1 Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups for verifying the joining technology of the ITER blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Bae, Young Dug; Kim, Suk Kwon; Hong, Bong Guen; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Jeong Yong; Choi, Byung Kwon; Jung, Hyun Kyu

    2008-11-15

    Through the fabrication of the Cu/SS and Be/Cu joint specimens, fabrication procedure such as material preparation, canning, degassing, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), PHHT (Post HIP heat treatment) was established. The HIP conditions (1050 .deg. C, 100 MPa 2 hr for Cu/SS, 580 .deg. C 100 MPa 2 hr for Be/Cu) were developed through the investigation on joint specimen fabricated with the various HIP conditions; the destructive tests of joint include the microstructure observation of the interface with the examination of the elemental distribution, tension test, bend test, Charpy impact test and fracture toughness test. However, since the joint should be tested under the High Heat Flux (HHF) conditions like the ITER operation for verifying its joint integrity, several HHF tests were performed like the previous HHF test with the Cu/SS, Be/Cu, Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups. In the present study, the HHF test with Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups, which have 80 mm x 80 mm single Be tile and each material depths were kept to be the same as the ITER blanket FW. The Mock-ups fabricated with three kinds of interlayers such as Cr/Ti/Cu, Ti/Cr/Cu, Ti/Cu, which were different from the developed interlayer (Cr/Cu), total 6 Mock-ups were fabricated. Preliminary analysis were performed to decide the test conditions; they were tested with up to 2.5 MW/m2 of heat fluxes and 20 cycles for each Mock-up in a given heat flux. They were tested with JUDITH-1 at FZJ in Germany. During tests, all Mock-ups showed delamination or full detachment of Be tile and it can be concluded that the joints with these interlayers have a bad joining but it can be used as a good data for developing the Be/Cu joint with HIP.

  15. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test Distinguishes Frontotemporal Dementia From Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Raquel; Duro, Diana; Simões, Mário R.; Santana, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Memory impairment is often present in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as a result of an inefficient use of learning strategies, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a memory test that controls attention and acquisition, by providing category cues in the learning process. The main goal of this study was to show the usefulness of the FCSRT in the distinction between behavioral (bv-) FTD and AD. Three matched subgroups of participants were considered: bv-FTD (n = 32), AD (n = 32), and a control group of healthy adults (n = 32). Results proved that while AD patients exhibited an overall impairment in FCSRT, bv-FTD subjects showed to benefit more from the controlled learning through category cues. AD patients were 25 times more likely to have an impaired FCSRT. The FCSRT has shown its utility in the distinction between bv-FTD and AD, therefore increasing the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25062746

  16. Odor-cued taste avoidance: a simple and robust test of mouse olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Burton; Coppola, David M

    2015-05-01

    In odor-cued taste avoidance (OCTA), thirsty mice, offered either an odorized nonaversive fluid (S+) or an odorized aversive fluid (S-), quickly learn to use odor to avoid drinking the S-. Acquisition of both odor detection and odor discrimination tasks is very rapid with learning evidenced in most cases by either long response times or total avoidance on the second presentation of the S- stimulus. OCTA is perhaps one of the simplest conditioning procedures for assessing olfaction in mice; it requires only a test box, drinkometer circuit, and thirsty mice accustomed to drinking in the apparatus. Its advantages over the most commonly used alternatives, habituation-dishabituation, and the mouse dig test, are discussed.

  17. Development of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Test Coupons for Potential Induced Degradation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Miguel A.; Hacke, Peter; Repins, Ingrid

    2016-11-21

    We report on the design, fabrication and accelerated testing of fully encapsulated small area coupons (approximately 7.5cm x 7.5 cm) for the purpose of researching potential induced degradation in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 based PV modules. The fabrication of these coupons enables the study of the solar cells and the materials used in PV module manufacturing such as top and bottom glass covers of different composition (soda-lime glass, high temperature glass, alkaline-free glass, etc), plastic-based top covers, ethylene vinyl acetate and edge seal encapsulation materials. The coupons can also be used to emulate framed and frameless modules that utilize either monolithically interconnected modules or singular cell type of modules. The design of the coupons, their fabrication, the materials used and their testing for 1000 hours under 85 degrees C and 85% RH conditions are presented.

  18. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  19. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of YbInCu{sub 4}: Direct Testing of Correlated Electron Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Sarrao, J.L.; Fisk, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The electronic properties of single crystal YbInCu{sub 4} have been investigated by means of high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. A first order, isostructural phase transition for YbInCu{sub 4} at T{sub v}=42 K leads to changes in the Kondo temperature of more than an order of magnitude (27 K vs. 400 K). This phase transition and accompanying Kondo temperature change provide the most direct test of the single impurity model (SIM) to date. Particle hole symmetry allows the SIM to be used for Yb compounds as well as Ce heavy fermions with the great advantage that the predicted Kondo resonance is found on the occupied side of the spectral weight function for Yb materials and is thus directly observable in photoemission. The photoemission results are incongruous with the single impurity model predictions for temperature dependence, binding energy and 4f occupancy, encouraging a reevaluation of the single impurity model. The experiments were conducted using the PGM undulator and 4 meter NIM beamlines at SRC. The spectra were taken at photon energies of 40 eV and 90 eV and the combined energy resolution of the analyzer and monochromator was 45- 85 meV.

  20. Utilizing various test methods to study the stress corrosion behavior of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to aluminum-lithium alloys because of rather substantial specific-strength and specific-stiffness advantages offered over commercial 2000and 7000-series aluminum alloys. An obstacle to Al-Li alloy development has been inherent limited ductility. In order to obtain a more refined microstructure, powder metallurgy (P/M) has been employed in alloy development programs. As stress corrosion (SC) of high-strength aluminum alloys has been a major problem in the aircraft industry, the possibility of an employment of Al-Li alloys has been considered, taking into account a use of Al-Li-Cu alloys. Attention is given to a research program concerned with the evaluation of the relative SC resistance of two P/M processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. The behavior of the alloys, with and without an addition of magnesium, was studied with the aid of three test methods. The susceptibility to SC was found to depend on the microstructure of the alloys.

  1. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  2. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  3. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  4. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... Administration will review the adequacy of a proposed recall strategy developed by a recalling firm and...

  5. Investigation of Be/Cu joints via HHF tests of small-scale mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Gervash, A.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, N.; Mazul, I.; Yablokov, N. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium-copper (Be/Cu) joints in divertor components work under cyclic heat loads. To develop reliable joints small-scale mockups are fabricated by divertor technologies and tested under the divertor conditions. One of the critical damaging factors that exist in the divertor and have to be simulated is thermocyclic heat loads in the range of 1-15 MW/m{sup 2}. This work presents the divertor mockups that have beryllium tiles with different dimensions (5 x 5 - 44 x 44) mm{sup 2} brazed with copper alloy heat sink. The electron beam was used to braze these mockups so as to decrease the formation of brittle intermetallic layers. The description of mockups design, geometry of armour tiles and fabrication techniques are presented in the paper. The results of screening and thermocyclic tests of these mockups in the heat flux range of 2-12 MW/m{sup 2} with a number of cycles {approx}10{sup 3} are presented. The results of metallographic analysis are also presented. The results of fabrication and testing with small-scale mockups for first wall application are also described. (author)

  6. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts . Filter by Keyword(s): Filter ...

  7. Micronucleus Test, Nuclear Abnormalities and Accumulation of Cu and Cd on Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853)

    OpenAIRE

    Güner, Utku; Dilek, Fulya; Muranlı, Gökalp

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the induction of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes and Cu and Cd accumulation in whole body of Gambusia affinis were studied. Fish were exposed to two different Cu and Cd concentrations, 0.1 ppm and 1 ppm, for 1 and 2 weeks periods and to Cu-Cd combination (0.1 ppm Cu + 0.1 ppm Cd) for 2 weeks period using a semi-static renewal system. Micronucleus and nuclear abnormality analysis were carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes. When fish...

  8. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  9. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  10. Final report on in-reactor tensile tests on OFHC - Copper and CuCrZr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N; Edwards, D.J.; Tähtinen, S.

    2004-01-01

    of uniaxial tensile tests on pure copper and a CuCrZr alloy in a fission reactor at 363 and 393K. In the following, we first describe the experiments and then present results illustrating the build up ofstress as a function of concurrently increasing strain and displacement dose level. Results on both pre...

  11. Environmental context effects of background color in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Taeo; Isarin, Tosmko K

    2007-10-01

    In four experiments, we investigated background-color context effects in free recall. A total of 194 undergraduates studied words presented one by one against a background color, and oral free recall was tested after a 30-sec filled retention interval. A signal for recall was presented against a background color throughout the test. Recalled items were classified as same- and different-context items according to whether the background colors at study and test were the same or different. Significant context effects were found in Experiments I and 2, in which two background colors were randomly alternated word by word. No context effects were found in Experiments 3 and 4, in which a common background color was presented for all items (Experiment 3) or for a number of successive items (Experiment 4). The results indicate that a change in background colors is necessary and sufficient to produce context effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.

  12. Benefits of testing for nontested information: retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-12-01

    Testing is a powerful means to boost the retention of information. The extent to which the benefits of testing generalize to nontested information, however, is not clear. In three experiments, we found that completing cued-recall tests for a subset of studied materials enhanced retention for the specific information tested, as well as for associated, nontested information during later free-recall testing. In Experiment 1, this generalized benefit was revealed for lists of category-exemplar pairs. Experiment 2 extended the effect to unrelated words, suggesting that retrieval can enhance later free recall of nontested information that is bound solely through episodic context. In Experiment 3, we manipulated the format of the final test and found facilitation in free-recall, but not in cued-recall, testing. The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context. More generally, these findings suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has previously been suggested, and they further motivate the adoption of testing as a practical and effective learning tool.

  13. Querschnittevaluation des Medizinischen Curriculums München (MeCuM mit Hilfe des Progress Tests Medizin (PTM [Using the Progress Test Medizin (PTM for evaluation of the Medical Curriculum Munich (MeCuM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reincke, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: The Medical Curriculum Munich (MeCuM has been implemented since 2004 and was completely established in 2007. In this study the clinical part of MeCuM was evaluated with respect to retention of the knowledge in internal medicine (learning objectives of the 6th/7th semester. Methods: In summer of 2009 and winter of 2009/2010 1065 students participated in the Progress Test Medizin (PTM from Charité Medical School Berlin. Additionally the students answered a questionnaire regarding the acceptance and rating of the progress test and basic demographic data. Results: The knowledge of internal medicine continuously increases during the clinical part of the medical curriculum in Munich. However, significant differences between the sub-disciplines of internal medicine could be observed. The overall acceptance of the PTM was high and increased further with the study progress. Interestingly, practical experiences like clinical clerkships positively influenced the test score. Conclusions: The PTM is a useful tool for the evaluation of knowledge retention in a specific curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Das Medizinische Curriculum München (MeCuM wurde seit 2004 implementiert. Seit 2007 ist MeCuM im klinischen Studienabschnitt voll etabliert (Ende der Übergangsregelungen. Aktuell sollte MeCuM bezüglich der Nachhaltigkeit des im Modul 2 „Konservative Medizin“ (6./7. Semester vermittelten Wissens evaluiert werden.Methodik: Im Sommersemester 2009 und Wintersemester 2009/2010 absolvierten 1065 Studierende den Progress Test Medizin (PTM. Zusätzlich beantworteten die Studierenden einen Fragebogen zur Akzeptanz und Bewertung des PTM sowie zu demographischen Basisdaten.Ergebnisse: Das Wissen „Konservative Medizin“ nimmt im klinischen Studienabschnitt kontinuierlich zu, wobei sich deutliche Unterschiede in den internistischen Subdisziplinen zeigen. Die Akzeptanz des PTM ist sehr hoch und nimmt im Studienverlauf zu. Praktische Erfahrungen

  14. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  16. Rehearsal in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    We report for the first time overt rehearsal data in immediate serial recall (ISR) undertaken at three presentation rates (1, 2.5, and 5 sec/word). Two groups of participants saw lists of six words for ISR and were required either to engage in overt rehearsal or to remain silent after reading aloud the word list during its presentation. Typical ISR serial position effects were obtained for both groups, and recall increased with slower rates. When participants rehearsed, they tended to do so in a cumulative forward order up to Serial Position 4, after which the amount of rehearsal decreased substantially. There were similarities between rehearsal and recall data: Both broke down toward the end of longer sequences, and there were strong positive correlations between the maximum sequence of participants' rehearsals and their ISR performance. We interpret these data as suggesting that similar mechanisms underpin both rehearsal and recall in ISR.

  17. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  18. Psychosocial stress after reactivation of drug-related memory impairs later recall in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shi, Jie; Epstein, David H; Lu, Lin

    2009-04-01

    Stress and stress hormone are known to play important roles in modulating different stages of memory including reconsolidation. In a previous study, we found that treatment with stress or corticosterone after a single memory reactivation disrupted reconsolidation of a drug-related memory in rats. Here we presumed that stress after memory reactivation can effectively inhibit drug-related memory by disrupting its reconsolidation in abstinent heroin addicts. In the present study, 21 abstinent heroin addicts learned a word list (containing ten neutral, ten heroin-related negative, and ten heroin-related positive words) on day 1; retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) was made on day 2; and immediately after retrieval, they were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. On day 3, free recall of the word list and other psychological and physical responses were assessed. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory recall was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that heroin-related negative and positive words (i.e., heroin-related words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. Stress after drug-related memory retrieval significantly decreased its subsequent recall, likely through impaired drug-related memory reconsolidation process. Reconsolidation blockade may thus provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in drug addiction.

  19. Film Deposition, Cryogenic RF Testing and Materials Analysis of a Nb/Cu Single Cell SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Palczerski, Ari [JLAB; Li, Yongming [Peking

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present preliminary results on using a cathodic-arc-discharge Nb plasma ion source to establish a Nb film-coated single-cell Cu cavity for SRF research. The polycrystalline Cu cavity was fabricated and mirror-surface-finished by a centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) process at Jefferson Lab. Special pre-coating processes were conducted, in order to create a template-layer for follow-on Nb grain thickening. A sequence of cryogenic RF testing demonstrated that the Nb film does show superconductivity. But the quality factor of this Nb/Cu cavity is low as a result of high residual surface resistance. We are conducting a thorough materials characterization to explore if some microstructural defects or hydrogen impurities, led to such a low quality factor.

  20. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  1. Part-list cuing effects in children: A developmental dissociation between the detrimental and beneficial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Thomas; Aslan, Alp

    2017-09-21

    Providing a subset of previously studied items as a retrieval cue can both impair and improve recall of the remaining items. Here, we investigated the development of these two opposing effects of such part-list cuing in children. Using listwise directed forgetting to manipulate study context access, three child age groups (7-8, 9-11, and 13-14years) and young adults studied a list of items and, after study, were asked to either forget or continue remembering the list. After presentation of a second list, participants were tested on predefined target items from the original list in either the presence or absence of the list's remaining (nontarget) items serving as retrieval cues. Results revealed that part-list cuing impaired recall of to-be-remembered target items regardless of age. In contrast, part-list cuing improved recall of to-be-forgotten target items in the adult and the oldest child groups but not in the two younger child groups. This finding suggests a developmental dissociation between the two opposing effects of part-list cuing, indicating that the beneficial effect develops later than the detrimental effect. In particular, following the view that the beneficial effect of part-list cuing arises from reactivation of the study context, the results suggest that elementary school children have difficulty in capitalizing on context reactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Free and Cued Memory in relation to Biomarker-Defined Abnormalities in Clinically Normal Older Adults and Those at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Mormino, Elizabeth; Hedden, Trey; Dekhytar, Maria; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Furthering our understanding of the relationship between amyloidosis (Aβ), neurodegeneration (ND), and cognition is imperative for early identification and early intervention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the subtle cognitive decline differentially associated with each biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD has yet to be fully characterized. Recent work indicates that different components of memory performance (free and cued recall) may be differentially specific to memory decline in prodromal AD. We sought to examine the relationship between free and cued recall paradigms, in addition to global composites of memory, executive functioning, and processing speed in relation to stages of preclinical AD. Methods A total of 260 clinically normal (CN) older adults (CDR=0) from the Harvard Aging Brain study were grouped according to preclinical AD stages including Stage 0 (Aβ−/ND−), Stage 1 (Aβ+/ND−), Stage 2 (Aβ+/ND+), and suspected non-Alzheimer’s associated pathology (SNAP; Aβ−/ND+). General linear models controlling for age, sex, and education were used to assess for stage-based performance differences on cognitive composites of executive functioning, processing speed, and memory in addition to free and cued delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and Memory Capacity Test (MCT). Results Global memory performance differed between preclinical stages with Stage 2 performing worse compared with Stage 0. When examining free and cued paradigms by memory test, only the MCT (and not the SRT) revealed group differences. More specifically, Stage 1 was associated with decrements in free recall compared with Stage 0 while Stage 2 was associated with decrements in both free and cued recall. There was a trend for the SNAP group to perform worse on free recall compared with Stage 0. Finally, there was no association between preclinical stage and global composites of executive functioning or processing speed. Conclusions Clinically

  3. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pritchard, E.W. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  4. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  5. Perceiving cancer-risks and heredity-likelihood in genetic-counseling : how counselees recall and interpret BRCA1/2-test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Menko, F. H.; Stoel, R. D.; van Asperen, C. J.; Tibben, A.; Stiggelbout, A. M.; JANSEN, AM

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the counsellees' perception of DNA test results did not clarify whether counsellees were asked about their recollections or interpretations, and focused only on patients' own risks and not on the likelihood that cancer is heritable in the family. We tested differences and correla

  6. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  7. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  8. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbin eSong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e. pressing key 2 after 3 in 4-3-2-1 and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e. pressing key 2 in the third ordinal position in 4-3-2-1 in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song & Cohen, in press can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz & Cleeremans, 2001. We report that (a the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory, (b subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories, and (c subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen & Squire, 1980, may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions.

  9. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-02

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  10. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sik

    2014-05-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness.

  11. The Effects of Reading Ability and Sex Difference on Recall Protocols of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the concurrent validity of a recall test as a measure of reading comprehension and the effects of the level of reading ability and sex difference on the written recalls of 70 Japanese EFL university students. Results showed that there were moderate significant correlations between a recall test and a standardized reading test (i.e., FCE): for all the students, r = .64, p < .01; for males, r = .61, p < .01; for females, r = .67, p < .01, suggesting that a recall test is...

  12. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  13. Recalling of Images using Hopfield Neural Network Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, C; Shreedhara, Dr K S

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, an effort has been made for storing and recalling images with Hopfield Neural Network Model of auto-associative memory. Images are stored by calculating a corresponding weight matrix. Thereafter, starting from an arbitrary configuration, the memory will settle on exactly that stored image, which is nearest to the starting configuration in terms of Hamming distance. Thus given an incomplete or corrupted version of a stored image, the network is able to recall the corresponding original image. The storing of the objects has been performed according to the Hopfield algorithm explained below. Once the net has completely learnt this set of input patterns, a set of testing patterns containing degraded images will be given to the net. Then the Hopfield net will tend to recall the closest matching pattern for the given degraded image. The simulated results show that Hopfield model is the best for storing and recalling images.

  14. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  15. List and Text Recall Differ in Their Predictors: Replication Over Samples and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that latent list and text recall invoke somewhat different processes. A bivariate outcome path model of latent list and text recall evaluated the effects of age, latent speed, working memory, and vocabulary as their predictors. Independent of age, working memory reliably predicted both recall variables, whereas speed reliably predicted list recall only. The relationship between vocabulary and recall was mediated by age, working memory, and speed. The generalizability of this model, based on data from the 1994 testing of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, was evaluated across samples by testing its invariance on baseline data from an additional panel and for eventual attrition at baseline and at a subsequent testing of retested participants and dropouts. Results showed that the model was invariant over all groups, supporting a replicable distinction between list and text recall. PMID:20498454

  16. Manufacturing and testing of W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up for EAST by HIP and HRP technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Qin, Sigui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Wang, Wanjing; Qi, Pan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Roccella, Selanna; Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Liu, Guohui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: liqiang577@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2013-10-15

    ITER-like W/Cu mono-block plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be used in vertical target regions of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) divertor. The first W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up with five W mono-blocks has been manufactured successfully by technological combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and hot radial pressing (HRP). The joining of a W mono-block and a pure copper interlayer was achieved by means of HIP technology and the bonding strength was over 150 MPa. The good bonding between the pure copper interlayer and a CuCrZr cooling tube was obtained by means of HRP technology. In order to understand deeply the process of HRP, the stress distribution of the mock-up during HRP process was simulated using ANSYS code. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing (NDT) of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces was performed, showing that excellent bonding of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces. The thermal cycle fatigue testing of the mock-up has been carried out by means of an e-beam device in Southwest Institute of Physics, Chengdu (SWIP) and the mock-up withstood 1000 cycles of heat loads up to 8.4 MW/m{sup 2} with the cooling water of 2 m/s, 20 °C, 0.2 MPa.

  17. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  18. Memorization and recall of very long lists accounted for within the Long-Term Working Memory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, K Anders

    2012-06-01

    In a recent paper, Hu, Ericsson, Yang, and Lu (2009) found that an ability to memorize very long lists of digits is not mediated by the same mechanisms as exceptional memory for rapidly presented lists, which has been the traditional focus of laboratory research. Chao Lu is the holder of the Guinness World Record for reciting the most decimal positions of pi, yet he lacks an exceptional memory span for digits. In the first part of this paper we analyzed the reliability and structure of his reported encodings for lists of 300 digits and his application of the story mnemonic. Next, his study and recall times for lists of digits were analyzed to test hypotheses about his detailed encoding processes, and cued-recall performance was used to assess the structure of his encodings. Three experiments were then designed to interfere with the uniqueness of Chao Lu's story encodings, and evidence was found for his remarkable ability to adapt his encoding processes to reduce the interference. Finally, we show how his skills for encoding and recalling long lists can be accounted for within the theoretical framework of Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) Long-Term Working Memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective attention and the three-process memory model for the interpretation of verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates selective attention and verbal free recall in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examines the contribution of selective attention, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval memory processes to patients' verbal free recall. We examined 22 non-demented patients with sporadic ALS and 22 demographically related controls using Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST; selective attention) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; immediate & delayed verbal free recall). The item-specific deficit approach (ISDA) was applied to RAVLT to evaluate encoding, consolidation, and retrieval difficulties. ALS patients performed worse than controls on SNST (p recall (p recall, with encoding (p = .016), consolidation (p recall, with consolidation (p recall. Concluding, selective attention and the memory processes of encoding, consolidation, and retrieval should be considered while interpreting patients' impaired free recall. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-10).

  20. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

  1. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems.

  2. Categorization skills and recall in brain damaged children: a multiple case study Habilidades de categorização e recordação em crianças com lesões cerebrais: um estudo de casos multiplos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Berlim de Mello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During development, children become capable of categorically associating stimuli and of using these relationships for memory recall. Brain damage in childhood can interfere with this development. This study investigated categorical association of stimuli and recall in four children with brain damages. The etiology, topography and timing of the lesions were diverse. Tasks included naming and immediate recall of 30 perceptually and semantically related figures, free sorting, delayed recall, and cued recall of the same material. Traditional neuropsychological tests were also employed. Two children with brain damage sustained in middle childhood relied on perceptual rather than on categorical associations in making associations between figures and showed deficits in delayed or cued recall, in contrast to those with perinatal lesions. One child exhibited normal performance in recall despite categorical association deficits. The present results suggest that brain damaged children show deficits in categorization and recall that are not usually identified in traditional neuropsychological tests.No desenvolvimento, as crianças tornam-se capazes de associar estímulos em categorias e de se beneficiar dessas associações para sua recordação posterior. Lesões cerebrais na infância podem interferir nesse desenvolvimento. Neste estudo, essas habilidades foram avaliadas em crianças com lesões cerebrais. A etiologia, topografia e época de instalação da lesão variaram. As tarefas incluíram: nomeação e recordação imediata de 30 figuras relacionadas perceptual e semanticamente; associação livre; recordação tardia e recordação com pistas. Testes neuropsicológicos tradicionais também foram usados. Duas crianças com lesões adquiridas na fase escolar associaram as figuras baseadas em relações perceptivas e não categóricas e apresentaram déficits de recordação tardia e com pistas, ao contrario das outras duas com lesões perinatais

  3. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  4. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

  5. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  6. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  7. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  8. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe.

  9. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  10. Subjective organisation in the free recall learning of adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2008-01-01

    Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger's syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organisation of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment 2) free recall over 16 trials in adults with AS and typical individuals. Across both experiments AS participants showed marginally diminished recall. Poorer SO was seen in the Asperger group only in Experiment 2, but in both experiments, individual differences in SO in the Asperger group were less likely to converge over trials. This lack of convergence suggests that the AS group organise material in idiosyncratic ways.

  11. Dissociative effects of true and false recall as a function of different encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kerri A

    2007-01-01

    Goodwin, Meissner, and Ericsson (2001) proposed a path model in which elaborative encoding predicted the likelihood of verbalisation of critical, nonpresented words at encoding, which in turn predicted the likelihood of false recall. The present study tested this model of false recall experimentally with a manipulation of encoding strategy and the implementation of the process-tracing technique of protocol analysis. Findings indicated that elaborative encoding led to more verbalisations of critical items during encoding than rote rehearsal of list items, but false recall rates were reduced under elaboration conditions (Experiment 2). Interestingly, false recall was more likely to occur when items were verbalised during encoding than not verbalised (Experiment 1), and participants tended to reinstate their encoding strategies during recall, particularly after elaborative encoding (Experiment 1). Theoretical implications for the interplay of encoding and retrieval processes of false recall are discussed.

  12. The recall of information from working memory: insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Cowan, Nelson; Hitch, Graham J.; Horton, Neil J

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments we test a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory, according to which reading span items can be recovered or specified from multiple memory representations. Each reading span experiment involves memoranda either embedded within or unrelated to the sentence content. This manipulation affected the timing of recall, with longer pauses accompanying items that are linked to processing. Levels of recall accuracy vary between these task formats, dependent on the orienting task for processing. Experiment 1 compares the chronometry of spoken recall for word span and reading span, in which participants complete an unfinished sentence. Experiment 2 and 3 confirm recall time differences without using word generation requirements, while Experiments 4 used an item and order response choice paradigm with nonspoken responses. We argue that verbal and manual recall timing offers an informative measure for understanding working memory. PMID:19130763

  13. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David V. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)], E-mail: dvl2101@columbia.edu

    2007-12-15

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  14. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-12-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  15. Recency and suffix effects in serial recall of musical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, R L; Samuel, A G

    1986-10-01

    Auditory presentation of verbal items leads to larger recency effects in recall than visual presentation. This enhanced recency can be eliminated if a stimulus suffix (an irrelevant sound) follows the last item. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that recency and suffix effects in serial recall result from a speech-specific process. It was demonstrated that serial recall of musical notes played on a piano exhibited substantial recency effects. These recency effects were reduced when the list items were followed by either a piano chord or the word start. However, a white-noise suffix had no effect on recency. This pattern of data is consistent with current work on auditory perception and places constraints on theories of recency and suffix effects.

  16. Order information and free recall: evaluating the item-order hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Lozito, Jeffrey P

    2007-05-01

    The item-order hypothesis proposes that order information plays an important role in recall from long-term memory, and it is commonly used to account for the moderating effects of experimental design in memory research. Recent research (Engelkamp, Jahn, & Seiler, 2003; McDaniel, DeLosh, & Merritt, 2000) raises questions about the assumptions underlying the item-order hypothesis. Four experiments tested these assumptions by examining the relationship between free recall and order memory for lists of varying length (8, 16, or 24 unrelated words or pictures). Some groups were given standard free-recall instructions, other groups were explicitly instructed to use order information in free recall, and other groups were given free-recall tests intermixed with tests of order memory (order reconstruction). The results for short lists were consistent with the assumptions of the item-order account. For intermediate-length lists, explicit order instructions and intermixed order tests made recall more reliant on order information, but under standard conditions, order information played little role in recall. For long lists, there was little evidence that order information contributed to recall. In sum, the assumptions of the item-order account held for short lists, received mixed support with intermediate lists, and received no support for longer lists.

  17. High Heat Flux Testing of B4C/Cu and SiC/Cu Functionally Graded Materials Simulated by Laser and Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 谌继明; 张斧; 许增裕; 葛昌纯; 李江涛

    2002-01-01

    B4C, SiC and C, Cu functionally graded-materials (FGMs) have been developed by plasma spraying and hot pressing. Their high-heat flux properties have been investigated by high energy laser and electron beam for the simulation of plasma disruption process of the future fusion reactors, And a study on eroded products of B4C/Cu FGM under transient thermal load of electron beam was performed. In the experiment, SEM and EDS analysis indicated that B4C and SiC were decomposed, carbon was preferentially evaporated under high thermal load, and a part of Si and Cu were melted, in addition, the splash of melted metal and the particle emission of brittle destruction were also found. Different erosive behaviors of carbon-based materials (CBMs) caused by laser and electron beam were also discussed.

  18. Event History Data and Survey Recall. An Analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Recall Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effect of less-frequent interviews on data quality in longitudinal surveys, event history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 regarding welfare and employment were analyzed. Due to the longer recall period, respondents failed to report short spells of welfare, employment, and unemployment. (SK)

  19. Controlled recall of verbal material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Flowers, Kenneth A; Roberts, Kathrine A

    2009-09-01

    This study used a guided process-dissociation procedure to examine the contribution of controlled and automatic uses of memory to a cued-recall task in 24 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE: 12 left-sided; 12 right-sided), and 12 neurotypical controls. In an inclusion task, participants attempted to complete three-letter word stems using previously studied words, in an exclusion task they aimed to avoid using studied words to complete stems. Patients with left TLE produced fewer target completions under inclusion conditions. Completion rates were not significantly different under exclusion conditions. Estimates derived from process dissociation calculations, confirmed that the cued-recall deficit in left TLE patients arose entirely from impairment in controlled memory processes. There were no group differences in the estimates of automatic processes. Recognition judgements of stems corresponding to studied words did not differ between the groups. Overall the results support the view that controlled and automatic memory processes are mediated by separable neural systems. Hippocampal and related structures within the left MTL are more important than corresponding right hemisphere structures for the controlled retrieval of verbal material. In contrast, the findings from this study do not suggest that the left and right temporal lobes make a differential contribution to automatic memory processing. The theoretical and clinical relevance of these findings are discussed.

  20. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  1. Evaluating Recall and Recognition Memory Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Applicability for Alzheimer's and Huntington's Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Santoro, Maya S; Goldstein, Jody; Gluhm, Shea; Gilbert, Paul E; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2016-12-01

    We sought to investigate whether the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) could provide a brief assessment of recall and recognition using Huntington disease (HD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) as disorders characterized by different memory deficits. This study included 80 participants with HD, 64 participants with AD, and 183 community-dwelling control participants. Random-effects hierarchical logistic regressions were performed to assess the relative performance of the normal control (NC), participants with HD, and participants with AD on verbal free recall, cued recall, and multiple-choice recognition on the MoCA. The NC participants performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. No difference existed between participants with HD and NC for cued recall, but NC participants performed significantly better than participants with HD on free recall and recognition. The participants with HD performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. The MoCA appears to be a valuable, brief cognitive assessment capable of identifying specific memory deficits consistent with known differences in memory profiles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical instructions II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, P S; Witmer, J T; Egeth, H E; Loscalzo, M J; Zabora, J R

    2001-06-01

    The first study in this series [Houts PS, Bachrach R, Witmer JT, Tringali CA, Bucher JA, Localio RA. Patient Educ. Couns. 1998;35:83-8] found that recall of spoken medical instructions averaged 14% but that, when pictographs (drawings representing the instructions) accompanied the spoken instructions and were present during recall, 85% of medical instructions were remembered correctly. Those findings suggested that spoken instructions plus pictographs may be a way to give people with low literacy skills access to medical information that is normally available only in written form. However, there were three important limitations to that study: (1) the subjects were literate and perhaps literate people remember pictograph meanings better than people with low literacy skills; (2) only short term recall was tested and, for medical information to be useful clinically, it must be remembered for significant periods of time and (3) a maximum of 50 instructions were shown in pictographs, whereas managing complex illnesses may require remembering several hundred instructions. This study addresses those limitations by investigating 4-week recall of 236 medical instructions accompanied by pictographs by people with low literacy skills. Subjects were 21 adult clients of an inner city job training program who had less than fifth grade reading skills. Results showed 85% mean correct recall of pictograph meanings immediately after training (range from 63 to 99%) and 71% after 4 weeks (range from 33 to 94%). These results indicate that people with low literacy skills can, with the help of pictographs, recall large amounts of medical information for significant periods of time. The impact of pictographs on symptom management and patient quality of life remains to be studied.

  3. Free recall and learning of emotional word lists in very elderly people with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis-Mark, Ruth E; Schalk, Kim; de Graaf, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    An emotional memory advantage has been found across the life span where recall is better for emotional (as opposed to neutral) stimuli. Our goal was to design emotionally valent word lists for easy use by practitioners and to test whether demented and healthy elderly participants showed an emotional memory advantage with these lists. Three new word lists (a positive, a negative, and a neutral list) were constructed. Thirty-eight controls, 37 with mild cognitive impairment and 20 Alzheimer's dementia participants' free recall was tested. Unsurprisingly, controls had better recall overall. Emotionally valent words were recalled better in comparison to neutral words in all 3 groups. No recall advantage for positive versus negative words emerged. Learning differed among the groups with the Alzheimer's dementia participants showing flatter learning curves. The results tentatively suggest that emotional memory may stay intact longer but that learning of such lists becomes more difficult as dementia progresses.

  4. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  6. Comparison of the mechanical properties of NiTi/Cu bilayer by nanoindentation and tensile test: molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Sara; Vahedpour, Morteza; Khatiboleslam Sadrnezhaad, Sayed

    2016-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study of mechanical properties of NiTi/Cu bilayer by nanoindentation and tensile testing. A comparison has been made among mechanical properties measured and plastic deformation process at different copper thickness during nanoindnetation and tensile test of the samples. Embedded atom method potentials for describing of inter-atomic interaction and Nose-Hoover thermostat and barostat are employed in the simulation at 400 K. The results showed that as the copper film thickness decreased, the maximum load and hardness values increased during nanoindetation. Saha and Nix model is used to describe reduced young’s modulus behaviour of the bilayer system through nanoindentation. A good agreement among calculated reduced elastic modulus by nanoindentation test and young’s modulus behaviour via tensile test have been obtained. The ‘incoherent interface’ in both of nanoindentation test and tensile testing is one of the governing factors for the dislocation propagation, which resulted in significant strengthening of the bilayer. It was observed that during tensile test, only copper layers were necked and fractured in all of samples. However, the present study seeks to examine the effect of film thickness on the free energy values that is obtained using Jarzynski’s equality during nanoindentation. As the copper film thickness was decreased, the free energy difference increased. According to both techniques, the thin film copper thickness provides lower number of nucleation locations resulting in the higher value of yield strength, hardness and free energy difference during nanoindenation. Mechanical properties of bilayer systems are improved with decreasing of copper film thickness. However, it specifies that strengths of all bilayer systems have prominent increase in young’s modulus in compared to the pure NiTi.

  7. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall...

  8. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  9. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  10. Sex differences in recall of real or nonsense words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen; Seal, Brooke N

    2003-08-01

    Women perform better than men on tests of verbal memory, but the nature of this advantage has not been precisely established. To examine whether phonemic memory is a factor in the female advantage, we presented, along with other verbal memory tasks, one containing nonsense words. Overall, there was the expected female advantage. However, an examination of the individual tests showed female superiority in recall of the real words but not the nonsense words.

  11. The hidden effects of recalling secrets: Assimilation, contrast, and the burdens of secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Masicampo, E J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-08-01

    Three high-power studies (N = 3,000 total) demonstrated that asking participants to recall an experience as a manipulation can have unintended consequences. Participants who recalled preoccupying secrets made more extreme judgments of an external environment, supporting the notion that secrecy is burdensome. This influence was found, however, only among a subset of participants (i.e., participants who successfully recalled secrets that corresponded to their condition). We introduce the concept of manipulation correspondence to understand these patterns of results. Without taking into account whether participants' recalled secrets corresponded to their manipulation, there was no main effect of the recall manipulation on hill slant judgments. Among participants whose secrets did not correspond with the manipulation, a contrast effect emerged (i.e., influences on perceptual judgments opposite to the intention of the recall prompts). Moreover, the very process of recalling a secret in response to a prompt can lead to contrast from that prompt. Exposing participants to extreme exemplar secrets can experimentally produce, or counteract, this contrast effect. Preoccupying secrets are burdensome but tests of this phenomenon must take into account whether participants are actually preoccupied with their secrets (i.e., whether their recalled secrets correspond with the experimental manipulation), or experimentally ensure that participants judge their secrets as in line with the manipulation. More broadly, the current research speaks to a fundamental principle of recall manipulations; when recalling a particular experience, correspondence with the manipulation will determine its effects, and the process of recalling an experience (and comparing it to a prompt) might change how one perceives that experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Pre-irradiation testing of actively cooled Be-Cu divertor modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Kuehnlein, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A set of neutron irradiation tests is prepared on different plasma facing materials (PFM) candidates and miniaturized components for ITER. Beside beryllium the irradiation program which will be performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, includes different carbon fiber composites (CFQ) and tungsten alloys. The target values for the neutron irradiation will be 0.5 dpa at temperatures of 350{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C, resp.. The post irradiation examination (PIE) will cover a wide range of mechanical tests; in addition the degradation of thermal conductivity will be investigated. To determine the high heat flux (HHF) performance of actively cooled divertor modules, electron beam tests which simulate the expected heat loads during the operation of ITER, are scheduled in the hot cell electron beam facility JUDITH. These tests on a selection of different actively cooled beryllium-copper and CFC-copper divertor modules are performed before and after neutron irradiation; the pre-irradiation testing is an essential part of the program to quantify the zero-fluence high heat flux performance and to detect defects in the modules, in particular in the brazed joints.

  13. Respondents' recall of injury events: an investigation of recall bias in cross-sectional injury data from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Safa; Abdelgadir, Nahid; Shahraz, Saeid; Bhalla, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Recall bias is a well-documented limitation of population-based cross-sectional injury surveys. To fill some gaps in this area, we investigated the extent and nature of recall bias in Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS 2010) injury data. The extent of incomplete recall was measured by comparing the total reported injuries over 12 months with the annualised number of injuries in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of socio-demographic variables, injury attributes and interviewee characteristics with differential recall. Relevant interactions were tested. Overall, reported injuries were 33% of the expected. Injuries among children 1-4 years had lower odds of being reported to have occurred earlier than the four weeks preceding the survey than people aged 65 years and over (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47). Injuries that received inpatient care in the first week were more likely to be recalled than those that did not receive care (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.75). Respondent's age was associated with differential recall. Differential injury recall should be considered when using SHHS 2010 to compare injury occurrence between children under five and older groups or at the level of health care received.

  14. Variation in the recall of socially rewarding information and depressive symptom severity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Kounali, D-Z; Button, K S; Duffy, L; Wiles, N J; Munafò, M R; Harmer, C J; Lewis, G

    2017-05-01

    To test the association between recall for socially rewarding (positive) and/or socially critical (negative) information and depressive symptoms. Cohort study of people who had visited UK primary care in the past year reporting depressive symptoms (N = 558, 69% female). Positive and negative recall was assessed at three time-points, 2 weeks apart, using a computerised task. Depressive symptoms were assessed at four time-points using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Analyses were conducted using multilevel models. Concurrently we found evidence that, for every increase in two positive words recalled, depressive symptoms reduced by 0.6 (95% CI -1.0 to -0.2) BDI points. This association was not affected by adjustment for confounders. There was no evidence of an association between negative recall and depressive symptoms (-0.1, 95% CI -0.5 to 0.3). Longitudinally, we found more evidence that positive recall was associated with reduced depressive symptoms than vice versa. People with more severe depressive symptoms recall less positive information, even if their recall of negative information is unaltered. Clinicians could put more emphasis on encouraging patients to recall positive, socially rewarding information, rather than trying to change negative interpretations of events that have already occurred. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Age-dependent recall bias for material of internal versus external origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anna M; Crucian, Gregory P; Wingard, Ellen M; Graybeal, Laura A; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2003-09-01

    To learn whether young and aged subjects exhibit different recall biases for internally derived (Internal) versus externally supplied (External) material. Internally derived knowledge, prized by educators and therapists, can bring about dramatic behavioral change. Such information, seldom assessed on formal memory testing, may be preferentially recalled compared with external-origin material. Under some circumstances, however, subjects may demonstrate a recall advantage for externally supplied over internally generated material. We compared Internal and External word recall in young and aged subjects with and without explicit intent to remember. Although overall the young and aged subjects recalled the same number of words, we did find a word-origin recall bias. This recall bias differed by age group (P = 0.005). When not instructed to remember words, the young subjects tended to remember more External words, while aged subjects remembered more Internal words. The differences in the brain mechanisms mediating Internal versus External recall bias are unknown. However, aging may modify an Internal-External memory bias.

  16. Efecto del tipo de prueba de evaluación en la memoria y valoración de marcas publicitarias (Effect of the type of memory test on the evaluation of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martín-Luengo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory tests are frequently used to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement. However, as different tests provide different kinds of information it is important to know which type of test is the most appropriate. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different memory tests on the number of brands recalled and the level of interest generated by them. A group of participants wrote down all the brands of any kind of product that they remembered having seen advertised (free recall test and rated their interest in each brand. Subsequently, the participants were given a list of 27 categories and wrote down the brands they associated with the categories (cued recall test and also rated their level of interest. The results showed that although the participants generated more brand names with the cued recall test, the brand names mentioned in the free recall test generated greater interest. These results highlight the importance of choosing the correct memory test to measure the effect of publicity.

  17. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang singularity of classical general relativity is replaced by a quantum bounce. Because of the extreme physical conditions near the bounce, a natural question is whether the universe can retain, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the universe recall various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce or does it suffer from cosmic amnesia as has been recently suggested? Here we show that this issue can be answered unambiguously by means of an exactly solvable model, derived from a small simplification of loop quantum cosmology, for which there is full analytical control on the quantum theory. We show that if there exists a semi-classical state at late times on one side, peaked around a pair of canonically conjugate variables, then there are very strong bounds on the fluctuations on the other side of the bounce, implying semi-classicality. For a model universe which grows to a size ...

  18. Structure-dependent size effects in CuTa/Cu nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C. [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xian Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xian Jiaotong University Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2016-03-21

    CuTa monolayers with different Ta contents (34 at% and 37 at%) and CuTa/Cu multilayers with varying nanoscale Cu layer thickness (3–24 nm) were prepared by magnetron sputtering. Their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanoindentation testing. The microstructure of CuTa34 was pure amorphous phase while that of CuTa37 was amorphous phase embedded with nanoparticles. Adding Cu layers into the two different CuTa monolayers led to CuTa-Cu interfaces with different microstructures. For CuTa34/Cu, the interface was relatively straight and the Cu layers exhibited textured growth. For CuTa37/Cu, the interface was wavy and GBs (grain boundaries) were formed in the Cu layers. To investigate the influence of the two different microstructures on multilayer deformation, the residue indentation morphologies of CuTa/Cu were observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). For both CuTa34/Cu and CuTa37/Cu, SBs (shear bands) could be effectively inhibited if the Cu layers had a proper thickness. Dominant deformation mechanisms and size effects were proposed and discussed for CuTa/Cu thin films possessing different interfaces and Cu layer structures.

  19. Awareness and recall in outpatient anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennervirta, Johanna; Ranta, Seppo O-V; Hynynen, Markku

    2002-07-01

    We studied the incidence of awareness and explicit recall during general anesthesia in outpatients versus inpatients undergoing surgery. During a 14.5-mo period, we structurally interviewed 1500 outpatients and 2343 inpatients. Among outpatients, there were five cases of awareness and recall (one with clear intraoperative recollections and four with doubtful intraoperative recollections). Of the inpatients, six reported awareness and recall (three with clear and three with doubtful intraoperative recollections). The incidence of clear intraoperative recollections was 0.07% in outpatients and 0.13% in inpatients. The difference in the incidence was not significant. Among outpatients, those with awareness and recall were given smaller doses of sevoflurane than those without awareness and recall (P awareness and recall are rare complications of general anesthesia, and outpatients are not at increased risk for this event compared with inpatients undergoing general anesthesia. Rapid recovery from general anesthesia is a crucial element of outpatient surgery. However, this practice may predispose a patient to receive less anesthetic, with increased risk for awareness and recall. We have shown that outpatients undergoing an operation using general anesthesia are not at increased risk for awareness compared with inpatients.

  20. Selective Reminding and Free and Cued Selective Reminding in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Raquel; Afonso, Ana; Martins, Cristina; Waters, James H; Blanco, Filipe Sobral; Simões, Mário R; Santana, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are multitrial memory tests that use a common "selective reminding" paradigm that aims to facilitate learning by presenting only the missing words from the previous recall trial. While in the FCSRT semantic cues are provided to elicit recall, in the SRT, participants are merely reminded of the missing items by repeating them. These tests have been used to assess age-related memory changes and to predict dementia. The performance of healthy elders on these tests has been compared before, and results have shown that twice as many words were retrieved from long-term memory in the FCSRT compared with the SRT. In this study, we compared the tests' properties and their accuracy in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 20) from Alzheimer disease (AD; n = 18). Patients with AD performed significantly worse than patients with aMCI on both tests. The percentage of items recalled during the learning trials was significantly higher for the FCSRT in both groups, and a higher number of items were later retrieved, showing the benefit of category cueing. Our key finding was that the FCSRT showed higher accuracy in discriminating patients with aMCI from those with AD.

  1. Improvements in recall and food choices using a graphical method to deliver information of select nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Nathan S; Ellison, Brenna D; Benjamin, Aaron S; Nakamura, Manabu T

    2016-01-01

    Consumers have difficulty using nutrition information. We hypothesized that graphically delivering information of select nutrients relative to a target would allow individuals to process information in time-constrained settings more effectively than numerical information. Objectives of the study were to determine the efficacy of the graphical method in (1) improving memory of nutrient information and (2) improving consumer purchasing behavior in a restaurant. Values of fiber and protein per calorie were 2-dimensionally plotted alongside a target box. First, a randomized cued recall experiment was conducted (n=63). Recall accuracy of nutrition information improved by up to 43% when shown graphically instead of numerically. Second, the impact of graphical nutrition signposting on diner choices was tested in a cafeteria. Saturated fat and sodium information was also presented using color coding. Nutrient content of meals (n=362) was compared between 3 signposting phases: graphical, nutrition facts panels (NFP), or no nutrition label. Graphical signposting improved nutrient content of purchases in the intended direction, whereas NFP had no effect compared with the baseline. Calories ordered from total meals, entrées, and sides were significantly less during graphical signposting than no-label and NFP periods. For total meal and entrées, protein per calorie purchased was significantly higher and saturated fat significantly lower during graphical signposting than the other phases. Graphical signposting remained a predictor of calories and protein per calorie purchased in regression modeling. These findings demonstrate that graphically presenting nutrition information makes that information more available for decision making and influences behavior change in a realistic setting.

  2. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T M

    2017-04-01

    So-called "looks-at-nothing" have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to "there" does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to "there" facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  3. Characterizing perfect recall in Epistemic Temporal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Witzel, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We review the notion of perfect recall in the literature on interpreted systems, game theory, and epistemic logic. We give a (to our knowledge) novel frame condition for it, which is local and can straightforwardly be translated to a defining formula in a language that only has next-step temporal operators, such as epistemic temporal logic (ETL). It also gives rise to a complete axiomatization for S5 ETL frames with perfect recall. We then consider how to extend and consolidate the notion of perfect recall in sub-S5 settings, where the various notions discussed are no longer equivalent.

  4. Latent semantic analysis: a new method to measure prose recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Barclay, Lee; Waterreus, Anna; Flicker, Leon

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional methods of scoring the Logical Memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III with a new method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA represents texts as vectors in a high-dimensional semantic space and the similarity of any two texts is measured by the cosine of the angle between their respective vectors. The Logical Memory test was administered to a sample of 72 elderly individuals, 14 of whom were classified as cognitively impaired by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results showed that LSA was at least as valid and sensitive as traditional measures. Partial correlations between prose recall measures and measures of cognitive function indicated that LSA explained all the relationship between Logical Memory and general cognitive function. This suggests that LSA may serve as an improved measure of prose recall.

  5. Economics of Traceability for Mitigation of Food Recall Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Resende-Filho, Moises; Buhr, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Traceability of food products and particularly meats is increasingly advocated as a means to provide consumer confidence in credence attributes (e.g., range fed, organic, country of origin) as well as for improved quality control. In the case of food safety, where there are failures in testing and there is not likely to be zero failure rates, traceability may also improve the overall process efficiency and cost effectiveness of recalls. This study relies on case observations to develop a gen...

  6. MOJIBAKE – The Rehearsal of Word Fragments In Verbal Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christiane eLange-Küttner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005. In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF English words versus geographical UK town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT non-words and names of international (INT European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  7. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  8. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  9. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the...

  10. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  11. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  12. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  13. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  14. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  15. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  16. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed... contain irrelevant qualifications, promotional materials, or any other statement that may detract from...

  17. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  18. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... was the most stable in these experiments, and thus, the stirred set-up is the best choice for experimental set-up. The order in which the heavy metals were removed from the harbour sediments was Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu....

  19. Memory Training for Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease Improves Name Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kesslak

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is clinically characterized by a variety of progressive cognitive deficits, most notably an impaired ability to acquire new information, such as name recall. Eleven demented patients and 11 controls participated in a 4 week memory program that included training in name–face recall. Individuals were taught strategies for name–face rehearsal, and administered task specific and standardized tests to assess the intervention efficacy. During the memory training patients improved recall of names and faces (p

  20. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R

    1984-01-01

    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...... of erythema, as well as a phototoxicity-like response. Skin biopsies from test sites were compatible with phototoxic dermatitis. The occurrence of both erythema recall and the phototoxicity-like reaction suggests that more than one mechanism is involved in this side effect....

  1. Recall and response time norms for English-Swahili word pairs and facts about Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Ashley S; Heydarian, Nazanin M

    2017-02-01

    In the vast literature exploring learning, many studies have used paired-associate stimuli, despite the fact that real-world learning involves many different types of information. One of the most popular materials used in studies of learning has been a set of Swahili-English word pairs for which Nelson and Dunlosky (Memory 2; 325-335, 1994) published recall norms two decades ago. These norms involved use of the Swahili words as cues to facilitate recall of the English translation. It is unclear whether cueing in the opposite direction (from English to Swahili) would lead to symmetric recall performance. Bilingual research has suggested that translation in these two different directions involves asymmetric links that may differentially impact recall performance, depending on which language is used as the cue (Kroll & Stewart, Journal of Memory and Language 33; 149-174,1994). Moreover, the norms for these and many other learning stimuli have typically been gathered from college students. In the present study, we report recall accuracy and response time norms for Swahili words when they are cued by their English translations. We also report norms for a companion set of fact stimuli that may be used along with the Swahili-English word pairs to assess learning on a broader scale across different stimulus materials. Data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk to establish a sample that was diverse in both age and ethnicity. These different, but related, stimulus sets will be applicable to studies of learning, metacognition, and memory in diverse samples.

  2. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  3. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  4. Recall of patients on community treatment orders over three years in the OCTET CTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Yeeles, Ksenija; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Burns, Tom

    2016-11-09

    Randomised studies consistently show that Community Treatment Orders (CTOs) do not have the intended effect of preventing relapse and readmissions of patients with severe and enduring mental illness. Critics suggest this in part can be explained by RCTs studying newly introduced CTO regimes and that patients therefore were not brought back to hospital for short-term observations ('recall') as frequently as intended. Our purpose was (i) to test the hypothesis that CTO practice as regards recall of patients to hospital in England and Wales was as rigorous under the OCTET trial period as in current routine use and (ii) to investigate the reasons for and outcomes of recalls and whether this changed over time. Thirty six-month observational prospective study of 198 patients in the OCTET Follow-up Study. Forty percent of patients were recalled, 19 % more than once. This is in line with current national use. Deterioration in clinical condition was the most common reason for recalls (49 %), and 68 % of recalls resulted in revocation of the order (i.e., retention in hospital under compulsion). This pattern remained stable over time. The use of recall cannot explain why RCTs have not confirmed any benefits from CTOs, and their continued use should be reconsidered. The OCTET Trial was retrospectively registered on 12 November 2009 ( ISRCTN73110773 ).

  5. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged ingested magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P ingestion (P ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of high heat flux testing of W/CuCrZr multilayer composites with percolating microstructure for plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greuner, Henri, E-mail: henri.greuner@ipp.mpg.de; Zivelonghi, Alessandro; Böswirth, Bernd; You, Jeong-Ha

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the performance of plasma-facing components made of W and CuCrZr. • Functionally graded composite at the interface of W and CuCrZr to mitigate the CTE. • A three-layer composite system (W volume fraction: 70/50/30%) was developed. • Design of water-cooled divertor components up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat load for e.g. DEMO. • HHF tests up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} were successfully performed. - Abstract: Reliable joining of tungsten to copper is a major issue in the design of water-cooled divertor components for future fusion reactors. One of the suggested advanced engineering solutions is to use functionally graded composite interlayers. Recently, the authors have developed a novel processing route for fabricating multi-layer graded W/CuCrZr composites. Previous characterization confirmed that the composite materials possess enhanced strength compared to the matrix alloy and shows reasonable ductility up to 300 °C indicating large potential to extend the operation temperature limit. Furthermore, a three-layer composite system (W volume fraction: 70/50/30%) was developed as a graded interlayer between the W armour and CuCrZr heat sink. In this study, we investigated the structural performance of the graded joint. Three water-cooled mock-ups of a flat tile type component were fabricated using electron beam welding and thermally loaded at the hydrogen neutral beam test facility GLADIS. Cycling tests at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and screening tests up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} were successfully performed and confirmed the expected thermal performance of the compound. The measured temperature values were in good agreement with the prediction of finite element analysis. Microscopic investigation confirmed the structural integrity of the newly developed functionally graded composite after these tests.

  7. Consensus collaboration enhances group and individual recall accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Celia Bernadette; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2012-01-01

    We often remember in groups, yet research on collaborative recall finds “collaborative inhibition”: Recalling with others has costs compared to recalling alone. In related paradigms, remembering with others introduces errors into recall. We compared costs and benefits of two collaboration procedu...

  8. Mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Riccardo; Whittuck, Dora; Roberson, Debi; Dutton, Kevin; Georgiou, George; Fox, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    The status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals was evaluated following incidental encoding of target words. Individuals with high and low levels of trait anxiety completed a modified Stroop task, which revealed an attentional bias for threat-related stimuli in anxious individuals. This group was significantly slower in naming the colour in which threat-related words were displayed compared to neutral words. In a subsequent free recall test for the words used in the modif...

  9. Influence of static tensile testing on the deformation behavior of Al-4% Cu alloy containing micro- and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalyov, Anton; Vorozhtov, Sergey; Kulkov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    At present, aluminum alloys reinforced with nonmetallic particles are of great interest in various fields of science and technology due to their high specific strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties. At the same time there is a great interest in the study of processes occurring during plastic deformation of such materials under static tensile loading. Plastic flow of metals occurs through the creation and movement of linear defects (dislocations), in which there is a phenomenon of discontinuous yielding. An introduction of particles into aluminum alloy promotes a considerable increase of stiffness and specific strength of alloys, and the study of the deformation behavior of such alloys is of great interest. The objective of this research is to analyze mechanical properties and the deformation behavior of aluminum alloy with the identification of mechanisms of plastic deformation when introducing solid nonmetallic micro- and nanoparticles into the soft aluminum matrix. An analysis of the microstructure of the obtained alloys shows that the introduction of particles (Al2O3, TiB2, TiC) leads to a reduction of the alloy grain size from 350 to 170 µm while residual porosity does not exceed 2%. Tensile tests performed show that the change in the type and quantity of particles also changes characteristics of discontinuous yielding, thus resulting in an increase of yield strength (from 18 to 40 MPa), reduction of ductility (from 15 to 2%), and moreover a significant increase of tensile strength (from 77 to 130 MPa), as compared to the initial Al-4 wt % Cu alloy.

  10. Mood State-Dependent Retention Using Identical or Non-Identical Mood Inductions at Learning and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, David A.

    State-dependent retention (SDR) refers to the tendency to recall something more easily when in the same state as when one first learned it. The most directly relevant evidence in favor of mood SDR has confounded matching of mood at learning and recall with matching of mood induction procedure. A study was conducted to test directly whether the use…

  11. The Contributions of Primary and Secondary Memory to Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Analysis of Immediate Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the dual-component model of working memory capacity (WMC) by examining estimates of primary memory and secondary memory from an immediate free recall task. Participants completed multiple measures of WMC and general intellectual ability as well as multiple trials of an immediate free recall task. It was demonstrated that…

  12. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  13. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke.

  14. Effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by sequential monosyllabic digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J; Schwartzberg, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Information is often paired with music in an attempt to facilitate recall and enhance learning. However, there is a lack of basic research investigating how music carrying information might facilitate recall and subsequent learning. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by recall performance on a sequential digit recall task. Specific research questions were as follows: (a) How might female and male voice timbres affect serial recall? (b) How might piano, guitar, and no accompaniment affect serial recall? (c) Do music majors have enhanced recall accuracy when compared to nonmusic majors? The recall of information paired with six different melodies was tested on 60 university students. Melodies were composed and recorded using female and male voices with three levels of accompaniment: guitar, piano, and no accompaniment. Participants had more accurate recall during the male voice and piano and no accompaniment conditions and least accurate recall during the female voice and guitar accompaniment conditions. As participants had most accurate recall during the male voice and with piano or no accompaniment, clinicians are encouraged to consider using no accompaniment or piano accompaniment when initially teaching social and academic information paired with music for later recall. When possible, vocal timbre (i.e., the potential benefit of male voicing) should also be considered. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  16. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. PMID:28208763

  17. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  18. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  19. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi shape-memory wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 1: stress-strain tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to compare, through traction tests, eight types of superelastic and heat-activated NiTi archwires, by six trade companies (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek to those with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC, Ormco. METHODS: The tests were performed in an EMIC mechanical testing machine, model DL10000, capacity of 10 tons, at the Military Institute of Engineering (IME. RESULTS: The results showed that, generally, heat-activated NiTi archwires presented slighter deactivation loadings in relation to superelastic. Among the archwires that presented deactivation loadings biologically more adequate are the heat-activated by GAC and by Unitek. Among the superelastic NiTi, the CuNiTi 27ºC by Ormco were the ones that presented slighter deactivation loadings, being statistically (ANOVA similar, to the ones presented by the heat-activated NiTi archwires by Unitek. When compared the CuNiTi 27ºC and 35ºC archwires, it was observed that the 27ºC presented deactivation forces of, nearly, ⅓ of the presented by the 35ºC. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the CuNiTi 35ºC archwires presented deactivation loadings biologically less favorable in relation to the other heat-activated NiTi archwires, associated to lower percentage of deformation, on the constant baselines of deactivation, showing less adequate mechanical behavior, under traction, in relation to the other archwires.

  20. Blood component recalls and market withdrawals: frequency, reasons, and management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Glenn

    2013-04-01

    In a previous article, we reviewed the management of blood component recalls and withdrawals (G. Ramsey. Transfusion Med Rev 2004;18:36-45). Since then, US rates of recall and biological product deviation for blood components have improved significantly, particularly with regard to reduced recalls for donor infectious disease risks or testing. However, analysis of the current data from the US Food and Drug Administration suggests that 1 (0.4%) in 250 blood components is involved in market withdrawals and quarantines, with 1 in 5800 components formally recalled. Most of these units, unfortunately, had already have been transfused. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued several recent guidances that address transfusion service actions for dealing with specific infectious disease problems. This present article updates our 2004 recommendations as to when to notify physicians about transfused nonconforming blood components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lexicality and phonological similarity: a challenge for the retrieval-based account of serial recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Anthony B; Mak, Eva; Tehan, Gerald; Daly, Charmaine

    2005-01-01

    The retrieval-based account of serial recall (Saint-Aubin & Poirier, 2000) attributes lexicality, phonological similarity, and articulatory suppression effects to a process where long-term representations are used to reconstruct degraded phonological traces. Two experiments tested this assumption by manipulating these factors in the recall of four- and five-item lists of words and non-words. Lexicality enhanced item recall (IR), but only affected position accuracy (PA) for five-item lists under suppression. Phonological similarity influenced both words and non-words, and produced impaired PA in silent and suppressed conditions. Consistent with the retrieval-based account, words and non-words of high word-likeness appear subject to redintegration. However, some findings, like suppression not reducing the phonological similarity impairment in suppressed conditions, present challenges for the retrieval-based account and other models of serial recall.

  2. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  3. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  4. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  5. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  6. The Ease-of-task and Part-list Cuing Effect%任务难度与部分线索效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫海; 谢思源; 刘湍丽; 刘希平

    2012-01-01

    The so-called part-list cuing effect is that a presentation of a subset of learned items as retrieval cues can have detrimental effects on recall of the remaining items. In a nutshell, when people are asked to recall words they have studied earlier from a list, those given a subset of these words as cues recall fewer words than people who do not receive any cues. The effect of part-list cuing has been found to be very robust in both episodic and semantic memory, and it is present with both noncategorized and categorized lists. There were three experiments in the current study to investigate the Part-list cuing effect with Chinese words. All of them used the same design model which included study-test circle. All the participants learned an identical words list of 30 items in the study phase, after that the participants of the control group were instructed to free recall all the items in the uncued condition; the cued group were provided with a subset of 10 intralist items and used them as retrieval cues for recalling the remaining items. The different performance between the cued group and the uncued group showed the size of the effect. Experiment 1 used 30 words unrelated semantically. What the subjects studied in Experiment 2 were 30 words out of 6 categories but presented randomly when they were studied. In Experiment 3 other 30 words were used out of those 6 categories as well while presented in the way of categories. The findings show that ① when the material is noncategorized lists, those given a subset of these words as cues recall fewer words than people who do not receive any cues; ② when the material is categorized lists presented in a random order, the cues also have an inhibitory effect on recall. ③ The cues also have an inhibitory effect on recall, when the material is categorized lists presented in a way of category. ④The easier the materials are,the lower the part-list cuing size appears. The major findings of the study are that the part

  7. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  8. Training Older Adult Free Recall Rehearsal Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three groups of older adults were compared on a free recall task with categorizable lists. Data showed that older adults' memory performance is modifiable and that efficient performance is obtained when instructional training is aimed at the processes that are crucial to task performance. (Author)

  9. Planning for Recall of Maintenance Manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    time between maintenance NTB nominal-the-best OSD/RA Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs RAM reliability , availability...RECALL OF MAINTENANCE MANPOWER by Yang Siang Kelvin Poh September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Gary O. Langford Second Reader: Mark Stevens THIS...

  10. Improving text recall with multiple summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans; Meij, van der Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in

  11. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and...

  12. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  13. Rehearsal and recall in immediate memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.

    1961-01-01

    Experiments on the influence of rehearsal on the retention and recoil of digit combinations are described, from the results of which it appears that a rehearsal period facilitates recall by producing a transition from immediate to permanent memory. It further seems that some parts of the material pr

  14. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kaynak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an acute, egzematous reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. We report a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who received locoregional radiotherapy followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. Three day after the first cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis developed in the previously irradiated skin.

  15. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  16. Young Children's Scripted-Story Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Renee; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    A study investigated the effects of presentation mode and type of content on young children's recall of nouns in a scripted narrative. Forty-nine children in the second month of first grade were presented a fictional narrative in which were embedded 18 target nouns classified as high-scripted, medium-scripted, or low-scripted. Subjects then viewed…

  17. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  18. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    achieve very high recall, including methods that include a human assessor in the loop [6]. We submitted six automated runs for the small At home task and...Evaluation of Machine-learning Protocols for Technology - assisted Review in Electronic Discovery. In Proc of SIGIR, 2014. [3] Aldo Lipani, Mihai Lupu, Allan

  19. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  20. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Isabella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary neuropsychological models of ADHD implicate impaired cognitive control as contributing to disorder characteristic behavioral deficiencies and excesses; albeit to varying degrees. While the traditional view of ADHD postulates a core deficiency in cognitive control processes, alternative dual-process models emphasize the dynamic interplay of bottom-up driven factors such as activation, arousal, alerting, motivation, reward and temporal processing with top-down cognitive control. However, neuropsychological models of ADHD are child-based and have yet to undergo extensive empirical scrutiny with respect to their application to individuals with persistent symptoms in adulthood. Furthermore, few studies of adult ADHD samples have investigated two central cognitive control processes: interference control and task-set coordination. The current study employed experimental chronometric Stroop and task switching paradigms to investigate the efficiency of processes involved in interference control and task-set coordination in ADHD adults. Methods 22 adults diagnosed with persistent ADHD (17 males and 22 matched healthy control subjects performed a manual trial-by-trial Stroop color-word test and a blocked explicitly cued task switching paradigm. Performance differences between neutral and incongruent trials of the Stroop task measured interference control. Task switching paradigm manipulations allowed for measurement of transient task-set updating, sustained task-set maintenance, preparatory mechanisms and interference control. Control analyses tested for the specificity of group × condition interactions. Results Abnormal processing of task-irrelevant stimulus features was evident in ADHD group performance on both tasks. ADHD group interference effects on the task switching paradigm were found to be dependent on the time allotted to prepare for an upcoming task. Group differences in sustained task-set maintenance and

  1. Developmental changes in fact and source recall: contributions from executive function and brain electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-04-01

    Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental changes in fact and source recall: Contributions from executive function and brain electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Rajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood.

  3. Recall of remote episodic memories can appear deficient because of a gist-based retrieval orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoy, John D; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A

    2009-02-01

    Determining whether patients with amnesia can succeed in remembering their distant past has pivotal implications for theories of memory storage. However, various factors influence recall. We speculated that some patients with anterograde amnesia adopt a gist-based retrieval orientation for memories from all time periods, thereby exaggerating remote recall deficits. We tested whether an experimentally induced gist-based retrieval orientation could indeed hinder remote recall. Healthy individuals described photographs of complex scenes (e.g., of a cluttered desk) either with many words or few words (detail- or gist-based manipulation, respectively). They subsequently recalled autobiographical events and produced less episodic information after engaging the gist-based compared to the detail-based orientation. These results demonstrate the ease with which a gist-based orientation can produce apparent recall impairments. Deficits in remote episodic recall, and in future-event imagining, must thus be interpreted in light of habitual tendencies toward gist-based retrieval that some amnesic patients may exhibit.

  4. Associative relatedness enhances recall and produces false memories in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald

    2010-12-01

    The influence of permanent lexical network in immediate serial recall is well established. The corresponding influence of permanent semantic networks is less clear, although such networks are known to both facilitate memory in long-term memory tasks and to produce false memories in those same tasks. The current experiment involves the study of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists for immediate serial recall. The trials in the experiment involved presenting the six strongest items from the DRM lists either in intact associatively related lists or where those items had been randomly mixed to produce unrelated lists. The results of the experiment indicated that the associatively related lists were better recalled in order than unrelated lists and the nonpresented critical lure was falsely recalled relatively frequently. The results of the experiment confirm the importance of associative semantic networks in short-term memory.

  5. Gesturing more diminishes recall of abstract words when gesture is allowed and concrete words when it is taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M; Raymakers, Erik P; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2017-07-01

    Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted- and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively. We tested these effects in a dyadic game in which 39 adult participants described words to confederates without naming the word or five related words. Results supported our expectations and indicated that memory effects of gesturing depend on social, cognitive, and motoric aspects of discourse.

  6. Toxicity of Ag, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles to selected environmentally relevant test organisms and mammalian cells in vitro: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Olesja; Juganson, Katre; Ivask, Angela; Kasemets, Kaja; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO) and especially nanosilver are intentionally used to fight the undesirable growth of bacteria, fungi and algae. Release of these NPs from consumer and household products into waste streams and further into the environment may, however, pose threat to the 'non-target' organisms, such as natural microbes and aquatic organisms. This review summarizes the recent research on (eco)toxicity of silver (Ag), CuO and ZnO NPs. Organism-wise it focuses on key test species used for the analysis of ecotoxicological hazard. For comparison, the toxic effects of studied NPs toward mammalian cells in vitro were addressed. Altogether 317 L(E)C50 or minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were obtained for algae, crustaceans, fish, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, protozoa and mammalian cell lines. As a rule, crustaceans, algae and fish proved most sensitive to the studied NPs. The median L(E)C50 values of Ag NPs, CuO NPs and ZnO NPs (mg/L) were 0.01, 2.1 and 2.3 for crustaceans; 0.36, 2.8 and 0.08 for algae; and 1.36, 100 and 3.0 for fish, respectively. Surprisingly, the NPs were less toxic to bacteria than to aquatic organisms: the median MIC values for bacteria were 7.1, 200 and 500 mg/L for Ag, CuO and ZnO NPs, respectively. In comparison, the respective median L(E)C50 values for mammalian cells were 11.3, 25 and 43 mg/L. Thus, the toxic range of all the three metal-containing NPs to target- and non-target organisms overlaps, indicating that the leaching of biocidal NPs from consumer products should be addressed.

  7. Test Takers' Writing Activities during the "TOEFL iBT"® Writing Tasks: A Stimulated Recall Study. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-25. ETS Research Report No. RR-15-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the "TOEFL iBT"[superscript R] test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test…

  8. A review of class I and class II pet food recalls involving chemical contaminants from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbeiha, Wilson; Morrison, Jamie

    2011-03-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to chemical contaminants/adulterants. Information was requested from the FDA by Freedom of Information Act. Only those recalls backed by the FDA scientific review were considered. The legal framework for food recalls in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 7 and in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, Title X was reviewed. From 1996 to 2008, there were a total of 22 class I and II pet food recalls. Of these, only six (27%) were due to chemical adulterants. The adulterants were aflatoxins, cholecalciferol, methionine, and melamine, and cyanuric acid. The causes of adulteration included inadequate testing of raw materials for toxins, use of wrong or faulty mixing equipment, and misformulation of raw materials. Overall, pet food manufactured in the USA is safe. Even with shortcomings in the recall process, the incidence of illness associated with pet food adulteration is low. Added changes can only make the system better in the future to safeguard pet and public safety. © American College of Medical Toxicology 2010

  9. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  10. Monkeys recall and reproduce simple shapes from memory

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...

  11. The Effect of Interactivity with a Music Video Game on Second Language Vocabulary Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan DeHaan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium’s fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second language vocabulary. Eighty randomly-selected Japanese university undergraduates were paired based on similar English language and game proficiencies. One subject played an English-language music video game for 20 minutes while the paired subject watched the game simultaneously on another monitor. Following gameplay, a vocabulary recall test, a cognitive load measure, an experience questionnaire, and a two-week delayed vocabulary recall test were administered. Results were analyzed using paired samples t-tests and various analyses of variance. Both the players and the watchers of the video game recalled vocabulary from the game, but the players recalled significantly less vocabulary than the watchers. This seems to be a result of the extraneous cognitive load induced by the interactivity of the game; the players perceived the game and its language to be significantly more difficult than the watchers did. Players also reported difficulty simultaneously attending to gameplay and vocabulary. Both players and watchers forgot significant amounts of vocabulary over the course of the study. We relate these findings to theories and studies of vocabulary acquisition and video game-based language learning, and then suggest implications for language teaching and learning with interactive multimedia.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Different Glossing Conditions on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Danesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of different glossing conditions on English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ vocabulary recall. To this end, five glossing conditions were adopted (i.e., inference-gloss-gloss, gloss-retrieval-gloss, inference-gloss-retrieval-gloss, gloss-retrieval-gloss-retrieval, and full glossing. The participants were 140 MA students of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL. They were randomly assigned to one glossing condition to read an English reading passage. Five target words were glossed in different glossing conditions within a reading passage. To ensure the participants’ attention focused on the reading material, the participants were told that a multiple-choice reading comprehension test would be administrated. Afterward, two vocabulary tests (i.e., form recall and meaning recall were conducted. The results of one-way MANOVAs and the post hoc Scheffé tests revealed that the full glossing condition group did significantly better than other glossing groups in vocabulary form recall, whereas the gloss-retrieval-gloss-retrieval condition group outperformed other four groups in vocabulary meaning recall.

  13. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  14. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the basis of total service during the recall period and months of marriage during such period. If the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service....

  15. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported.

  16. On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    in relation to the number of interest points, the recall rate as a function of camera position and light variation, and the sensitivity relative to model parameter change. The overall conclusion is that the Harris corner detector has a very high recall rate, but is sensitive to change in scale. The Hessian......In this paper we provide a method for evaluating interest point detectors independently of image descriptors. This is possible because we have compiled a unique data set enabling us to determine if common interest points are found. The data contains 60 scenes of a wide range of object types......, and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors. This is done...

  17. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  18. Accelerating Deep Learning with Shrinkage and Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ding, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Deep Learning is a very powerful machine learning model. Deep Learning trains a large number of parameters for multiple layers and is very slow when data is in large scale and the architecture size is large. Inspired from the shrinking technique used in accelerating computation of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and screening technique used in LASSO, we propose a shrinking Deep Learning with recall (sDLr) approach to speed up deep learning computation. We experiment shrinking Deep Lea...

  19. Comparing neuropsychological function before and during haemodialysis: a habituating selective deficit for prose recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Karen; Oaksford, Mike; Ashraf, Mohammad; Fitzgibbon, Gillian

    2008-05-01

    This study was based on the clinical observation that patients receiving haemodialysis(HD) showed poor retention for complex verbal information. To investigate this hypothesis, 45 patients with endstage renal disease were administered a neuropsychological (NP) test battery, including a test of prose recall on two occasions, 7 days apart (pre-dialysis and whilst dialysing). A range of demographic, biochemical and mood variables were also assessed. Results revealed a selective deficit for prose recall whilst dialysing compared to pre-dialysis performance, which habituated in the long-term. Possible physiological and psychological bases of these effects in HD patients are discussed.

  20. Radiation recall pneumonitis induced by gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarte, S.; Karstens, J.H.; Bremer, M. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wagner, K. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Hematology, Hemastaseology and Oncology

    2007-04-15

    Background: Radiation recall pneumonitis describes a very rare reaction in a previously irradiated area of pulmonary tissue after application of pharmacological agents. A case of recall pneumonitis induced by gemcitabine is reported. Case Report: A 64-year-old female patient with metastasized esophageal carcinoma received simultaneous chemoradiotherapy of the upper mediastinum with 50.4 Gy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. 8 months later she was scheduled for salvage chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 day 8) due to locally progressive disease. After having received gemcitabine on day 1 of the second course, the patient developed dry cough, subfebrile temperatures and dyspnea within 48 h. A CT of the thorax revealed newly developed bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacity corresponding to the previous radiation fields. Chemotherapy was stopped and systemic application of prednisolone was initiated. 2 months later symptoms had resolved with a control CT of the thorax showing complete regression of the pulmonary changes. Conclusion: Gemcitabine-induced recall pneumonitis is a rarely reported phenomenon and should be taken into account even after extended time interval to the previous radiotherapy.

  1. Personal relevance modulates the positivity bias in recall of emotional pictures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A; MacLeod, Colin M

    2008-02-01

    Some studies have suggested that older adults remember more positive than negative valence information, relative to younger adults, whereas other studies have reported no such difference. We tested whether differences in encoding instructions and in personal relevance could account for these inconsistencies. Younger and older adults were instructed either to passively view positive, negative, and neutral pictures or to actively categorize them by valence. On a subsequent incidental recall test, older adults recalled equal numbers of positive and negative pictures, whereas younger adults recalled negative pictures best. There was no effect of encoding instructions. Crucially, when the pictures were grouped into high and low personal relevance, a positivity bias emerged in older adults only for low-relevance pictures, suggesting that the personal relevance of pictures may be the factor underlying cross-study differences.

  2. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders.

  3. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Gong

    Full Text Available Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill.

  4. Induced arousal and orienting tasks as determinants of intentional recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, C B

    1992-07-01

    In this study, the author examined the effects of intention to learn, noise, and different types of orienting tasks on short-term and long-term recall for 15 Hindi paired-associates. Intention to learn improved recall, as did encoding of semantic features, and noise impaired both short-term and long-term recall. The analysis of short-term recall scores indicated that there were no significant interactions between these factors, but the analysis of long-term recall scores indicated that there were significant interactions between noise and orienting tasks and between intentionality and orienting tasks.

  5. The stress corrosion cracking behaviour of heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy in modified salt spray fog testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The stress corrosion cracking behaviour of 7075 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) alloy have been studied in a salt spray fog chamber with two vapourised aqueous solutions (0 and 5% NaCl). The paper analyses the stress corrosion resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy with several precipitation-ageing heat treatments. The results are compared with that obtained in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution at 20 C. The salt spray fog testing has permitted a good evaluation of SCC susceptibility in 7075 alloy. All temper conditions studied were susceptible to SCC in the different environments tested. 7075-T6 temper was the most susceptible, while in all the cases studied 7075-T73 temper was the least susceptible. Compared to 7075-T6, 7075-RRA temper improved the resistance against the SCC process, but the mechanical properties obtained were lower. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Recalled peritraumatic distress in survivors of violent crime: exploring its impact on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten Jacob Johannes

    2012-11-01

    Several authors have speculated that the lack of consistency regarding the relationship between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) is caused by third variables. Recalled peritraumatic distress (PD) may operate as a third variable because previous research suggests that both PTSD and PTG correlate with recalled PD. Therefore, the present study explored how recalled PD impacts the relationship between PTSD and PTG. An Internet questionnaire on PTSD symptom severity, recalled PD, and PTG was administered to 678 survivors of violent crime. The results suggested that recalled PD suppresses the association between PTSD symptom severity and PTG. In addition, a significant association between the interaction term of PTSD symptom severity and recalled PD and PTG was observed. Simple slopes tests indicated that self-reported PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with PTG but only among survivors with high levels of PD.

  7. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid HJ Olsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  8. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  9. The production effect in long-list recall: In no particular order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Angela M; Bodner, Glen E; Taikh, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The production effect reflects a memory advantage for words read aloud versus silently. We investigated how production influences free recall of a single long list of words. In each of 4 experiments, a production effect occurred in a mixed-list group but not across pure-list groups. When compared to the pure-list groups, the mixed-list effects typically reflected a cost to silent words rather than a benefit to aloud words. This cost persisted when participants had to perform a generation or imagery task for the silent items, ruling out a lazy reading explanation. This recall pattern challenges both distinctiveness and strength accounts, but is consistent with an item-order account. By this account, the aloud words in a mixed list disrupt the encoding of item-order information for the silent words, thus impairing silent word recall. However, item-order measures and a forced-choice order test did not provide much evidence that recall was guided by retrieval of item-order information. We discuss our pattern of results in light of another recent study of the effects of production on long-list recall. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Whittuck, Dora; Roberson, Debi; Dutton, Kevin; Georgiou, George; Fox, Elaine

    2006-05-01

    The status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals was evaluated following incidental encoding of target words. Individuals with high and low levels of trait anxiety completed a modified Stroop task, which revealed an attentional bias for threat-related stimuli in anxious individuals. This group was significantly slower in naming the colour in which threat-related words were displayed compared to neutral words. In a subsequent free recall test for the words used in the modified Stroop task, anxious individuals recalled more threat-related words compared to low-anxious people. This difference was significant even when controlling for the false recall of items that had not been presented during study. These results support the view put forward by Russo, Fox, Bellinger, and Nguyen-Van-Tam (2001) that mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals can be observed if the target material is encoded at a relatively shallow level. Moreover, contrary to Dowens and Calvo (2003), the current results show that the memory advantage for threat-related information in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias.

  11. Semantic relations and repetition of items enhance the free recall of words by multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vivian M; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Miranda, Monica C; Oliveira, Acary S B; Oliveira, Enedina M L; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2003-12-01

    We compared 25 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 24 normal controls on a test of free recall of words. Some lists contained words that were all unrelated, while in others the intermediary words were semantically related. In another set, the mid-list words were repeated across the lists, or, in addition to the repetition, were semantically associated. Immediate recall was assessed using these lists. Delayed recall was assessed using different lists (delay-unrelated and delay-related) after distractor tasks. Recency was not affected in MS patients, but the primacy effect was lower than in controls, this effect being interpreted as due to a deficiency in articulatory rehearsal. The delay interval after each list abolished recency in both groups and resulted in impaired recall in MS patients. However the patients, like the controls, benefited from semantic relations in the middle of the lists and from spaced repetition of words across the lists, in either immediate and delayed recall. The enhancing effects of word relatedness and of spaced repetition are seen as being due to automatic processes preserved in MS patients.

  12. The influence of small-scale circum-neutral pH change on Cu-bioavailability and toxicity to an estuarine bivalve (Austriella cf plicifera) in whole-sediment toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, Colin M. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia)], E-mail: colin.hutchins@umontreal.ca; Teasdale, Peter R.; Yip Lee, Shing [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Mailbag 7, Bangor, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-11-01

    In whole-sediment toxicity tests employing metal-spiked sediment, pH is a crucial determinant of sediment geochemistry, sediment-porewater metal partitioning and metal bioavailability to benthic organisms. Small pH changes in metal-spiked sediment may therefore have important implications for toxicity to organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of small-scale pH changes (pH 6.6, 7.2, 7.6) in Cu-spiked sediment on metal bioavailability and subsequent organism response. Variation of pH produced distinct changes in sediment geochemistry. Increasing pH from 6.6 to 7.6 resulted in lower redox potential, greater acid volatile sulfide (AVS) formation, and lower partitioning of Cu, Fe and Mn to the porewater. The minor pH changes and associated variation in sediment geochemistry modified reburial rates and copper accumulation by the bivalve, Austriella cf plicifera. Bivalve reburial was slowest for the 1400 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cu-spiked pH 6.6 sediment, in which porewater copper concentrations exceeded 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Bivalve reburial was higher for pH 7.2 Cu-spiked sediments at all concentrations of copper investigated than in pH 6.6 and 7.6 sediments, where reburial rates were similar. Higher levels of bivalve activity suggest that A. cf plicifera may have an optimal pH range in the vicinity of pH 7.2. Tissue Cu concentrations varied with pH and appear dependent on spiked Cu concentration and organism activity. Strong linear correlations of tissue Cu concentration with all three Cu phases (overlying water, porewater and particulate phases), however, limited the ability to accurately determine the source of Cu uptake.

  13. Testing the feasibility of ¡Cuídate! With Mexican and Central American youth in a rural region of a southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kim L; Ballard, Sharon M; Nuncio, Brenda J; Swanson, Melvin

    2014-10-01

    Regions of the US with growing Latino populations are in need of culturally sensitive sexual risk reduction programs. A Latino community, a public school district, and a university in eastern North Carolina collaborated to test the feasibility of ¡Cuídate!, a culturally tailored, evidence-based sexual risk reduction program, with Mexican and Central American youth. Ten male and 10 female adolescents, ages 13-17 years, participated in the ¡Cuídate! program and post-program focus groups. Early adolescent boys and girls (ages 13-15) gained the most from this program. A safe environment facilitated healthy sexual communication, and condom skills-building provided a context for shared partner responsibility. Grade-level and gender differences were significant. Analysis of the focus group data identified three important messages: Everybody needs sex education, We like this program better because it is hands-on, and I'm going to make better decisions about sex. The findings of this study support the need for community-based interventions that ensure cultural respect, trust, and a safe environment in which to discuss sexual issues.

  14. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance.

  15. Normative multitrial recall performance, metacognitive judgments, and retrieval latencies for Lithuanian-English paired associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Phillip J; Pyc, Mary A; Rawson, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Memory researchers using paired associates have benefited greatly from the Swahili-English norms reported by Nelson and Dunlosky (1994). Given recent increases in the amount and kinds of research using paired associates, however, researchers would now benefit from an expanded set of normative measures for foreign language vocabulary words. We report data for 120 Lithuanian-English word pairs collected from 236 undergraduates. Participants completed three study-test trials and were asked to make metacognitive judgments for each item. We report normative recall performance, recall latencies, and error types for each item across trials, as well as the perceived difficulty of each item on the basis of metacognitive judgments.

  16. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Toxicity of CuO nanoparticles and Cu ions to tight epithelial cells from Xenopus laevis (A6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    2013-01-01

    ) was used to investigate toxicity of copper (Cu) in 3 different forms; Cu ions (Cu2+), CuO NPs (6 nm) and poly-dispersed CuO NPs (100 nm, poly-CuO). Continuous exposures at concentrations of 143–200 μM demonstrated that cytotoxicity differed among the 3 Cu forms tested and that the effects depend on cell...... state (dividing or differentiated). Dividing cells treated with poly-CuO, CuO NPs (6 nm) or Cu2+ showed cell cycle arrest and caused significant increase in cell death via apoptosis after 48 h, 6 and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with either CuO NPs (6 nm) or Cu2+ caused significant...... decrease in cell proliferation. Treatments of differentiated cells, revealed the same patterns of toxicity for Cu forms tested, but after shorter exposure periods....

  18. Effects of Spontaneous and Imposed Study Strategies on Recall of Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmeyer, Elaine Morton; And Others.

    Twenty college students read passages from John Steinbeck's "Log from the Sea of Cortez," so that the effect of their study strategies on their recall of idea units in the passages could be tested, both immediately after reading and after a one-week delay. The experiment provided a comparison of the effectiveness of two imposed study patterns, a…

  19. Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Recognition and Recall Tasks in a Transparent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Francis R. R.; Jaeger, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The number of orthographic neighbors of a word influences its probability of being retrieved in recognition and free recall memory tests. Even though this phenomenon is well demonstrated for English words, it has yet to be demonstrated for languages with more predictable grapheme-phoneme mappings than English. To address this issue, 4 experiments…

  20. Context effects in short-term memory : Confirmatory evidence from recall of visually presented lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two subjects had tests of serial recall of visually presented nine-digit lists which were either presented in a single block of trials (constant context) or in between lists of much longer length (variable context). Other variables were vocalization-during-presentation versus silent

  1. Elaboration during Problem-Based Group Discussion: Effects on Recall for High and Low Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    Although elaboration has been investigated frequently, there is little evidence for the beneficial effect of elaboration in problem-based learning. A controlled experiment tested the effect of elaboration during problem-based discussion on recall. Sixty-seven students observed a video-recorded, problem-based discussion. In one experimental…

  2. A single 24 h recall overestimates exclusive breastfeeding practices among infants aged less than six months in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Esete Habtemariam; Yirgu, Robel; Shikur, Bilal; Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to six months is one of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) infant and young child feeding (IYCF) core indicators. Single 24 h recall method is currently in use to measure exclusive breastfeeding practice among children of age less than six months. This approach overestimates the prevalence of EBF, especially among small population groups. This justifies the need to look for alternative measurement techniques to have a valid estimate regardless of population characteristics. The study involved 422 infants of age less than six months, living in Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from January to February 2016. Child feeding practices were measured for seven consecutive days using 24 h recall method. Recall since birth, was used to measure breastfeeding practices from birth to the day of data collection. Data on EBF obtained by using single 24 h recall were compared with seven days repeated 24 h recall method. McNemar's test was done to assess if a significant difference existed in rates of EBF between measurement methods. The mean age of infants in months was 3 (SD -1.43). Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence was highest (76.7%; 95% CI 72.6, 80.8) when EBF was estimated using single 24 h recall. The prevalence of EBF based on seven repeated 24 h recall was 53.2% (95% CI: 48.3, 58.0). The estimated prevalence of EBF since birth based on retrospective data (recall since birth) was 50.2% (95% CI 45.4, 55.1). Compared to the EBF estimates obtained from seven repeated 24 h recall, single 24 h recall overestimated EBF magnitude by 23 percentage points (95% CI 19.2, 27.8). As the number of days of 24 h recall increased, a significant decrease in overestimation of EBF was observed. A significant overestimation was observed when single 24 h recall was used to estimate prevalence of EBF compared to seven days of 24 h recall. By increasing the observation days we can significantly decrease the degree of

  3. Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Bramer (Wichor); D. Giustini (Dean); B.M. Kramer (Bianca Mr)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we reported on the low recall of Google Scholar (GS) for systematic review (SR) searching. Here, we test our conclusions further in a prospective study by comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of SR search strategies previously performed in Embase, MEDLINE

  4. How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory 'object-recall' task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory (VSTM) object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76), and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30) adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised two or four real world objects (the memory load) presented sequentially, each for 650 ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000 ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented two or four memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors) vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors) were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants) when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items), false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets), slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits.

  5. Cuing effect of "all of the above" on the reliability and validity of multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Violato, C; Brant, R; Lorscheider, F L

    1998-03-01

    It is generally acknowledged that alternatives such as none of the above and all of the above should be used sparingly in multiple-choice (MC) items. But the effect that all of the above has on the reliability and validity of an MC item is unclear. This study compared the results of a single-response (SRa) item format that included all of the above as the correct response to a multiple-response (MR) item format that required examinees to select all of the available alternatives for a correct response. A crossover design was used to compare the effect of formats on student performance while item content, scoring method, and student ability levels remained constant. Results indicated that the SRa format greatly distorted examinee performance by elevating their scores because examinees who recognized two or more alternatives as being correct were cued to select all of the above. In addition, the SRa format significantly reduced the reliability and concurrent validity of examinee scores. In summary, the MR format was found to be superior. Based upon new empirical evidence, this study recommends that whenever an educator wishes to evaluate student understanding of an issue that has multiple facts, the SRa format should be avoided and the MR format should be used instead.

  6. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  7. Self-serving confabulation in prose recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Conway, Martin A; Solms, Mark; Tyrer, Stephen; Kopelman, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the content of confabulation is mainly positive and self-enhancing. In this group study, we aimed to investigate whether this positive bias is specific to self-referent information. Confabulating amnesic patients, amnesic non-confabulating patients and healthy controls were asked to reproduce a series of short stories. We manipulated the emotional valence of the material by including positive, negative and neutral story plots. We also manipulated the self-reference of the material by including self-referent versus other-referent encoding instructions. Confabulating patients were as impaired as a group of amnesic patients in the amount of information they recalled, both groups being worse than healthy controls. Importantly, confabulating patients showed a selective bias in the negative self-referent condition, in that they recalled such information in a manner which portrayed a more positive image of themselves. This positive bias was not present in stories that were not encoded in a self-referent manner and it was not significantly correlated to patients' self-reported mood. We propose that both confabulation and its motivated content result from a deficit in the control and regulation of memory retrieval, which allows motivational factors to acquire a greater role than usual in determining which memories are selected for retrieval. To this extent, the self-enhancing content of confabulation could be explained as a neurogenic exaggeration of normal self-serving memory distortion.

  8. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Channon

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  9. Presentation duration and false recall for semantic and phonological associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardini, Nicole; Yamashita, Jill A; Wallace, William P

    2008-03-01

    Two experiments examined false recall for lists of semantically and phonologically associated words as a function of presentation duration. Veridical recall increased with long exposure durations for all lists. For semantically associated lists, false recall increased from 20-250 ms, then decreased. There was a high level of false recall with 20 ms durations for phonologically associated lists (47 and 44% for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), which declined as duration increased. In Experiment 2, for lists presented at 20 and 50 ms rates, false recall given zero correct recall was observed frequently, suggesting that conscious recollection of studied words was not necessary for phonological false memory. Differences between phonologically and semantically associated lists were consistent with a feature integration model based on automatic initial processing of phonetic features of words.

  10. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  11. Mood-congruent free recall bias in anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine; Lynn, Bellinger; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Dominic P.

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluated the status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals following incidental encoding of target words. In the first experiment, high trait anxiety individuals showed increased recall of threat-related information after an orienting task promoting lexical processing of target words. In a second experiment, both lexical and semantic orienting tasks were performed at study. In this experiment, anxious individuals displayed a mood-congruent recall bias onl...

  12. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R.; Barnes, Anna; Hadley, Donald M.; Patterson, Jim; Wyper, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good. PMID:12446952

  13. Radiation Recall Reaction Induced by Adjuvant Trastuzumab (Herceptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chung

    2009-01-01

    trastuzumab (Herceptin administration, there has been no published case of radiation recall reaction associated with trastuzumab. This case describes a clinical presentation consistent with a radiation recall reaction following administration of adjuvant trastuzumab after neoadjuvant FEC-D chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy for HER2-positive, locally advanced breast cancer in a premenopausal woman. Although the mechanism and etiology of radiation recall dermatitis remain unclear, this case raises further hypotheses regarding a possible drug dose-dependence and possible predisposing risk factor for the development of radiation recall reactions.

  14. The Beneficial Effect of Testing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua eBai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and one-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items, which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable

  15. Memory recall in a process control system: a measure of expertise and display effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, K J

    1992-07-01

    Previous research has shown that memory-recall performance is correlated with domain expertise. In this study, a process control system was selected as a vehicle for conducting research on memory recall. The primary purposes of the present work were to determine if the classic expertise effects originally obtained in chess generalize to this novel domain and to evaluate the validity of memory recall as a measure of display effectiveness. Experts and novices viewed dynamic event sequences showing the behavior of a thermal-hydraulic system with two different displays, one that only contained information about the physical components in the system (P) and another that also contained information about higher order functional variables (P+F). There were three types of trials: normal, where the system was operating correctly; fault, where a single fault was introduced; and random, where the system's behavior did not obey physical laws. On each trial, subjects were asked to recall the final state of the system and to diagnose the system state. The P+F display resulted in superior diagnosis performance compared with the P display. With regard to memory, there was some evidence of an interaction between trial type and expertise, with experts outperforming novices but primarily on meaningful trials. In addition, memory for the subset of variables most critical to diagnosis was better with the P+F display than with the P display, thereby indicating that memory recall can be a sensitive measure of display effectiveness. The results also clarify a theoretical problem that has existed for some time in the literature, namely, the conditions under which expertise advantages are to be expected in memory-recall tasks. Collectively, these findings point to the potential benefits of adopting an applied context as a test bed for basic research issues.

  16. Testing? Testing? In Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The assumptions behind secondary school literature course tests--whether asking students to recall aspects of literary works, to relate literary works to each other, or to analyze unfamiliar literary works--are open to question. They fail to acknowledge some of the most important aspects of literature which, if properly taught, should provide a…

  17. Recall Oriented Search on the Web using Semantic Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, A.M.; Broek, E.L. van den; Koot, G.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Web search engines are optimized for early precision, which makes it difficult to perform recall oriented tasks with them. In this article, we propose several ways to leverage semantic annotations and, thereby, increase the efficiency of recall oriented search tasks, with a focus on forensic investi

  18. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  19. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  20. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is episodic memory for personally experienced events. The brain areas underlying AM retrieval are known to include several prefrontal cortical and medial temporal lobe regions. Sex differences in AM recall have been reported in several behavioral studies, but the functional anatomical correlates underlying such differences remain unclear. This study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of AM recall between healthy male and female participants (n = 20 per group). AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared to a semantic memory task involving the generation of examples from a category using emotionally valenced cues. Behaviorally, females recalled more negative and fewer positive AMs compared with males, while ratings of arousal, vividness, and memory age did not differ significantly between sexes. Males and females also did not differ significantly in their performance on control tasks. Neurophysiologically, females showed increased hemodynamic activity compared to males in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior insula, and precuneus while recalling specific AMs (all valences combined); increased activity in the DLPFC, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus while recalling positive AMs; and increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, amygdala, and temporopolar cortex when recalling negative AMs. When comparing positive to negative AMs directly, males and females differed in their BOLD responses in the hippocampus and DLPFC. We propose that the differential hemodynamic changes may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Recall oriented search on the web using semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; van den Broek, Egon; Koot, Gijs; Huis in 't Veld, Mirjam A.A.; Bennett, P.N.; Gabrilovich, E.; Kamps, J.; Karlgren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Web search engines are optimized for early precision, which makes it difficult to perform recall oriented tasks with them. In this article, we propose several ways to leverage semantic annotations and, thereby, increase the efficiency of recall oriented search tasks, with a focus on forensic

  2. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  3. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  4. A Developmental Analysis of Story Recall and Comprehension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Rhonda G.; Johnson, Nancy S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the role of organization in adults' processing of stories. Canonical stories were better recalled than noncanonical stories by all three age groups (young, middle-aged, and old adults), and a variety of measures indicated that older adults' recall was both quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that of young adults. (SL)

  5. Temporal associations and prior-list intrusions in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Franklin M; Howard, Marc W; Dolan, Emily D; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free recall. A reanalysis of earlier studies revealed that PLIs tend to come from semantic associates as well as from recently studied lists, with the rate of PLIs decreasing sharply with list recency. The authors report 3 new experiments in which some items in a given list also appeared on earlier lists. Although repetition enhanced recall of list items, subjects were significantly more likely to make PLIs following the recall of repeated items, suggesting that temporal associations formed in earlier lists can induce recall errors. The authors interpret this finding as evidence for the interacting roles of associative and contextual retrieval processes in recall. Although contextual information helps to focus recall on words in the target list, it does not form an impermeable boundary between current- and prior-list experiences. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the pric

  7. Failing the future: three unsuccessful attempts to replicate Bem's 'retroactive facilitation of recall' effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Ritchie

    Full Text Available Nine recently reported parapsychological experiments appear to support the existence of precognition. We describe three pre-registered independent attempts to exactly replicate one of these experiments, 'retroactive facilitation of recall', which examines whether performance on a memory test can be influenced by a post-test exercise. All three replication attempts failed to produce significant effects (combined n = 150; combined p = .83, one-tailed and thus do not support the existence of psychic ability.

  8. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  9. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  10. Testing the accuracy of correlations for multicomponent mass transport of adsorbed gases in metal-organic frameworks: diffusion of H2/CH4 mixtures in CuBTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Seda; Liu, Jinchen; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2008-08-05

    Mass transport of chemical mixtures in nanoporous materials is important in applications such as membrane separations, but measuring diffusion of mixtures experimentally is challenging. Methods that can predict multicomponent diffusion coefficients from single-component data can be extremely useful if these methods are known to be accurate. We present the first test of a method of this kind for molecules adsorbed in a metal-organic framework (MOF). Specifically, we examine the method proposed by Skoulidas, Sholl, and Krishna (SSK) ( Langmuir, 2003, 19, 7977) by comparing predictions made with this method to molecular simulations of mixture transport of H 2/CH 4 mixtures in CuBTC. These calculations provide the first direct information on mixture transport of any species in a MOF. The predictions of the SSK approach are in good agreement with our direct simulations of binary diffusion, suggesting that this approach may be a powerful one for examining multicomponent diffusion in MOFs. We also use our molecular simulation data to test the ideal adsorbed solution theory method for predicting binary adsorption isotherms and a method for predicting mixture self-diffusion coefficients.

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  13. Four-hour delayed memory recall for stories: Theoretical and clinical implications of measuring accelerated long-term forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-01-01

    It has been noted that clinical neuropsychological assessment is "blind" to certain abnormalities of consolidation that occur beyond standard 30-min delay intervals. For example, normal forgetting at 30-min delays has been followed by enhanced forgetting at longer delays in temporal-lobe epilepsy, termed accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). To evaluate whether ALF could be identified in the neuropsychological assessment of a small sample of examinees with head injuries or other neurological diagnoses (n = 42), a 4-hr delayed recall condition was added to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. A small percentage of examinees (5/42 or 11%), despite exhibiting unimpaired story recall immediately and after 30-min delays, showed increased forgetting when compared with the average retention of stories (M = 0.83, SD = 0.17) after a 4-hr delay. Three of these 5 examinees also had impaired scores on 20-min delayed recall of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and would have been identified as having memory impairment without an extended, 4-hr delayed recall. In fact, the highest correlation among memory indexes was between 4-hr delayed recall of stories and delayed recall of the CVLT-II word list (r = .59, p < .0001), suggesting different consolidation rates for relational and nonrelational material.

  14. Impaired Memory for Instructions in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Is Improved by Action at Presentation and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Allen, Richard J; Holmes, Joni; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often fail to comply with teacher instructions in the classroom. Using action during presentation or recall can enhance typically developing children's abilities to complete multi-step instruction sequences. In this study, we tested the ability to following instructions in children with ADHD under different conditions to explore whether they show the same beneficial effects of action. A total of 24 children with ADHD and 27 typically developing children either listened to or viewed demonstrations of instructions during encoding, and then either verbally repeated or physically performed the sequences during recall. This resulted in four conditions: spoken-verbal, spoken-enacted, demonstration-verbal, and demonstration-enacted. Children with ADHD were significantly impaired in all conditions of the following instructions task relative to the typically developing group. Both groups showed an enacted-recall advantage, with superior recall by physical performance than oral repetition. Both groups also benefitted from demonstration over spoken presentation, but only when the instructions were recalled verbally. These findings suggest that children with ADHD struggle to complete multi-step instructions, but that they benefit from action-based presentation and recall in the same way as typically developing children. These findings have important implications for educators, suggesting that motor-based methods of instruction-delivery might enhance classroom learning both for children with and without developmental disorders.

  15. Impaired Memory for Instructions in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Is Improved by Action at Presentation and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-xiao; Allen, Richard J.; Holmes, Joni; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often fail to comply with teacher instructions in the classroom. Using action during presentation or recall can enhance typically developing children’s abilities to complete multi-step instruction sequences. In this study, we tested the ability to following instructions in children with ADHD under different conditions to explore whether they show the same beneficial effects of action. A total of 24 children with ADHD and 27 typically developing children either listened to or viewed demonstrations of instructions during encoding, and then either verbally repeated or physically performed the sequences during recall. This resulted in four conditions: spoken-verbal, spoken-enacted, demonstration-verbal, and demonstration-enacted. Children with ADHD were significantly impaired in all conditions of the following instructions task relative to the typically developing group. Both groups showed an enacted-recall advantage, with superior recall by physical performance than oral repetition. Both groups also benefitted from demonstration over spoken presentation, but only when the instructions were recalled verbally. These findings suggest that children with ADHD struggle to complete multi-step instructions, but that they benefit from action-based presentation and recall in the same way as typically developing children. These findings have important implications for educators, suggesting that motor-based methods of instruction-delivery might enhance classroom learning both for children with and without developmental disorders. PMID:28174550

  16. The effect of pitch, rhythm, and familiarity on working memory and anxiety as measured by digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and quantitatively evaluate the effects of pitch and rhythm of unfamiliar and familiar melodies on working memory and anxiety as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 60) listened to 6 treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits. The digits were paired with (a) a familiar melody and pitch only, (b) a familiar melody and rhythm only, (c) a familiar melody with both pitch and rhythm, (d) an unfamiliar melody with pitch only, (e) an unfamiliar melody with rhythm only, and (f) an unfamiliar melody with both pitch and rhythm. The 6 different treatments were counterbalanced using a Latin square design in an attempt to control for order effects. Participants rated their state anxiety on a Likert-type scale before, midway through, and after the digits test. No statistically significant order, learning, or practice effects were found. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across musical element conditions and groups. Results indicated that music majors outperformed nonmusic majors on the digit recall task. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from pitch only and both pitch and rhythm conditions the least accurately. Graphic analysis of treatment as a function of sequential position indicated digit recall was best during conditions of primacy and recency. No main effects were found for the familiarity condition. Additionally, no main effects or interactions were found for the anxiety variable. The results of this study are congruent with existing working memory and music literature suggesting that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall, music majors outperform non-music majors, and recall accuracy is best in positions of primacy and recency. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for

  17. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  18. Pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum during the apnea test: how safe is this procedure? Pneumotorax y pneumoperitoneo durante el test de apnea: cuán seguro es este procedimiento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO SAPOSNIK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Apnea test is a crucial requirement for determining the diagnosis of brain death (BD. There are few reports considering clinical complications during this procedure. We describe a major complication during performing the apnea test. We also analyse their practical and legal implications, and review the complications of this procedure in the literature. A 54 year-old man was admitted for impaired consciousness due to a massive intracerebral hemorrhage. Six hours later, he had no motor response, and all brainstem reflexes were negative. The patient fulfilled American Academy of Neurology (AAN criteria for determining BD. During the apnea test, the patient developed pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and finally cardiac arrest. Apnea test is a necessary requirement for the diagnosis of brain death. However, it is not innocuous and caution must be take in particular clinical situations. Complications during the apnea test could be more frequent than reported and may have practical and legal implications. Further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the frequency and nature of complications during this practice.El test de apnea (AT es un requerimiento esencial para el diagnóstico de muerte encefálica. Hay pocos estudios que consideren complicaciones clínicas relacionadas con este procedimiento. Describimos un paciente que desarrolló una complicación mayor mientras se efectuaba el test de apnea. Realizamos una revisión de las complicaciones relacionadas con este procedimiento en la literatura. CASO CLÍNICO: Un hombre de 54 años fue admitido por deterioro del sensorio debido a una hemorragia intracerebral. Seis horas posteriores, el paciente no tenía respuesta motora, y todos los reflejos del tronco cerebral estaban abolidos. El paciente cumplía con los criterios diagnósticos de Muerte Encefálica de acuerdo a lo establecido por la Academia Americana de Neurología. Durante el test de apnea, el paciente desarrolla s

  19. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  20. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  1. Different propagation speeds of recalled sequences in plastic spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuhui; Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Gang; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-03-01

    Neural networks can generate spatiotemporal patterns of spike activity. Sequential activity learning and retrieval have been observed in many brain areas, and e.g. is crucial for coding of episodic memory in the hippocampus or generating temporal patterns during song production in birds. In a recent study, a sequential activity pattern was directly entrained onto the neural activity of the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats and subsequently successfully recalled by a local and transient trigger. It was observed that the speed of activity propagation in coordinates of the retinotopically organized neural tissue was constant during retrieval regardless how the speed of light stimulation sweeping across the visual field during training was varied. It is well known that spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a potential mechanism for embedding temporal sequences into neural network activity. How training and retrieval speeds relate to each other and how network and learning parameters influence retrieval speeds, however, is not well described. We here theoretically analyze sequential activity learning and retrieval in a recurrent neural network with realistic synaptic short-term dynamics and STDP. Testing multiple STDP rules, we confirm that sequence learning can be achieved by STDP. However, we found that a multiplicative nearest-neighbor (NN) weight update rule generated weight distributions and recall activities that best matched the experiments in V1. Using network simulations and mean-field analysis, we further investigated the learning mechanisms and the influence of network parameters on recall speeds. Our analysis suggests that a multiplicative STDP rule with dominant NN spike interaction might be implemented in V1 since recall speed was almost constant in an NMDA-dominant regime. Interestingly, in an AMPA-dominant regime, neural circuits might exhibit recall speeds that instead follow the change in stimulus speeds. This prediction could be tested in

  2. Light exposure of chick embryo influences lateralized recall of imprinting memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J

    1999-12-01

    Environmental cues, such as light during the later part of incubation, are known to establish lateralization of some forms of visually guided behaviors in birds. The authors investigated the effect of light on lateralized recall of imprinting memory in chicks. On Day E19 of incubation, one eye was occluded for 24 hr. The other eye received stimulation by light. Chicks were imprinted and then tested for their imprinting preferences after administration of a low dose (500 ng) of glutamate into either hemisphere. Chicks that had the right eye exposed to light during incubation showed recall of the imprinting stimulus after injection of the left hemisphere but not after injection into the right hemisphere. The reverse was found for chicks that had the left eye exposed to light. Hence, the hemisphere ipsilateral to the eye exposed to light before hatching became essential for recall of imprinting memory. The hemisphere used in recall of imprinting memory received indirect visual inputs and was determined by environmental stimulation (asymmetrical light input).

  3. Changing the criterion for memory conformity in free recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Gabbert, Fiona; Memon, Amina; London, Kamala

    2008-02-01

    People's responses during memory studies are affected by what other people say. This memory conformity effect has been shown in both free recall and recognition. Here we examine whether accurate, inaccurate, and suggested answers are affected similarly when the response criterion is varied. In the first study, participants saw four pictures of detailed scenes and then discussed the content of these scenes with another participant who saw the same scenes, but with a couple of details changed. Participants were either told to recall everything they could and not to worry about making mistakes (lenient), or only to recall items if they were sure that they were accurate (strict). The strict instructions reduced the amount of inaccurate information reported that the other person suggested, but also reduced the number of accurate details recalled. In the second study, participants were shown a large set of faces and then their memory recognition was tested with a confederate on these and fillers. Here also, the criterion manipulation shifted both accurate and inaccurate responses, and those suggested by the confederate. The results are largely consistent with a shift in response criterion affecting accurate, inaccurate, and suggested information. In addition we varied the level of secrecy in the participants' responses. The effects of secrecy were complex and depended on the level of response criterion. Implications for interviewing eyewitnesses and line-ups are discussed.

  4. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M; Assentoft, E; Randers, L; Harmer, C J; Ehrenreich, H; Paulson, O B; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V

    2016-09-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory-relevant neuro-circuits in this cohort. Eighty-four patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression who were moderately depressed or BD in remission were randomized to eight weekly EPO (40 000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Participants underwent whole-brain fMRI at 3T, mood ratings, and blood tests at baseline and week 14. During fMRI, participants performed a picture encoding task followed by postscan recall. Sixty-two patients had complete data (EPO: N = 32, saline: N = 30). EPO improved picture recall and increased encoding-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and temporo-parietal regions, but not in hippocampus. Recall correlated with activity in the identified dlPFC and temporo-parietal regions at baseline, and change in recall correlated with activity change in these regions from baseline to follow-up across the entire cohort. The effects of EPO were not correlated with change in mood, red blood cells, blood pressure, or medication. The findings highlight enhanced encoding-related dlPFC and temporo-parietal activity as key neuronal underpinnings of EPO-associated memory improvement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance: An extended replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance. Experiment I involved a stimulus discrimination task. Findings were that EM during stimulus recall not only reduces self-reported memory vividness, but also slows down reaction time in a task that requires participants to discriminate the stimulus from perceptually similar stimuli. Experiment II involved a fear conditioning paradigm. It was shown that EM during recall of a threatening stimulus intensifies fearful responding to a perceptually similar yet non-threat-related stimulus, as evidenced by increases in danger expectancies and skin conductance responses. The latter result was not corroborated by startle EMG data. Together, the findings suggest that the EM manipulation renders stimulus attributes less accessible for future recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fixation and attention control in lateralised target detection and free recall with words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Boles, David B

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that lateralised target detection in the visual modality would produce results similar in magnitude, reliability, and validity to those obtained in the auditory modality with an analogue task. Thus, it was expected that it would produce laterality effects that are larger, more reliable, and more valid than those obtained in a free recall task. The claim that target detection provides its own attention control also led to the hypothesis that the magnitude of laterality effects should be affected by fixation control in free recall but not target detection. A total of 349 right-handed participants completed a word recognition task with either free recall or target detection with or without fixation control. Only the finding that free recall was generally more reliable than target detection went contrary to the hypotheses. This finding is interpreted as reflecting a consistent attentional bias that stems from task requirements. In general, the results suggest that target detection without fixation control has much potential as a measure of perceptual asymmetries in the visual modality.

  7. Study-time effect on free recall within and out of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Takeo

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined whether or not the study-time effect, which was observed when recall took place in the original environmental context, was eliminated or markedly diminished when recall took place in a different environmental context. A total of 456 undergraduates studied a list of words for either a short or long study time before receiving an oral free recall test under conditions where the original environmental context was or was not reinstated. Environmental context was manipulated by the combination of physical features of the room, subsidiary task, and experimenter. Inter-item association was minimised in Experiment 1, and free recall performance was measured independently of inter-item association in Experiments 2 and 3. The results were: (1) a greater study-time effect was found when the original context was reinstated than when it was not reinstated, and (2) the study-time effect disappeared when neither contextual nor inter-item associative cues were available. The results suggest that environmental context is involved in the production of the study-time effect.

  8. Hallucinations and two types of free-recall intrusion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, G; David, A S; Bressan, R A; Ohlsen, R I; Pilowsky, L S

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that various types of verbal source memory error are associated with positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, intrusions in free recall have been associated with hallucinations and delusions. We tested the hypothesis that extra-list intrusions, assumed to arise from poor monitoring of internally generated words, are associated with verbal hallucinations and that intra-list intrusions are associated with global hallucination scores. A sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia was administered four lists of words, followed by free recall. The number of correctly recalled words and the number of extra- and intra-list intrusions were tallied. The verbal hallucination score was significantly correlated with the number of extra-list intrusions, whereas it was unrelated to the number of correctly recalled words. The number of intra-list intrusions was significantly correlated with the global, but not with the verbal, hallucination score in the subsample of hallucinating patients. It was marginally significantly correlated with the delusion score in delusional patients. The data corroborate the view that verbal hallucinations are linked to defective monitoring of internal speech, and that errors in context processing are involved in hallucinations and delusions.

  9. Do Lumbar Decompression and Fusion Patients Recall Their Preoperative Status?: A Cohort Study of Recall Bias in Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Ilyas S; Duncan, Jonathan; Ahmed, Amin M; Zarrabian, Mohammad; Eck, Jason; Rhee, John; Clarke, Michelle; Currier, Bradford L; Nassr, Ahmad

    2017-01-15

    Prospective cohort study. To characterize the accuracy of patient recollection of preoperative symptoms after lumbar spine surgery. Although patient-reported outcomes have become important in the evaluation of spine surgery patients, the accuracy of patient recall remains unknown. Patients undergoing lumbar decompression with or without fusion were enrolled. Back and leg Numeric Pain Scores and Oswestry Disability Indices were recorded preoperatively. Patients were asked to recall their preoperative status at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Actual and recalled scores were compared using paired t tests and relations were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors that affected recollection. Sixty-two patients with a mean age of 66.1 years were included. Compared to their preoperative scores, patients showed significant improvement in back pain (mean difference [MD] = -3.2, 95% CI -4.0 to -2.4), leg pain (MD -3.3, 95% CI -4.3 to -2.2), and disability (MD -25.0%, 95% CI -28.7 to -19.6). Patient recollection of preoperative status was significantly more severe than actual for back pain (MD +2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.2), leg pain (MD +1.8, 95% CI 0.9-2.7), and disability (MD +9.6%, 95% CI 5.6-14.0). No significant correlation between actual and recalled scores with regards to back (r = 0.18) or leg (r = 0.24) pain and only moderate correlation with disability (r = 0.44) were seen. This was maintained across age, sex, and time between date of surgery and recollection. More than 40% of patients switched their predominant symptom from back pain to leg pain or leg pain to back pain on recall. Relying on patient recollection does not provide an accurate measure of preoperative status after lumbar spine surgery. Recall bias indicates the importance of obtaining true baseline scores and patient-reported outcomes prospectively and not retrospectively. 2.

  10. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti–Cu sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Zheng, Lanlan [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Liu, Jie [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dept. of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003 (China); Bai, Bing [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Institute of Dental Research, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti–Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti–Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti–Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti–2Cu and Ti–5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti–Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti–Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti–Cu samples and among the Ti–Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti–Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti–Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • The effect of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility has been investigated. • Cu content shows no influence on the cell proliferation. • Cu content shows no effect on the cell differentiation.

  11. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  12. Recalling the Past of My Husband

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Song Xiaohan is the widow of the patriotic general He Jifeng, who served in the War of Resistance Against Japan, He Jifeng was once a brigade commander of the 110th Brigade in the 29th Corps under the Kuomintang. In September 1935, he was transferred to Beiping (the old name of Beijing], and was put in charge of defending Wanping County Seat, Fengtai Township, the Pinghan Railway and Lugouqiao areas. On July 7th, 1937, when the Lugouqiao Incident happened he took his place in front of the troups to direct the battle, and issued an order to fight back the Japanese invaders. The commanders and soldiers of the 29th Corps shot the first bullet in the War of Resistance Against Japan.Song Xiaohan met General He Jifeng after the Lugouqiao Incident, and accompanied him through the disturbances of a half century. He Jifeng died in 1980. Now 80 years old Song Xiaohan lives in Beijing and spends her remaining years quietly. She recalled her old days as follows.

  13. Cu-Ni-Ti钎料连接Si3N4陶瓷的试验研究%Investigation on the Test of Bonding Si3N4 Ceramics Using Cu-Ni-Ti Fill Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌; 邹家生; 陈铮; 赵其章; 眭润舟; 楼宏青

    2001-01-01

    采用成分不同的Cu-Ni-Ti钎料进行了Si3N4/Si3N4的连接。结果表明:钎料成分、钎焊工艺 参数对连接强度均有重要影响。采用(Cu85Ni15)80Ti20钎料在1 373K×10 min条件下,Si3N4/Si3N4连接 强度达到最大值289 MPa。通过对Si3N4/Si3N4连接界面的微观分析,发现Si向钎料层扩散,钎料中的 Cu在接头中央富集,而Ti、Ni向Si3N4富集。相对Ni而言,Ti的富集区更靠近Si3N4陶瓷。%Si3N4/Si3N4 is bonded by using Cu-Ni-Ti Fill metal with different composition . The effects of the braze metal composition, and the procedure variables such as the brazing temperature and the brazing time on joining strength are investigated. The results show that at the temperature of 1 373 K for 10 min utes, the brazing alloy composition corresponding to the highest strength value (289 MPa) is (Cu85Ni15)80 Ti20. The analysis of the distribution of elements in Si3Na/Si3N4 joint shows that Si diffuses towards braze layer while Ti and Ni towards Si3N4. In the center part of the joint is mainly Cu element and the intensive area of Ti is closer to Si3N4 ceramics.

  14. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  15. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043

  16. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLehmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  17. Medial temporal lobe contributions to cued retrieval of items and contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E; Libby, Laura A; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan

    2013-10-01

    Several models have proposed that different regions of the medial temporal lobes contribute to different aspects of episodic memory. For instance, according to one view, the perirhinal cortex represents specific items, parahippocampal cortex represents information regarding the context in which these items were encountered, and the hippocampus represents item-context bindings. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test a specific prediction of this model-namely, that successful retrieval of items from context cues will elicit perirhinal recruitment and that successful retrieval of contexts from item cues will elicit parahippocampal cortex recruitment. Retrieval of the bound representation in either case was expected to elicit hippocampal engagement. To test these predictions, we had participants study several item-context pairs (i.e., pictures of objects and scenes, respectively), and then had them attempt to recall items from associated context cues and contexts from associated item cues during a scanned retrieval session. Results based on both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a role for hippocampus in content-general relational memory retrieval, and a role for parahippocampal cortex in successful retrieval of contexts from item cues. However, we also found that activity differences in perirhinal cortex were correlated with successful cued recall for both items and contexts. These findings provide partial support for the above predictions and are discussed with respect to several models of medial temporal lobe function.

  18. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Structure, Path Characteristics, and Perceptual Grouping in Immediate Serial Spatial Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Kirby, Melissa; Poole, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span. We report five experiments assessing the relative role and independence of factors that have been reported in the literature. Experiment 1 disentangled the effects of spatial clustering and path-length by manipulating the distance of items displayed on a touchscreen monitor. Long-path sequences segregated by spatial clusters were compared with short-path sequences not segregated by clusters. Recall was more accurate for sequences segregated by clusters independently from path-length. Experiment 2 featured conditions where temporal pauses were introduced between or within cluster boundaries during the presentation of sequences with the same paths. Thus, the temporal structure of the sequences was either consistent or inconsistent with a hierarchical representation based on segmentation by spatial clusters but the effect of structure could not be confounded with effects of path-characteristics. Pauses at cluster boundaries yielded more accurate recall, as predicted by a hierarchical model. In Experiment 3, the systematic manipulation of sequence structure, path-length, and presence of path-crossings of sequences showed that structure explained most of the variance, followed by the presence/absence of path-crossings, and path-length. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated the results of the previous experiments in immersive virtual reality navigation tasks where the viewpoint of the observer changed

  20. Spatio-temporal structure, path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Lillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span. We report five experiments assessing the relative role and independence of factors that have been reported in the literature. Experiment 1 disentangled the effects of spatial clustering and path-length by manipulating the distance of items displayed on a touchscreen monitor. Long-path sequences segregated by spatial clusters were compared with short-path sequences not segregated by clusters. Recall was more accurate for sequences segregated by clusters independently from path-length. Experiment 2 featured conditions where temporal pauses were introduced between or within cluster boundaries during the presentation of sequences with the same paths. Thus, the temporal structure of the sequences was either consistent or inconsistent with a hierarchical representation based on segmentation by spatial clusters but the effect of structure could not be confounded with effects of path-characteristics. Pauses at cluster boundaries yielded more accurate recall, as predicted by a hierarchical model. In Experiment 3, the systematic manipulation of sequence structure, path-length and presence of path-crossings of sequences showed that structure explained most of the variance, followed by the presence/absence of path-crossings, and path-length. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated the results of the previous experiments in immersive virtual reality navigation tasks where the viewpoint of the

  1. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on fear extinction recall and prediction error signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Schröter, Manuel S; Andrade, Kátia C; Dresler, Martin; Kiem, Sara A; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    In a temporal difference learning approach of classical conditioning, a theoretical error signal shifts from outcome deliverance to the onset of the conditioned stimulus. Omission of an expected outcome results in a negative prediction error signal, which is the initial step towards successful extinction and may therefore be relevant for fear extinction recall. As studies in rodents have observed a bidirectional relationship between fear extinction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we aimed to test the hypothesis that REM sleep deprivation impairs recall of fear extinction through prediction error signaling in humans. In a three-day design with polysomnographically controlled REM sleep deprivation, 18 young, healthy subjects performed a fear conditioning, extinction and recall of extinction task with visual stimuli, and mild electrical shocks during combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance response (SCR) measurements. Compared to the control group, the REM sleep deprivation group had increased SCR scores to a previously extinguished stimulus at early recall of extinction trials, which was associated with an altered fMRI time-course in the left middle temporal gyrus. Post-hoc contrasts corrected for measures of NREM sleep variability also revealed between-group differences primarily in the temporal lobe. Our results demonstrate altered prediction error signaling during recall of fear extinction after REM sleep deprivation, which may further our understanding of anxiety disorders in which disturbed sleep and impaired fear extinction learning coincide. Moreover, our findings are indicative of REM sleep related plasticity in regions that also show an increase in activity during REM sleep.

  2. Visual memory in unilateral spatial neglect: immediate recall versus delayed recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreh, Elior; Malkinson, Tal Seidel; Zohary, Ehud; Soroker, Nachum

    2014-09-01

    Patients with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often show impaired performance in spatial working memory tasks, apart from the difficulty retrieving "left-sided" spatial data from long-term memory, shown in the "piazza effect" by Bisiach and colleagues. This study's aim was to compare the effect of the spatial position of a visual object on immediate and delayed memory performance in USN patients. Specifically, immediate verbal recall performance, tested using a simultaneous presentation of four visual objects in four quadrants, was compared with memory in a later-provided recognition task, in which objects were individually shown at the screen center. Unlike healthy controls, USN patients showed a left-side disadvantage and a vertical bias in the immediate free recall task (69% vs. 42% recall for right- and left-sided objects, respectively). In the recognition task, the patients correctly recognized half of "old" items, and their correct rejection rate was 95.5%. Importantly, when the analysis focused on previously recalled items (in the immediate task), no statistically significant difference was found in the delayed recognition of objects according to their original quadrant of presentation. Furthermore, USN patients were able to recollect the correct original location of the recognized objects in 60% of the cases, well beyond chance level. This suggests that the memory trace formed in these cases was not only semantic but also contained a visuospatial tag. Finally, successful recognition of objects missed in recall trials points to formation of memory traces for neglected contralesional objects, which may become accessible to retrieval processes in explicit memory.

  3. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption, creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF. These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG. We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject’s hearing level. Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.4 ± 1.1 dream recalls per week and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.1 using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects’ quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200ms during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4 min. As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in

  4. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high and

  5. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000–1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high

  6. Dose-dependent effects of hydrocortisone infusion on autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly; Drevets, Wayne C; Schulkin, Jay; Erickson, Kristine

    2011-10-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol has been shown to impair episodic memory performance. The present study examined the effect of two doses of hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol) administration on autobiographical memory retrieval. Healthy volunteers (n = 66) were studied on two separate visits, during which they received placebo and either moderate-dose (0.15 mg/kg IV; n = 33) or high-dose (0.45 mg/kg IV; n = 33) hydrocortisone infusion. From 75 to 150 min post-infusion subjects performed an Autobiographical Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). The high-dose hydrocortisone administration reduced the percent of specific memories recalled (p = .04), increased the percent of categorical (nonspecific) memories recalled (p cortisol affects accessibility of autobiographical memories in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, administration of hydrocortisone at doses analogous to those achieved under severe psychosocial stress impaired the specificity and speed of retrieval of autobiographical memories.

  7. Murdock free recall data: The initial recall search identifies the context by the location of the least remembered item and produces only better remembered items in proportion to the total recall difference.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) shows an additional surprise that seems to have gone undetected until now: the probability of guessing an item in the initial recall is not identical to the overall free recall curve. Initial recall of an item is well correlated with the total recall of that item using a straight line but with an unexpected offset. The offset varies with the presentation rate and the total number of list items but in each case it is the same as the total recall ...

  8. Improving patient comprehension and recall of discharge instructions by supplementing free texts with pictographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Kim, Hyeoneui; Hunter, Martha

    2008-11-06

    Inpatient discharge instructions provide critical information for patients to manage their own care. These instructions are typically free-text and not easy for patients to understand and remember. In this pilot study, we developed a set of pictographs through a participatory design process and used them to enhance two mock-up discharge instructions. Tested on 13 healthy volunteers, the pictograph enhancement resulted in statistically significant better recall rates (ppictographs.

  9. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Perrine Marie RUBY; Camille eBlochet; Jean-Baptiste eEichenlaub; Olivier eBertrand; Dominique eMorlet; Aurélie eBidet-Caulet

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic re...

  10. The use of computerised 24 h dietary recalls in the French SU.VI.MAX Study: number of recalls required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, L I; Bertrais, S; Galan, P; Arnault, N; Potier de Couray, G; Hercberg, S

    2002-07-01

    The 24 h dietary recall is a widely used method to estimate nutritional intakes in epidemiological studies. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of recalls necessary for an accurate estimation of nutrient intake in French adults followed for 4 y. Participants of the SU.VI.MAX study (intervention study on the effects of antioxidant supplementation on chronic diseases) who completed a 24 h dietary recall every 2 months for at least 1 y. Inter- and intra-individual variance ratios (S(w)/S(b)) were calculated by analysis of variance for two time periods: year 1 and 2 (n=4955) and year 3 and 4 (n=1458). The number of recalls necessary was calculated using an accuracy of 0.9. The highest intra-individual/inter-individual variance ratio in the first period was seen for beta-carotene and the lowest for carbohydrate. The number of recalls necessary was five for carbohydrate and calcium intake and 16 for beta-carotene. For proteins, total and saturated fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron eight recalls were required, while nine, 11 and 10 recalls were necessary for mono- and polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E, respectively. The variance ratios in the second period were all lower and fewer recalls were therefore required. The same difference in number of recalls required between the two time periods was observed when only those subjects were included who completed at least 18 recalls (n=727). These results indicate that for an accurate estimation of carbohydrate intake only, already five recalls are necessary. Fewer recalls may be needed during long-time follow-up. The SU.VI.MAX Study has support from public and private sectors: Fruit d'Or Recherche, Candia, Lipton, Kellogg's, Céréal, CERIN, Estée Lauder, L'Oréal, Peugeot, Jet Service, RP Scherer, Sodexho, France Telecom, Santogen, Becton Dickinson, Fould Springer, Boehringer Diagnostic, Seppic Givaudan Lavirotte, Le grand Canal, Danone and Knorr.

  11. Hippocampal Arc (Arg3.1) expression is induced by memory recall and required for memory reconsolidation in trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chester; Otto, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that long-lasting, protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic strength accompany both the initial acquisition and subsequent recall of specific memories. Within brain areas thought to be important for learning and memory, including the hippocampus, learning-related plasticity is likely mediated in part by NMDA receptor activation and experience-dependent changes in gene expression. In the present study, we examined the role of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) expression in the acquisition, recall, and reconsolidation of memory in a trace fear conditioning paradigm. First, we show that the expression of Arc protein in ventral hippocampus (VH) is dramatically enhanced by memory recall 24h after the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, and that both memory recall and the associated recall-induced enhancement of Arc expression are blocked by pre-training administration of 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). Next, we show that while infusion of Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) into VH prior to testing had little effect on memory recall, it significantly reduced both Arc protein expression and freezing behavior during subsequent testing sessions. Collectively, these results suggest that Arc/Arg3.1 protein plays an important functional role in both the initial acquisition of hippocampal-dependent memory and the reconsolidation of these memories after recall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ ... which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ... use the confusion in consumers to market their products and brands.

  13. Nothing concentrates the mind: thoughts of death improve recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Joshua; Burns, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    ... selected to operate more efficiently when death thoughts (e.g., survival concerns) are activated. If so, then the mortality salience as a general psychological state should be sufficient to increase recall...

  14. The effect of auditory stimulation on autobiographical recall in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N A; Valentine, E R

    2001-01-01

    Elderly individuals with mild-moderate ("high ability") or moderate ("low ability") dementia, answered autobiographical memory questions drawn from three life eras (remote, medium-remote, and recent), in familiar music, novel music, cafeteria noise or quiet. Recall was significantly better in the high-ability than the low-ability group, in sound than in quiet, and in music than in noise. Recall was significantly related to life era, declining from remote to recent memory. The superiority of recall in music compared with noise was apparent for recall from remote and medium-remote but not recent eras. The results are interpreted as favoring an explanation of the beneficial effect of auditory stimulation, predominantly in terms of enhanced arousal or attention deployment, with a possible subsidiary role for associative facilitation.

  15. #DDOD Use Case: Consolidated reporting of medical device recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request for consolidated, consistent reporting of medical device recalls. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that was made by the...

  16. The distinctiveness heuristic in false recognition and false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2006-07-01

    The effects of generative processing on false recognition and recall were examined in four experiments using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In each experiment, a Generate condition in which subjects generated studied words from audio anagrams was compared to a Control condition in which subjects simply listened to studied words presented normally. Rates of false recognition and false recall were lower for critical lures associated with generated lists, than for critical lures associated with control lists, but only in between-subjects designs. False recall and recognition did not differ when generate and control conditions were manipulated within-subjects. This pattern of results is consistent with the distinctiveness heuristic (Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999), a metamemorial decision-based strategy whereby global changes in decision criteria lead to reductions of false memories. This retrieval-based monitoring mechanism appears to operate in a similar fashion in reducing false recognition and false recall.

  17. The Effect of Learner-generated Illustrations on the Immediate And Delayed Recall of English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Aeineh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of learner generated illustrations on the immediate and delayed idiom recall of Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners. To accomplish this end, 40 female students participated in this study. A placement test (Quick Placement Test, Version 2 was administered to the participants to ascertain that they were all at intermediate level of proficiency. Since the design of the study was quasi experimental, they were randomly assigned to control (N: 20 and experimental (N: 20 groups. A pretest of idioms was given to the participants to ensure that they were homogeneous in terms of their knowledge of idioms. Both groups were provided with the clarification of idioms through definitions and examples. However the experimental group was required to draw their own mental image of the idioms on a paper. At the end of the treatment, students took an immediate posttest of idioms. After an interval of 2 weeks, a similar posttest was given to the students to examine the delayed recall ability of the learners. The obtained results through an independent samples t-test indicated that the experimental group slightly outperformed the control group on immediate posttest, but the difference was not statistically significant. However the results on the delayed posttest suggested that there was a significant difference between the two groups and the participants in the experimental group had stronger delayed recall ability.

  18. Drinking water interlaboratory ring test. Part IV. Results of some cationic analytes. Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V; Circuito interlaboratorio Unichim sulle acque potabili. Parte IV. Risultati di alcuni cationi metallici. Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Bergamo Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper results of statistical treatment of experimental data obtained in some cycles of an interlaboratory ring test of content of Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V in drinking water are reported. Means, variances and parameters of precision and accuracy of some analytical techniques and methods employed by laboratories participating to the ring test will be reported and discussed. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati dell'elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali ottenuti in alcuni cicli del circuito interlaboratorio e relativi ai seguenti cationi metallici: Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V. Vengono riportati e discussi i valori medi e la varianza ed infine i dati di accuratezza e precisione delle tecniche o metodi d'analisi impiegati dai laboratori partecipanti al circuito.

  19. Retrieval Search and Strength Evoke Dissociable Brain Activity during Episodic Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval have revealed activations in the human frontal, parietal, and medial-temporal lobes that are associated with memory strength. However, it remains unclear whether these brain responses are veritable signals of memory strength or are instead regulated by concomitant subcomponents of retrieval such as retrieval effort or mental search. This study used event-related fMRI during cued recall of previously memorized word-pair associates to dissociate brain responses modulated by memory search from those modulated by the strength of a recalled memory. Search-related deactivations, dissociated from activity due to memory strength, were observed in regions of the default network, whereas distinctly strength-dependent activations were present in superior and inferior parietal and dorsolateral PFC. Both search and strength regulated activity in dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insula. These findings suggest that, although highly correlated and partially subserved by overlapping cognitive control mechanisms, search and memory strength engage dissociable regions of frontoparietal attention and default networks. PMID:23190328

  20. Incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    jahanbakhshe Rezanejad; behroz farzan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Experience of awareness and recall during general anesthesia can be very distressing for patients. There is no doubt that surgery pain is the most distressing feature of awareness. This condition can cause neurosis in patients. If patient be aware during surgery and be able to hear some comment, she or he senses weakness, paralysis, feeling of helpless and anxiety, panic and death. The main goal of this study is determine the incidence of awareness with recall during general anest...

  1. Design of general bidirectional associative memories with improved recall capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donq-Liang; Chuang, Thomas C

    2004-10-01

    The concept of qth order Hamming ball for general bidirectional associative memories (GBAMs) is presented, which results in an enhanced recall capability. A technique based on the minimum overlap algorithm (MOA) is proposed to deal with the separability problem of the qth order Hamming balls. Simulation results show that the recall capability obtained by using the proposed method is indeed larger than that obtained by using the conventional method.

  2. CA3 size predicts the precision of memory recall

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain allow us to recall numerous life experiences despite there often being a high degree of similarity between memories? This is a key question in neuroscience. Moreover, there is also keen interest in understanding why some people are able to recall memories with greater clarity than other people. In this study, we identified a specific brain region, CA3, an area within a structure called the hippocampus, and a mechanism within it that helps to explain individual differences i...

  3. Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H; Yoon, Carolyn; Luo, Ting; Feinberg, Fred; Hedden, Trey; Jing, Qicheng; Nisbett, Richard E; Park, Denise C

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young adults. The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. These studies provide support

  4. Microstructures and properties of Cr-Cu/W-Cu bi-layer composite coatings prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaping; Feng, Xiaomei; Shen, Yifu; Chen, Cheng; Duan, Cuiyuan [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    2016-06-15

    Cr-Cu/W-Cu bi-layer coatings with composite structures were fabricated by means of mechanical alloying. The Cr-Cu layer and the W-Cu layer were deposited successively and the as-synthesized bi-layer coating was made up of an inner Cr-Cu layer and an outer W-Cu layer. Microstructures, chemical and phase compositions of the as-prepared coatings were characterized. The results indicated that the bonding between the inner coating and the substrate was improved with the increase of Cu in the raw powder. The annealing treatment of the inner Cr-Cu layer was beneficial to the bonding between the inner Cr-Cu coating and the outer W-Cu coating layer. Mechanical properties such as microhardness, friction and wear resistance were tested. The as-synthesized coating could effectively improve the hardness and wear resistance of the Cu substrate.

  5. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  6. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  7. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  8. Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wong; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-11-01

    We report on an indium-free and cost-effective Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrode grown by room temperature roll-to-roll sputtering as a viable alternative to ITO electrodes for the cost-effective production of large-area flexible touch screen panels (TSPs). By using a low resistivity metallic Cu interlayer and a patterned mesh structure, we obtained Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes with a low sheet resistance of 15.1 Ohm/square and high optical transmittance of 89% as well as good mechanical flexibility. Outer/inner bending test results showed that the Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrode had a mechanical flexibility superior to that of conventional ITO films. Using the diamond-patterned Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes, we successfully demonstrated TSPS of the flexible film-film type and rigid glass-film-film type TSPs. The TSPs with Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrode were used to perform zoom in/out functions and multi-touch writing, indicating that these electrodes are promising cost-efficient transparent electrodes to substitute for conventional ITO electrodes in large-area flexible TSPs.

  9. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Occidente (Colombia); Piamba, J. F. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento Física (Colombia); Sánchez, H. [Universidad del Valle, Escuela de Materiales (Colombia); Alcazar, G. A. Pérez, E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Departamento Física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al–0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  10. Qualitative aspects of learning, recall, and recognition in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Neelima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether learning and serial position effect (SPE differs qualitatively and quantitatively among different types of dementia and between dementia patients and controls; we also wished to find out whether interference affects it. Materials and Methods: We administered the Malayalam version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to 30 cognitively unimpaired controls and 80 dementia patients [30 with Alzheimer′s disease (AD, 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, and 20 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD] with mild severity on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results: All groups were comparable on education and age, except the FTD group, who were younger. Qualitatively, the learning pattern and SPE (with primacy and recency being superior to intermediate was retained in the AD, VaD, and control groups. On SPE in free recall, recency was superior to intermediate in the FTD group (P < 0.01 using Bonferroni correction. On recognition, the AD and VaD groups had more misses (P < 0.01, while the FTD group had more false positives (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Quantitative learning is affected by dementia. The pattern of qualitative learning remains unaltered in dementia in the early stages.

  11. Researching the cognitive validity of GEPT High-Intermediate and Advanced Reading: an eye tracking and stimulated recall study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is important for any language test to establish its cognitive validity in order to ensure that the test elicits from test takers those cognitive processes which correspond to the processes which they would normally employ in the target real-life context (Weir 2005). This study investigates the cognitive validity of the GEPT Reading Test at two levels. High-intermediate (CEFR B2) and Advanced (CEFR C1), using innovative eye-tracking technology and detailed stimulated recall interviews and s...

  12. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory...... cohort. The effects of EPO were not correlated with change in mood, red blood cells, blood pressure, or medication. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight enhanced encoding-related dlPFC and temporo-parietal activity as key neuronal underpinnings of EPO-associated memory improvement.......MRI at 3T, mood ratings, and blood tests at baseline and week 14. During fMRI, participants performed a picture encoding task followed by postscan recall. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients had complete data (EPO: N = 32, saline: N = 30). EPO improved picture recall and increased encoding-related activity...

  13. Statistical Measures Alone Cannot Determine Which Database (BNI, CINAHL, MEDLINE, or EMBASE Is the Most Useful for Searching Undergraduate Nursing Topics. A Review of: Stokes, P., Foster, A., & Urquhart, C. (2009. Beyond relevance and recall: Testing new user-centred measures of database performance. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26(3, 220-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-03-01

    database for a search topic, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of unique results found in all four database searches;• availability (the number of relevant full text articles obtained from the database search results, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of relevant results found in the database;• retrievability (the number of relevant full text articles obtained from the database search results, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of relevant full text articles found from all four database searches;• effectiveness (the probable odds that a database will obtain relevant search results;• efficiency (the probable odds that a database will obtain both unique and relevant search results; and• accessibility (the probable odds that the full text of the relevant references obtained from the database search are available electronically or in print via the user’s library.Students decided whether the search results were relevant to their topic by using a “yes/no” scale. Only record titles were used to make relevancy judgments.Main Results – Friedman’s Test and odds ratios were used to compare the performance of BNI, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE when searching for information about nursing topics.These two statistical measures demonstrated the following:• BNI had the best average score for the precision, availability, effectiveness, and accessibility of search results;• CINAHL scored the highest for the novelty, retrievability, and efficiency of results, and ranked second place for all the other criteria;• MEDLINE excelled in the areas of recall and originality, and ranked second place for novelty and retrievability; and• EMBASE did not obtain the highest, or second highest score, for any of the criteria.Conclusion – According to the authors, these results suggest that none of the databases studied can be considered the most useful for searching undergraduate nursing topics. CINAHL and

  14. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice; Andersen, Emil; Hjordt, Liv V; McMahon, Brenda; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-04-01

    We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24. The association between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive (p = 5.5 × 10(-4)) and neutral (p = .004) word recall, and an inverse but nonsignificant association for negative (p = .07) word recall. Differences in the associations with 5-HT 4R binding between word categories (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) did not reach statistical significance. Our findings replicate our previous observation of a negative association between 5-HT 4R binding and memory performance in an independent cohort and provide novel evidence linking 5-HT 4R binding, as a biomarker for synaptic 5-HT levels, to the mnestic processing of positive and neutral word stimuli in healthy humans.

  15. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children’s story recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Follmer Greenhoot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers’ memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot & Semb, 2008. In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children’s story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to read or tell the story as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after one week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore,in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers’ story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children’s processing of the illustrations.

  16. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to interference of overlearned, semantically similar information on episodic memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Attali, Eve; La Corte, Valentina

    2010-07-01

    Normal aging is characterized by reduced performance on tasks of long-term memory. Older adults (OA) not only show reduced performance on tasks of recall and recognition memory, but also, compared to young adults (YA), are more vulnerable to memory distortions. In this study we describe the performance of a group of OA and a group of YA on the recall of three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Sleeping Beauty), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in OA strongly represented, overlearned information interferes with episodic recall-that is, the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA and in particular in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Our findings indicate that the interference of strongly represented, overlearned information in episodic memory recall is implicated in the production of confabulations in OA. This effect is particularly prominent when the to-be remembered episodic information shows strong semantic similarities with preexisting, overlearned information.

  17. Two types of recollection-based monitoring in younger and older adults: Recall-to-reject and the distinctiveness heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Bell, Deborah M; Beier, Jonathan S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-08-01

    People often use recollection to avoid false memories. At least two types of recollection-based monitoring processes can be identified in the literature. Recall-to-reject is based on the recall of logically inconsistent information (which disqualifies the false event from having occurred), whereas the distinctiveness heuristic is based on the failure to recall to-be-expected information (which is diagnostic of non-occurrence). We attempted to investigate these hypothetical monitoring processes in a single task, as a first step at delineating the functional relationship between them. By design, participants could reject familiar lures by (1) recalling them from a to-be-excluded list (recall-to-reject) or (2) realising the absence of expected picture recollections (the distinctiveness heuristic). Both manipulations reduced false recognition in young adults, suggesting that these two types of monitoring were deployed on the same test. In contrast, older adults had limited success in reducing false recognition with either manipulation, indicating deficits in recollection-based monitoring processes. Depending on how a retrieval task is structured, attempts to use one monitoring process might interfere with another, especially in older adults.

  18. Changes in frequency of recall recommendations of examinations depicting cancer with the availability of either priors or digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Gur, David

    2016-03-01

    Performance changes in a binary environment when using additional information is affected only when changes in recommendations are made due to the additional information in question. In a recent study, we have shown that, contrary to general expectation, introducing prior examinations improved recall rates, but not sensitivity. In this study, we assessed cancer detection differences when prior examinations and/or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) were made available to the radiologist. We identified a subset of 21 cancer cases with differences in the number of radiologists who recalled these cases after reviewing either a prior examination or DBT. For the cases with differences in recommendations after viewing either priors or DBT, separately, we evaluated the total number of readers that changed their recommendations, regardless of the specific radiologist in question. Confidence intervals for the number of readers and a test for the hypothesis of no difference was performed using the non-parameteric bootstrap approach addressing both case and reader-related sources of variability by resampling cases and readers. With the addition of priors, there were 14 cancer cases (out of 15) where the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased. With the addition of DBT, the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased in only five cases (out of 15) while increasing in the remaining 9 cases. Unlike most new approaches to breast imaging DBT seems to improve both recall rates and cancer detection rates. Changes in recommendations were noted by all radiologists for all cancers by type, size, and breast density.

  19. Selective recall of gastrointestinal-sensation words: evidence for a cognitive-behavioral contribution to irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Gallagher, N; Palsson, O S; Levy, R L; Meyer, K; Drossman, D A; Whitehead, W E

    2001-04-01

    Selective attention to GI sensations has been suggested as an important mechanism that affects symptom perception in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but this hypothesis has not yet been tested empirically. Differential recall of words describing negative affect has been used to demonstrate that depressed patients selectively attend to negative affect words. This technique may be useful for examining selective attention to somatic sensations. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with IBS demonstrate selective recall of GI sensations compared with neutral words and words describing respiratory sensations. A total of 16 IBS patients, nine asthmatic patients (medical controls), and eight healthy controls were shown 10 GI sensation words or phrases, 10 respiratory sensation words or phrases, and 10 neutral words in random order for 3 s each. After a distraction task, subjects wrote down all of the words or phrases they could remember. As predicted, IBS patients were more likely to recall GI words than other categories. Asthmatic patients were more likely to recall respiratory words in comparison with healthy controls. IBS patients selectively recall words describing GI sensations; this suggests that they may selectively attend to GI sensations, thus supporting the cognitive-behavioral theory of IBS.

  20. Effects of word frequency on recall memory following lorazepam, alcohol, and lorazepam alcohol interaction in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-ampon, Sompop; Wongwitdecha, Noppamars; Plasen, Surin; Hindmarch, Ian; Boyle, Julia

    2004-11-01

    Free recall of words has been extensively used in psychopharmacology to assess the effects of CNS-active drugs on memory functions. However, there is a relative lack of information on the impact of word frequency on the subsequent recall of words following the administration of psychoactive drugs. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experiment used lorazepam and alcohol to test the effects of word frequency on immediate and delayed word recall in 24 healthy volunteers. One half of the words contained in the lists had a high frequency (HF) of occurrence and the remainder were of low frequency (LF). The results showed that LF words were more sensitive to memory impairment than HF words. However, the more accurate recall of HF words (with respect to LF words) was eliminated when a combination of lorazepam with alcohol was administered. These findings indicate that word frequency has a significant impact on memory and, as such, is a factor to be taken into account when using memory recall tasks to assess the effects of psychoactive drugs on memory.

  1. Analyses of crack growth along interface of patterned wafer-level Cu-Cu bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary theoretical study is carried out of the role of micron-scale patterning on the interface toughness of bonded Cu-to-Cu nanometer-scale films. The work is motivated by the experimental studies of [Tadepalli, R., Turner. K.T., Thompson, C.V., 2008b. Effects of patterning on the interface...... toughness of wafer-level Cu-Cu bonds. Acta Materialia 56, 438-447; Tadepalli, R., Turner, K.T., Thompson, C.V., 2008c. Mixed-mode interface toughness of wafer-level Cu-Cu bonds using asymmetric chevron test. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 707-718.] wherein 400 nm Cu films were deposited in a variety of patterns...... on Si wafer substrates. Specimens were then produced by bringing the Cu surfaces into contact creating thermo-compression bonds. Interface toughness of these specimens was experimentally measured. The present study focuses on interface patterns comprised of bonded strips, called lines, alternating...

  2. Bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志康; 梁淑华; 薛旭

    2001-01-01

    The bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material was investigated. The results show that the fracture of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material often takes place at W-Cu/CuCr interface. Some alloying elements enhance the bond of W and CuCr alloy, which results in the increase of the strength of the W-Cu/CuCr interface. And the fracture of the WCu/CuCr integrated material occurs in the CuCr alloy part, not at the W-Cu/CuCr interface. Chromium in CuCr alloy part of the integrated material can improve Cr diffusing from the CuCr alloy to W-Cu composite and can be alloyed (near the W-Cu/CuCr interface) in the W-Cu composite. Thus the strength of W-Cu/CuCr interface is also increased.

  3. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  4. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... place during fiscal years 2008 to 2010. The resulting number of total recalls (9,303) and terminations.... Total Annual Reporting A. Recall Strategy Request firms develop a recall strategy including provision... Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  5. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  6. Free recall learning of hierarchically organised lists by adults with Asperger's syndrome: additional evidence for diminished relational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2009-04-01

    The Task Support Hypothesis (TSH, Bowler et al. Neuropsychologia 35:65-70 1997) states that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show better memory when test procedures provide support for retrieval. The present study aimed to see whether this principle also applied at encoding. Twenty participants with high-functioning ASD and 20 matched comparison participants studied arrays of 112 words over four trials. Words were arranged either under hierarchically embedded category headings (e.g. Instruments-String-Plucked-Violin) or randomly. Both groups showed similar overall recall and better recall for the hierarchically organised words. However, the ASD participants made less use of information about relations between words and more use of item-specific information in their recall, confirming earlier reports of relational difficulties in this population.

  7. Maternal recall of birthweight and birth size in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Swaib A; Webb, Emily L; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Akello, Florence; Kakande, Muhammed; Kizindo, Robert; Elliott, Alison M

    2012-12-01

    To assess the reliability of maternally recalled birthweight and size in Entebbe, Uganda. The study population comprised 404 mothers, who were participants in the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (EMaBS). Mothers were recruited to EMaBS during antenatal care, maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, and birthweight was recorded at delivery. Four to seven years after delivery, mothers were asked to recall the child's birthweight and size. Their responses were compared with the birthweight recorded in the EMaBS database. Of 404 interviewed mothers, 303 (75%) were able to give an estimate of birthweight and for 265 of these EMaBS data on recorded birthweights were available. Women who were educated and whose children had low birth order were more likely to be able to give an estimate: 37 (14%) recalled the exact recorded birthweight; a further 52 (20%) were accurate to within 0.1 kg of the recorded weight. On average, mothers overestimated birthweight by 0.06 kg (95% CI: 0.00-0.13 kg, P = 0.04). Recalled and recorded birthweights showed moderate agreement with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.64. Four hundered mothers gave an estimate of birth size: the sensitivity and specificity of recalled birth size for classifying low birthweight were 76% (95% CI: 50-93%) and 70% (95% CI: 65-75%), respectively. Mothers' recall of birthweight was not precise but in absence of other data, recall of birthweight and size may have some value in epidemiological studies in these settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Effects of Semantic Intergration Training on the Recall of Pictograph Sentences by Children in Kindergarten and First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The effects of semantic integration training on reading comprehension and recall were examined using a pictograph sentence memory task. Thirty kindergarteners and 30 first graders received individual testing and treatment with one of three training methods. Performance difference of the sentence enaction, sentence control, and practice control…

  9. Het effect van personalisatie en leeftijdscongruentie in narratieve communicatie op website satisfactie en recall van online gezondheidsinformatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; van Weert, J.; de Haes, H.; Loos, E.; Smets, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of personalization and age congruency on website satisfaction and recall of information was tested in a 2 (personalization: personalized vs. nonpersonalized video) × 2 (age congruency: congruent vs. incongruent) experimental design (n = 275). Personalization was found to be an effective c

  10. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative.

  11. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  12. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  13. The list-strength effect in recall: relative-strength competition and retrieval inhibition may both contribute to forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    According to the principle of relative-strength competition, stronger items in memory block the retrieval of weaker items. This principle, integral to many theories of forgetting over the years, derives much of its support from the list-strength effect (LSE), in which strengthening some items in a study list makes it more difficult to recall other items. Work in the retrieval-induced forgetting literature has challenged the existence of relative-strength competition, 1st by offering many examples of a null LSE and 2nd by proposing that extant observations of the LSE can be explained by retrieval inhibition. In the present study, a series of experiments produced a robust LSE in cued recall under conditions meant to control the contribution of retrieval inhibition. Simulations of the SAM-REM model of recall (K. J. Malmberg & R. M. Shiffrin, 2005) showed that a model based on relative-strength competition can accommodate both the presence and absence of an LSE. The empirical results and model simulations together make a case for the role of strength-based competition in forgetting.

  14. A Wide-range Survey on Recall-Based Graphical User Authentications Algorithms Based on ISO and Attack Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Habibi Lashkari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, user authentication is one of the important topics in information security. Text-based strong password schemes could provide with certain degree of security. However, the fact that strong passwords being difficult to memorize often leads their owners to write them down on papers or even save them in a computer file. Graphical user authentication (GUA has been proposed as a possible alternative solution to text-based authentication, motivated particularly by the fact that humans can remember images better than text. In recent years, many networks, computer systems and Internet-based environments try used GUA technique for their user’s authentication. All of GUA algorithms have two different aspects which are usability and security. Unfortunately, none of graphical algorithms were being able to cover both of these aspects at the same time. This paper presents a wide-range survey on the pure and cued recall-based algorithms in GUA, based on ISO standards for usability and attack patterns standards for security. After explain usability ISO standards and attack patterns international standards, we try to collect the major attributes of usability and security in GUA. Finally, try to make comparison tables among all recall-based algorithms based on usability attributes and attack patterns those we found. Keywords - Recall-Based Graphical User Authentication; Graphical Password; Usability and security; ISO 9241-11; ISO 9126, ISO 13407; Attack Patterns; Brute force, Dictionary attacks; Guessing; Spyware; Shoulder surfing; Social engineering (description.

  15. Effects of adult aging on utilization of temporal and semantic associations during free and serial recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Julie D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Addis, Kelly M.; Kahana, Michael J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Older adults show poorer performance than young adults at word list recall, especially for order information. In contrast with this temporal association deficit, older adults are generally adept at using preexisting semantic associations, when present, to aid recall. We compared the use of temporal and semantic associations in young and older adults’ word list recall following both free recall and serial recall instructions. Decomposition of serial position curves confirmed that older adults showed weakened use of temporal context in recall in relation to young adults, a difference that was amplified in serial recall. Older adults’ temporal associations were also less effective than young adults’ when correlated with serial recall performance. The differential age decrement for serial versus free recall was accompanied by a persistent influence of latent semantic associations in the older adults, even when maladaptive for serial recall. PMID:18630201

  16. Online feedback enhances early consolidation of motor sequence learning and reverses recall deficit from transcranial stimulation of motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Leonora; Steel, Adam; Mooshagian, Eric; Zimmermann, Trelawny; Keisler, Aysha; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Wassermann, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Feedback and monetary reward can enhance motor skill learning, suggesting reward system involvement. Continuous theta burst (cTBS) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor area (M1) disrupts processing, reduces excitability and impairs motor learning. To see whether feedback and reward can overcome the learning impairment associated with M1 cTBS, we delivered real or sham stimulation to two groups of participants before they performed a motor sequence learning task with and without feedback. Participants were trained on two intermixed sequences, one occurring 85% of the time (the "probable" sequence) and the other 15% of the time (the "improbable" sequence). We measured sequence learning as the difference in reaction time (RT) and error rate between probable and improbable trials (RT and error difference scores). Participants were also tested for sequence recall with the same indices of learning 60 min after cTBS. Real stimulation impaired initial sequence learning and sequence knowledge recall as measured by error difference scores and impaired sequence knowledge recall as measured by RT difference score. Relative to non-feedback learning, the introduction of feedback during sequence learning improved subsequent sequence knowledge recall indexed by RT difference score, in both real and sham stimulation groups and feedback reversed the RT difference score based sequence knowledge recall impairment from real cTBS that we observed in the non-feedback learning condition. Only the real cTBS group in the non-feedback condition showed no evidence of explicit sequence knowledge when tested at the end of the study. Feedback improves recall of implicit and explicit motor sequence knowledge and can protect sequence knowledge against the effect of M1 inhibition. Adding feedback and monetary reward/punishment to motor skill learning may help overcome retention impairments or accelerate training in clinical and other settings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  18. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  19. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients.

  20. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  1. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  2. Does processing style affect recall of the Rey-Osterrieth or Taylor complex figures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M B; Winner, E; Hurwitz, I; DaSilva, D

    1991-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual vs. verbal processing style preferences on immediate recall accuracy for the Rey-Osterrieth and Taylor Complex Figure Tests. Undergraduates were classified as visualizers or verbalizers and asked to copy either the Rey-Osterrieth or Taylor figure and then draw it from memory. A subset of subjects reported the strategy they used to reproduce the figure. Visualizers showed better reproduction accuracy than verbalizers for the Rey-Osterrieth test, and for this test approximately 80% of verbalizers as well as visualizers reported using a visual strategy. For the Taylor, no effect of processing style was obtained, and close to half of the verbalizers (43%) reported using their preferred verbal strategy, while 82% of the visualizers used a visual strategy. These results suggest that a general preference for thinking "in images" is important for predicting visual memory accuracy only on tests such as the Rey-Osterrieth which do not lend themselves easily to a verbal strategy. In contrast, for the Taylor test, deficits to the visual imagery system may be circumvented and obscured by the verbalizers' use of verbal recall strategies. Thus, in test batteries, the Rey-Osterrieth and the Taylor Tests should not be used interchangeably.

  3. Periodontal risk and recall interval evaluation after a program of comprehensive supragingival plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butze, Juliane Pereira; Angst, Patrícia Daniela Melchiors; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate if a comprehensive supragingival control can modify the periodontal risk and suggested recall interval over time, using an adaptation of an available model of periodontal risk assessment (PRA, Perio-Tools® website). Single-arm clinical trial data (visible plaque and gingival bleeding indexes, periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level from baseline (day 0, T0), day 30 (T1), and day 180 (T2) from 50 moderate-to-severe periodontitis patients (25 never-smokers; 25 smokers) submitted to a comprehensive supragingival plaque control regimen for 180 days were subjected to a secondary analysis using an adaptation of the PRA. The periodontal risk (high, medium, or low) and suggested recall interval were calculated per patient and at each experimental time. General linear models and the Cochran test were used for statistical analysis, considering the dependence of the data. All patients were at high risk at baseline. At T1, 20% migrated to medium-risk (P = .002). At T2, 38% and 8% exhibited medium- and low-risk, respectively (P ≤ .001). The reduction between T1 and T2 was significant (P = .001). The mean recall interval increased from 3.0 ± 0.0 (T0) to 3.6 ± 1.2 (T1), and 4.9 ± 2.6 months at T2 (P periodontal prognosis.

  4. NMDA receptors are not required for pattern completion during associative memory recall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mei

    Full Text Available Pattern completion, the ability to retrieve complete memories initiated by subsets of external cues, has been a major focus of many computation models. A previously study reports that such pattern completion requires NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. However, such a claim was derived from a non-inducible gene knockout experiment in which the NMDA receptors were absent throughout all stages of memory processes as well as animal's adult life. This raises the critical question regarding whether the previously described results were truly resulting from the requirement of the NMDA receptors in retrieval. Here, we have examined the role of the NMDA receptors in pattern completion via inducible knockout of NMDA receptors limited to the memory retrieval stage. By using two independent mouse lines, we found that inducible knockout mice, lacking NMDA receptor in either forebrain or hippocampus CA1 region at the time of memory retrieval, exhibited normal recall of associative spatial reference memory regardless of whether retrievals took place under full-cue or partial-cue conditions. Moreover, systemic antagonism of NMDA receptor during retention tests also had no effect on full-cue or partial-cue recall of spatial water maze memories. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological experiments collectively demonstrate that pattern completion during spatial associative memory recall does not require the NMDA receptor in the hippocampus or forebrain.

  5. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  6. Cognition and Health Literacy in Older Adults' Recall of Self-Care Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jessie; Madison, Anna; Gao, Xuefei; Graumlich, James F; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Murray, Michael D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Morrow, Daniel G

    2017-04-01

    Health literacy is associated with health outcomes presumably because it influences the understanding of information needed for self-care. However, little is known about the language comprehension mechanisms that underpin health literacy. We explored the relationship between a commonly used measure of health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [STOFHLA]) and comprehension of health information among 145 older adults. Results showed that performance on the STOFHLA was associated with recall of health information. Consistent with the Process-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy, mediation analysis showed that both processing capacity and knowledge mediated the association between health literacy and recall of health information. In addition, knowledge moderated the effects of processing capacity limits, such that processing capacity was less likely to be associated with recall for older adults with higher levels of knowledge. These findings suggest that knowledge contributes to health literacy and can compensate for deficits in processing capacity to support comprehension of health information among older adults. The implications of these findings for improving patient education materials for older adults with inadequate health literacy are discussed.

  7. Cued Dichotic Listening with Right-Handed, Left-Handed, Bilingual and Learning-Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; And Others

    This study used cued dichotic listening to investigate differences in language lateralization among right-handed (control), left handed, bilingual, and learning disabled children. Subjects (N=60) ranging in age from 7-13 years were administered a consonant-vowel-consonant dichotic paradigm with three experimental conditions (free recall, directed…

  8. Long-term psychosocial outcomes after intraoperative awareness with recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkala, Tanja; Ranta, Seppo; Wennervirta, Johanna; Henriksson, Markus; Suominen, Kirsi; Hynynen, Markku

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder, a common psychiatric disorder in the general population, may follow a traumatic experience of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. We conducted a matched cohort design with 9 subjects after intraoperative awareness with recall during general anesthesia. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and questionnaire were performed on 9 matched controls and 9 subjects, a median of 17.2 years from their documented awareness episode. The subjects and the matched controls completed a battery of questionnaires related to psychosocial well-being, after which they participated in a diagnostic Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders. Patients with awareness did not seem to differ from their matched controls in subsequent psychosocial outcome, psychiatric morbidity, or quality of life. We found no indication that intraoperative awareness with recall had any deleterious long-term effects on patients' psychosocial outcome.

  9. Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Josselyn, Sheena A; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications.

  10. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Verbrugge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  11. Relationships between personality variables and bizarreness effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brett J; Worthen, James B; Haydel, Leslie A; Mahon, Blaithin D Mac; Savoy, Sarah C

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between 6 personality variables and each of 3 different measures of recall for bizarre and common sentences were examined. The personality variables investigated included measures of sensation seeking, novelty experiencing, desire for novelty, arousal-seeking tendency, social potency, and conservatism. Recall was measured in terms of sentences accessed, target words recovered per accessed sentence, and misplaced target words. The results indicated the typical pattern of bizarreness effects on recall and significant relationships between personality variables and these effects. Arousal seeking and conservatism were positively related to a bizarreness advantage in sentences accessed. Additionally, high social potency was related to the recovery of more details from common than bizarre sentences, and high desire for novelty was related to a greater bizarre misplacement effect. The results are discussed in terms of orienting and defensive responses to bizarreness.

  12. Reduction and elimination of format effects on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Krusemark, Daniel C

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the recall advantage of pictures and spoken words over printed words in working memory (Foos & Goolkasian, 2005; Goolkasian & Foos, 2002) could be reduced by manipulating letter case and sequential versus simultaneous presentation. Participants were required to remember 3 or 6 items presented in varied presentation formats while verifying the accuracy of a sentence. Presenting words in alternating uppercase and lowercase improved recall, and presenting words simultaneously rather than successively removed the effect of presentation format. The findings suggest that when forcing participants to pay attention to printed words you can make them more memorable and thereby diminish or remove any disadvantage in the recall of printed words in comparison with pictures and spoken words.

  13. Age differences in learning, immediate and one week delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N G; Gritz, E R; Jarvik, M E

    1975-01-01

    In an initial study, differences in learning and immediate recall were observed for groups of young and aged subjects on several measures. Retest date showed some differential loss for aged subjects after 1 week. Conclusions regarding long-term retention per se were not possible due to the nature of the design. In a second study, additional aged and young groups of subjects were run under delayed recall conditions. The data from these two groups were combined with data from the first study, with care taken to match subjects on a number of variables (health, education, intelligence). The results showed age-related differences for measures of learning and immediate recall but not for delayed 1 week retention.

  14. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit......Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...

  15. Pet food recalls and pet food contaminants in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2012-03-01

    Most pet foods are safe, but incidents of chemical contamination occur and lead to illness and recalls. There were 11 major pet food recalls in the United States between 1996 and 2010 that were due to chemical contaminants or misformulations: 3 aflatoxin, 3 excess vitamin D3, 1 excess methionine, 3 inadequate thiamine, and 1 adulteration with melamine and related compounds and an additional 2 warnings concerning a Fanconilike renal syndrome in dogs after ingesting large amounts of chicken jerky treat products. This article describes clinical findings and treatment of animals exposed to the most common pet food contaminants.

  16. Drivers Recall and Attitudes Towards Road Safety Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112

  17. Paired-associate learning and recall of high and low imagery words: moderating effects of hypnosis, hypnotic susceptibility level, and visualization abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H J; Allen, S N

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between recall of low and high imagery paired-associate (P-A) words and hypnotic susceptibility, and the influence of hypnosis on recall as moderated by hypnotic level were examined. Subjects were assessed on 2 hypnotic susceptibility scales [Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C)]. Forty-one low (0-4 SHSS:C) and 41 highly (9-12 SHSS:C) hypnotizable college students were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: waking-hypnosis, hypnosis-waking, waking-waking, or hypnosis-hypnosis. Recall was significantly better for high than low imagery words. In the more sensitive within-subjects design, high hypnotizables recalled more P-A words during hypnosis than waking, and lows did not differ. In the between-subjects design, hypnotic level was not a moderator of performance during hypnosis. Low hypnotizables recalled more words in the within-subjects design. Visualization ability was a poor moderator of imagery-mediated learning. High imagery recall correlated significantly with Marks's (1973) Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (.25) and Paivio and Harshman's (1983) Individual Differences Questionnaire (IDQ) Verbal scale (.29), but not with the IDQ Imagery scale, the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1973), or the revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test (Likert & Quasha, 1941).

  18. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  19. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Benedetto; Pompili, Assunta; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event-related-potentials (ERP) to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behavior, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  20. Duration- and environment-dependent effects of repeated voluntary exercise on anxiety and cued fear in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have indicated that animal models of exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, might be endowed with anxiolytic properties. Using the light/dark test of unconditioned anxiety, we have reported that one confounding factor in the estimation of wheel running impacts on anxiety might be the housing condition of the sedentary controls. The present mouse study analyzed whether the aforementioned observation in the light/dark test (i) could be repeated in the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests of unconditioned anxiety, (ii) extended to conditioned anxiety, as assessed during cued fear recall tests, and (iii) required unlimited daily access to the running wheel. Housing with a locked wheel or with a free wheel that allowed limited or unlimited running activity triggered anxiolysis in the light/dark test, but not in the elevated plus-maze test, compared to standard housing. In the social interaction test, the duration, but not the number, of social contacts was increased in mice provided unlimited (but not limited) access to a wheel, compared to standard housing or housing with a locked wheel. Lastly, freezing responses to a cue during fear recall tests indicated that the reduction in freezing observed in mice provided limited or unlimited access to the wheels was fully accounted for by housing with a wheel. Besides confirming that the housing condition of the sedentary controls might bias the estimation of the effects of wheel running on anxiety, this study further shows that this estimation is dependent on the test used to assess anxiety.

  1. Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2008-03-07

    Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and matched typical comparison participants. In both experiments, participants studied words presented inside a red rectangle and were told to ignore context words presented outside the rectangle. Context words were either related or unrelated to the study words. The results showed that relatedness of context enhanced recall for the typical group only. However, recognition was enhanced by relatedness in both groups of participants. On a behavioural level, these findings confirm the Task Support Hypothesis [Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 533-542], which states that individuals with ASD will show greater difficulty on memory tests that provide little support for retrieval. The findings extend this hypothesis by showing that it operates at the level of relatedness between studied items and incidentally encoded context. By showing difficulties in memory for associated items, the findings are also consistent with conjectures that implicate medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe dysfunction in the memory difficulties of individuals with ASD.

  2. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  3. Testing the Itinerancy of Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8C+δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Gu, G.D.; Hücker, M.; Fauqué, B.; Perring, T.G.; Regnault, L.P.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2009-09-01

    Much of what we know about the electronic states of high-temperature superconductors is due to photoemission and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy studies of the compound Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. The demonstration of well-defined quasiparticles in the superconducting state has encouraged many theorists to apply the conventional theory of metals, Fermi-liquid theory, to the cuprates. In particular, the spin excitations observed by neutron scattering at energies below twice the superconducting gap energy are commonly believed to correspond to an excitonic state involving itinerant electrons. Here, we present the first measurements of the magnetic spectral weight of optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in absolute units. The lack of temperature dependence of the local spin susceptibility across the superconducting transition temperature, T{sub c}, is incompatible with the itinerant calculations. Alternatively, the magnetic excitations could be due to local moments, as the magnetic spectrum is similar to that in La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4}, where quasiparticles and local moments coexist.

  4. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  5. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  6. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  7. Incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jahanbakhshe Rezanejad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of awareness and recall during general anesthesia can be very distressing for patients. There is no doubt that surgery pain is the most distressing feature of awareness. This condition can cause neurosis in patients. If patient be aware during surgery and be able to hear some comment, she or he senses weakness, paralysis, feeling of helpless and anxiety, panic and death. The main goal of this study is determine the incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study carried out on 1500 patients (ASA Class I that underwent elective surgery in Shohadie-Ashayer hospital. The assessment tool was a questionnaire filled out by interview with patients after 20 – 36 hrs post-operation. Results: 1056 (70.59% of patients were males and 442 (29.41% were female. for 900 patients (60%, Benzodizepines (Midazolame or diazepam was used as a pre-medication and for all patients opioids were used for analgesia. Inductive drug was Thiopental sodium for all patients. Only 6 patients (0.4% were aware and recalled some comments during general anesthesia. Conclusion: regarding the undesired effects of awareness and recall during general anesthesia, use of drugs such as benzodizepines for premedication, opioids for analgesia and acceptable concentration of inhaled anesthetics for preventing these terrible events are necessary.

  8. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  9. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205.59 Section 205.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59...

  10. The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…

  11. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  12. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  13. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.J.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and

  14. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  15. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  16. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  17. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  18. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, M.J. van der; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and the

  19. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Goot; E. van Reijmersdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effect

  20. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  1. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  2. Communicating with older cancer patients: impact on information recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis was to unravel the relationship between patient characteristics, communication between patient and clinician, and subsequent patient information recall in the context of medical consultations with older cancer patients. Chapter 2 reviewed the literature to explore age

  3. A Retrieval Model for Both Recognition and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    The Search of Associative Memory (SAM) model for recall is extended by assuming that a familiarity process is used for recognition. The model, formalized in a computer simulation program, correctly predicts a number of findings in the literature as well as results from an experiment on the word-frequency effect. (Author/BW)

  4. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... apply to mandatory recall orders and the Commission declines to duplicate these provisions in the rule... Act (``FOIA'') rights. Response--The Commission declines to address FOIA issues in the rule because a... products second-hand or receive them as gifts. Considering the popularity of certain Web sites that...

  5. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  6. Investigating the Role of Pop Songs on Vocabulary Recall, Attitude and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners: The Case of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Pouya Shakerian; Omid Rezaei; Zeinab Toghyani Murnani; Hamid Moeinmanesh

    2016-01-01

    Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced adult EFL learners based on their gender. In so doing a language placement test (Quick Oxford Placement Test) was administered to 100 male and female...

  7. Recalled peer relationship experiences and current levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Leybman, Michelle J; Hope, Nora

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that personality factors may increase or decrease individuals' vulnerability to depression, but little research has examined the role of peer relationships in the development of these factors. Accordingly, this study examined the role of recalled parenting and peer experiences in the development of self-criticism and self-reassurance. It was hypothesized that, controlling for recalled parenting behaviours, specific recalled experiences of peer relationships would be related to current levels of specific forms of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Hypotheses were tested using a retrospective design in which participants were asked to recall experiences of parenting and peer relationships during early adolescence. This age was chosen as early adolescence has been shown to be a critical time for the development of vulnerability to depression. A total of 103 female and 97 male young adults completed measures of recalled parenting, overt and relational victimization and prosocial behaviour by peers, and current levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents and peers independently contributed to the development of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Specifically, controlling for parental care and control, overt victimization predicted self-hating self-criticism, relational victimization predicted inadequacy self-criticism, and prosocial behaviour predicted self-reassurance. As well, prosocial behaviour buffered the effect of overt victimization on self-reassurance. Findings highlight the importance of peers in the development of personality risk and resiliency factors for depression, and suggest avenues for interventions to prevent the development of depressive vulnerabilities in youth. The nature of a patient's personality vulnerability to depression may be better understood through a consideration of the patient's relationships with their peers as well as with parents during

  8. Reexamination of mood-mediation hypothesis of background-music-dependent effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Toshiko K; Kubota, Takayuki; Nakajima, Saki; Isarida, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The present study reexamined the mood-mediation hypothesis for explaining background-music-dependent effects in free recall. Experiments 1 and 2 respectively examined tempo- and tonality-dependent effects in free recall, which had been used as evidence for the mood-mediation hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, undergraduates (n = 75 per experiment) incidentally learned a list of 20 unrelated words presented one by one at a rate of 5 s per word and then received a 30-s delayed oral free-recall test. Throughout the study and test sessions, a piece of music was played. At the time of test, one third of the participants received the same piece of music with the same tempo or tonality as at study, one third heard a different piece with the same tempo or tonality, and one third heard a different piece with a different tempo or tonality. Note that the condition of the same piece with a different tempo or tonality was excluded. Furthermore, the number of sampled pieces of background music was increased compared with previous studies. The results showed neither tempo- nor tonality-dependent effects, but only a background-music-dependent effect. Experiment 3 (n = 40) compared the effects of background music with a verbal association task and focal music (only listening to musical selections) on the participants' moods. The results showed that both the music tempo and tonality influenced the corresponding mood dimensions (arousal and pleasantness). These results are taken as evidence against the mood-mediation hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  9. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  10. Unsupervised learning and recall of temporal sequences: an application to robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, G A; Araújo, A F

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes an unsupervised neural network model for learning and recall of temporal patterns. The model comprises two groups of synaptic weights, named competitive feedforward and Hebbian feedback, which are responsible for encoding the static and temporal features of the sequence respectively. Three additional mechanisms allow the network to deal with complex sequences: context units, a neuron commitment equation, and redundancy in the representation of sequence states. The proposed network encodes a set of robot trajectories which may contain states in common, and retrieves them accurately in the correct order. Further tests evaluate the fault-tolerance and noise sensitivity of the proposed model.

  11. Patient recall in advanced education in prosthodontics programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Koslow, Alyson H; Knoernschild, Kent L; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-06-01

    This study surveyed program directors of Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPP) in the United States to determine the extent, type, incidence, and perceived effectiveness of implemented recall systems. Surveys were sent to AEPP directors across the United States to assess their program's recall protocol. This survey first identified whether an active recall program existed. For programs with recall systems, rigor in promoting ongoing oral health was surveyed by focusing on recall frequency, patient tracking protocol, involved personnel, interaction with other university departments, provided clinical procedures, and therapy completion protocol. Whether the directors perceived that their recall system was successful was also investigated. Thirty-three of 46 programs responded, giving a response rate of 72%. Of these 33 programs, only 21 (64%) had an active recall system, although 30 (91%) believed recall to be important. Twelve (57%) directors with recall programs considered their system to be effective. Prosthodontic program directors felt their program's recall effectiveness could be improved. Due to the numerous potential benefits of an active recall system, AEPPs should consider implementing or enhancing their recall programs. Further studies are indicated to determine specific criteria that describe an effective recall system for prosthodontic programs within the context of patient health promotion, program curriculum, and financial ramifications.

  12. Characterization of L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots and application to test Cu(II) deficiency in biological samples from critically ill patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáez, Laura; Molina, Jorge; Florea, Daniela I.; Planells, Elena M. [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Cabeza, M. Carmen [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Quintero, Bartolomé, E-mail: bqosso@ugr.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We examinate stability of L-cysteine capped CdTe QD. •Factors influence QD fluorescence response are controlled. •Application in copper deficiency analysis is made. •We report comparison with other techniques. -- Abstract: The catalytic activity of copper ion gives, from the physiological point of view, a central role in many biological processes. Variations in the composition and location of cellular copper have been addressed given their physiological and pathological consequences. In this paper L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots is used for the fluorimetric determination of Cu(II) in biological samples from healthy individuals and patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICU). An acceptable homogeneity in the CdTe QDs size has been obtained with an average value of 3 nm. No significant alterations in the spectral properties were observed for 2 months when stored in vacutainers at 6 °C and a concentration of approximately 2 μM. Data from oxidative stress markers such superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage can be correlated with a Cu(II) deficiency for the ICU patients as measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Aqueous solutions 0.3 μM of L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs in MOPS buffer (6 mM, pH 7.4) used at 21 °C in the range 15–60 min after preparation of the sample for the measurements of fluorescence gives contents in Cu(II) for erythrocytes in good agreement with those obtained in FAAS and ICP-MS but the comparative ease of use makes the fluorimetric technique more suitable than the other two techniques for routine analysis.

  13. The Impact of the Size and the Shape of the Word on Information Recall and Reading Speed in Electronic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Kangari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of font size and word shape on information recall and reading rate of electronic content. A total of 70 undergraduate students were randomly divided into two groups. In experiment 1, one group read one chapter of an e-book with Tahoma Persian 10, and the other group read the same chapter with Tahoma Persian 12. The reading time was recorded and the participants completed pre and post tests. Experiment 2 was conducted as experiment 1, with the exception that one group read another chapter with Tahoma Persian (sans serif, and the other group read the same chapter with Times New Roman Persian (serif. In both experiments, the differences between the means of the recall scores, and the means of reading speeds for two font sizes and two word shapes were not statistically significant (α= 0.05. Designers of the educational content can change font sizes from 12 to 10 for Tahoma Persian without detrimental effect on recall and reading speed. However, in selection of typefaces they need to be more careful, because if we consider α= 0.10, the difference would become statistically significant. Therefore, some detrimental effects of san serif type face were observed on recall.

  14. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  15. The Accuracy with Which Children Judge the Composition of Their Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Elizabeth Kelly; Lange, Garrett

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four children at each of 3 grade levels (preschool, 2, and 5) were asked to judge which of a presented set of stimulus items they could recall in a subsequent period of verbal free recall. (Author/JMB)

  16. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  17. Sex differences in memory estimates for pictures and words with multiple recall trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Marcos D

    2004-04-01

    Undergraduate students (23 men and 23 women) provided memory performance estimates before and after each of three recall trials involving 80 stimuli (40 pictures and 40 words). No sex differences were found across trials for the total recall of items or for the recall of pictures and words separately. A significant increase in recall for pictures (not words) was found for both sexes across trials. The previous results of Ionescu were replicated on the first and second recall trials: men underestimated their performance on the pictures and women underestimated their performance on the word items. These differences in postrecall estimates were not found after the third recall trial: men and women alike underestimated their performance on both the picture and word items. The disappearance of item-specific sex differences in postrecall estimates for the third recall trial does not imply that men and women become more accurate at estimating their actual performance with multiple recall trials.

  18. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W.

  19. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.

  20. Blurred digital mammography images: an analysis of technical recall and observer detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wang Kei; Borgen, Rita; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara; Hilton, Beverley; Aspin, Rob; Lança, Carla; Hogg, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Blurred images in full-field digital mammography are a problem in the UK Breast Screening Programme. Technical recalls may be due to blurring not being seen on lower resolution monitors used for review. This study assesses the visual detection of blurring on a 2.3-MP monitor and a 5-MP report grade monitor and proposes an observer standard for the visual detection of blurring on a 5-MP reporting grade monitor. 28 observers assessed 120 images for blurring; 20 images had no blurring present, whereas 100 images had blurring imposed through mathematical simulation at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm levels of motion. Technical recall rate for both monitors and angular size at each level of motion were calculated. χ(2) tests were used to test whether significant differences in blurring detection existed between 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. The technical recall rate for 2.3- and 5-MP monitors are 20.3% and 9.1%, respectively. The angular size for 0.2- to 1-mm motion varied from 55 to 275 arc s. The minimum amount of motion for visual detection of blurring in this study is 0.4 mm. For 0.2-mm simulated motion, there was no significant difference [χ(2) (1, N = 1095) = 1.61, p = 0.20] in blurring detection between the 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. According to this study, monitors ≤2.3 MP are not suitable for technical review of full-field digital mammography images for the detection of blur. Advances in knowledge: This research proposes the first observer standard for the visual detection of blurring.