Sample records for cuddapah basin india

  1. Cuddapah basin and its environs as first-order uranium target in the Proterozoics of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mithilesh; Rai, A.K.; Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sinha, R.M.


    In peninsular India the middle Proterozoic intracratonic Cuddapah basin and its environs possess good geological favorability for several types of uranium deposits. Investigations so far have revealed the strata bound carbonate-hosted uranium mineralization in the Vempalle dolomitic limestone (e.g. Tummallapalle) and in the Pulivendla quartzite, confined to the lower part of the Cuddapah supergroup, and the structurally controlled uranium mineralization in the late Archaean/early Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphics along eastern (e.g. Kasturigattu), south-western (e.g. Sanipaya and T-Sanipaya and T-Sundapalle), and northern margins (e.g. Lambapur-Yellapur) of the Cuddapah basin. Based on the present level of work within the Cuddapah Basin and its environs, the following favourable locales and prospecting techniques have been suggested to identify the unconformity/vein-type high grade uranium deposits. (i) Detailed geological examination of the contact of basement with mid-Proterozoic Gulcheru/Nagari quartzite for locating unconformity-type uranium mineralisation. (ii) Extensive ground radiometric survey along the unconformity between basement granite and outliers of Srisailam formation, Banganpalle formation, Cumbum/Pullampet formation and Bairenkonda formation along northern and eastern margins of Cuddapah basin. (iii) Examination of the contact zone of the igneous intrusives (syenite and granite) into the Cumbum formation of central and northeastern parts of the basin e.g. Chelima - Giddalur area. (iv) Geophysical survey like resistivity (viz. SP, IP, TEM) to (a) delineate the concealed sulphide-rich zones along the prominent structures of the basinal margins and (b) study the possible existence under cover of quartzite and their subsurface behaviour for the fracture zones identified in the T. Sundapalle-Sanipaya, Pincha, Maddireddigaripalle, Chakrayapeta and Vepamanipeta areas. (author). 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Himadri; Harikrishnan, T.; Hanumanthappa, D.; Rengarajan, M.; Saravanan, B.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Mahendra Kumar


    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U 3 O 8 ) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  3. Proterozoic stratabound dolostone-hosted uranium mineralisation in the Komantula - Reddypalle area, Cuddapah basin, Anantpur district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, U.P.; Pandit, S.A.; Gangadharan, G.R.; Panda, Arjuna; Roy, Minati


    The Komantula-Reddypalle area constitutes the northern sector of the 160 km long, uranium mineralised belt along the western and southern margins of the Cuddapah basin. The mineralisation is hosted by impure dolostone of the Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah Supergroup and occurs in the form of pitchblende, coffinite and U-Ti complexes. Uranium minerals occur along the bedding plane, carbonate-phosphate mineral contact, suture boundaries of microstylolites, and grain boundaries of clasts. The ore bearing horizon has been traced for about 65 kms and samples have assayed from 0.01% to 0.67% U 3 O 8 with negligible thorium. The source of uranium for this mineralisation appears to be the nearby fertile basement granitic rocks present in the western margins of Cuddapah basin. This mineralisation as compared with those found in the Tummallapalle-Rachkuntapalle area in the southern sector, contains high Cu (65-8100 ppm) and low P 2 O 5 (0.07-0.59 wt%) and significant but varying Mo (20-292 ppm). Stratigraphically, this area differs from that of Tummalapalle-Rachkuntapalle area to its south in two respects, viz., absence of intraformational conglomerate below and presence of a non-radioactive limestone above the radioactive dolostone. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; Suresh Kumar, N.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Krishna Reddy, L.


    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) method. Gold ( 197 Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  5. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.


    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  6. An Overview of Uranium Exploration Strategy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)


    Uranium exploration in India dates back from 1949 and the first mineralized area was located in the early 1950s in Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), eastern India. Since then, a number of potential and promising uranium provinces have been established in India. The potential uranium provinces include SSZ, Dongargarh, Aravalli, Siwalik belt, Mahadek basin, south-western and northern parts of Cuddapah basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Bhima and Kaladgi basins. The promising uranium provinces are Proterozoic Chhattisgarh, Indravati, Gwalior, Vindhyan, Shillong basins, Gondwana basins of Central India and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan. With the establishment of large tonnage-high grade Lower-middle Proterozoic unconformity deposits in Canada and Australia, there was a paradigm shift in the exploration strategy towards the Proterozoic basins of India. The discovery of unconformity related uranium mineralisation in the northern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin in southern India in 1991 and discovery of few deposits in the province has opened the avenues for finding of similar deposits in Cuddapah and other 13 Proterozoic basins in India. As a sequel, Proterozoic Bhima basin in southern India has been recognized as a potential target for uranium mineralization, where a low tonnage medium grade deposit has been established and mine development works are in progress. Sustained exploration efforts in other Proterozoic basins have yielded success in a few basins such as Deshnur area in Kaladgi Basin of southern India. Considerable uranium resources have been established in Proterozoic Cuddapah and Bhima basins. Apart from northern parts of Cuddapah and Bhima basins, areas in the southwestern part of Cuddapah basin for stratabound type, where a mine is under construction; Proterozoic Kaladgi basin for vein type; Cretaceous Mahadek basin for sandstone type and the North Delhi Fold belt for vein type of mineralization have been prioritized as potential areas for exploration

  7. Lifestyles of the palaeoproterozoic stromatolite builders in the Vempalle Sea, Cuddapah Basin, India (United States)

    Patranabis-Deb, Sarbani; Majumder, Tuasha; Khan, Sayani


    The distribution and changing pattern of stromatolites in the Vempalle Formation of the Cuddapah Basin, India, have been investigated with emphasis on external morphologies, internal fabrics, growth patterns and sediment associations. The stromatolitic limestone occurs in a low angle ramp type carbonate platform, with complete exposures from shallow shelf to basinal facies, provides record of changes in reef-building capacity of stromatolites with change in the depositional milieu. Changing pattern and style of the stromatolites clearly reflect depth partitioned growth of the microbial community. Small and scattered stromatolites, commonly with wavy parallel laminations or stratifications occurred in inner-ramp settings, where they are build up to the sea level. Tepee structure and desiccation cracks in associated sediments and salt pseudomorphs point to shallow water to occasional exposure condition. Large bioherms with columnar and conical stromatolites developed in the headland (mid ramp), which were in continuous interaction with strong waves of the open sea. Growth of the bioherms changed the landform with time and generated a high sloping edge with a sheer drop that extended out into the sea, forming distally steepened ramp. Outer ramp lithofacies characterized by thick layers of shale succession with thin beds of laterally persistent stromatolitic beds with low synoptic relief build-ups. These biotic components, along with the absence of wave-related structures, place the outer ramp below the base of wave action zone. Ooid banks developed in the mid ramp area are in the high surfing zone. High flux of nutrients and high-light show positive correlation; thus the high growth pattern is best observed within the photic zone where wave action is maximum. The ability to change from low synoptic relief algal laminites to high synoptic relief columnar stromatolites point to their adaptive power. The key factor that controlled the shape of these Palaeoproterozoic

  8. Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip


    Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

  9. Regional facies variations in the Vempalle formation of Cuddapah Basin: implications on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, H.S.; Mukundhan, A.R.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Achar, K.K.; Umamaheswar, K.


    Strata-bound large tonnage uranium deposit hosted by the Grey-impure-dolostone of Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah Basin is known in Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle sector. Deposition of rocks of Cuddapah Basin commenced with Papaghni Group, which comprises Clastic - Gulcheru Formation and Chemogenic - Vempalle Formation. The Vempalle Formation is developed over 280 km stretch from south to north along the western margin of Cuddapah Basin with maximum thickness of about 2.1 km. Recent studies helped in classifying the Vempalle Formation into five major lithofacies viz. Massive Dolostone, Conglomerate, Grey-impure-dolostone (host rock for uranium mineralization), Purple shale and Cherty Dolostone. The lithofacies studies along selected traverses from Tummalapalle in south to Dhone in north revealed the development of all five facies upto Narpala near Chitravati River whereas towards its north, the Grey-impure-dolostone and Cherty Dolostone dominate. The study also revealed over lapping nature of Cherty Dolostone in North of Nossam-Peddapaya lineament; where it directly rests above the Gulcheru Formation. Environment of deposition for these facies of Vempalle Formation place this in a Shallowing-upward carbonate depositional system with characteristic tidal flat environment. The Grey-impure-dolostone facies hosting uranium is interpreted to be developed in Supratidal environment with a narrow pH range of 7.0 - 7.5 in a reducing environment along with precipitation of phosphate. Since the tidal flats have later extension over several kilometers, favorable environment of Grey-impure-dolostone may exist over wide area in northern part also. The search for Grey-impure-dolostone hosted uranium, therefore has a bearing an understanding the regional facies variations in Vempalle Formation. The paper presents the studies carried out in this direction and results thereof. (author)

  10. Controlled Source Audio Magneto Telluric (CSAMT) studies for uranium exploration in Durgi area, Palnad sub-basin, Cuddapah basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Indresh; Kumar, S. Vijaya; Ramesh Babu, V.; Kumar, B.V.L.; Dash, J.K.; Chaturvedi, A.K.


    Cuddapah basin is known for hosting unconformity proximal uranium deposits viz., Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitirial and Koppunuru along the northern margin of the basin. It is well known that these deposits are mostly associated with basement granitoids in Srisailam Sub-basin, and with cover sediments in Palnad subbasin where basement topography and fault/fracture system influence the fluid flow causing basement alteration and ore deposition. Geological setup, surface manifestation of uranium anomalies and association of the hydro-uranium anomalies near Durgi area in southern part of the Palnad sub-basin, have prompted detail investigation by geophysical methods to probe greater depths. Controlled Source Audio Magneto Telluric (CSAMT) survey conducted over five decades of frequency (0.1-9600 Hz) delineated the various lithounits of Kurnool and Nallamalai Groups along with their thicknesses as there exist an appreciable resistivity contrast. Interpretation of CSAMT sounding data are constrained by resistivity logs and litholog data obtained from the boreholes drilled within the basin indicated three to four layered structure. Sub-surface 2-D and 3-D geo-electrical models are simulated by stitching 1-D layered inverted resistivity earth models. Stitched 1-D inverted resistivity sections revealed the unconformity between the Kurnool Group and Nallamalai Group along with basement undulations. The faults/fractures delineated from the CSAMT data corroborated well with the results of gravity data acquired over the same area. Simulated 3-D voxel resistivity model helped in visualising the faults/fractures, their depth extent, thickness of the Banganapalle quartzite and basement configuration. Integrated interpretation of CSAMT, gravity and borehole data facilitated in delineating the unconformity and the structural features favourable for uranium mineralisation in deeper parts of the Palnad sub-basin. (author)

  11. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Upadhyay, P. K.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Zakaulla, Syed; Bhatt, A. K.; Natarajan, V.; Dey, Sukanta


    The lower stratigraphic part of the Cuddapah basin is marked by mafic and felsic volcanism. Tadpatri Formation consists of a greater variety of rock types due to bimodal volcanism in the upper part. Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes involved in the formation of such volcanic sequence result in original textures which are classified into volcaniclastic and coherent categories. Detailed and systematic field works in Tadpatri-Tonduru transect of SW Cuddapah basin have provided information on the physical processes producing this diversity of rock types. Felsic volcanism is manifested here with features as finger print of past rhyolite-dacite eruptions. Acid volcanics, tuffs and associated shale of Tadpatri Formation are studied and mapped in the field. With supporting subordinate studies on geochemistry, mineralogy and petrogenesis of the volcanics to validate field features accurately, it is understood that volcanism was associated with rifting and shallow marine environmental condition. Four facies (i.e., surge, flow, fall and resedimented volcaniclastic) are demarcated to describe stratigraphic units and volcanic history of the mapped area. The present contribution focuses on the fundamental characterization and categorization of field-based features diagnostic of silica-rich volcanic activities in the Tadpatri Formation.

  12. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta


    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat

  13. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.


    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly 160 km

  14. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

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    N.V. Chalapathi Rao


    Full Text Available New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration. However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O/(MgO + K2O and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79–109 of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73–145 and Narayanpet (72–156, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to ‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3–1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be

  15. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India (United States)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.


    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  16. Geophysical signatures of a fracture controlled U-mineralisation: a case study from Mulapalle area, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.L.N.; Sethuram, S.; Rao, B.N.; Tiku, K.L.; Ram, Subhash


    Geophysical methods have been extensively used for delineation of structural features such as fractures and shear zones which often control and host economic mineralisation. Numerous fractures hosting uranium mineralisation and confined to younger intrusives and leucogranites occur within basement gneissic complex on the southwestern margin of the Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin. The geophysical signatures of one such mineralised fracture zone near Mulapalle are discussed. Mineralised fractures are mostly confined to a zone of cataclastic rocks characterised by widely varying magnetic character with respect to the surroundings. A strong redox barrier associated with the mineralisation is revealed by self-potential data. The mineralised zone is also indicated by a higher order resistivity attributable to the enrichment of silica in the fracture zone. (author)

  17. Seismically imaged shallow and deep crustal structure and potential field anomalies across the Eastern Dharwar Craton, south Indian shield: Possible geodynamical implications (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Chandrakala, K.; Vasanthi, A.; Kumar, K. Satish


    The time-bound crustal evolution and subsequent deformation of the Cuddapah basin, Nellore Schist Belt and Eastern Ghats terrain of Eastern Dharwar Craton, which have undergone sustained geodynamic upheavals since almost 2.0 billion years, remain enigmatic. An attempt is made here to integrate newly available potential field data and other geophysical anomalies with deep seismic structure, to examine the generative mechanism of major crustal features, associated with this sector. Our study indicates that the initial extent of the Cuddapah basin sedimentation may have been much larger, extending by almost 50-60 km west of Tadipatri during Paleoproterozoic period, which subsequently shrank due to massive erosion following thermal uplift, caused by SW Cuddapah mantle plume. Below this region, crust is still quite warm with Moho temperatures exceeding 500 °C. Similarly, Nallamalai Fold Belt rocks, bounded by two major faults and extremely low gravity, may have occupied a large terrain in western Cuddapah basin also, before their abrasion. No geophysical signatures of thrusting are presently seen below this region, and thus it could not be an alien terrain either. In contrast, Nellore Schist Belt is associated with strikingly high positive gravity, possibly caused by a conspicuous horst structure and up dipping mafic crustal layers underneath, that resulted due to India-east Antarctica collision after the cessation of prolonged subduction (1.6-0.95 Ga). Further, the crustal seismic and gravity signatures would confirm presence of a totally distinct geological terrain east of the Cuddapah basin, but the trace of Eastern Ghats Belt is all together missing. Instead, all the geophysical signatures, point out to presence of a Proterozoic sedimentary terrain, east of Nellore Schist Belt. It is likely that the extent of Prorerozoic sedimentation was much larger than thought today. In addition, presence of a seismically detected Gondwana basin over Nellore Schist Belt, apart

  18. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan


    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  19. Contact metamorphic effects of the basic intrusive rocks on the Proterozoic uraniferous dolostone in Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh: implications on uranium mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Minati; Panda, Arjuna; Dhana Raju, R.


    Mafic intrusive rocks in the Vempalle formation of the mid-Proterozoic Cuddapah basin occur as sills and dykes. These include minor bodies of gabbro, olivine gabbro, olivine norite, basalt and mainly dolerite with basaltic andesite. The metamorphic effects of these intrusive rocks on the uraniferous phosphatic siliceous dolostone are mainly mineralogical (thermal) with subordinate changes in chemistry. These are manifested by (a) formation of plagioclase-hornblende hornfels, (b) notable mineralogical changes in the dolostone leading to enrichment of magnetite, epidote, anatase and de-dolomitised calcite, (c) decrease in specific gravity of dolostone from 3.0 to 2.8 due to volatilisation reaction products of epidote and smectite, and (d) formation of wollastonite, chalcedony, and secondary uranium minerals (autunite and uranophane) at places, in the contact aureole that led to notable changes in the chemistry of the intrusive body and the host rock. Intrusive rocks at the contact show enrichment in Fe 2+ , Mg, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, and depletion in Ca and Fe 3+ , whereas the dolostone shows enrichment in Ti, Ca, and depletion in Si, Al, alkalies and P. Depletion of uranium in the affected parts (0.003% U 3 O 8 ) of mineralised dolostone (0.062% U 3 O 8 ) adjacent to the basic intrusive rocks suggests its mobilisation, due to increase in temperature, resulting in baking. This phenomenon is also manifested, at places, in the formation of secondary uranium minerals - result of remobilisation of uranium from primary phases and its subsequent precipitation. (author)

  20. Cretaceous sedimentology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India


    Beaumont, Hazel


    The Barmer Basin, western India, is a well-known and prospected petroleum system. However, the Lower Cretaceous Ghaggar-Hakra Formation has not been recognised as basin fill and not documented prior to this study. The formation outcrops in rotational fault blocks at the Sarnoo Hills and surrounding areas, on the eastern Barmer Basin margin. The thesis here describes and analyses the nature and evolution of the formation at both outcrop and within the subsurface, producing facies and depositio...

  1. Assessment of background gamma radiation levels using airborne gamma ray spectrometer data over uranium deposits, Cuddapah Basin, India - A comparative study of dose rates estimated by AGRS and PGRS. (United States)

    Srinivas, D; Ramesh Babu, V; Patra, I; Tripathi, Shailesh; Ramayya, M S; Chaturvedi, A K


    The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas. Further, portable gamma ray spectrometer (PGRS) was used to acquire data over two nearby locations one from Lambapur deposit, and the other from known anomalous zone and subsequently average gamma dose rates were estimated. Representative in-situ rock samples were also collected from these two areas and subjected to radio-elemental concentration analysis by gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) in the laboratory and then dose rates were estimated. Analyses of these three sets of results complement one another, thereby providing a comprehensive picture of the radiation environment over these deposits. The average absorbed area wise dose rate level is estimated to be 130 ± 47 nGy h -1 in Lambapur-Peddagattu, 186 ± 77 nGy h -1 in Chitrial and 63 ± 22 nGy h -1 in Koppunuru. The obtained average dose levels are found to be higher than the world average value of 54 nGy h -1 . The gamma absorbed dose rates in nGy h -1 were converted to annual effective dose rates in mSv y -1 as proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual average effective dose rates for the entire surveyed area is 0.12 mSv y -1 , which is much lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y -1 by International Commission on Radiation protection (ICRP). It may be ascertained here that the present study establishes a reference data set (baseline) in these areas

  2. Impact of Renewed Solar Dimming on Hydrology of River Basins in Peninsular India (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Soni, P.; Tripathi, S.


    A significant decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) for the period 1970-2000 has been reported by observational studies over India. This trend has also been observed globally and is termed as solar dimming. A recent study reported a reversal in the SSR trends over India for the period 2001-2010. However, using SSR observations at 12 stations located across India, we found that a much stronger dimming has reappeared during the last decade (2006-2015). To analyse the hydrological impact of this renewed dimming, 28 river basins in peninsular India are studied using a semi-distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The area of these basins ranges from 1,260 km2 to 40,000 km2. The model was calibrated for the period 2003-2009 and validated for the period 2010-2014 using the daily discharge data. Experiments were performed, based on observed SSR trends and their uncertainties, to quantify their impacts on the water balance of each basin. The results suggest that a 5-10% decrease in SSR over the 9-year period, 2006-2014, resulted in a decrease of about 8% in annual evapotranspiration (ET). Seasonally, ET decreased during wet seasons (monsoon and post-monsoon) leading to increased ground water recharge, but increased during dry seasons (winter and pre-monsoon) resulting in reduced soil moisture. Changes in ET were also affected by the basin characteristics. Forested basins with clay loam soils were found to have higher ET changes than other basins. Annual discharge from the basins increased due to the decrease in annual ET caused by the decrease in SSR. The results suggest that effects of SSR trends on annual runoff are significant over peninsular Indian and should not to be neglected as they can affect river flow projections and freshwater availability.

  3. Comparative study of gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay of boreholes in block-I of Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, M.; Mandal, G.; Bhaumik, B.K.


    A comparative study has been carried out between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data of boreholes in Block-I of Tummalapalle area, South Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods. The product of average grade (in %eU 3 O 8 ) and thickness (in m) of uranium mineralization has been used for this purpose. The outcome of statistical analysis revealed a strong relation between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data. Slope of the line is close to 1.0 and intercept is not different from 0.0. It ensures homogeneity of uranium ore distribution in the host rock. The calculated value from t-test is well within the limit and ensures the negligibility in the difference of means. This indicates that either of the data can be used for ore reserve calculation. (author)

  4. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Cochran, J.R.; Lall, M.; Mazumdar, A.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Riedel, M.; Sain, K.; Sathe, A.V.; Vishwanath, K.; Yadav, U.S.

    history of the Mahanadi Basin is similar to that of the Krishna-Godavari Basin. The Late Jurassic rift structures along the eastern margin of India cut across older NW-SE-trending Permian-Triassic Gondwana grabens including the Mahanadi and Pranhita...-Godavari grabens (Sastri et al., 1981). The Mahanadi graben appears to have a continuation in Antarctica as the Lambert graben (Federov et al., 1982). These structures served to delineate the fluvial drainage system throughout the evolution of the margin...

  5. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India


    Vyas, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Gunwant; Mathur, Y.P.; Chandwani, Vinay


    The increasing population and large scale growth with the development of modern science and technology has indicated very high stress on water sector in Rajasthan in India. Availability of water and uniformity of rainfall distribution is changing day by day due to shifting of monsoon in Rajasthan. The spatial and temporal variations in the rainfall in different river basins in Rajasthan are drastic due to which flood situation arises in the tributaries of Chambal river basin every year. Simul...

  6. Application of k0-based NAA for multielement determination in serpentines and associated minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; S.V. University, Tirupati; Suresh Kumar, N.; King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam; Acharya, R.; Krishna Reddy, L.; Reddy, A.V.R.


    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis method was applied for multielement determination in black and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely altered and unaltered dolomites and intrusive rock dolerite, obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Concentrations of 20 elements were determined and they were used to predict the process of formation of fibrous chrysotile asbestos. Majority of elements as well as REEs reveal the contribution of elements from both dolerite and dolomite during the process of contact metamorphism in forming the mineral serpentine. (author)

  7. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Vyas


    Annual surplus water of about 1437 MCM in the river Chambal is going waste and ultimately reaches to sea after creating flood situations in various places in India including Rajasthan, while on the other hand 1077 MCM water is a requirement in the four other basins in Rajasthan i.e. Banas, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati at 75% dependability. Interlinking and water transfer from Chambal to these four river basins is the prime solution for which 372 km link channel including 9 km tunnel of design capacity of 300 cumec with 64 m lift is required.

  8. Godavari rift and its extension towards the east coast of India (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Gupta, S. B.; Venkatarayudu, M.


    is similar to that of the Lower Deccan Trap (65 m.y.) which suggests the presence of basic intrusions of this period in this region with basement tectonics having Gondwana trends and superimposed almost perpendicular structural features. The latter might be a part of more regional tectonics affecting the entire east coast of India from the Mahanadi basin in the north to east of the Cuddapah and Cauvery basins in the south.

  9. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke


    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  10. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima


    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  11. Thermal history of the Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology and organic maturity data (United States)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Bal, Kiron D.


    The Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a passive margin Late Carboniferous to Holocene basin along the rifted east coast of India, includes the deltaic and inter-deltaic regions of the Krishna and Godavari rivers onshore and extends into the offshore. It is one of India's premier hydrocarbon-bearing basins. In an attempt to better understand the thermal history of the basin, apatite fission track (AFT) data has been obtained from six exploration wells (five onshore and one offshore). AFT thermal history models as well as other thermal indicators e.g. vitrinite reflectance (VR), Rock-Eval Tmax data reveal that the host rocks are currently at their maximum post-depositional temperatures and that any possible heating related to small-scale tectonism or rifting episodes in the basin bears little significance on the maturation of the sediments. In the case of one borehole (M-1) however, the organic maturity data reveals a period of Oligocene cooling across an unconformity when ∼1000 m of section was eroded due to falling sea-level. This information offers the potential for improved basin modeling of the KG basin.

  12. Some geodynamic aspects of the Krishna-Godavari basin, east coast of India (United States)

    Murthy, K. S. R.; Subrahmanyam, A. S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Chandrasekhar, D. V.; Rao, T. C. S.


    Detailed analysis of magnetic data of the Krishna-Godavari offshore basin provides new information on the evolution of this basin since the breakup of Peninsular India in the late Jurassic from the erstwhile Gondwanaland. The results establish the offshore extension of two major onshore cross trends viz, the Chintalapudi and Avanigadda cross trends (CCT and ACT). While the onshore basin is characterized by NE-SW ridges and depressions, the offshore basin is divided essentially into three segments by these two NW-SE cross trends. The Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB), located at the foot of the continental slope of this region, appears to be the seaward limit of these two cross trends. An isolated source of high magnetic intensity (a hot spot?) is identified near the OCB of Machilipatnam, confined between the two cross trends. The Pranhita Godavari Gondwana graben, located north of CCT, extends into the offshore along two faulted cross trends, viz, the CCT and the newly identified Yanam cross trend. The weak magnetic signature associated with this graben at greater depths in the offshore is probably due to flexural subsidence. Preliminary reconstruction of the evolutionary stages of this basin suggests that the hot spot (Marion ?) with its trace located at the OCB represents the earliest stage of the breakup of east coast of India in the late Jurassic (126 Ma), although the relation between this hotspot and the two cross trends on either side remains unresolved. The breakup was associated with rift phase volcanism, as evidenced by the inferred dyke intrusions in the Nizampatnam bay in the southern part of the basin. The Pranhita Godavari Gondwana graben formed due to this split, pull apart and the subsequent downwarping of the eastern continental margin, appears to be much deeper and wider in the offshore. The NE-SW ridges (Tanuku, Kaza and Bapatla) and the depressions (East and West Godavari and Krishna) of the onshore basin are a consequence of the post-rift vertical

  13. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.


    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  14. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y


    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  15. Regional trend of coal metamorphism in the major Gondwana basins of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A K; Alam, M M; Bunerjee, B


    The coal-bearing Gondwana sedimentaries are of great economic importance as they possess over 98% of coal resources of India. Within the Gondwana supergroup coal-bearing formations are confined in the Lower Gondwana sequence (Damuda group). The development of coal seams in the different basins were genetically related to the evolutionary pattern of each basin. The imprint of such diverse tectono-geomorphic conditions prevailing over the vast Peninsular Shield, and their regional impact in individual basins are well preserved in the different lithofacies of this thick-pile of sedimentary sequence. In fact constituting coal facies served as a sensitive recorder of the past episode enacted for long geological time span in each basin of the Gondwana grabens. In the present paper an attempt is made to incorporate the salient features of the operative processes in the major Gondwana basins with special reference to coal metamorphism. This has been done considering mass of analytical and sub-surface data available from the physico-chemical survey of coal seams of major coalfields, and extensive drilling operations carried out over the vast virgin tracts of important coalfields.

  16. Early Opening of Seychelles and India: the Gop Basin Revisited (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Vadakkeyakath, Y.; Bhattacharya, G.


    The deep offshore region located between the India-Pakistan continental margin and the Laxmi Ridge continental sliver contains valuable imprints of the early oceanic opening phase between India and the Seychelles. The acquisition of wide-angle deep seismic data by British scientists in 2003 provided new information about the deep structure and nature of the crust [1,2]. These data complement the large amount of seismic reflection profiles, altimetry-derived gravity and marine magnetic data which allow mapping the structure and determining the age of the oceanic crust [3,4,5]. Although these authors all agree on the oceanic nature of the Gop Basin, they surprisingly differ on the extent of the oceanic crust, the location of the extinct spreading center and the age of the basin. Here we re-evaluate published interpretations of the Gop Basin in light of all available data. The major discrepancy between [1,2,4] and [5] is the location of the extinct spreading center. [1,2,4] place it on an unnamed basement high located at 19°55'N, whereas [5] identify it with the Palitana Ridge at 19°25'N. Checking the location of the basement high of [1,2,4] on the basement isobath map of [3], based on many seismic reflection profiles, reveals that this basement high actually is an isolated feature of limited extent, which at best can be considered as part of a NE-SW trending basement high zone. This basement high locally coincides with a strong positive magnetic anomaly and a narrow gravity anomaly low but the trend of these anomalies is E-W, in contrast to the NE-SW trend of the basement in this area. For these reasons, this basement high probably is not the location of the Gop Basin extinct spreading center. Conversely, on the basement isobath map of [3], the Palitana Ridge appears as a prominent E-W high, located in the middle of a broad E-W graben, the Gop Basin. It extends over 200 km and is flanked on both sides by basement 2000 m deeper. On free air gravity anomaly maps, the

  17. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments. (United States)

    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian


    The timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the understanding of crustal deformation processes, since, for example, it impacts on calculations regarding the amount of convergence that needs to be accommodated by various mechanisms. In this research we use sediments originally deposited in the Tethyan ocean basin and now preserved in the Himalayan orogeny to constrain the timing of collision. In the NW Himalaya, a number of workers have proposed a ca 55-50 Ma age for collision along the Indus suture zone which separates India from the Kohistan-Ladakh Intraoceanic Island arc (KLA) to the north. This is based on a number of factors including the age of youngest marine sediments in the Indus suture (e.g. Green et al. 2008), age of eclogites indicative of onset of Indian continental subduction (e.g. de Sigoyer et al. 2000), and first evidence of detritus from north of the suture zone deposited on the Indian plate (e.g. Clift et al. 2002). Such evidence can be interpreted as documenting the age of India-Asia collision if one takes the KLA to have collided with the Asian plate prior to its collision with India (e.g. Petterson 2010 and refs therein). However, an increasing number of workers propose that the KLA collided with Asia subsequent to its earlier collision with India, dated variously at 85 Ma (Chatterjee et al. 2013), 61 Ma (Khan et al. 2009) and 50 Ma (Bouilhol et al. 2013). This, plus the questioning of earlier provenance work (Clift et al. 2002) regarding the validity of their data for constraining timing of earliest arrival of material north of the suture deposited on the Indian plate (Henderson et al. 2011) suggests that the time is right for a reappraisal of this topic. We use a provenance-based approach here, using combined U-Pb and Hf on detrital zircons from Tethyan ocean basin sediments, along with petrography and biostratigraphy, to identify first arrival of material from north of the Indian plate to arrive on the Indian continent, to constrain

  18. The breakup of East Gondwana: Assimilating constraints from Cretaceous ocean basins around India into a best-fit tectonic model (United States)

    Gibbons, Ana D.; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Müller, R. Dietmar


    models for the Cretaceous seafloor-spreading history of East Gondwana result in unlikely tectonic scenarios for at least one of the plate boundaries involved and/or violate particular constraints from at least one of the associated ocean basins. We link East Gondwana spreading corridors by integrating magnetic and gravity anomaly data from the Enderby Basin off East Antarctica within a regional plate kinematic framework to identify a conjugate series of east-west-trending magnetic anomalies, M4 to M0 ( 126.7-120.4 Ma). The mid-ocean ridge that separated Greater India from Australia-Antarctica propagated from north to south, starting at 136 Ma northwest of Australia, and reached the southern tip of India at 126 Ma. Seafloor spreading in the Enderby Basin was abandoned at 115 Ma, when a ridge jump transferred the Elan Bank and South Kerguelen Plateau to the Antarctic plate. Our revised plate kinematic model helps resolve the problem of successive two-way strike-slip motion between Madagascar and India seen in many previously published reconstructions and also suggests that seafloor spreading between them progressed from south to north from 94 to 84 Ma. This timing is essential for tectonic flow lines to match the curved fracture zones of the Wharton and Enderby basins, as Greater India gradually began to unzip from Madagascar from 100 Ma. In our model, the 85-East Ridge and Kerguelen Fracture Zone formed as conjugate flanks of a "leaky" transform fault following the 100 Ma spreading reorganization. Our model also identifies the Afanasy Nikitin Seamounts as products of the Conrad Rise hotspot.

  19. Tectono-geomorphic indices of the Erin basin, NE Kashmir valley, India (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Bashir; Afzal, Ahsan; Bhat, M. I.; Sultan Bhat, M.; Farooq Ahmad, Hakim; Tectonics; Natural Hazards Research Group


    The present study aims to assess the tectonic activity in the Erin basin (NE Kashmir) on the basis of several relevant geomorphic indices and field observations. We use Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) and Survey of India (SoI) topographic maps in GIS environment to compute the geomorphic indices. The indices i.e., convex hypsometric curve, high hypsometric integral value (Hi > 0.5), low basin elongation ratio (Eb = 0.17), low mountain front sinuosity values (Smf = 1.08 average), low valley floor width ratios (Vf 4) suggest that the area is tectonically active. Moreover, prominent irregularities (knickpoints/knickzones) along longitudinal profile of the Erin River even in homogenous resistant lithology (Panjal trap) and anomalous stream gradient index (SL) values reflect that the Erin basin is dissected by two faults (EF-1 and EF-2) with NNW-SSE and SSW-NNE trends respectively. The results of this preliminary study further substantiate the recent GPS studies, which argue that the maximum strain is accumulating in the NE part of the Kashmir Himalaya.

  20. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.


    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  1. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Eddy J.; Groot, Annemarie; Biemans, Hester; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Wiltshire, Andy; Mathison, Camilla; Ridley, Jeff; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj


    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 o C over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  2. Morphotectonic analysis and GNSS observations for assessment of relative tectonic activity in Alaknanda basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Sharma, Gopal; Champati ray, P. K.; Mohanty, S.


    Alaknanda basin in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, is a tectonically active region owing to ongoing crustal deformation, erosion, and depositional processes active in the region. Active tectonics in this region have greatly affected the drainage system and geomorphic expression of topography and provide an ideal natural set up to investigate the influence of tectonic activity resulting from the India-Eurasia collision. We evaluated active tectonics by using high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) based on eight geomorphic indices (stream length gradient index, valley floor width-to-height ratio, hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry, transverse topography symmetry factor, mountain front sinousity index, bifurcation ratio, and basin shape index) and seismicity in eight subbasins of Alaknanda basin. The integrated product, relative tectonic activity index (TAI) map, was classified into three classes such as: 'highly active' with values ranging up to 2.0; 'moderately active' with values ranging from 2.0 to 2.25; and 'less active' with values > 2.25. Further, the results were compared with relatively high crustal movement rate of 41.10 mm/y computed through high precession Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based continuous operating reference station (CORS) data. Thus, we concluded that this new quantitative approach can be used for better characterization and assessment of active seismotectonic regions of the Himalaya and elsewhere.

  3. Role of organic matter in uranium mineralisation in Vempalle dolostone; Cuddapah basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Zakaulla, Syed; Kumar, Suresh; Rai, A.K.


    Dolostone of Vempalle Formation near Tummalapalle hosts large uranium deposit (>100,000 tonnes with an average grade of 0.045% U_3O_8). It is a unique type of uranium deposit because carbonate formations have been considered to be among the least uraniferous of all the rocks of the Earth's crust due to mobility of uranium in aqueous fluid in the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions. Vempalle dolostone hosts syn-sedimentary uranium mineralization in the form of discrete uranium phases (pitchblende and coffinite) associated with collophane, and adsorbed uranium in organic matter. The organic matter has played dual role of concentrating uranium from solution and also chemically reducing it to pitchhblende and coffinite. (author)

  4. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, M.G.

    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNE-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5-6 km below the mean sea level. A...

  5. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.


    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  6. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India. (United States)

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François


    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  7. Plate tectonic reconstruction of India and Madagascar closing through the Mascarene Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shuhail, M.

    anomaly information from Mascarene Basin forced all those studies to follow the IND-ANT-AFR circuit to obtain India-Madagascar reconstruction models in their pre-drift scenario (e.g. Fig. 2a). Since those models were not accounted for the deformation....1029/2007GC001743 3. Royer et al., 2002, Geological Society of London Special Publication 195, 7-23 4. Yatheesh et al., 2006, Gondwana Research 10, 179-185. PhD with the guidance of V. Yatheesh and G.C. Bhattacharya. CSIR-NIO/UGC are acknowledged...

  8. Regional tectonic framework of the Pranhita Godavari basin, India (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.


    The Pranhita-Godavari Gondwana rift (PGR) has a co-genetic relationship with Permo-Triassic reactivation of the Narmada-Son Geofracture (NSG). The Satpura Gondwana basin represents the terminal depocentre against the NSG, which restricted the northwestward propagation of the PGR. The NE-SW tensional stress responsible for the NW-SE trending PGR could not propagate beyond the ramp formed by uplift along the NSG and transformed kinetically into an ENE directed horizontal shear along the NSG, inducing large scale strike-slip movements. The latter dynamics were responsible for ENE extension of the Satpura rift as a pull-apart basin. The PGR extends up to the present east coast of India, where it is apparently terminated by the NE-SW trending Bapatla ridge along the Eastern Ghat Rift (EGR). The subsurface data, however, shows that the PGR extends across the Bapatla ridge and continues beneath the Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments of the Krishna-Godavari basin (KG) in the EGR. Thus, the Permo-Triassic PGR appears to have continued in the Indo-Antarctic plate before the Cretaceous break up. The EGR, during break up of the continents, cuts across the PGR and the KG basin was superimposed on it. The PGR site is located on a paleo-suture between the Dharwar and Bastar proto-cratons. The master faults developed bordering the rift, and the intra-rift higher order faults followed the pre-existing fabric. The transverse transfer zones manifested as basement ridges, divide the rift into segments of tectono-sedimentary domains. The major domains are the Chintalapudi, Godavari, and Chandrapur sub-basins, each of which subsided differentially. The central Godavari sub-basin subsided most and shows maximum structural complexity and sediment accommodation. The rifting started with initial half-graben faulting along the northeastern master fault and expanded by successive half graben faulting. This gave rise to intra-basinal horsts and grabens, which exercised control on the syn

  9. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.


    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  10. Implications of new ^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar age of Mallapur Intrusives on the chronology and evolution of the Kaladgi Basin, Dharwar Craton, India (United States)

    Pillai, Shilpa Patil; Pande, Kanchan; Kale, Vivek S.


    The Kaladgi Basin on the northern edge of the Dharwar craton has characters diverse from the other epicratonic Purana basins of Peninsular India. Sedimentological studies in the basin have established the presence of three cycles of flooding separated by an event of intra-basinal deformation accompanied by low grade incipient metamorphism. The overall structural configuration of the basin indicates its development by supracrustal extension accompanied by shearing in a trans-tensional regime during the Mesoproterozoic. This was followed by sagging that yielded Neoproterozoic sedimentation in a successor nested basin. ^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar dating of an intrusive mafic dyke along the axial plane of a fold has yielded a plateau age of 1154{± }4 Ma. This helps constraint the age of the various events during the evolution of this basin.

  11. Spatiotemporal trends in extreme rainfall and temperature indices over Upper Tapi Basin, India (United States)

    Sharma, Priyank J.; Loliyana, V. D.; S. R., Resmi; Timbadiya, P. V.; Patel, P. L.


    infrastructure against flood disasters in Upper Tapi Basin, India.

  12. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: regional modeling analysis (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.


    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions.

  13. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.


    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of the Fenghuoshan Group in the Hoh Xil Basin and its tectonic implications for India-Eurasia collision and Tibetan Plateau deformation (United States)

    Jin, Chunsheng; Liu, Qingsong; Liang, Wentian; Roberts, Andrew P.; Sun, Jimin; Hu, Pengxiang; Zhao, Xiangyu; Su, Youliang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Zhifeng; Duan, Zongqi; Yang, Huihui; Yuan, Sihua


    Early Cenozoic plate collision of India and Eurasia was a significant geological event, which resulted in Tibetan Plateau (TP) uplift and altered regional and global atmospheric circulations. However, the timing of initial collision is debated. It also remains unclear whether the TP was deformed either progressively northward, or synchronously as a whole. As the largest basin in the hinterland of the TP, evolution of the Hoh Xil Basin (HXB) and its structural relationship with development of the Tanggula Thrust System (TTS) have important implications for unraveling the formation mechanism and deformation history of the TP. In this study, we present results from a long sedimentary sequence from the HXB that dates the Fenghuoshan Group to ∼72-51 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy and radiometric ages of a volcanic tuff layer within the group. Three depositional phases reflect different stages of tectonic movement on the TTS, which was initialized at 71.9 Ma prior to the India-Eurasia collision. An abrupt sediment accumulation rate increase from 53.9 Ma is a likely response to tectonic deformation in the plateau hinterland, and indicates that initial India-Eurasia collision occurred at no later than that time. This remote HXB tectonosedimentary response implies that compressional deformation caused by India-Eurasia collision likely propagated to the central TP shortly after the collision, which supports the synchronous deformation model for TP.

  15. Bhima Basin, Karnataka, India uranium mineralisation in the Neoproterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achar, K.K.; Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Kumar, M.K.; Dwivedy, K.K.


    Based on the geological analogy of known uranium mineralisation in other Proterozoic basins of India, the Bhima basin in northern Karnataka, covering an area of 5200 sq km, was taken up for uranium exploration. An integrated approach involving exploration techniques such as terrain analysis using satellite imageries, jeep-borne radiation survey, regional hydrogeochemical sampling and ground radiometric surveys were used. In addition gamma-ray logging of borewells drilled for water have enabled delineation of subsurface mineralisation at Gogi. Uranium mineralisation is associated with: (1) altered phosphatic limestone along the cherty limestone-shale boundary as at Ukinal, (2) brecciated non-phosphatic limestone as at Gogi, and (3) basic enclaves in the basement granites, as at Gogi East. Uranium occurs essentially as adsorbed phase on limonite and absorbed in collophane in the phosphatic limestone as at Ukinal. Mineralisation at Gogi is characterised by intense fracturing and brecciation apparently related to E-W trending Kurlagere-Gogi fault and is essentially low temperature (c.200 deg. C) hydrothermal nature represented by coffinite (thin veins and globular aggregates) along with pitchblende, pyrite (both framboidal and euhedral), pyrrhotite, haematite and anatase. Mineralisation is both syngenetic - remobilised as in the phosphatic limestones (Ukinal) and epigenetic hydrothermal (Gogi). The spatial relation of the unconformity, basement faults, and uranium - bearing basic enclaves within the basement points to the importance of the unconformity as a surface for fluid transport and fixation in conducive hosts. Presence of labile uranium in the basement granites with significant groundwater anomalies (up to 309 ppb U) enhances such possibilities. (author)

  16. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar


    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  17. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India. (United States)

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L


    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sukanta Dey. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 20. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra ...

  19. An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Saxena, Anju; Singh, Kamal Jeet; Chandra, Shaila; Cleal, Christopher J.


    The Ib-River Basin situated in the east coastal area of India, in Odisha State is a south-eastern part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. A large number of plant macrofossils belonging to the Glossopteris flora were described and documented between 2006 and 2010 from various localities of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations of this basin. The floral components representing leaves, roots and fructifications in these assemblages belong to the Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Glossopteridales. In the present study, all the available data pertaining to the biological remains, petrological analyses as well as the geology of this basin are reviewed and analyzed to deduce and reconstruct the biostratigraphy, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment and the landscape of this basin during Permian time in general and during the deposition of Barakar (Artinskian - Kungurian) and Lower Kamthi (Lopingian) formations in particular. The floral composition suggests the prevalence of a temperate climate with a slight change from warm moist to warm dry conditions during the deposition of the Barakar Formation and warm and humid during the deposition of Lower Kamthi sediments. Distribution of various plant groups in the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations have been shown to depict the biodiversity trends. Vegetational reconstructions during the deposition of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations around the Ib-River Basin have also been attempted based on all the fossil records from this area. The status of unclassified Barakar and Kamthi formations has been redefined. Apart from megafloristics, the palynology of the basin is also discussed. Possible marine incursions and marine marginal environment in the Ib-Basin during Permian are overtly summarized on the basis of records of acritarchs, typical marine ichnofossils and evidences of wave activity in Lower Gondwana sediments of this Basin.

  20. Remote sensing based deforestation analysis in Mahanadi and Brahmaputra river basin in India since 1985. (United States)

    Behera, M D; Tripathi, P; Das, P; Srivastava, S K; Roy, P S; Joshi, C; Behera, P R; Deka, J; Kumar, P; Khan, M L; Tripathi, O P; Dash, T; Krishnamurthy, Y V N


    Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was higher for BRB than MRB. While water body increased in MRB could be primarily attributed to creation of reservoirs and aquaculture farms; snow and ice melting attributed to creation of more water bodies in BRB. Scrub land acted as an intermediate class for forest conversion to barren land in BRB, while direct conversion of scrub land to waste land and crop land was seen in MRB. While habitation contributed primarily to LULC changes in BRB, the proximity zones around habitat and other socio-economic drivers contributed to LULC change in MRB. Comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained >97% modelling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 and corresponding LULC changes in these two basins acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping Flooded Rice Paddies Using Time Series of MODIS Imagery in the Krishna River Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi Teluguntla


    Full Text Available Rice is one of the major crops cultivated predominantly in flooded paddies, thus a large amount of water is consumed during its growing season. Accurate paddy rice maps are therefore important inputs for improved estimates of actual evapotranspiration in the agricultural landscape. The main objective of this study was to obtain flooded paddy rice maps using multi-temporal images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the Krishna River Basin, India. First, ground-based spectral samples collected by a field spectroradiometer, CROPSCAN, were used to demonstrate unique contrasts between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI observed during the transplanting season of rice. The contrast between Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI from MODIS time series data was then used to generate classification decision rules to map flooded rice paddies, for the transplanting seasons of Kharif and Rabi rice crops in the Krishna River Basin. Consistent with ground spectral observations, the relationship of the MODIS EVI vs. LSWI of paddy rice fields showed distinct features from other crops during the transplanting seasons. The MODIS-derived maps were validated against extensive reference data collected from multiple land use field surveys. The accuracy of the paddy rice maps, when determined using field plot data, was approximately 78%. The MODIS-derived rice crop areas were also compared with the areas reported by Department of Agriculture (DOA, Government of India (Government Statistics. The estimated root mean square difference (RMSD of rice area estimated using MODIS and those reported by the Department of Agriculture over 10 districts varied between 3.4% and 6.6% during 10 years of our study period. Some of the major factors responsible for this difference include high noise of the MODIS images during the prolonged monsoon seasons (typically June–October and

  2. Identification of trend in long term precipitation and reference evapotranspiration over Narmada river basin (India) (United States)

    Pandey, Brij Kishor; Khare, Deepak


    Precipitation and reference evapotranspiration are key parameters in hydro-meteorological studies and used for agricultural planning, irrigation system design and management. Precipitation and evaporative demand are expected to be alter under climate change and affect the sustainable development. In this article, spatial variability and temporal trend of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were investigated over Narmada river basin (India), a humid tropical climatic region. In the present study, 12 and 28 observatory stations were selected for precipitation and ETo, respectively of 102-years period (1901-2002). A rigorous analysis for trend detection was carried out using non parametric tests such as Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman Rho (SR). Sen's slope estimator was used to analyze the rate of change in long term series. Moreover, all the stations of basin exhibit positive trend for annual ETo, while 8% stations indicate significant negative trend for mean annual precipitation, respectively. Change points of annual precipitation were identified around the year 1962 applying Buishand's and Pettit's test. Annual mean precipitation reduced by 9% in upper part while increased maximum by 5% in lower part of the basin due temporal changes. Although annual mean ETo increase by 4-12% in most of the region. Moreover, results of the study are very helpful in planning and development of agricultural water resources.

  3. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.


    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  4. Oblique strike-slip motion off the Southeastern Continental Margin of India: Implication for the separation of Sri Lanka from India (United States)

    Desa, Maria Ana; Ismaiel, Mohammad; Suresh, Yenne; Krishna, Kolluru Sree


    The ocean floor in the Bay of Bengal has evolved after the breakup of India from Antarctica since the Early Cretaceous. Recent geophysical investigations including updated satellite derived gravity map postulated two phases for the tectonic evolution of the Bay of Bengal, the first phase of spreading occurred in the NW-SE direction forming its Western Basin, while the second phase occurred in the N-S direction resulting in its Eastern Basin. Lack of magnetic data along the spreading direction in the Western Basin prompted us to acquire new magnetic data along four tracks (totaling ∼3000 km) to validate the previously identified magnetic anomaly picks. Comparison of the synthetic seafloor spreading model with the observed magnetic anomalies confirmed the presence of Mesozoic anomalies M12n to M0 in the Western Basin. Further, the model suggests that this spreading between India and Antarctica took place with half-spreading rates of 2.7-4.5 cm/yr. The trend of the fracture zones in the Western Basin with respect to that of the Southeastern Continental Margin of India (SCMI) suggests that SCMI is an oblique transform margin with 37° obliquity. Further, the SCMI consists of two oblique transform segments separated by a small rift segment. The strike-slip motion along the SCMI is bounded by the rift segments of the Northeastern Continental Margin of India and the southern margin of Sri Lanka. The margin configuration and fracture zones inferred in its conjugate Western Enderby Basin, East Antarctica helped in inferring three spreading corridors off the SCMI in the Western Basin of the Bay of Bengal. Detailed grid reconstruction models traced the oblique strike-slip motion off the SCMI since M12n time. The strike-slip motion along the short northern transform segment ended by M11n time. The longer transform segment, found east of Sri Lanka lost its obliquity and became a pure oceanic transform fault by M0 time. The eastward propagation of the Africa

  5. Re-examination of geophysical data off Northwest India: Implications to the Late Cretaceous plate tectonics between India and Africa.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Desa, M.; Ramprasad, T.

    The Gop and Laxmi Basins lying off Northwest India have been assigned ambiguous crustal types and evolution mechanisms. The Chagos-Laccadive Ridge (CLR) complex lying along the southwest coast of India has been attributed to different evolutionary...

  6. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Srinivas


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies.

  7. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India (United States)

    Reddy, Srinivas Gosla; Reddy, Rajgopal R.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ettema, Anke M.; Sailer, Hermann F.; Bergé, Stefaan J.


    Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies. PMID:21217978

  8. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Taxak


    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  9. Cenozoic sedimentation in the Mumbai Offshore Basin: Implications for tectonic evolution of the western continental margin of India (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Pandey, Dhananjai K.


    Interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data along the Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB) revealed the tectonic processes that led to the development of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic evolution. Structural interpretation along three selected MCS profiles from MOB revealed seven major sedimentary sequences (∼3.0 s TWT, thick) and the associated complex fault patterns. These stratigraphic sequences are interpreted to host detritus of syn- to post rift events during rift-drift process. The acoustic basement appeared to be faulted with interspaced intrusive bodies. The sections also depicted the presence of slumping of sediments, subsidence, marginal basins, rollover anticlines, mud diapirs etc accompanied by normal to thrust faults related to recent tectonics. Presence of upthrusts in the slope region marks the locations of local compression during collision. Forward gravity modeling constrained with results from seismic and drill results, revealed that the crustal structure beneath the MOB has undergone an extensional type tectonics intruded with intrusive bodies. Results from the seismo-gravity modeling in association with litholog data from drilled wells from the western continental margin of India (WCMI) are presented here.

  10. Fluid inclusion study of the uranium mineralised granite cataclasite/mylonite and quartz reef in the Mulapalle area, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirupathi, P.V.; Tripathi, B.K.; Umamaheswar, K.; Dhana Raju, R.


    Granite cataclasite and mylonite in the basement fracture zones around Mulapalle in the southwestern environs of the Cuddapah basin are uraniferous with the presence of brannerite, U-Ti complex and uraninite. The ENE-WSW trending fracture zone is cut by NW-SE trending quartz reef. Fluid inclusion study carried out on quartz from the mineralized cataclasite and as well as from the quartz reef shows the presence of both primary [8-20 microns] and abundant secondary up to [6 microns] inclusions. Most of the inclusions are bi-phase (L+V) liquid rich having a degree of fill around 0.90 with constant liquid to vapour ratio. Few inclusions are liquid monophase and multiphase [S+L+V]. They behave as H 2 O-NaCl system and homogenize into liquid phase at low temperature range [125 to 200 degC] except some bi-phase inclusions in the barren quartz reef, which are found to behave as an impure H 2 O-NaCl system admixed with other salts. Wide variation of salinity in the range of 3-25 wt%e NaCl is recorded by the inclusions in both the mineralized cataclasite and the barren quartz reef. The trapping pressure [P T ] of the inclusions of barren quartz reef spreads between 200 to 600 bars while those of mineralized cataclasite restricts to upper end of that range. Some inclusions in mineralized cataclasite that homogenize at high temperatures [200 to 250 degC] show P T between 800 to 1000 bars. The presence of more than one population without any change in fluid composition indicate their origin at different stages of deformation modifying the primary inclusions of the granite and from fluids migrated through fractures at later stages. In the barren quartz reef, the distribution of inclusions of contrasting salinity implies the environment of mixing of connectively driven hydrothermal fluid of metamorphic origin and meteoric water. (author)

  11. Association of the Purana basins and the middle Proterozoic mobile belts in peninsular India: implications on targeting uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, V.S.


    The disparate Archaean Cratonic Nuclei of the Indian peninsular shield coalesced together through late Archaean - Palaeoproterozoic accretionary tectonic events. The subsequent Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sequences are preserved either in the Purana basins or in the middle Proterozoic mobile belts (MPMB). The latter contain deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal sequences; and can be ascribed to compressive tectonic regimes. The Purana basins on the other hand represent shallow marine, epicratonic, passive-margin sequences deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Major deformational events and metamorphism of the MPMB are known to have taken place around 1600 ±200 Ma and 900 ± 100 Ma. These two periods coincide with the ages of initiation and major intrabasinal breaks in the growth of the Purana basins. The contemporary juxtapositioning of these two dissimilar tectonic regimes in peninsular India, is examined within the framework of the available data on them and the current models of Proterozoic tectonics. Its implications on uranium mineralization and possible regions for targeting exploration activities are discussed on this basis. (author). 112 refs., 4 figs

  12. Optimizing Land and Water Resources for Agriculture in the Krishna River Basin, India (United States)

    Jain Figueroa, A.; McLaughlin, D.


    Many estimates suggest that the world needs a 50% increase in food production to meet the demands of the 2050 global population. Cropland expansion and yield improvements are unlikely to be sufficient and could have adverse environmental impacts. This work focuses on reallocating limited land and water resources to improve efficiency and increase benefits. We accomplish this by combining optimization methods, global data sources, and hydrologic modeling to identify opportunities for increasing crop production of subsistence and/or cash crops, subject to sustainability contraints. Our approach identifies the tradeoffs between the population that can be fed with local resources, revenue from crop exports, and environmental benefit from riparian flows. We focus our case study on India's Krishna river basin, a semi-arid region with a high proportion of subsistence farmers, a diverse crop mix, and increasing stress on water resources.

  13. Geoid and gravity anomaly data of conjugate regions of Bay of Bengal and Enderby Basin: New constraints on breakup and early spreading history between India and Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Michael, L.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Majumdar, T.J.

    the anomalies. Since the magnetic anomalies in the western Enderby Basin have lower amplitude, Gaina et al. (2007) could not identify the anomalies with confidence and found difficulty to correlate the spreading history with that of the central and eastern... Geoid and gravity anomaly data of conjugate regions of Bay of Bengal and Enderby Basin – new constraints on breakup and early spreading history between India and Antarctica K.S. Krishna*, Laju Michael National Institute of Oceanography, Council...

  14. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan


    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  15. Characterization of some sedimentary sequences from Cambay basin, India, by pyrolysis-GC (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Garg, A. K.

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography of sedimentary sequences from a key exploratory well of the southern Cambay Basin, India, has been performed to characterize the nature of the source material and its maturity. In samples from the Eocene-Paleocene section (2960-3407 m), the pyrolysate is dominated by hydrocarbons in the lower molecular weight region indicating a significant input algal source material. The presence of various xylenes and phenols in the pyrograms is indicative of a significant input from higher plant material. The organic material in this section is interpreted to have been derived from marine-terrestrial source inputs deposited under swampy to marine and reducing environments. Good mature source rocks with type III kerogens which are wet gas/gas condensate-prone have been identified in this region. This paper intends to discuss the characterization of source rocks using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography approach and the significance of the distribution of the pyrolysis product.

  16. Morphometric analyses of the river basins in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Morphometric analyses of seven river basins in Goa, India have been carried out. The linear and areal aspects of these basins are reported here. The plots of stream order versus stream numbers and stream orders versus mean stream lengths are found...

  17. On the possibilities of occurrence of structure controlled unconformity-proximal uranium mineralization in Madhawanpalli - Rayalgandi Sector, Srisailam Sub-Basin, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, K.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mukundhan, A.R.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Achar, K.K.


    The northern margin of Srisailam Sub-basin is well known for its potential to host unconformity proximal uranium mineralization and so far three deposits have been established at Lambapur, Peddagattu and Chitrial. Recent exploration in Madhawanpalli-Rayalgandi sector and follow up sub-surface exploration has indicated uranium mineralization in the granites beneath the cover of Srisailam sediments. The host rock is characterized by intense fracturing, brecciation, cataclasism and alterations like chloritization, illitization and silicification signifying the role of basement structures in uranium mineralization near the unconformity surface. (author)

  18. Chemical evolution in the high arsenic groundwater of the Huhhot basin (Inner Mongolia, PR China) and its difference from the western Bengal basin (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Shi, Fei; Fryar, Alan E.; Mukherjee, Arun B.; Xie, Zheng M.; Jacks, Gunnar; Bundschuh, Jochen


    Elevated As concentrations in groundwater of the Huhhot basin (HB), Inner Mongolia, China, and the western Bengal basin (WBB), India, have been known for decades. However, few studies have been performed to comprehend the processes controlling overall groundwater chemistry in the HB. In this study, the controls on solute chemistry in the HB have been interpreted and compared with the well-studied WBB, which has a very different climate, physiography, lithology, and aquifer characteristics than the HB. In general, there are marked differences in solute chemistry between HB and WBB groundwaters. Stable isotopic signatures indicate meteoric recharge in the HB in a colder climate, distant from the source of moisture, in comparison to the warm, humid WBB. The major-ion composition of the moderately reducing HB groundwater is dominated by a mixed-ion (Ca-Na-HCO 3 -Cl) hydrochemical facies with an evolutionary trend along the regional hydraulic gradient. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that HB groundwater has not been affected by cation exchange, but is dominated by weathering of feldspars (allitization) and equilibrium with gibbsite and anorthite. Mineral weathering and mobilization of As could occur as recharging water flows through fractured, argillaceous, metamorphic or volcanic rocks in the adjoining mountain-front areas, and deposits solutes near the center of the basin. In contrast, WBB groundwater is Ca-HCO 3 -dominated, indicative of calcite weathering, with some cation exchange and silicate weathering (monosiallitization).

  19. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India (United States)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.


    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  20. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian Dalmiapuram Formation is one of the economically significant constituents in the hydrocarbon-producing Cauvery rift basin, SE India that opened up during the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Gondwanaland fragmentation. The fossil-rich Dalmiapuram Formation, exposed at Ariyalur within the Pondicherry sub-basin of Cauvery Basin, rests in most places directly on the Archean basement and locally on the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian Basal Siliciclastic Formation. In the Dalmiapuram Formation, a facies association of tectonically-disturbed phase is sandwiched between two drastically quieter phases. The early syn-rift facies association (FA 1, records the first carbonate marine transgression within the basin, comprising a bar–lagoon system with occasionally storms affecting along the shore and a sheet-like non-recurrent biomicritic limestone bed on the shallow shelf that laterally grades into pyrite–glauconite-bearing dark-colored shale in the deeper shelf. Spectacular breccias together with varied kinds of mass-flow products comprise the syn-rift facies association (FA 2. While the breccias occur at the basin margin area, the latter extend in the deeper inland sea. Clast composition of the coarse clastics includes large, even block-sized limestone fragments and small fragments of granite and sandstone from the basement. Marl beds of quieter intervals between tectonic pulses occur in alternation with them. Faulted basal contact of the formation, and small grabens filled by multiple mass-flow packages bear the clear signature of the syntectonic activity localized contortions, slump folds, and pillow beds associated with mega slump/slide planes and joints, which corroborates this contention further. This phase of tectonic intervention is followed by another relatively quieter phase and accommodates the late syn-rift facies association (FA 3. A tidal bar–interbar shelf depositional system allowed a

  1. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.


    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  2. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology. (charnockites ... Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. ..... of India; J. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association. 14 29–41.

  3. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glacier Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. ∗ ... reliable indicators of climate change (IPCC 2007), ..... off in Beas Basin, India; Geocarto International 20(2). 41–47. Raina V K ...

  4. Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India (United States)

    Shukla, Tanuj; Mehta, Manish; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Srivastava, Pradeep; Dobhal, D. P.; Nainwal, H. C.; Singh, Atul K.


    The study presents the Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dokriani Glacier valley, Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India. The basin is tested for the mechanism of landforms preservation in high relief and abundant precipitation regimes of the Higher Himalaya. Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating enabled identification of five major glacial events of decreasing magnitude. The oldest glacial stage, Dokriani Glacial Stage I (DGS-I), extended down to ∼8 km (2883 m asl) from present-day snout (3965 m asl) followed by other four glaciations events viz. DGS-II, DGS-III, DGS-IV and DGS-V terminating at ∼3211, 3445, 3648 and ∼3733 m asl respectively. The DGS-I glaciation (∼25-∼22 ka BP) occurred during early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) -2, characterized as Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extension of the valley. Similarly, DGS-II stage (∼14-∼11 ka BP) represents the global cool and dry Older Dryas and Younger Dryas event glaciation. The DGS-III glaciation (∼8 ka BP) coincides with early Holocene 8.2 ka cooling event, the DGS-IV glaciations (∼4-3.7 ka BP) corresponds to 4.2 ka cool and drier event, DGS-V (∼2.7-∼1 ka BP) represents the cool and moist late Holocene glacial advancement of the valley. This study suggests that the Dokriani Glacier valley responded to the global lowering of temperature and variable precipitation conditions. This study also highlights the close correlation between the monsoon-dominated valley glaciations and Northern Hemisphere cooling events influenced by North Atlantic climate.

  5. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    A linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found numerically in a basin that resembles the Indian Ocean basin north of 29 degrees S, and they are forced...

  6. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene. (United States)

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G


    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  7. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnith K P Kumaran

    Full Text Available Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The

  8. Paleogene plate tectonic evolution of the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.; Ramprasad, T.

    with systemahyphenminus tic ridge propagation in both basins (Miles & Roest 1993: Chaubey er at. 1998. Dyment 1998). Ridge propagation explains the large spreading asymmetry between the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins. Between Chrons 26 and 25. c. 65% of the crust..., the differences be- tween the India-Somalia and Capricorn-Somalia motions in Paleogene time can be used to estimate and refine the Capricorn-India integral motion as suggested by Royer & Chang (1991). Such en- deavour would require an accurate assessment...

  9. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P


    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  10. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Cauvery–Palar basin is a major peri-cratonic rift basin located along the Eastern Continental. Margin of India ..... density P(k) of a magnetized body having infinite extensions in the .... aly data must be brought down to the sea level through ...

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India) (United States)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane


    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  12. Detecting the long-term impacts from climate variability and increasing water consumption on runoff in the Krishna river basin (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Bouwer


    Full Text Available Variations in climate, land-use and water consumption can have profound effects on river runoff. There is an increasing demand to study these factors at the regional to river basin-scale since these effects will particularly affect water resources management at this level. This paper presents a method that can help to differentiate between the effects of man-made hydrological developments and climate variability (including both natural variability and anthropogenic climate change at the basin scale. We show and explain the relation between climate, water consumption and changes in runoff for the Krishna river basin in central India. River runoff variability due to observed climate variability and increased water consumption for irrigation and hydropower is simulated for the last 100 years (1901–2000 using the STREAM water balance model. Annual runoff under climate variability is shown to vary only by about 14–34 millimetres (6–15%. It appears that reservoir construction after 1960 and increasing water consumption has caused a persistent decrease in annual river runoff of up to approximately 123 mm (61%. Variation in runoff under climate variability only would have decreased over the period under study, but we estimate that increasing water consumption has caused runoff variability that is three times higher.

  13. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  14. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India (United States)

    Jena, S.


    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  15. Water Resource Planning Under Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainty in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India (United States)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Conway, Declan; Dessai, Suraje; Stainforth, David A.


    Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India. A water resources model is calibrated and validated satisfactorily using observed streamflow. Plausible future changes in Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation and water demand are used to drive simulations of water resources from 2021 to 2055. Two stakeholder-identified decision-critical metrics are examined: a basin-wide metric comprising legal instream flow requirements for the downstream state of Tamil Nadu, and a local metric comprising water supply reliability to Bangalore city. In model simulations, the ability to satisfy these performance metrics without adaptation is reduced under almost all scenarios. Implementing adaptation options can partially offset the negative impacts of change. Sequencing of options according to stakeholder priorities into Adaptation Pathways affects metric satisfaction. Early focus on agricultural demand management improves the robustness of pathways but trade-offs emerge between intrabasin and basin-wide water availability. We demonstrate that the fine balance between water availability and demand is vulnerable to future changes and uncertainty. Despite current and long-term planning challenges, stakeholders in developing countries may engage meaningfully in coproduction approaches for adaptation decision-making under deep uncertainty.

  16. Extensional Tectonics and Sedimentary Architecture Using 3-D Seismic Data: An Example from Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mumbai Offshore Basin, West Coast of India (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D. K.; Bhowmick, P. K.; Mishra, P.


    In offshore sedimentary basins, analysis of 3-D seismic data tied with well log data can be used to deduce robust isopach and structure contour maps of different stratigraphic formations. The isopach maps give depocenters whereas structure contour maps give structural relief at a specific time. Combination of these two types of data helps us decipher horst-graben structures, sedimentary basin architecture and tectono-stratigraphic relations through Tertiary time. Restoration of structural cross sections with back-stripping of successively older stratigraphic layers leads to better understand tectono-sedimentary evolution of a basin. The Mumbai (or Bombay) Offshore Basin is the largest basin off the west coast of India and includes Bombay High giant oil/gas field. Although this field was discovered in 1974 and still producing, the basin architecture vis-à-vis structural evolution are not well documented. We take the approach briefly outlined above to study in detail three large hydrocarbon-bearing structures located within the offshore basin. The Cretaceous Deccan basalt forms the basement and hosts prodigal thickness (> 8 km at some localities) of Tertiary sedimentary formations.A two stage deformation is envisaged. At the first stage horst and graben structures formed due to approximately E-W extensional tectonics. This is most spectacularly seen at the basement top level. The faults associated with this extension strike NNW. At the second stage of deformation a set of ENE-striking cross faults have developed leading to the formation of transpressional structures at places. High rate of early sedimentation obliterated horst-graben architecture to large extent. An interesting aspect emerges is that the all the large-scale structures have rather low structural relief. However, the areal extent of such structures are very large. Consequently, these structures hold commercial quantities of oil/gas.

  17. Palynology of Lower Palaeogene (Thanetian-Ypresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, Western Rajasthan, India): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.M.; Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Birbal Sahni Instititue of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    The 32-m thick sedimentary succession of the Paleocene-Eocene Akli Formation (Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India), which is exposed in an open-cast lignite mine, interbed several lignite seams that alternate with fossiliferous carbonaceous clays, green clays and widespread siderite bands and chert nodules. The palynofloral assemblages consist of spore, pollen and marine dinoflagellate cysts that indicate a Thanetian to Ypresian age. The assemblage is dominated by angiospermic pollen and specimens showing affinity with the mangrove Palm Nypa are also very abundant. The Nypa-like pollen specimens exhibit a wide range of morphological variation, some of the recorded morphotypes being restricted to this Indian basin. Preponderance of these pollen taxa indicates that the sediments were deposited in a coastal swamp surrounded by thick, Nypa-dominated mangrove vegetation. The dispersed organic matter separated from macerated residues indicates the dominance of anoxic conditions throughout the succession, although a gradual transition to oxic conditions is recorded in the upper part.

  18. Assessment of climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin, India. (United States)

    Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Devesh


    Crop growth models like AquaCrop are useful in understanding the impact of climate change on crop production considering the various projections from global circulation models and regional climate models. The present study aims to assess the climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin i.e., wheat, barley and maize. Banas basin is part of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan state in India. AquaCrop model is used to calculate the yield of all the three crops for a historical period of 30years (1981-2010) and then compared with observed yield data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values are calculated to assess the model accuracy in prediction of yield. Further, the calibrated model is used to predict the possible impacts of climate change and CO 2 concentration on crop yield using CORDEX-SA climate projections of three driving climate models (CNRM-CM5, CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-LR) for two different scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period 2021-2050. RMSE values of simulated yield with respect to observed yield of wheat, barley and maize are 11.99, 16.15 and 19.13, respectively. It is predicted that crop yield of all three crops will increase under the climate change conditions for future period (2021-2050). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  20. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor? (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.


    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  1. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.


    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  2. Estimation of Soil loss by USLE Model using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques: A case study of Muhuri River Basin, Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bera


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a most severe environmental problem in humid sub-tropical hilly state Tripura. The present study is carried out on Muhuri river basin of Tripura state, North east India having an area of 614.54 In this paper, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, with Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS have been used to quantify the soil loss in the Muhuri river basin. Five essential parameters such as Runoff-rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility Factor (K, slope length and steepness (LS, cropping management factor (C, and support practice factor (P have been used to estimate soil loss amount in the study area. All of these layers have been prepared in GIS and RS platform (Mainly Arc GIS 10.1 using various data sources and data preparation methods. In these study DEM and LISS satellite data have been used. The daily rainfall data (2001-2010 of 6 rain gauge stations have been used to predict the R factor. Soil erodibility (K factor in Basin area ranged from 0.15 to 0.36. The spatial distribution map of soil loss of Muhuri river basin has been generated and classified into six categories according to intensity level of soil loss. The average annual predicted soil loss ranges between 0 to and 650 t/ha/y. Low soil loss areas (70 t/ha/y of soil erosion was found along the main course of Muhuri River.

  3. Gypsum-anhydrites in 2 Ga Vempalle Formation, Cuddapah basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In fact high solubility in water leads to removal of gypsum in suficial environment. ... with presence of evaporite gypsum in the upper as well as lower part of the ..... created with shallow inlet or a slightly permeable seal with main water body.

  4. Spatio-temporal trends of rainfall across Indian river basins (United States)

    Bisht, Deepak Singh; Chatterjee, Chandranath; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh; Sridhar, Venkataramana


    Daily gridded high-resolution rainfall data of India Meteorological Department at 0.25° spatial resolution (1901-2015) was analyzed to detect the trend in seasonal, annual, and maximum cumulative rainfall for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. The present study was carried out for 85 river basins of India during 1901-2015 and pre- and post-urbanization era, i.e., 1901-1970 and 1971-2015, respectively. Mann-Kendall ( α = 0.05) and Theil-Sen's tests were employed for detecting the trend and percentage of change over the period of time, respectively. Daily extreme rainfall events, above 95 and 99 percentile threshold, were also analyzed to detect any trend in their magnitude and number of occurrences. The upward trend was found for the majority of the sub-basins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-day maximum cumulative rainfall during the post-urbanization era. The magnitude of extreme threshold events is also found to be increasing in the majority of the river basins during the post-urbanization era. A 30-year moving window analysis further revealed a widespread upward trend in a number of extreme threshold rainfall events possibly due to urbanization and climatic factors. Overall trends studied against intra-basin trend across Ganga basin reveal the mixed pattern of trends due to inherent spatial heterogeneity of rainfall, therefore, highlighting the importance of scale for such studies.

  5. Tracking the India-Arabia Transform Plate Boundary during Paleogene Times. (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.


    The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions, the way relative motion between Arabia and India was accommodated prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden remains poorly understood. The India-Arabia plate-boundary belongs to the category of long-lived (~90-Ma) oceanic transform faults, thus providing a good case study to investigate the role of major kinematic events over the structural evolution of a long-lived transform system. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin basement, made of Paleocene oceanic crust drilled on its eastern part, and composed of pre-Maastrichtian continental crust overlaid by Early Paleocene ophiolites on its western side. A major transform fault system crossing the Owen Basin juxtaposed these two slivers of lithosphere of different ages, and controlled the uplift of marginal ridges along the Oman Margin. This transform system deactivated ~40 Ma ago, coeval with the onset of ultra-slow spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge. The transform boundary then jumped to the edge of the present-day Owen Ridge during the Late Eocene-Oligocene period, before seafloor spreading began at the Sheba Ridge. This migration of the plate boundary involved the transfer of a part of the Indian oceanic lithosphere accreted at the Carlsberg Ridge to the Arabian plate. The episode of plate transfer at the India-Arabia plate boundary during the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval is synchronous with a global plate reorganization event corresponding to geological events at the Zagros and

  6. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 13, 2016 ... ... based in Bangalore, a city of four million people located in southern India. ... access to water, which is drawn from the Arkavathy River Basin. ... Protecting access to water from urban sprawl, climate change in South Asia.

  7. Drought Assessment over the Four Major River Basins of India using GRACE-based estimates of Water Availability (United States)

    Sinha, D.; Syed, T. H.


    Drought is a natural disaster that has mutilating consequences over agriculture, ecosystems, economy and the society. Over the past few decades, drought related catastrophe, associated with global climate change, has escalated all across the world. Identification and analysis of drought utilizing individual hydrologic variables may be inadequate owing to the multitude of factors that are associated with the phenomenon. Therefore it is crucial to develop techniques that warrant comprehensive monitoring and assessment of droughts. In this study we propose a novel drought index (Water Availability Index (WAI)) that comprehends all the aspects of meteorologic, agricultural and hydrologic droughts. The proposed framework underscores the conceptualization and utilization of water availability, quantified as an integrated estimate of land water storage, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations, and precipitation. The methodology is employed over four major river basins of India (i.e. Ganga, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi) for a period of 155 months (April 2002 to February 2015). Results exhibit the potential of the propounded index (WAI) to recognize drought events and impart insightful quantification of drought severity. WAI also demonstrates enhanced outcomes in comparison to other commonly used drought indices like PDSI, SPI, SPEI and SRI. In general there are at least three major drought periods with intensities ranging from moderate to severe in almost all river basins. The longest drought period, extending for 27 months, from September 2008 to November 2010, is observed in the Mahanadi basin. Results from this study confirm the potential of this technique as an effective tool for the characterization of drought at large spatial scales, which will only excel with better quantification and extended availability of terrestrial water storage observations from the GRACE-Follow On mission.

  8. Understanding peri-urban water management in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jul 14, 2014 ... The city has chosen to pipe in water from more than a hundred kilometres away, ... the effects of climate change and urbanization on water availability in such basins in India. ... Villages in Nepal prepare for weather extremes.

  9. Identifying high-grade uranium deposits in the Proterozoic basins of India- a challenge to exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.M.


    The favorability factors that bestow on the Proterozoic formation of India, a potential to host high grade uranium deposits are discussed in the light of the known features of the new class of unconformity- related and strata bound uranium deposits. The need to reorient several past approaches is emphasised and it is suggested that future programmes must avail of the constraining benefits of a spectrum of geophysical, geochemical, and sedimentological studies in the choice of target areas for detailed exploration and development. A synthesis of geological and geochemical data with such geophysical features as magnetic and gravity anomalies, velocity structure, seismic reflectivity, electrical conductivity, and radioactivity can effectively lead to relatively more favourable exploration targets. Such efforts may lead to the generation of more than one model of the deep basinal features, which then provide wider options for drilling and proving of ore bodies. The alternative to the above approach is saturation drilling, which is a costly and time-consuming process and, therefore, very often self-defeating. (author). 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Exploration for uranium in the Bhima basin in parts of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, S.A.; Natarajan, V.; Dhana Raju, R.


    Bhima basin, the smallest and youngest Purana (Meso-/Neo-proterozoic) basin of India, is known for huge reserves of quality-limestone that supports a large-scale cement industry in it. But for this, it remained for long as a 'terra incognita' for mineral exploration including radioactive minerals till the discovery of notable uranium mineralisation, first in a phosphatic limestone/calcitic phosphorite near Ukinal in 1995 and later a better-grade in a non-phosphatic, brecciated limestone at Gogi in 1996. Though the former was recorded intermittently for nearly 700m near Ukinal, detailed (sub-surface) exploration was not done, since U is mostly in the adsorbed form with collophane. On the contrary, the latter is promising, since ore microscopic study on a uraniferous sample from Gogi has pointed to hydrothermal vein-type mineralisation in the form of easily leachable coffinite and pitchblende that are intimately associated with reductants of organic matter and pyrite-dominant sulphides. Semi-detailed survey at Gogi was not of much help to prove the extension of mineralisation due to constraints like very few outcrops, soil-cover, vegetation, a big village and a large lake close by. At this juncture, resort was made to a novel technique of gamma-ray logging of nearly 30 drinking water borewells in the village, Gogi, and this proved highly rewarding as the data documented the presence of U-mineralisation of medium-grade and notable thickness. Subsequent multi disciplined and multifaceted exploration, including subsurface, mostly by core-drilling since May, 1997 with an aggregate of nearly 24,000m at Gogi, has established that (a) the rocks hosting hydrothermal vein type U-mineralisation are brecciated limestone (Shahabad formation) and deformed basement granitoid within a post-sedimentary tectonised zone, (b) the mineralisation in limestone (i) occurs as hangwall and footwall bands, (ii) has a strike extension of nearly 2 km with both ends still open, (iii) extends

  11. Similarity in Evolutionary Histories of Eocene Sediments from Subathu and Cambay Basins: Geochemical and Palaeontological Studies (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Halder, K.; Sarkar, S.


    A systematic comparative study of microfaunal assemblage and representative geochemical elements from two Cenozoic basins of India, Mangrol-Valia Lignite Mine section (21°30'52''N:73°12'20.5''E) of Cambay Shale Formation, western India and Jigni section (33°14'45"N:74°22'0"E) from Subathu Formation in northern India was undertaken to infer the paleoenvironment, palaeobathymetry and paleoclimate of these successions. Despite a gamut of work already carried out in these two basins, the sedimentary successions still await a correlative-detailed process-based facies, geochemical characterization and paleoenvironmental analysis. With a view to fulfill this gap, the present work was carried out by studying bulk rock XRD, XRF, clay mineralogy and analyzing calcareous microfossil foraminifera from samples at equivalent depth of these two basins which are situated thousands of kilometers apart and in different tectonic settings. The faunal assemblage of Eocene sediments of Mangrol-Valia section is indicative of shallow marine and inner shelf deposition with medium oxygen supply, while that of the Jigni section suggests primarily a shallow marine condition, which gradually changes to open marine condition with time. It is pertinent to note that the two basins of Cenozoic India started their lithosuccession with coal bearing strata. Well preserved pectin aragonite shells also indicate that primarily these two basins experienced low energy lagoonal environment. The fossil assemblage in both basins also suggests a tropical moist to terrestrial lowland environment. Geochemical analysis shows that the Mangrol-Valia section mineralogically comprises of kaolinite, siderite, quartz, smectite and kaolinite with higher abundance throughout the succession indicating chemical weathering of Deccan basement and high erosional environment. Calcite is the main constituent of Jigni section that indicates intracratonic rift settings. Medium to high quartz content and other detrital

  12. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey


    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  13. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  14. Mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Pandey


    Full Text Available Continental rifting and magmatism has been extensively studied worldwide as it is believed that continental rifting, break up of continents and associated magmatism lead to genesis of new oceanic crust. However, various regions of the world show that these processes may lead to genesis of other types of crust than the oceanic crust. Laxmi Basin in the western continental margin of the India is one such region with an enigmatic crust. Due to its extreme strategic significance for the palaeogeographic reconstruction of continents during Cretaceous continental breakup of India, this basin has attracted various workers for more than two decades. However, still the issue of nature of crust in the basin remains controversial. In this contribution, in order to identify nature of crust, mechanism of continental extension in the Laxmi Basin has been studied for the first time through newly acquired seismic data from the basin. Here, we propose a plausible mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin which eventually constrains the nature of crust of the Laxmi Basin. We have demonstrated that the crust in the Laxmi Basin can be categorised in two zones of stretched and transitional crust. In the stretched zone several fault bounded horst and graben structures are identified which preserve syn- and post-rift sediments along with different periods of hiatus in sedimentations as unconformities. These faults are identified as listric faults in the upper crust which sole out in the detachment faults. Detachment faults decouples the upper brittle and lower ductile crust. The transitional crust is identified as heavily intruded by sills and basaltic volcanic which were emplaced due to melting of subcontinental mantle (SCM after hyper-stretching of crust and serpentinisation of the SCM. Panikkar Ridge is proposed to be one such basaltic volcanic body derived from melting of lower part of the SCM.

  15. Gondwana sedimentation in the Chintalapudi sub-basin, Godavari Valley, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshminarayana, G. [Geological Survey of India, Calcutta (India). Division of Monitoring


    A 3000 m thick Gondwana lithic fill consisting of multifacies associations were preserved in a NW-SE oriented intracratonic Chintalapudi sub-basin set across the Eastern Chat Complex (EGC). Sedimentation commenced with the deposition of diamictite-rhythmite sequence of the Talchir Formation in glacio-lacustrine environment. The succeeding sandstone-coal cyclothems of the Barakar Formation were formed in fluvial-coal swamps complex. The fluvial streams flowed across the EGC, originating somewhere in the southeast beyond the East Coast of India. Phase wise upliftment of the EGC during Mesozoic imparted changes to the Permian intercontinental drainage system which started supplying increased amount of detritus to the basin. Basin marginal faults were first formed at the beginning of Triassic. Alluvial fans originated in the east and southeast and northwesterly flowing braided streams deposited the conglomerate sandstone sequence of the Kamthi Formation. The Early Jurassic uplift of the Mailaram high in the north imparted westerly shift to the braided rivers during the Kota sedimentation. Due to prominence of Kamavarapukota ridge in the south by Early Cretaceous, the drainage pattern became centripetal and short-lived high sinuous rivers debouched into the basin. The silting up of the Chintalapudi sub-basin with the sandstone-claystone sequence of the Gangapur Formation marks the culmination of the Gondwana sedimentation, perhaps, coinciding with the breakup of India from the Gondwanaland.

  16. Decline in snowfall in response to temperature in Satluj basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study also consists an analysis of average values of annual snowfall and temperature ... During the study, it was observed that the snowfall exhibited declining trends in the basin. ... National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247 667, India.

  17. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins (United States)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent


    Recent studies reevaluated the timing and evolution of the breakup process between the Seychelles continental ridge and India, and the relationship between this evolution and mantle melting associated with the Deccan Igneous Province1,2,3. Those studies, mainly based on gravity and seismic refraction surveys, point that the oceanic domain located between the Seychelles and the Laxmi Ridge (here designed as the Carlsberg Basin) is the youngest oceanic domain between India and the Seychelles. To the East of the Laxmi Ridge, the aborted Gop Rift is considered as an older highly magmatic extensional continental system with magmatism, breakup and oceanic spreading being coeval with or even predating the emplacement of the major pulse of the Deccan trapps. This interpretation on the oceanic nature of the Gop Rift conflicts with other extensive surveys based on magnetic and seismic reflection data4 which suggest that the Gop Rift is an extended syn-magmatic continental domain. In our work based (a) on the existing data, (b) on new deep-seismic reflection surveys (already published by Misra5) down to the Moho and underlying mantle and (c) on new concepts on the geometry of volcanic passive margins, we propose a distinct interpretation of the Seychelles-India system. As proposed by former authors6,7, the Indian margin suffered some continental stretching and thinning before the onset of the Deccan traps during the Mesozoic. Thus continental crust thickness cannot be used easily as a proxy of syn-magmatic stretching-thinning processes or even to infer the presence or not of oceanic-type crust based, solely, on crustal thickness. However, some remarkable features appear on some of the deep penetration seismic lines we studied. We illustrate that the whole Seychelles/India system, before the opening of the present-day "Carlsberg Basin" may simply be regarded as a pair of sub-symmetric conjugate volcanic passive margins (VPMs) with inner and outer SDR wedges dipping towards the

  18. Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008 (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Gautam, Randhir; Kahya, Ercan


    The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969-2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from -26% in 1976 to -60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of -60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as -60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events ( z score <-2) were detected during July, August, and September. Moreover, severe dry events were observed in August, September, and October. The drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.

  19. A framework model for water-sharing among co-basin states of a river basin (United States)

    Garg, N. K.; Azad, Shambhu


    A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South-Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model's allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where

  20. Groundwater quality around Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Sreedhar, Y.; Nagaraju, A.


    The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed in Tummalapalle area. Forty groundwater samples were analysed for major cations, anions and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and total hardness (TH). The parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio, adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), per cent sodium, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated for the evaluation of irrigation water quality. Groundwater chemistry was also analysed by statistical analysis, USSL, Wilcox, Doneen, Piper and Chadhas diagrams, to find out their suitability for irrigation. TDS and TH were used as main parameters to interpret the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficient matrix between the hydrochemical parameters was carried out using Pearson's correlation to infer the possible water-rock interactions responsible for the variation of groundwater chemistry and this has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The results indicate that the groundwater in Tummalapalle area is alkaline in nature. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. Water chemistry of the study area strongly reflects the dominance of weathering of rock-forming minerals such as bicarbonates and silicates. All parameters and diagrams suggest that the water samples of the study are good for irrigation, and the plots of TDS and TH suggest that 12.5% of the samples are good for human consumption.

  1. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Rajahmundry trap basalts of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Manikyamba


    Full Text Available The Rajahmundry Trap Basalts (RTB are erupted through fault-controlled fissures in the Krishna-Godavari Basin (K-G Basin of Godavari Triple Junction, occurring as a unique outcrop sandwiched between Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments along the east coast of India. Detailed geochemical studies have revealed that RTB are mid-Ti (1.74–1.92 to high-Ti (2.04–2.81 basalts with a distinct quartz tholeiitic parentage. MgO (6.2–13.12 wt.%, Mg# (29–50 and Zr (109–202 ppm suggest that these basalts evolved by fractional crystallization during the ascent of the parent magma along deep-seated fractures. Moderate to high fractionation of HREE, as indicated by (Gd/YbN ratios (1.71–2.31 of RTB, suggest their generation through 3–5% melting of a Fe-rich mantle corresponding to the stability fields of spinel and garnet peridotite at depths of 60–100 km. Low K2O/P2O5 (0.26–1.26, high TiO2/P2O5 (6.74–16.79, La/Nb (0.89–1.45, Nb/Th > 8 (8.35–13, negative anomalies at Rb reflect minimum contamination by granitic continental crust. (Nb/LaPM ratios (0.66–1.1 of RTB are attributed to endogenic contamination resulted through recycling of subducted oceanic slab into the mantle. Pronounced Ba enrichment with relative depletion in Rb indicates assimilation of Infra- and Inter-trappean sediments of estuarine to shallow marine character. Geochemical compositions such as Al2O3/TiO2 (3.88–6.83, medium to high TiO2 (1.74–2.81 wt.%, positive Nb anomalies and LREE enrichment of these RTB attest to their mantle plume origin and indicate the generation of parent magma from a plume-related enriched mantle source with EM I signature. Ba/Th (46–247, Ba/La (3.96–28.51 and Th/Nb (0.08–0.13 ratios suggest that the source enrichment process was marked by recycling of subduction-processed oceanic crust and lithospheric components into the mantle. Zr/Hf (37–41 and Zr/Ba (0.51–3.24 indicate involvement of an asthenospheric mantle source. The

  2. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Debasri; Goswami, A.B.; Bose, Balaram


    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have

  3. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in prediction of real time flood, and devising policies for management of storage reservoirs and ... the world (Refsgaard & Knusden 1996). ... The knowledge on sensitivity of MIKE 11 NAM outputs (runoff volume and peak runoff) ... direct and indirect damages to the Surat city, India, which is located in lower bank of Tapi river.

  4. Seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in the Enderby Basin, East Antarctic

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    evolution of the Indian Ocean and the pa- laeoposition of the continents surrounding this ocean basin. However, the early evolution of the northeastern Indian Ocean remained poorly con- strained due to inadequate geophysical data and lack of age information... (supposed to be a con- jugate of the Bay of Bengal). Some of the earlier workers [21,23,24,33,34] expressed that the sea- £oor spreading in the south Atlantic and between India and Antarctica appears to have been de- Fig. 1. Reconstruction of India...

  5. Monitoring the impact of simulated deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.; Jaisankar, S.

    Monitoring the Impact of Simulated Deep-sea Mining in Central Indian Basin R. SHARMA, B. NAGENDER NATH, AND S. JAI SANKAR National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Monitoring of deep-sea disturbances, natural or man-made, has gained... has shown a partial recovery of the benthic ecosystem, with indications of restoration and recolonization. Keywords deep-sea mining, environmental impact, Central Indian Basin Deep-sea mineral deposits such as the polymetallic nodules and crusts...

  6. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision? (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul


    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude ( 10°N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of 52 Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1° (35.7°, 40.5°) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9° (41.5°,44.4°) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence—21°N (19.8°N, 23.1°N)—is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at 20°N and took place by 50 Ma.

  7. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap


    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  8. Geophysical studies over the continental margins of the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, V.B.

    . Continuity of surface and subsurface features from profile to profile is indicated. Two major structural elements - viz. The "Marginal High", situated at the foot of the continental slope and extending along the east coast of India, and the "Marginal Basin...

  9. The early-stage structural evolution of the Barmer Basin rift, Rajasthan, northwest India


    Bladon, Andrew John


    The structural evolution of the Barmer Basin and the context of the rift within the northwest Indian region are poorly understood, despite being a prolific hydrocarbon province. In this work an integrated basin analysis is presented covering the outcrop-, seismic-, and lithosphere-scales. The early-stage structural evolution and the origin of poorly understood structural complications in the Barmer Basin subsurface are assessed. Subsequently, the findings are placed within the wider context o...

  10. Morphology and tectonics of Mahanadi Basin, northeastern continental margin of India from geophysical studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    the breakup of India from Antarctica. The model studies suggest that the northern part of the 85 degrees E Ridge abuts the coast at Chilika Lake. The shape of 2000 m isobath over the northeastern continental margin of India closely resembles to that of 2000 m...

  11. Regional scale groundwater modelling study for Ganga River basin (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Khosa, R.; Gosain, A. K.; Lahari, S.; Sinha, S. K.; Chahar, B. R.; Dhanya, C. T.


    Subsurface movement of water within the alluvial formations of Ganga Basin System of North and East India, extending over an area of 1 million km2, was simulated using Visual MODFLOW based transient numerical model. The study incorporates historical groundwater developments as recorded by various concerned agencies and also accommodates the role of some of the major tributaries of River Ganga as geo-hydrological boundaries. Geo-stratigraphic structures, along with corresponding hydrological parameters,were obtained from Central Groundwater Board, India,and used in the study which was carried out over a time horizon of 4.5 years. The model parameters were fine tuned for calibration using Parameter Estimation (PEST) simulations. Analyses of the stream aquifer interaction using Zone Budget has allowed demarcation of the losing and gaining stretches along the main stem of River Ganga as well as some of its principal tributaries. From a management perspective,and entirely consistent with general understanding, it is seen that unabated long term groundwater extraction within the study basin has induced a sharp decrease in critical dry weather base flow contributions. In view of a surge in demand for dry season irrigation water for agriculture in the area, numerical models can be a useful tool to generate not only an understanding of the underlying groundwater system but also facilitate development of basin-wide detailed impact scenarios as inputs for management and policy action.

  12. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.


    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  13. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India (United States)

    Mock, A.


    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  14. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.


    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  15. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log (United States)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.


    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  16. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Gupta, S.M.; Padmavati, V.K.

    ) 167-173 167 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Letter Section Abyssal sediment erosion in the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies V.K. Banakar, S.M. Gupta and V.K. Padmavathi National Institute... of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403 004, India (Revision accepted September 17, 1990) ABSTRACT Banakar, V.K., Gupta, S.M. and Padmavathi, V.K., 1991. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evi- dence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies...

  17. Design of Gravity Survey Network using Fractal Theory to Delineate Hydrocarbon bearing Jabera Structure, Vindhyan Basin, Central India (United States)

    Dimri, V. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.


    A gravity survey network was designed using fractal dimension analysis to delineate a domal structure (Jabera dome) reported in southeastern part of the Vindhyan basin, Central India. This area is also regarded as a `high risk-high reward' frontier area for hydrocarbon exploration in previous studies, hence our aim was to delineate shape and lateral extent of the reported domal structure. Based on the synthetic grid, designed using the concept of fractal dimension, gravity data is collected in Jabera-Damoh area of Vindhyan basin. The collected data is random, but the data density is significant, hence the data points are sorted in a way so that they are close to the synthetic grid points of given grid interval. After sorting the data, again the fractal dimension analysis using box counting method has been carried out to avoid the aliasing in the data due to interpolation and also to know the optimum number of data points sufficient for desired quality of Bouguer anomaly maps. Optimization of number of stations takes care of time and cost involved in the survey and the detectibility limit ensures that the data collected is good enough to resolve the target body under study. The fractal dimension analysis gives clue to select these parameters. It showed that it is always preferable to have well distributed station locations instead of clustering the observation points at some geologically known feature because clustering of data points below required station spacing is not going to add much information where as equally distributed observation points add the information. The study area lies in a difficult terrain of Vindhayn basin, hence according to the accessibility, fractal dimension analysis of the real data sorted approximately at regular grid intervals on 2,3, and 4 km has been done and using the concept of optimum gridding interval Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are prepared. The preliminary depth values of the major interfaces in the area were obtained

  18. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming


    Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the

  19. Origin of ash in the Central Indian Ocean Basin and its implication for the volume estimate of the 74,000 year BP Youngest Toba eruption

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Pearce, N.J.G.; Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.

    .86) 4.22 (0 .33) ? 4.94 N 91 274 72 53 16 1, Central Indian Ocean Basin 7 (present study); 2, YTT from Sum a tra, Malaysia, Bay of Bengal and India 10 ; 3, YTT from the Indian subcont i- nent 15 ; 4, YTT from....4 7.5 6.6 5.9 6.9 6.9 5.1 5.8 6.5 1, Central Indian Ocean Basin (pr esent study, n = 8); 2, YTT from Sumatra, Malaysia, ODP site 758, Bay of Bengal and India 10 ( n...

  20. Some geodynamic aspects of the Krishna-Godavari Basin, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Chandrasekhar, D.V.; Rao, T.C.S.

    in the Nizampatnam bay in the southern part of the basin. The Pranhita Godavari Gondwana graben formed due to this split, pull apart and the subsequent downwarping of the eastern continental margin, appears to be much deeper and wider in the offshore. The NE...., 1993). The Pranhita Godavari Gondwana graben, a pull-apart basin formed during the early Cretaceous period, is controlled by two faulted cross trends, viz, the Chintalapudi Cross Trend (CCT) and the newly inferred Yanam Cross trend (Fig. 4). Earlier...

  1. Assessment of uncertainties in soil erosion and sediment yield estimates at ungauged basins: an application to the Garra River basin, India (United States)

    Swarnkar, Somil; Malini, Anshu; Tripathi, Shivam; Sinha, Rajiv


    High soil erosion and excessive sediment load are serious problems in several Himalayan river basins. To apply mitigation procedures, precise estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield with associated uncertainties are needed. Here, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) equations are used to estimate the spatial pattern of soil erosion (SE) and sediment yield (SY) in the Garra River basin, a small Himalayan tributary of the River Ganga. A methodology is proposed for quantifying and propagating uncertainties in SE, SDR and SY estimates. Expressions for uncertainty propagation are derived by first-order uncertainty analysis, making the method viable even for large river basins. The methodology is applied to investigate the relative importance of different RUSLE factors in estimating the magnitude and uncertainties in SE over two distinct morphoclimatic regimes of the Garra River basin, namely the upper mountainous region and the lower alluvial plains. Our results suggest that average SE in the basin is very high (23 ± 4.7 t ha-1 yr-1) with higher values in the upper mountainous region (92 ± 15.2 t ha-1 yr-1) compared to the lower alluvial plains (19.3 ± 4 t ha-1 yr-1). Furthermore, the topographic steepness (LS) and crop practice (CP) factors exhibit higher uncertainties than other RUSLE factors. The annual average SY is estimated at two locations in the basin - Nanak Sagar Dam (NSD) for the period 1962-2008 and Husepur gauging station (HGS) for 1987-2002. The SY at NSD and HGS are estimated to be 6.9 ± 1.2 × 105 t yr-1 and 6.7 ± 1.4 × 106 t yr-1, respectively, and the estimated 90 % interval contains the observed values of 6.4 × 105 t yr-1 and 7.2 × 106 t yr-1, respectively. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed methodology for quantifying uncertainty in SE and SY estimates at ungauged basins.

  2. Landslide susceptibility mapping & prediction using Support Vector Machine for Mandakini River Basin, Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Manoj; Dubey, Chandra S.; Shukla, Dericks P.


    In recent years, various machine learning techniques have been applied for landslide susceptibility mapping. In this study, three different variants of support vector machine viz., SVM, Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM) and L2-Support Vector Machine - Modified Finite Newton (L2-SVM-MFN) have been applied on the Mandakini River Basin in Uttarakhand, India to carry out the landslide susceptibility mapping. Eight thematic layers such as elevation, slope, aspect, drainages, geology/lithology, buffer of thrusts/faults, buffer of streams and soil along with the past landslide data were mapped in GIS environment and used for landslide susceptibility mapping in MATLAB. The study area covering 1625 km2 has merely 0.11% of area under landslides. There are 2009 pixels for past landslides out of which 50% (1000) landslides were considered as training set while remaining 50% as testing set. The performance of these techniques has been evaluated and the computational results show that L2-SVM-MFN obtains higher prediction values (0.829) of receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-area under the curve) as compared to 0.807 for PSVM model and 0.79 for SVM. The results obtained from L2-SVM-MFN model are found to be superior than other SVM prediction models and suggest the usefulness of this technique to problem of landslide susceptibility mapping where training data is very less. However, these techniques can be used for satisfactory determination of susceptible zones with these inputs.

  3. Assessment of uncertainties in soil erosion and sediment yield estimates at ungauged basins: an application to the Garra River basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swarnkar


    Full Text Available High soil erosion and excessive sediment load are serious problems in several Himalayan river basins. To apply mitigation procedures, precise estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield with associated uncertainties are needed. Here, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR equations are used to estimate the spatial pattern of soil erosion (SE and sediment yield (SY in the Garra River basin, a small Himalayan tributary of the River Ganga. A methodology is proposed for quantifying and propagating uncertainties in SE, SDR and SY estimates. Expressions for uncertainty propagation are derived by first-order uncertainty analysis, making the method viable even for large river basins. The methodology is applied to investigate the relative importance of different RUSLE factors in estimating the magnitude and uncertainties in SE over two distinct morphoclimatic regimes of the Garra River basin, namely the upper mountainous region and the lower alluvial plains. Our results suggest that average SE in the basin is very high (23 ± 4.7 t ha−1 yr−1 with higher values in the upper mountainous region (92 ± 15.2 t ha−1 yr−1 compared to the lower alluvial plains (19.3 ± 4 t ha−1 yr−1. Furthermore, the topographic steepness (LS and crop practice (CP factors exhibit higher uncertainties than other RUSLE factors. The annual average SY is estimated at two locations in the basin – Nanak Sagar Dam (NSD for the period 1962–2008 and Husepur gauging station (HGS for 1987–2002. The SY at NSD and HGS are estimated to be 6.9 ± 1.2  ×  105 t yr−1 and 6.7 ± 1.4  ×  106 t yr−1, respectively, and the estimated 90 % interval contains the observed values of 6.4  ×  105 t yr−1 and 7.2  ×  106 t yr−1, respectively. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed methodology for quantifying uncertainty in SE and

  4. Impact of the Growing Population and Energy Demand on the Climatic Conditions of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Prasad, A. K.; Kafatos, M.


    The Indo-Gangetic (IG) basin is one of the largest basins in the world which is densely populated and suffers with dense fog, haze and smog during winter season. About 500 million people live in the IG basin and due to the dense fog, haze and smog day to day life suffers. India is the third largest producer of the coal in the world and a large share is used in power and industrial sector. The coal used in the power plants is of poor quality (mostly E-F grade or lignite) with high ash content (35-50%) and low calorific value. India's energy consumption has increased 208% from 4.16 quadrillion Btu (quads) in 1980 to 12.8 quads in 2001 with a coal share of ~50.9%. Recent studies using satellite (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)) and AERONET measurements show high aerosol optical depth (AOD) representing the intense air pollution over the IG basin that persists throughout the year. Such high concentrations of AOD show spatial and temporal variations which are controlled by the meteorological conditions (wind pattern, relative humidity, air temperature etc.) and topography. The high AOD observed over the IG basin is attributed to the emissions of fossil fuel SO2 and black carbon which has increased about 6 fold since 1930. The high AOD over the IG basin is attributed to the huge emission from the dense network of coal based thermal power plants in the IG basin and its surroundings that may be the probable cause for the atmospheric brown clouds (ABC). The impact of aerosol parameters on the climatic conditions will be discussed.

  5. Geospatial monitoring and prioritization of forest fire incidences in Andhra Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Manaswini, G; Sudhakar Reddy, C


    Forest fire has been identified as one of the key environmental issue for long-term conservation of biodiversity and has impact on global climate. Spatially multiple observations are necessary for monitoring of forest fires in tropics for understanding conservation efficacy and sustaining biodiversity in protected areas. The present work was carried out to estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas and fire frequency using Resourcesat Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that an area of 7514.10 km(2) (29.22% of total forest cover) has been affected by forest fires. Six major forest types are distributed in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, dry evergreen, thorn and mangroves. Of the total forest burnt area, dry deciduous forests account for >75%. District-wise analysis shows that Kurnool, Prakasam and Cuddapah have shown >100 km(2) of burnt area every year. The total forest burnt area estimate covering protected areas ranges between 6.9 and 22.3% during the study period. Spatial burnt area analysis for protected areas in 2014 indicates 37.2% of fire incidences in the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve followed by 20.2 % in the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, 20.1% in the Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and 17.4% in the Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The analysis of cumulative fire occurrences from 2009 to 2014 has helped in delineation of conservation priority hotspots using a spatial grid cell approach. Conservation priority hotspots I and II are distributed in major parts of study area including protected areas of the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve and Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The spatial database generated will be useful in studies related to influence of fires on species adaptability, ecological damage assessment and conservation planning.

  6. Webspinners in Early Eocene amber from western India (Insecta, Embiodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel


    Full Text Available The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa.

  7. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad


    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  8. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

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    Md Shahriar Pervez


    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  9. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.


    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.





    When the climatic condition, especially rainfall is not very favourable in tropical country like India, and when most areas are water dependent for various sectors for combined development of the country, there is no other alternative except to go in for some other methods which will yield fruitful results. The inter basin transfer and participatory irrigation management are some of the areas suggested by various intellectuals. The present paper highlights some of the problems that would be e...

  11. Early oceanic opening off Western India-Pakistan margin: The Gop Basin revisited

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yatheesh, V.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Dyment, J.

    The Deccan Traps, one of the best known examples of rapid flood basalt, are considered as marking of the inception of a mantle plume on the Indian continental lithosphere. Their emplacement may be associated with the continental break-up of India...

  12. Why seawater intrusion has not yet occurred in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie


    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is greatest when aquifers are overexploited or when recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The Kaluvelli-Pondicherry sedimentary basin in Tamil Nadu (India) presents both these characteristics. Groundwater levels in the Vanur aquifer can reach 50 m below sea level at less than 20 km inland. This groundwater depletion is due to an exponential increase in extraction for irrigation over 35 years. No seawater intrusion has yet been detected, but a sulphate-rich mineralization is observed, the result of upward vertical leakage from the underlying Ramanathapuram aquifer. To characterize the mechanisms involved, and to facilitate effective water management, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been applied to a quasi-3D hydrogeological model, NEWSAM. Recharge had been previously quantified through the inter-comparison of hydrological models, based on climatological and surface-flow field measurements. Sensitivity tests on parameters and boundary conditions associated with the sea were performed. The resulting water balances for each aquifer led to hypotheses of (1) an offshore fresh groundwater stock, and (2) a reversal and increase of the upward leakage from the Ramanathapuram aquifer, thus corroborating the hypothesis proposed to explain geochemical results of the previous study, and denying a seawater intrusion. Palaeo-climate review supports the existence of favourable hydro-climatological conditions to replenish an offshore groundwater stock of the Vanur aquifer in the past. The extent of this fresh groundwater stock was calculated using the Kooi and Groen method.

  13. Climate change, land use and land cover change detection and its impact on hydrological hazards and sustainable development: a case study of Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events impact on the natural ecosystems of Alaknanda river basin which affect the socio-economic condition of the rural communities, loss of life, livelihood and natural resources. They pose a serious threat to normal life as well as the process of sustainable development. Rivers are fragile ecosystems which are globally important as water tower of the earth, reservoirs of rich biodiversity, and a popular destination for recreation, tourism and culture heritage. Rivers provides direct life support base for humankind. The unique Geo-climatic condition of Garhwal Himalaya, Alaknanda River basin, Uttarakhand makes it one of the most vulnerable regions in the India. Hydrological hazards are sudden calamities, which involve loss of life, property and livelihood. This paper presents a methodological approach for the integration of extreme events, climatic vulnerability, land use scenario, and flood risk assessment. Anthropogenic activities are continuously disturbing the natural system of the Garhwal Himalaya and its impact on extreme hydrological events. Factors causing these changes have been attempted to be understood through the use of GIS and Geospatial techniques. Human interference, unscientific developmental activities, agriculture extension, tourism activity and road construction are creating the hydrological hazards. Soil erosion and landslide have been recognised as major hazards in the high altitude region of Himalaya. This paper has analysed and evaluates the climate and livelihood vulnerability assessment and its adaptation for sustainable development in the near district headquarter (NDH away district headquarter (ADH determined mainly by a weighted matrix index. The Geospatial technique is used to find out the land use/cover change detection and secondary data is taken to carry out the analysis work. Primary data from each hotspot has been collected through a questionnaire survey and a Participatory Research Approach

  14. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin: Full waveform inversion.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (QP−1) character of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In this paper, we apply frequency domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) to surface-towed 2D multichannel seismic data from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India, to image the fine-scale (100...

  15. Ferromanganese nodules and their associated sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Rare earth element geochemistry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Rao, Ch.M.; Migdisov, A.A.; Colley, S.; Higgs, N.C.; Demidenko, L.

    FerromanganeseNodulesandtheirAssociatedSedimentsfromtheCentralIndianOceanBasin:RareEarthElementGeochemistry J.N.PATTANCH.M.RAONationalInstituteofOceanography,DonaPaula Goa,IndiaA.A.MIGDISOV InstituteofGeochemistry,RussianAcademyofSciencesMoscow,Russia S.COLLEY,N.C.HIGGSSouthamptonOceanographyCentre,EmpressDockSouthampton...

  16. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.


    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).

  17. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks (United States)

    Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.


    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.

  18. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

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    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar


    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  19. Use of geospatial technology for delineating groundwater potential zones with an emphasis on water-table analysis in Dwarka River basin, Birbhum, India (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Gupta, Arindam; Reddy, D. V.; Kaur, Harjeet


    Dwarka River basin in Birbhum, West Bengal (India), is an agriculture-dominated area where groundwater plays a crucial role. The basin experiences seasonal water stress conditions with a scarcity of surface water. In the presented study, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) is carried out using a geospatial multi-influencing factor technique. Geology, geomorphology, soil type, land use/land cover, rainfall, lineament and fault density, drainage density, slope, and elevation of the study area were considered for the delineation of GWPZs in the study area. About 9.3, 71.9 and 18.8% of the study area falls within good, moderate and poor groundwater potential zones, respectively. The potential groundwater yield data corroborate the outcome of the model, with maximum yield in the older floodplain and minimum yield in the hard-rock terrains in the western and south-western regions. Validation of the GWPZs using the yield of 148 wells shows very high accuracy of the model prediction, i.e., 89.1% on superimposition and 85.1 and 81.3% on success and prediction rates, respectively. Measurement of the seasonal water-table fluctuation with a multiplicative model of time series for predicting the short-term trend of the water table, followed by chi-square analysis between the predicted and observed water-table depth, indicates a trend of falling groundwater levels, with a 5% level of significance and a p-value of 0.233. The rainfall pattern for the last 3 years of the study shows a moderately positive correlation ( R 2 = 0.308) with the average water-table depth in the study area.

  20. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari Basin: Full waveform inversion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (P)) and attenuation (Q sub(P) sup(-1)) character of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In this paper, we apply frequency domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) to surface-towed 2D multichannel seismic data from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India, to image...

  1. Statistical evaluation of rainfall time series in concurrence with agriculture and water resources of Ken River basin, Central India (1901-2010) (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Deo, Ravinesh C.; Ambade, Balram


    Trend analysis of long-term rainfall records can be used to facilitate better agriculture water management decision and climate risk studies. The main objective of this study was to identify the existing trends in the long-term rainfall time series over the period 1901-2010 utilizing 12 hydrological stations located at the Ken River basin (KRB) in Madhya Pradesh, India. To investigate the different trends, the rainfall time series data were divided into annual and seasonal (i.e., pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter season) sub-sets, and a statistical analysis of data using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test and the Sen's slope approach was applied to identify the nature of the existing trends in rainfall series for the Ken River basin. The obtained results were further interpolated with the aid of the Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) approach employing the inverse distance weighted approach. The results showed that the monsoon and the winter season exhibited a negative trend in rainfall changes over the period of study, and this was true for all stations, although the changes during the pre- and the post-monsoon seasons were less significant. The outcomes of this research study also suggest significant decreases in the seasonal and annual trends of rainfall amounts in the study period. These findings showing a clear signature of climate change impacts on KRB region potentially have implications in terms of climate risk management strategies to be developed during major growing and harvesting seasons and also to aid in the appropriate water resource management strategies that must be implemented in decision-making process.

  2. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik


    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  3. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.


    Gas hydrate resource assessments that indicate enormous global volumes of gas present within hydrate accumulations have been one of the primary driving forces behind the growing interest in gas hydrates. Gas hydrate volumetric estimates in recent years have focused on documenting the geologic parameters in the “gas hydrate petroleum system” that control the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature. The primary goals of this report are to review our present understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the offshore of India and to document the application of the petroleum system approach to the study of gas hydrates.

  4. Empirical Mode Decomposition of Geophysical Well-log Data of Bombay Offshore Basin, Mumbai, India (United States)

    Siddharth Gairola, Gaurav; Chandrasekhar, Enamundram


    Geophysical well-log data manifest the nonlinear behaviour of their respective physical properties of the heterogeneous subsurface layers as a function of depth. Therefore, nonlinear data analysis techniques must be implemented, to quantify the degree of heterogeneity in the subsurface lithologies. One such nonlinear data adaptive technique is empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique, which facilitates to decompose the data into oscillatory signals of different wavelengths called intrinsic mode functions (IMF). In the present study EMD has been applied to gamma-ray log and neutron porosity log of two different wells: Well B and Well C located in the western offshore basin of India to perform heterogeneity analysis and compare the results with those obtained by multifractal studies of the same data sets. By establishing a relationship between the IMF number (m) and the mean wavelength associated with each IMF (Im), a heterogeneity index (ρ) associated with subsurface layers can be determined using the relation, Im=kρm, where 'k' is a constant. The ρ values bear an inverse relation with the heterogeneity of the subsurface: smaller ρ values designate higher heterogeneity and vice-versa. The ρ values estimated for different limestone payzones identified in the wells clearly show that Well C has higher degree of heterogeneity than Well B. This correlates well with the estimated Vshale values for the limestone reservoir zone showing higher shale content in Well C than Well B. The ρ values determined for different payzones of both wells will be used to quantify the degree of heterogeneity in different wells. The multifractal behaviour of each IMF of both the logs of both the wells will be compared with one another and discussed on the lines of their heterogeneity indices.

  5. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Gravity studies over the continental margin of the central west coast of India show a sediment thickness of 2-3 km on the shelf associated with deeper hoest and graben structures, of 6 km... sequence ranges from Palaeocene to Recent. Stratigraphy as obtained from the explor atory wells BH-I, DCS-IA, HI2-1, and R6-110cated in the Bombay offshore basin is shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 depicts the seismogeological section of the Bombay offshore...

  6. Drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins: A case study from the Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Chen, R.; Fan, J.


    The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins was proposed in this paper. This paper utilized 3D seismic data, well-log and the principles methods associated with structural geology, sedimentology and geochemistry, to analyze the drowning unconformity and discuss the origins of drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin.Researching on it is not only important for a better understanding of tectonic evolution, palaeogeography and sedimentation of hydrocarbon source rocks, but also a vital guiding significance for the exploration of beach-bar sandstone reservoirs and shale oil.1. The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins is defined. With the consequences of rapid tectonic subsidence in basin, the sharp rise of lake-level and the increased rate of accommodation(A) in basin exceeded the rate of sediment supply(S),namely A>>S, the basin suddenly transformed into deep-water settings from shallow-water settings with sudden change of sediment transport and sediment dispersal patterns. 2.The sequence surface between Sha4 and Sha3 Member of Shahejie Formation is the drowning unconformity(43.5Ma). There are the sedimentary association of the reefs in shallow lacustrine, beach-bar sandstones and glutenite fan bodies under the surface. By contrast, there are the sedimentary association of deep-lake oil shales and shales over the surface. The drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag is a tectonic revolution surface which is changed from extensional tectonics to transtensional tectonics and it is also the surface of discontinuity from shallow lacustrine to deep lacustrine. The responses to sudden changes appeared in the parameters of geophysics, geochemistry and paleontology. 3. With the penetration of India into Asia plate in NNE trending,the subduction zones of Pacific Plate retreated. It caused the rapid downwelling of asthenospheric mantle, followed by the extensive drowning unconformity.

  7. Doing Science that Matters to Address India's Water Crisis. (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.


    Addressing water security in developing regions involves predicting water availability under unprecedented rates of population and economic growth. India is one of the most water stressed countries in the world. Despite appreciable increases in funding for water research, high quality science that is usable by stakeholders remains elusive. The absence of usable research, has been driven by notions of what is publishable in the developed world. This can be attributed to the absence of problem driven research on questions that actually matter to stakeholders, unwillingness to transcend disciplinary boundaries and the demise of a field-work research culture in favour of computer simulation. Yet the combination of rapid change, inadequate data and human modifications to watersheds poses a challenge, as researchers face a poorly constrained water resources modelling problem. Instead, what India and indeed all developing regions need is to approach the problem from first principles, identifying the most critical knowledge gaps, then prioritizing data collection using novel sensing and modelling approaches to address them. This might also necessitate consideration of underlying social and governance drivers of hydrologic change. Using examples from research in the Cauvery Basin, a highly contentious inter-state river basin, I offer some insights into framing "use-inspired" research agenda and show how the research generates not just new scientific insights but may be translated into practice.

  8. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins. (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K


    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  9. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    It is generally presumed that the intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a direct consequence of spreading across the South East Indian Ridge and the resistance to shortening at the continental collision between India...

  10. Linking the morphology of fluvial fan systems to aquifer stratigraphy in the Sutlej-Yamuna plain of northwest India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Densmore, A. L.; Singh, A.; Gupta, S.; Sinha, R.; Mason, P. J.; Joshi, S. K.; Nayak, N.; Kumar, M.; Shekhar, S.; Kumar, D.; Rai, S. P.

    The Indo-Gangetic foreland basin has some of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world, focused in the states of Punjab and Haryana in northwest India. Any assessment of the effects of extraction on groundwater variation requires understanding of the geometry and sedimentary

  11. Documenting human transformation and establishing the reference condition of large river systems using Corona images: a case study from the Ganga River basin, India (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Pipil, Shobhit; Carbonneau, Patrice; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos


    The Ganga basin in northern India is one of the most populous river basin in the world with nearly half a billion inhabitants. In the post-independence era, population expansion and human interventions have left the ecosystem of the Ganga in a severely damaged state with dwindling water levels, pollution due to human activity and natural sediment transport severely perturbed by dams and barrages. Fortunately, there is a growing recognition by the policy managers in India that the restoration of the Ganga to a healthier status, closer to its original unperturbed state, would set a strong foundation to future, greener, economic growth in Northern India. However, given the past six decades of fast development, efforts to restore the Ganga to its original condition are faced with a fundamental question: What was the original state of the Ganga? Answering this question will require some knowledge of the former course of the Ganga and of the farming and urban density of the surrounding plains before the impacts of human disturbance could be felt. We have made use of the Corona spy satellite program that collected a large number of earth observation photos in the 1960s. These photos, now declassified, offer us a unique view of the Ganga at the very early stages of intense development and thus before the worst ecological damages occurred. However, actual usage of these images poses significant technical challenges. In the design of the Corona cameras, very high resolution comes at the cost of complex distortions. Furthermore, we have no information on the exact position and orientation of the satellite at the time of image acquisition so an accurate reprojection of the image into conventional map coordinates is not straightforward. We have developed a georectification process based on polynomial transformation to achieve a positional accuracy of ±20m for the area of our interest. Further, We have developed an object-based classification method that uses both texture and

  12. Improving assessment of groundwater-resource sustainability with deterministic modelling: a case study of the semi-arid Musi sub-basin, South India (United States)

    Massuel, S.; George, B. A.; Venot, J.-P.; Bharati, L.; Acharya, S.


    Since the 1990s, Indian farmers, supported by the government, have partially shifted from surface-water to groundwater irrigation in response to the uncertainty in surface-water availability. Water-management authorities only slowly began to consider sustainable use of groundwater resources as a prime concern. Now, a reliable integration of groundwater resources for water-allocation planning is needed to prevent aquifer overexploitation. Within the 11,000-km2 Musi River sub-basin (South India), human interventions have dramatically impacted the hard-rock aquifers, with a water-table drop of 0.18 m/a over the period 1989-2004. A fully distributed numerical groundwater model was successfully implemented at catchment scale. The model allowed two distinct conceptualizations of groundwater availability to be quantified: one that was linked to easily quantified fluxes, and one that was more expressive of long-term sustainability by taking account of all sources and sinks. Simulations showed that the latter implied 13 % less available groundwater for exploitation than did the former. In turn, this has major implications for the existing water-allocation modelling framework used to guide decision makers and water-resources managers worldwide.

  13. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran


    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  14. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India. (United States)

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh


    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  15. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33% in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51% than Ken (28.07%. Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3 and Ken (K2, K3 and K5 were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (>0.32 as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases, and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  16. India. (United States)


    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  17. Intraplate seismicity along the Gedi Fault in Kachchh rift basin of western India (United States)

    Joshi, Vishwa; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh


    The Kachchh rift basin is located on the western continental margin of India and has a history of experiencing large to moderate intraplate earthquakes with M ≥ 5. During the past two centuries, two large earthquakes of Mw 7.8 (1819) and Mw 7.7 (2001) have occurred in the Kachchh region, the latter with an epicenter near Bhuj. The aftershock activity of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake is still ongoing with migration of seismicity. Initially, epicenters migrated towards the east and northeast within the Kachchh region but, since 2007, it has also migrated to the south. The triggered faults are mostly within 100 km and some up to 200 km distance from the epicentral area of the mainshock. Most of these faults are trending in E-W direction, and some are transverse. It was noticed that some faults generate earthquakes down to the Moho depth whereas some faults show earthquake activity within the upper crustal volume. The Gedi Fault, situated about 50 km northeast of the 2001 mainshock epicenter, triggered the largest earthquake of Mw 5.6 in 2006. We have carried out detailed seismological studies to evaluate the seismic potential of the Gedi Fault. We have relocated 331 earthquakes by HypoDD to improve upon location errors. Further, the relocated events are used to estimate the b value, p value, and fractal correlation dimension Dc of the fault zone. The present study indicates that all the events along the Gedi Fault are shallow in nature, with focal depths less than 20 km. The estimated b value shows that the Gedi aftershock sequence could be classified as Mogi's type 2 sequence, and the p value suggests a relatively slow decay of aftershocks. The fault plane solutions of some selected events of Mw > 3.5 are examined, and activeness of the Gedi Fault is assessed from the results of active fault studies as well as GPS and InSAR results. All these results are critically examined to evaluate the material properties and seismic potential of the Gedi Fault that may be useful

  18. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  19. Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic evidence for neoproterozoic (Pan-African) granulite metamorphism from the basement of Mumbai offshore basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Vijan, A.R.; Singh, M.P.; Misra, K.N.; Prabhu, B.N.


    Precambrian basement from well HBM-1 in the Heera oil field of Mumbai offshore basin has been dated by Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Five granulitic basement samples from three conventional drill cores have yielded Rb-Sr isochron age of 502±25 Ma with an initial Sr ratio of 0.70855±0.00013. This age has been interpreted as the time of granulite facies metamorphism of the basement rocks in the region. Two whole rock samples from the basement of this well have yielded mutually concordant K-Ar ages of 505±16 Ma and 507±17 Ma. The K-Ar ages are significantly similar to Rb-Sr age obtained from this well, suggesting complete isotopic reequilibration around 500 Ma ago. The time of secondary thermal heating around 500 Ma ago in the basement of Heera field coincides with the widespread neoproterozoic (Pan-African) thermo-tectonic event extending from the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa covering Madagascar, southern India. Sri Lanka and East Antarctica. This study widens the limit of the Pan-African zone, which hitherto was thought to be confined to the western part (presently southern part) of the Indian subcontinent, towards further east. (author)

  20. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel


    management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in

  1. Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic, irrigational, and industrial purposes: a case study from Thirumanimuttar river basin, Tamilnadu, India. (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Prasanna, M V


    The Thirumanimuttar sub-basin forms an important groundwater province in south India, facing serious deficiency in both quality and quantity of groundwater due to increased demand associated with rapid population explosion, agricultural growth and industrial activities. A total of 194 groundwater samples were collected and 15 water quality parameters were analyzed using standard procedures. Na( + ), Cl( - ), Ca(2 + ), HCO(-)(3), Mg(2 + ) and SO(2-)(4) concentration ions are more dominant in both seasons. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity was observed good correlation with Na( + ), Cl( - ), HCO(-)(3), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ), Cl( - ), PO(3-)(4) and NO(-)(3) ions indicating dominance of plagioclase feldspar weathering, anthropogenic input and over drafting of groundwater irrespective of seasons. The Hill-Piper diagram indicates alkaline earths exceed the alkalis, an increase of weak acids was noted during both the seasons. For assessing the groundwater for irrigation suitability parameters like total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index, and sodium percentage are also calculated. Permanent hardness was noted in higher during both the seasons due to discharge of untreated effluents and ion exchange process. The RSC indicates 56% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes in both seasons, if continuously used will affect the crop yield. From the results, nearly 72% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation.

  2. Near-inertial currents off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S.G.; Amol, P.; Fernando, V.; Fernandes, R.; Khalap, S.T.; Satlekar, N.P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M.G.; Tari, A.P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.

    .8◦N for the M2 tide (Haren, 2005; Alford et al., 2007) and 14.52◦N and 13.44◦N for the K1 andO1 tides, respectively (Xie et al, 2009; sun et al., 2011; Xie et al, 2011). The critical latitude for the semi-diurnal tide is north of the basin boundary... the southwest monsoon. Continental Shelf Research 11, 1397–1408. Sindhu, M. 2012. Numerical Modeling of Tides and Storm Surges in the Bay of Bengal. Ph.D. Thesis. Goa University, India. Sun, Lu., Maas., Zheng, Quanan., Wang, Dongxiao., Hu, Jianyu., Tai, Chang...

  3. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  4. Holocene aridification of India (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.


    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Hydro-mechanical properties of pressure core sediments recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02 (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Oshima, M.; Kida, M.; Kato, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Waite, W. F.; Jang, J.; Kumar, P.; Tenma, N.


    Pressure coring and analysis technology allows for gas hydrate to be recovered from the deep seabed, transferred to the laboratory and characterized while continuously maintaining gas hydrate stability. For this study, dozens of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediment subsections recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02 were tested with Pressure Core Non-destructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) through a collaboration between Japan and India. PNATs, originally developed by AIST as a part of the Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI) conducted permeability, compression and consolidation tests under various effective stress conditions, including the in situ stress state estimated from downhole bulk density measurements. At the in situ effective stress, gas hydrate-bearing sediments had an effective permeability range of 0.01-10mD even at pore-space hydrate saturations above 60%. Permeability increased by 10 to 100 times after hydrate dissociation at the same effective stress, but these post-dissociation gains were erased when effective stress was increased from in situ values ( 1 MPa) to 10MPa in a simulation of the depressurization method for methane extraction from hydrate. Vertical-to-horizontal permeability anisotropy was also investigated. First-ever multi-stage loading tests and strain-rate alternation compression tests were successfully conducted for evaluating sediment strengthening dependence on the rate and magnitude of effective confining stress changes. In addition, oedometer tests were performed up to 40MPa of consolidation stress to simulate the depressurization method in ultra-deep sea environments. Consolidation curves measured with and without gas hydrate were investigated over a wide range of effective confining stresses. Compression curves for gas hydrate-bearing sediments were convex downward due to high hydrate saturations. Consolidation tests show that

  6. Dissolved organic carbon in the INDEX area of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; De

    -Sea Research II 48 (2001) 3353–3361 Dissolved organic carbon in the INDEX area of the Central Indian Basin Sugandha Sardessai*, S.N. de Sousa National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC..., 1996). While there is substantial information available on the DOC content of sea water throughout the Atlantic, Pacific and southern oceans, there are limited reports on contents and distribution of this organic fraction in the Indian Ocean (Menzel...

  7. Water–food–energy nexus with changing agricultural scenarios in India during recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barik


    Full Text Available Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. Here we present a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water–food–energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades. We find that with the growth of population and consequent increase in the food demands, the food production has also increased, and this has been made possible with the intensification of irrigation. However, during the recent decade (after 1996, the increase in food production has not been sufficient to meet its growing demands, precipitating a decline in the per-capita food availability. We also find a statistically significant declining trend of groundwater storage in India during the last decade, as derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite datasets. Regional studies reveal contrasting trends between northern and western–central India. North-western India and the middle Ganga basin show a decrease in the groundwater storage as opposed to an increasing storage over western–central India. Comparison with well data reveals that the highest consistency of GRACE-derived storage data with available well measurements is in the middle Ganga basin. After analysing the data for the last 2 decades, we further showcase that, after a drought, the groundwater storage drops but is unable to recover to its original condition even after good monsoon years. The groundwater storage reveals a very strong negative correlation with the electricity consumption for agricultural usage, which may also be considered as a proxy for groundwater pumped for irrigation in a region. The electricity usage for agricultural purposes has an increasing

  8. Water-food-energy nexus with changing agricultural scenarios in India during recent decades (United States)

    Barik, Beas; Ghosh, Subimal; Saheer Sahana, A.; Pathak, Amey; Sekhar, Muddu


    Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. Here we present a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades. We find that with the growth of population and consequent increase in the food demands, the food production has also increased, and this has been made possible with the intensification of irrigation. However, during the recent decade (after 1996), the increase in food production has not been sufficient to meet its growing demands, precipitating a decline in the per-capita food availability. We also find a statistically significant declining trend of groundwater storage in India during the last decade, as derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite datasets. Regional studies reveal contrasting trends between northern and western-central India. North-western India and the middle Ganga basin show a decrease in the groundwater storage as opposed to an increasing storage over western-central India. Comparison with well data reveals that the highest consistency of GRACE-derived storage data with available well measurements is in the middle Ganga basin. After analysing the data for the last 2 decades, we further showcase that, after a drought, the groundwater storage drops but is unable to recover to its original condition even after good monsoon years. The groundwater storage reveals a very strong negative correlation with the electricity consumption for agricultural usage, which may also be considered as a proxy for groundwater pumped for irrigation in a region. The electricity usage for agricultural purposes has an increasing trend and, interestingly

  9. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in < 3000 years old river sediments from South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.


    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there wa......We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples......, there was an underestimation in the single-aliquot dose estimates as compared to those from the single grain-the difference between average dose estimates determined by the two methods ranged from similar to 1% to 31%. Such a dose underestimation was not detectable in poorly bleached samples. Various possible reasons...... perhaps be one of the reasons; this may occur because the stimulation wavelength affects the proportion of the medium and slow components in the initial signal. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Environmental Tritium (3H) and hydrochemical investigations to evaluate groundwater in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R.K.


    The present study aimed at assessing the activity of natural radionuclides ( 3 H) and hydrochemical parameters (viz., pH, EC, F - , NO 3 - , Cl - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) in the groundwater used for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Varahi and Markandeya river basins to understand the levels of hydrochemical parameters in terms of the relative age(s) of the groundwater contained within the study area. The recorded environmental 3 H content in Varahi and Markandeya river basins varied from 1.95 ± 0.25 T.U. to 11.35 ± 0.44 T.U. and 1.49 ± 0.75 T.U. to 9.17 ± 1.13 T.U. respectively. Majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins being pre-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river inflowing/sea water intrusion. The EC-Tritium and Tritium-Fluoride plots confirmed the existence of higher total dissolved solids (SEC > 500 μS/cm) and high fluoride (MAC > 1.5 mg/L) in groundwater of Markandeya river basin, attributed to relatively longer residence time of groundwater interacting with rock formations and vice versa in case of Varahi river basin. The tritium-EC and tritium-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in Markandeya river basin and only shallow circulating groundwater type in Varahi river basin. Increasing Mg relative to Ca with decreasing tritium indicated the influence of incongruent dissolution of a dolomite phase. The samples with high nitrate (MAC > 45 mg/L) are waters that are actually mixtures of fresh water (containing very high nitrate, possibly from agricultural fertilizers) and older 'unpolluted' waters (containing low nitrate levels), strongly influenced by surface source. - Research highlights: → It is evident that majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins exhibited radioactive decay (1-8 T.U.) having a mixture of pre-modern (viz., old water) water with modern (viz., new water) recharge, significantly

  11. Terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa; Mathews, Runcie Paul [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Bertram, Norbert [LTA-Labor fuer Toxikologie und Analytik, Friedrichshoeher Str. 28, D-53639 Koenigswinter (Germany); Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemitry Centres (M090), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009 (Australia); WA - Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Kent St., Bentley 6102 (Australia)


    The terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins preserved within lignites of Cambay, Kutch and Cauvery Basins of India have been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Major pyrolysis products include cadalene-based C{sub 15}-bicyclic sesquiterpenoids with some C{sub 30} and C{sub 31} bicadinanes and bicadinenes typical of Class II or dammar resin. The occurrence of these terpenoids in Early Eocene sediments may extend the first appearance of Dipterocarpaceae angiosperms, the predominant source of this resin class, back to the Early Eocene epoch in India. The same terpenoid biomarkers have been detected in many SE Asian oils reflecting a close source relationship with these resins. Strong CH{sub 3} (1377 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) and other CH{sub x} (3000-2800 and 1460-1450 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) aliphatic absorptions of much larger intensity than the aromatic C = C (1560-1650 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) absorption were detected in the Indian resins by FTIR Spectroscopy, confirming the quantitative significance of the terpenoid pyrolysates. (author)

  12. Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    aspects of oxygen deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea. Journal of MarineResearch 45,1049–1072. Redfield,A.C.,Ketchum,B.H.,Richards,F.A.,1963.Theinfluenceoforganismsonthecompositionofseawater.In: Hill, M.N. (Ed.), The Sea: Ideas...-Sea Research II 48 (2001)3343–3352 Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer S.N. de Sousa*,S.D. Sardessai, V. Ramesh Babu, V.S.N. Murty, G.V.M. Gupta NationalInstituteofOceanography,DonaPaula,Goa403004,India Abstract...

  13. Coastal upwelling along the southwest coast of India – ENSO modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muni Krishna


    Full Text Available An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the Pacific during pre monsoon season is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheric bridge between the Pacific and north Indian Oceans, leading to warm (cold ENSO events being associated with relaxation (intensification of the Indian trade winds and of the wind-induced coastal upwelling. This ENSO related modulation of the wind-driven coastal upwelling appears to contribute to the connection observed at the basin-scale between ENSO and SST in the Arabian Sea. The ability to use this teleconnection to give warning of large changes in the southwest coast of India coastal upwelling few months in advance is successfully tested using data from 1998 and 1999 ENSO events.

  14. India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 Technical Contributions (United States)

    Collett, T. S.; Kumar, P.; Shukla, K. M.; Nagalingam, J.; Lall, M. V.; Yamada, Y.; Schultheiss, P. J.; Holland, M.; Waite, W. F.


    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was conducted from 3-March-2015 to 28-July-2015 off the eastern coast of India. The primary objective of this expedition was the exploration and discovery of highly saturated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs that would be targets of future production testing. The first 2 months of the expedition were dedicated to logging while drilling (LWD) operations with a total of 25 holes being drilled and logged. The next 3 months were dedicated to coring operations at 10 of the most promising sites. NGHP-02 downhole logging, coring and formation pressure testing have confirmed the presence of large, highly saturated, gas hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained sand-rich depositional systems throughout the Krishna-Godavari Basin within the regions defined during NGHP-02 as Area-B, Area-C, and Area-E. The nature of the discovered gas hydrate occurrences closely matched pre-drill predictions, confirming the project developed depositional models for the sand-rich depositional facies in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins. The existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system was established in Area-C of the Krishna-Godavari Basin with the discovery of a large slope-basin interconnected depositional system, including a sand-rich, gas-hydrate-bearing channel-levee prospect at Sites NGHP-02-08 and -09. The acquisition of closely spaced LWD and core holes in the Area-B L1 Block gas hydrate accumulation have provided one of the most complete three-dimensional petrophysical-based views of any known gas hydrate reservoir system in the world. It was concluded that Area-B and Area-C in the area of the greater Krishna-Godavari Basin contain important world-class gas hydrate accumulations and represent ideal sites for consideration of future gas hydrate production testing.

  15. Hydrothermal petroleum in the sediments of the Andaman Backarc Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; Ruth, E.; Rao, P.S.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.

    inthesediments ofthe AndamanBackarc Basin, IndianOcean § M.I.Venkatesan a, *,E. Ruth b ,P.S. Rao c ,B.N. Nath c , B.R. Rao c a Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA... b Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593, USA c National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Received 1 March 2002; accepted 13 August 2002 Editorial handling by B...

  16. Recent Pilot Plant Experience on Alkaline Leaching of Low Grade Uranium Ore in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, A. K; Ghosh, S. K.; Padmanabhan, N. P.H., [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Uranium deposits in India are low grade and are relatively smaller in extent as compared to present worldwide commercial practice. So far, the vein type deposits of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB) are being exploited for meeting the Indian requirements of uranium. The deposits are currently processed by acid leaching in the mills located at Jaduguda and Turamdih near Jamshedpur in Jharkhand State of India. The deposits at Jaduguda and Narwapahar are being mined by underground mining and are processed in Jaduguda mill using airagitated Pachucas. The deposits at Banduhurang and Turamdih are being mined by open cast and underground mining respectively and are processed at Turamdih by acid leaching in mechanically agitated reactors. The occurrences of uranium in North East and Northern part of Kadapa basin are relatively moderate in size and are expected to be processed in the near future by acid leaching. Uranium is also found to occur near Tummalapalle in granitic and limestone host rocks in Southern part of Kadapa basin (Andhra Pradesh) and in Gogi in Bhima basin (Karnataka). The deposit in Tummalapalle is relatively lower in grade (≈ 0.042% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is a reasonably large reserve, whereas that in Gogi is rich in uranium content (≈0.18% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is relatively small reserve. Laboratory tests based on alkaline leaching have been carried out on both types of deposits. Studies for Tummalapalle deposits have been extended to pilot plant level and a complete flow sheet has been established with the regeneration and recirculation of lixiviants and recovery of sodium sulphate as a by-product. The process involves alkaline leaching under oxygen pressure in batch type and/or continuous leach reactor using sodium carbonate/bicarbonate as a leaching media and uranium is recovered as sodium diuranate. Based on the techno-economic evaluation of the process, an industrial scale mill (3 000 tonnes ore/day) is being set up at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh

  17. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.


    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  18. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  19. Characterization of a petroleum system in the Himalayan foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorkhabi, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Himalayan foreland basin that is a part of the Tethyan tectonic belt is a potential target for hydrocarbon exploration. Petroleum has been yield in the west part of basin (Pakistan), and in the east part (Myanmar). This study takes aim to the central parts of the Himalayan foreland basin (India and Nepal), and identifies sediments Paleocene in age (the Subathu Formation made up of limestone and shale, and Murree Group made up of mudstone and shale) as source rock (TOC content up to 0.5 %), and also identifies permeable Siwalik sandstone (Paleocene-Middle to Neogene) as reservoir rock (porosity ranges from 4 to 27%, and permeability ranges from 0.1 to 10 millidarcy). Source rock had been occurred thermal maturity by burial in late Miocene. The serious problem is the localization of seals and traps. It indicates a potentiality that suitable trap structures had been formed by Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), close to Lesser Himalaya, lifting up and transporting the Proterozoic shale and carbonate rocks atop the Siwalik sandstone. The overthrust activities of source rock (Subathu-Murree Group) atop the Siwalik are important for formation of seals and traps. Actuary, gas and oil seeps are found not in Tarai (plain) but in the vicinity of the MBT. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Seismites in a Proterozoic tidal succession, Singhbhum, Bihar, India (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip


    Early Proterozoic metasediments of the Chaibasa Formation (Galudih-Ghatsila-Dhalbhumgarh region, Singhbhum, Bihar, India) comprise a number of cyclic fining-upward prograding successions of tidalites. The tidalites show indications for earthquakes in the form of synsedimentary deformation features, apart from the structures due to high-energy wave action. Deformed cross-bedding, convolute laminations, synsedimentary faults, graben-like structures, sandstone dykes, pseudonodules and slump folds record the seismic activity. A gradual decline in the frequency of seismites and tsunami-related depositional features, in combination with an upward increase in thickness of the tidal cycles, are attributed to gradual diminishing of tectonic activity within the basin.

  1. Hydrological inferences through morphometric analysis of lower Kosi river basin of India for water resource management based on remote sensing data (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Chandel, Rajeev Singh; Mishra, Varun Narayan; Singh, Prafull


    Satellite based remote sensing technology has proven to be an effectual tool in analysis of drainage networks, study of surface morphological features and their correlation with groundwater management prospect at basin level. The present study highlights the effectiveness and advantage of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis for quantitative and qualitative assessment of flood plain region of lower Kosi river basin based on morphometric analysis. In this study, ASTER DEM is used to extract the vital hydrological parameters of lower Kosi river basin in ARC GIS software. Morphometric parameters, e.g., stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, etc., have been calculated for the Kosi basin and their hydrological inferences were discussed. Most of the morphometric parameters such as bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture concluded that basin has good prospect for water management program for various purposes and also generated data base that can provide scientific information for site selection of water-harvesting structures and flood management activities in the basin. Land use land cover (LULC) of the basin were also prepared from Landsat data of 2005, 2010 and 2015 to assess the change in dynamic of the basin and these layers are very noteworthy for further watershed prioritization.

  2. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin


    Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.


    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe groundwater has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the dee...

  3. Aerosol transport over the Gangetic basin during ISRO-GBP land campaign-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aloysius


    Full Text Available MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Level-3 aerosol optical depth (AOD data and NCEP (National Centre for Environmental Prediction reanalysis winds were incorporated into an aerosol flux continuity equation, for a quantitative assessment of the sources of aerosol generation over the Ganga basin in the winter month of December 2004. Preliminary analysis on the aerosol distribution and wind fields showed wind convergence to be an important factor which, supported by the regional topography, confines aerosols in a long band over the Indo Gangetic plain (IGP stretching from the west of the Thar desert into the Head-Bay-of-Bengal. The prevailing winds of the season carry the aerosols from Head-Bay-of-Bengal along the east coast as far as the southern tip of the peninsular India. A detailed examination of MODIS data revealed significant day-to-day variations in aerosol loading in localised pockets over the central and eastern parts of the Indo Gangetic plain during the second half of December, with AOD values even exceeding unity. Aerosols over the Ganga basin were dominated by fine particles (geometric mean radius ~0.05–0.1μm while those over the central and western India were dominated by large particles (geometric mean radius ~0.3–0.7μ. Before introducing it into the flux equation, the MODIS derived AOD was validated through a comparison with the ground-based measurements collected at Kharagpur and Kanpur; two stations located over the Ganga basin. The strength of the aerosol generation computed using the flux equation indicated the existence of aerosol sources whose locations almost coincided with the concentration of thermal power plants. The quantitative agreement between the source strength and the power plant concentration, with a correlation coefficient 0.85, pointed to thermal power plants as substantial contributors to the high aerosol loading over the Ganga Basin in winter. The layout of aerosol sources also nearly

  4. Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badesab, F.K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S.J.; Deenadayalan, K.

    -hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. Four distinct sedimentary units have been identified, based on the sediment magnetic signatures. An anomalous zone of enhanced magnetic susceptibility (Unit III: 51.9–160.4 mbsf) coinciding with the gas hydrate...

  5. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin. (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang


    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ(18)O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time.

  6. Occurrence of gas hydrates along the continental margins of India, particularly the Krishna-Godavari offshore basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Desa, M.

    carried out in the Krishna-Godavari offshore area along the eastern continental margin of India, which is known for its hydrocarbon potential. Processed multibeam data provided a high-resolution seafloor mosaic with a fine scale geomorphology. Deep tow...

  7. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter


    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  8. Case Study: A Real-Time Flood Forecasting System with Predictive Uncertainty Estimation for the Godavari River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barbetta


    Full Text Available This work presents the application of the multi-temporal approach of the Model Conditional Processor (MCP-MT for predictive uncertainty (PU estimation in the Godavari River basin, India. MCP-MT is developed for making probabilistic Bayesian decision. It is the most appropriate approach if the uncertainty of future outcomes is to be considered. It yields the best predictive density of future events and allows determining the probability that a critical warning threshold may be exceeded within a given forecast time. In Bayesian decision-making, the predictive density represents the best available knowledge on a future event to address a rational decision-making process. MCP-MT has already been tested for case studies selected in Italian river basins, showing evidence of improvement of the effectiveness of operative real-time flood forecasting systems. The application of MCP-MT for two river reaches selected in the Godavari River basin, India, is here presented and discussed by considering the stage forecasts provided by a deterministic model, STAFOM-RCM, and hourly dataset based on seven monsoon seasons in the period 2001–2010. The results show that the PU estimate is useful for finding the exceedance probability for a given hydrometric threshold as function of the forecast time up to 24 h, demonstrating the potential usefulness for supporting real-time decision-making. Moreover, the expected value provided by MCP-MT yields better results than the deterministic model predictions, with higher Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients and lower error on stage forecasts, both in term of mean error and standard deviation and root mean square error.

  9. Late-Miocene thrust fault-related folding in the northern Tibetan Plateau: Insight from paleomagnetic and structural analyses of the Kumkol basin (United States)

    Lu, Haijian; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Xue, Guoliang; Li, Haibing


    Constraints on the timing and style of the Tibetan Plateau growth help spur new understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to the India-Asia continental collision. In this regard, records of tectonic deformation with accurate ages are urgently needed, especially in regions without relevant studies. The Kumkol basin, located between two major intermontane basins (the Hoh Xil and Qaidam basins), may hold clues to how these major basins evolve during the Cenozoic. However, little has been known about the exact ages of the strata and tectonic deformation of the basin. Herein, detailed paleomagnetic and structural studies are conducted on the southern Baiquanhe section in the central Kumkol basin, northern Tibetan Plateau. The magnetostratigraphic study indicates that the southern Baiquanhe section spans a time interval of 8.2-4.2 Ma. Well-preserved growth strata date to 7.5 Ma, providing evidence for a significant thrust fault-related folding. This thrust-related folding has also been identified in the Tian Shan foreland and in the northern Tibetan Plateau, most likely implying a pulsed basinward deformation during the late Miocene.

  10. Hydrological processes in glacierized high-altitude basins of the western Himalayas (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Shah, Rouf A.; Fryar, Alan E.; Deshpande, Rajendrakumar D.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Perrin, Jerome


    Western Himalaya is a strategically important region, where the water resources are shared by China, India and Pakistan. The economy of the region is largely dependent on the water resources delivered by snow and glacier melt. The presented study used stable isotopes of water to further understand the basin-scale hydro-meteorological, hydrological and recharge processes in three high-altitude mountainous basins of the western Himalayas. The study provided new insights in understanding the dominant factors affecting the isotopic composition of the precipitation, snowpack, glacier melt, streams and springs. It was observed that elevation-dependent post-depositional processes and snowpack evolution resulted in the higher isotopic altitude gradient in snowpacks. The similar temporal trends of isotopic signals in rivers and karst springs reflect the rapid flow transfer due to karstification of the carbonate aquifers. The attenuation of the extreme isotopic input signal in karst springs appears to be due to the mixing of source waters with the underground karst reservoirs. Basin-wise, the input-output response demonstrates the vital role of winter precipitation in maintaining the perennial flow in streams and karst springs in the region. Isotopic data were also used to estimate the mean recharge altitude of the springs.

  11. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka


    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  12. Application of Statistical Downscaling Techniques to Predict Rainfall and Its Spatial Analysis Over Subansiri River Basin of Assam, India (United States)

    Barman, S.; Bhattacharjya, R. K.


    The River Subansiri is the major north bank tributary of river Brahmaputra. It originates from the range of Himalayas beyond the Great Himalayan range at an altitude of approximately 5340m. Subansiri basin extends from tropical to temperate zones and hence exhibits a great diversity in rainfall characteristics. In the Northern and Central Himalayan tracts, precipitation is scarce on account of high altitudes. On the other hand, Southeast part of the Subansiri basin comprising the sub-Himalayan and the plain tract in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, lies in the tropics. Due to Northeast as well as Southwest monsoon, precipitation occurs in this region in abundant quantities. Particularly, Southwest monsoon causes very heavy precipitation in the entire Subansiri basin during May to October. In this study, the rainfall over Subansiri basin has been studied at 24 different locations by multiple linear and non-linear regression based statistical downscaling techniques and by Artificial Neural Network based model. APHRODITE's gridded rainfall data of 0.25˚ x 0.25˚ resolutions and climatic parameters of HadCM3 GCM of resolution 2.5˚ x 3.75˚ (latitude by longitude) have been used in this study. It has been found that multiple non-linear regression based statistical downscaling technique outperformed the other techniques. Using this method, the future rainfall pattern over the Subansiri basin has been analyzed up to the year 2099 for four different time periods, viz., 2020-39, 2040-59, 2060-79, and 2080-99 at all the 24 locations. On the basis of historical rainfall, the months have been categorized as wet months, months with moderate rainfall and dry months. The spatial changes in rainfall patterns for all these three types of months have also been analyzed over the basin. Potential decrease of rainfall in the wet months and months with moderate rainfall and increase of rainfall in the dry months are observed for the future rainfall pattern of the Subansiri basin.

  13. Nuclear India. Vol. II. [India's nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, J P


    The book contains 186 documents on India's nuclear policy covering a period from November 1948 to May 1974. It thus forms a comprehensive documentary account of India's nuclear policy. They include: texts of India's agreements for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the USA and Canada, the summary conclusions of India's atomic energy program for the decade 1970-80, the resolutions and amendments moved by India, the communications sent and the statements made by Indian representatives in various international forums--the conference of the IAEA statute, the Annual General Conference of the IAEA and its committees and the Board of Governors, the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the conference of the Committee on Disarmaments etc. It also contains texts or extracts from the papers presented, statements made, and addresses and talks delivered by H. J. Bhabha, V. A. Sarabhai, H. N. Sethna and other eminent scientists at the international conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, IAEA discussions on PNE, etc. Policy statements by India's Prime Ministers Nehru, Shastri and (Mrs.) Gandhi, and Foreign Ministers Chagla and Swaran Singh, made from time to time in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha--the two houses of the Indian parliaments--are also included. The sources of these documents are listed at the end. (MCB)

  14. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  15. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.


    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  16. Integration of rock physical signatures with depositional environments: A case study from East Coast of India (United States)

    Mondal, Samit; Yadav, Ashok; Chatterjee, Rima


    Rock physical crossplots from different geological setup along eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) represent diversified signatures. To characterize the reservoirs in rock physics domain (velocity/modulus versus porosity) and then connecting the interpretation with geological model has been the objectives of the present study. Petrophysical logs (total porosity and volume of shale) from five wells located at sedimentary basins of ECMI have been analyzed to quantify the types of shale such as: laminated, dispersed and structural in reservoir. Presence of various shale types belonging to different depositional environments is coupled to define distinct rock physical crossplot trends for different geological setup. Wells from three different basins in East Coast of India have been used to capture diversity in depositional environments. Contact model theory has been applied to the crossplot to examine the change in rock velocity with change in reservoir properties like porosity and volume of shale. The depositional and diagenetic trends have been shown in the crossplot to showcase the prime controlling factor which reduces the reservoir porosity. Apart from that, the effect of geological factors like effective stress, sorting, packing, grain size uniformity on reservoir properties have also been focused. The rock physical signatures for distinct depositional environments, effect of crucial geological factors on crossplot trends coupled with established sedimentological models in drilled area are investigated to reduce the uncertainties in reservoir characterization for undrilled potentials.

  17. A note on geochemistry of surface sediments from Krishna-Godavari basin, East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; PrakashBabu, C.; Khadge, N.H.; Paropkari, A.L.; Kodagali, V.N.

    A closely spaced 75 surface sediments drawn from ‘Gas Hydrate` Project taken up by National Institute of Oceanography on a regional scale from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (Latitude I5 degrees 35 minutes to 16 degrees 20 minutes N; Longitude 81...

  18. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale (United States)

    Beria, Harsh; Nanda, Trushnamayee; Singh Bisht, Deepak; Chatterjee, Chandranath


    The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014) and retrospective (1998-2013) TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga) revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  19. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beria


    Full Text Available The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG, and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014 and retrospective (1998–2013 TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  20. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham


    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  1. Land-ocean tectonics (LOTs) and the associated seismic hazard over the Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    , Subrahmanyam AS, Murty GPS, Murthy KSR (2009) Tectonic significance of Gundlakamma river (Krishna Basin) over Eastern Continental Margin of India – A qualitative appraisal (Communicated to Current Science) Subrahmanya K (1996) Active Intraplate deformation... for his suggestions to improve the MS. Thanks are also due to Miss.T.Madhavi for her help in preparing the illustrations This is N.I.O. (C.S.I.R.) contribution No. References Banerjee PK, Vaz VV, Sengupta BJ, Bagchi A (2001) A qualitative...

  2. Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.


    Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close

  3. A new report on the occurrence of zeolitites in the abyssal depths of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Received August 13, 1992; revised version accepted November 18, 1992) ABSTRACT Forty-two indurated slabs of zeolites collected from the abyssal depths of the Central Indian Basin have been studied. The slabs... Depth Sampler Topography/ No. (dimensions in cm) (°S) (°E) (m) deployed sediment type 1 SS17/877 (A) Ferromanganese oxides with patches of 13.032 75.743 4275 Dredge Seamount flank/ orangish-yellow material, 25 × 21...

  4. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14°-20°N), western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    for determining the crust below the shelf, Laxmi Basin and Western Basin. 3. Crustal structure ? associated gravity and magnetic anomalies In the present study we have integrated the new datasets with published geophysical data: Conrad 1707 profiles (Naini..., 1980), SK- 12, 22, 50, 64 and 79 profiles (Bhattacharya et al., 1994a; Chaubey et al., 2002) and twelve long-range sonobuoy refraction stations (Naini and Talwani, 1983) (Figure 1) for carrying out integrated interpretation of the data. 3.1 Previous...

  5. Late Cenozoic fluvial successions in northern and western India: an overview and synthesis (United States)

    Sinha, R.; Kumar, R.; Sinha, S.; Tandon, S. K.; Gibling, M. R.


    Late Cenozoic fluvial successions are widespread in India. They include the deposits of the Siwalik basin which represent the accumulations of the ancient river systems of the Himalayan foreland basin. Palaeomagnetic studies reveal that fluvial architecture and styles of deposition were controlled by Himalayan tectonics as well as by major climatic fluctuations during the long (∼13 Ma) span of formation. The Indo-Gangetic plains form the world's most extensive Quaternary alluvial plains, and display spatially variable controls on sedimentation: Himalayan tectonics in the frontal parts, climate in the middle reaches, and eustasy in the lower reaches close to the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. Climatic effects were mediated by strong fluctuations in the SW Indian Monsoon, and Himalayan rivers occupy deep valleys in the western Ganga plains where stream power is high, cut in part during early Holocene monsoon intensification; the broad interfluves record the simultaneous aggradation of plains-fed rivers since ∼100 ka. The eastward increase in precipitation across the Ganga Plains results in rivers with low stream power and a very high sediment flux, resulting in an aggradational mode and little incision. The river deposits of semi-arid to arid western India form important archives of Quaternary climate change through their intercalation with the eolian deposits of the Thar Desert. Although the synthesis documents strong variability-both spatial and temporal-in fluvial stratigraphy, climatic events such as the decline in precipitation during the Last Glacial Maximum and monsoon intensification in the early Holocene have influenced fluvial dynamics throughout the region.

  6. Loktak Lake, Manipur, northeast India: a Ramsar site with rich rotifer (Rotifera: Eurotatoria diversity and its meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available A total of 162 species (S of Rotifera belonging to 40 genera and 20 families examined from Loktak Lake, an important floodplain lake of northeast India (NEI that is one of the richest assemblages of the taxon known from the Indian sub-region. It merits biodiversity value as ~40.0% and ~62.0% of species recorded from India and NEI, respectively. One species is new to India, 23 species are new to Manipur and 14 species are new to Loktak basin. Biogeographically interesting elements included three Australasian, five Oriental, ten palaeotropical and one cosmo-subtropical species. Lecanidae > Lepadellidae > Brachionidae > Trichocercidae collectively comprised 65.4% of S; Lecane > Lepadella > Trichocerca are diverse genera; and paucity of Brachionus spp. is distinct. Loktak Rotifera indicated importance of cosmopolitan, the littoral-periphytonic and small-sized species, and ‘tropical character’. ANOVA recorded significant variations of the rotifer richness amongst three sampling sites of Loktak during June 2010–May 2012 survey. The richness followed osscillaring monthly variations and indicated lack of significant influence of any individual abioitic parameter at all three stations.

  7. Hydrochemical evaluation and identification of geochemical processes in the shallow and deep wells in the Ramganga Sub-Basin, India. (United States)

    Rajmohan, Natarajan; Patel, Neelam; Singh, Gaurav; Amarasinghe, Upali A


    Groundwater samples were collected from 44 wells in the Ramganga Sub-Basin (RSB), India, and analysed for major ions, nutrients and trace metals. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemistry and to identify the geochemical processes that govern the water chemistry in the shallow and deep tube wells in the study area using geochemical methods. The knowledge of changes in hydrochemistry of the aquifers is important for both groundwater recharge and use in the region. This study found that there are substantial differences of water chemistry between shallow and deep wells. In the shallow wells, the average concentrations of total dissolved solid (TDS), Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , NO 3 , PO 4 , F, Cu, Mn, Fe and Cr are twofold higher than the deep wells. The concentrations of dissolved silica in the groundwater do not vary with the depth, which implies that the variation in the water chemistry is not due to mineral dissolution alone. Major ion ratios and saturation indices suggest that the water chemistry is predominantly controlled by dissolution of carbonate minerals, silicate weathering and ion exchange reactions. Thermodynamic evaluation (ion activity ratios and stability filed diagrams) indicates that the kaolinite and gibbsite controlled the water chemistry in the both shallow and deep wells. In addition, the groundwater chemistry in the shallow wells is affected by the vertical infiltration of contaminated water from surface contamination sources and nitrification process. In the deep wells, absence of NO 3 and low concentrations of Cl, SO 4 , PO 4 and F imply the role of regional flow and denitrification in the groundwater. Results concluded that proper management plan is necessary to protect the shallow aquifer in the RSB since shallow aquifer pumping is less expensive than the deeper one.

  8. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin (United States)

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.


    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  9. Geochemistry of Groundwater: An Overview of Sporadic Fluoride and Nitrate Contamination in Parts of Yamuna River Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Khurshid


    Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of Yamuna river sub-basin utilized for both irrigation and domestic purposes were investigated by analyzing samples collected from the western part of Yamuna basin. It is observed that majority of the ground water samples are saline due to the presence of more clayey material with low permeability leading to longer residence time. Occurrence and distribution of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater on either bank of Yamuna river are studied and high concentrations of F and NO3 exceeding standard limits of various organization were observed at places suggesting their non-solubility for drinking purposes. Low concentration of nitrate is due to denitrification. Fluoride correlates positively with HCO3 and negatively with Ca. Discharge of untreated industrial effluents in unlined drains, dumping of solid wastes in open field and increased utilization of nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers are responsible for the degradation of groundwater quality in parts of Yamuna basin.

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination from parts of the Ghaghara Basin, India: influence of fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary morphostratigraphy (United States)

    Shah, Babar Ali


    A groundwater arsenic (As) distribution in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts of Uttar Pradesh is shown in the entrenched channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. Tubewell water samples were analysed for As through flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system. About 38, 61, and 42 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As >10 µg/l (WHO guideline). Moreover, 15, 45, and 26 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As above 50 µg/l. About 86, 69, and 35 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, are from shallow depth (21-45 m), and it is worth noticing that 47 % As-contaminated (As >10 µg/l) tubewells in these three districts are located within the depth of 10-35 m in Holocene Newer Alluvium aquifers. The high content of As (7.11 mg/kg) is measured in suspended river sediments of the Ghaghara River. Most of the As-contaminated villages in the Ghaghara Basin are located close to abandoned or present meander channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. In contrast, tubewells in Faizabad, Ayodhya, and Nawabganj towns are As-safe because of their positions on the Pleistocene Older Alluvium upland surfaces. Quaternary geomorphology plays an important role in groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ghaghara Basin. The sources of groundwater arsenic are geogenic and perennial mountainous rivers in the Ghaghara Basin supplied high sediment loads. The arsenic in groundwater of Ghaghara Basin is getting released from associated sediments which were likely deposited from the Himalayas. The process of release of groundwater arsenic is reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides.

  11. Luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar from tectonically uplifted terraces in Kashmir Basin, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Bhat, M.I.; Bali, B.S.; Ahmad, Shabir; Chen, Y.G.


    The Kashmir Valley or the Jhelum basin is an intermontane-basin in NW Himalaya bounded by the Pir Panjal Range in the south and southwest and the Great Himalayan Range in the north and northeast. The valley is marked by active major thrust boundaries in its south and southwestern parts. Remote sensing studies and morphometric analysis suggest neo-tectonic activities and the formation of tectonic terraces due to uplift on the major thrust boundaries in NW Himalayas. The quartz from freshly eroded mountain belts is usually found to show very poor luminescence sensitivity and thus not suitable for optical dating. Similar problems occurred with the quartz from the Srinagar Basin. Due to this, feldspar was selected as a natural dose meter for dating tectonically uplifted terraces in an active and dynamic belt of the NW Himalayas. We report here for the first time the luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar minerals from the study area. However, feldspar also shows poor luminescence sensitivity, although enough to perform optical dating. Athermal fading was observed in all the feldspar samples, which was corrected using 'g' values; a large scatter was found in the g values, probably due to intermixing of feldspar grains from varying source rock types and also due to poor luminescence sensitivity. An average g value correction to the mean paleodose was found to agree if compared with the thermo-luminescence date of loess deposit dated earlier. The ages show that the terrace formation started taking place at ∼100 ka in the southwestern part of the Jhelum basin and continued with pulses at 50 ka and 11 ka towards the northwestern part.

  12. Differential Rate of Deforestation in Two Adjoining Indian River Basins: Does Resource Availability Matters? (United States)

    Das, P.; Behera, M. D.


    Deforestation is one of the key factors of global climate change by altering the surface albedo reduces the evapotranspiration and surface roughness leads to warming in tropical regions. River basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanisation, industrialisation etc. We generated LULC maps at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 in two major river basins of India using Landsat data employing on-screen visual image interpretation technique. In Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB), 30.64% forest cover in 1985 was reduced to 30.13% in 2005, wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) this change was 63.44% to 62.32% during 1985 to 2005. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was more than two times higher in BRB than MRB. Scrub land in few zones acted as an intermediate class for mixed forest conversion to cropland land in both the basins. Analysing the drivers, in deforestation we observed the proximity zones around habitat and socio-economic drivers contributed higher compared to topographic, edaphic and climate. Using Dyna-CLUE modelling approach, we have predicted the LULC for 2025. For validation, comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained > 97% modeling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 captured the similar trend of deforestation around 0.52% in MRB and 1.18% in BRB during 2005 to 2025. Acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. On the basis of driver analysis, we believe that availability of more forest resources in Brahmaputra River basin provided extra liberty for higher

  13. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E.; Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.


    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  14. Rotifer assemblages (Rotifera: Eurotatoria of the floodplain lakes of Majuli River Island, the Brahmaputra river basin, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Our plankton and semi-plankton collections from twelve floodplain lakes (beels of Majuli River Island, Upper Assam reveal 124 rotifer species (32 genera and 17 families; these merit biodiversity value as ~52.0% and ~30.0% of species, ~68.0 and ~45.0% of  genera and ~74.0 and ~65.0% of the families of the Phylum known from northeast India (NEI and India, respectively. Two species are new to India with Trichocerca uncinata as new record to the Oriental region.  Eleven species are new to the study area and we provide an updated list (144 species for following meta-analyses of Majuli Rotifera. Biogeographically important elements include one Australasian, four Oriental, four Palaeotropical and one cosmo (sub tropical species while several species are of regional distribution interest. The rotifer fauna is predominantly tropical and Lecanidae > Lepadellidae collectively include ~53.0% species but it records paucity of Brachionus species. Individual beels record total richness of 60-100 (77 ± 12 species, monthly richness between 24 ± 7-34 ± 7 species and maximum up to 54 species/sample. The results are characterized by high community similarities (59.7-90.4% vide Sørensen’s index, more rotifer homogeneity amongst beels, lack of any pattern of temporal richness variations and much limited influence of abiotic parameters.

  15. FDI Climate in India


    Khandelwal, Varun


    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  16. Mineral chemistry, bulk composition and source of the ferromanganese nodules nuclei from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Miura, H.

    and Planetary Science Letters 95:395—402 Kamesh Raju KA, Ramprasad T, Kodagali VN, and Nair RR (1993) Multibeam bathymetric, gravity and magnetic studies over 79¡E fracture zone, Central Indian Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research (B) 98: 9605—9618 Kikuchi... ( ) Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Hiroyuki Miura Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, 060 Sapporo, Japan Geo-Marine Letters (1998) 18: 66...

  17. Stress and gas hydrate-filled fracture distribution, Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, A.; Goldberg, D. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)


    The first expedition of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) was launched in the summer of 2006 to characterize the presence of gas hydrates on the continental margins of India. This paper presented a study from the NGHP expedition that found high resistivity fractures in unconsolidated clay sediments on logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole resistivity images. Gas hydrate-filled and conductive fractures appearing on LWD resistivity images in holes 5A, 5B, 6A, 7A and 10 were analysed and discussed. Fracture orientation and shallow sediment stress orientations were determined for each hole. The paper described how to determine which sections of a log are hydrate bearing as well as how to calculate the predicted water saturated resistivity. It was concluded that holes 5A, 5B, 6A and 7A contained well-ordered, high-angle fractures, from which horizontal stress directions could be accurately resolved. However, these stress directions, contradicted the orientations normally seen on a passive margin, and may be the result of local bathymetry variations. 6 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  19. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert


    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  20. Composition and origin of authigenic carbonates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Teichert, B.M.A.; Johnson, J.E.; Solomon, E.A.; Giosan, L.; Rose, K.; Kocherla, M.; Connolly, E.C.; Torres, M.E.

    of India in the Bay of Bengal. Authigenic carbonate cements,(micro) nodules, bioturbation casts and tubes from 12 core locations drilled during the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 were investigated for this study. Three main...

  1. Authigenic carbonates in the sediments of Goa offshore basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.

    in all the studied locations. The methane con- centration varied from 0.45–5.25 nM (top) to 11.25 nM (middle) and 0.64–13.23 nM (bottom). The CaCO 3 content of the sediments ranged from 33.6% to 69.9% and TOC varied from 0.21% to 0.86%. The porosity.... G. and Almeida, F., Detection of gas charged sediments and gas hydrate horizons in high resolution seismic profiles from the western con- tinental margin of India. Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 1998, 137, 239–253. 15. Satyavani, N., Thankur, N. K...

  2. Hydrological simulation of the Brahmaputra basin using global datasets (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Conway, Crystal; Craven, Joanne; Masih, Ilyas; Mazzolini, Maurizio; Shrestha, Shreedeepy; Ugay, Reyne; van Andel, Schalk Jan


    Brahmaputra River flows through China, India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal and is one of the largest rivers of the world with a catchment size of 580K km2. The catchment is largely hilly and/or forested with sparse population and with limited urbanisation and economic activities. The catchment experiences heavy monsoon rainfall leading to very high flood discharges. Large inter-annual variation of discharge leading to flooding, erosion and morphological changes are among the major challenges. The catchment is largely ungauged; moreover, limited availability of hydro-meteorological data limits the possibility of carrying out evidence based research, which could provide trustworthy information for managing and when needed, controlling, the basin processes by the riparian countries for overall basin development. The paper presents initial results of a current research project on Brahmaputra basin. A set of hydrological and hydraulic models (SWAT, HMS, RAS) are developed by employing publicly available datasets of DEM, land use and soil and simulated using satellite based rainfall products, evapotranspiration and temperature estimates. Remotely sensed data are compared with sporadically available ground data. The set of models are able to produce catchment wide hydrological information that potentially can be used in the future in managing the basin's water resources. The model predications should be used with caution due to high level of uncertainty because the semi-calibrated models are developed with uncertain physical representation (e.g. cross-section) and simulated with global meteorological forcing (e.g. TRMM) with limited validation. Major scientific challenges are seen in producing robust information that can be reliably used in managing the basin. The information generated by the models are uncertain and as a result, instead of using them per se, they are used in improving the understanding of the catchment, and by running several scenarios with varying

  3. A suture delta: the co-evolution of tectonics and sedimentology as a remnant ocean basin closes; the Indo Burman ranges, northeast India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zoramthara, C.


    The closure of an ocean basin involves the interplay of tectonics and sedimentology, whereby thick successions of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sediment accumulate in the closing gap between the subduction zone and passive margin. The transition from subduction to collision involves processes that are inherently time-transgressive and co-evolve to influence the nature of the developing tectonic wedge. The Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) of eastern India present a unique opportunity to examine this scenario on a variety of spatial (10-2­­­-105 m2) and temporal (1 a-10 Ma) scales. Recent field mapping campaigns in the IBR have illuminated analogous depositional environments expressed in the Neogene outcrops of the IBR and the Holocene sediment archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD). Six distinct lithofacies are present in shallow-marine to fluvial strata of the IBR, containing sedimentary structures that reflect depositional environments correlative with the modern delta. Cyclical alternations of fine sands and silts in packages on the order of 15-20 cm thick define part of the shallow-marine section (M2 facies) that we interpret to represent the foreset beds of the ancient subaqueous delta. The overall scale and sedimentary structures of M2 compare favorably with modern foreset deposits in the Bay of Bengal. Tan-orange medium-grained, well sorted fluvial sandstone that contain large scale (1-10 m) tabular and trough cross bedding represent large-river channel deposits (F2 facies) that overlie the shallow marine strata. F2 deposits bear a striking resemblance in scale and character to bar deposits along the modern Jamuna River. Preliminary grain size analyses on the F2 facies yield grain size distributions that are remarkably consistent with Brahmaputra-sourced mid-Holocene sediments from Sylhet basin within the GBMD. Current research on the GBMD has revealed quantifiable trends in bed thicknesses, downstream fining, and grain size within fluvial

  4. Morphometric study of the Habo dome, Kachchh, Gujarat, India: implications on neotectonic activity (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, N.; Mohanty, S. P.


    The Kachchh Basin of western India was developed during the separation of the Indian plate from the Gondwanaland in Mesozoic. Series of E-W striking master faults were generated during this extensional phase. The collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in Eocene time resulted in the change of stress regime to a compressional setting when the built-up stress developed NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW striking transverse faults and reactivated the earlier E-W master faults. The present work was carried out in the Habo dome, located in the central part of the Kachchh Basin, to analyse the morphometric features such as the bifurcation ratio, circulation ratio, drainage texture, asymmetric factor, hypsometric indices and mountain front sinuosity of selected sub-watersheds of the area to understand the effects of fault reactivation and neotectonic activities on the geometry of the dome. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used to extract drainage network for morphometric analysis of the Kaswati, Khari, and Pur river basins. The study area is elliptical in outline with the long axis trending approximately E-W. The evolution of this domal structure is interpreted to be the result of fault-bound nature of the block. The northern slope of the dome is bound by the Kachchh Mainland Fault and the eastern and western boundaries are marked by transverse faults. The undulating topography was developed by differential movements along several transverse faults striking NW-SE, N-S, and NE-SW. The earlier interpretation of laccolith intrusion into the sedimentary rocks is not supported by the data analysis and field mapping. Stress propagations from the Himalayan range in the northeast and Sulaiman range in the northwest are identified to be the causative factor for historical seismicity and drainage anomalies in the area. Keywords: Basin morphometry, Geographical Information System, Lineament patterns, Kachchh basin, Neotectonics, Fault reactivation

  5. Gravity anomalies over a segment of Pratap ridge and adjoining shelf margin basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line km on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, west of India have been studied. The free-air gravity anomalies vary between -60 to 25 mgals with prominent NNW-SSE trends in the outer shelf region...

  6. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mazumder


    Aug 31, 2017 ... war Basin, Pakistan; J. Geol. Soc. India 76(5) ... lurics in Gulf of Kutch region, Gujarat, India; Project ... Mumbai Offshore Basin, India: Possible role of mega- tsunami .... Pandey U S 2012 Mapping the thickness of Deccan Trap.

  7. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita


    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  8. Characterization of light gaseous hydrocarbons of the surface soils of Krishna-Godavari basin, India. (United States)

    Lakshmi, M; Rasheed, M A; Madhavi, T; Kalpana, M S; Patil, D J; Dayal, A M


    Several techniques are used for the exploration of hydrocarbons, of which; the geochemical techniques involving the microbiological technique use the principle of detecting the light hydrocarbon seepage activities for indication of sub-surface petroleum accumulations. Asurvey was carried out to characterize the light gaseous hydrocarbons seeping in oil and gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin ofAndhra Pradesh. Aset of 50 sub-soil samples were collected at depths of about 3 m for geochemical analyses and 1m for microbiological analysis. The microbial prospecting studies showed the presence of high bacterial population for methane 2.5 x 10(2) to 6.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1), propane 1x10(2) to 8.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) in soil samples. The adsorbed soil gas analysis showed the presence of moderate to low concentrations of methane (26 to 139 ppb), ethane (0 to 17 ppb), propane (0 to 8 ppb), butane (0 to 5 ppb) and pentane (0 to 2 ppb) in the soil samples of the study area. Carbon isotope analysis for methane ('13C1) ranging from -36.6 to -22.7 per hundred Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) suggests these gases are of thermogenic origin. Geo-microbial prospecting method coupled with adsorbed soil gas and carbon isotope ratio analysis have thus shown good correlation with existing oil/gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin.

  9. Three Plate Reconstruction in the Eastern Indian Ocean: New Constraints on Wharton and Australian-Antarctic basins (United States)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.


    Understanding the continuous seismicity and repeated occurrence of major earthquakes in Sumatra and the neighboring area requires detailed constrains on the subducting plate. In this study we analyze the past plate kinematics evolution of the Wharton basin, eastern Indian Ocean through a three plate reconstruction involving Australia (AUS), Antarctica (ANT), and India (IND). We compile marine magnetic identifications in the Australian-Antarctic Basin [1,2], the Crozet and Central Indian basins (Yatheesh et al, in prep.) and the Wharton Basin [3]. The Wharton Basin is characterized by an extinct spreading center dated by anomaly 18 (38 Ma). The southern flank of the basin exhibits a continuous sequence of anomalies 20n (42 Ma) to 34n (84 Ma), whereas the northern flank lacks some of the older anomalies because a significant part has been subducted in the Sunda Trench. The three-plate reconstructions have provided set of rotation parameters describing the evolution of IND-AUS. Using these parameters, we have reconstructed the missing isochrons of the northern flank and the detailed geometry of the subducted part of the Wharton basin. Such an exercise provides useful constraints on the age and structure of the plate in subduction under Indonesia. As a byproduct, the three plate reconstruction provided set of rotation parameters for AUS-ANT as well, which constrains the conjugate fit between the basins. Previous studies [1,2,4,5] have achieved such a fit on the base of ill-defined fracture zones. We consider the well-defined fracture zones from the Crozet, Central Indian, and Wharton basins, but avoid using the poor fracture zone imprints from the Australian-Antarctic Basin. As a result from this approach, we conclude that the relative motion of AUS with respect to ANT initially followed a north-south direction, then changed to northwest-southeast at anomaly 32ny, and reverted to northeast southwest at anomaly 24no prior to the establishment of the Southeast Indian

  10. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.


    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  11. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.


    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  12. India's nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Ravi.


    After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)

  13. India's future: it's about jobs


    Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson


    Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and employment, describe the characteristics of India's demographic dividend, and di...

  14. Evolution of the Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Singh


    Full Text Available The Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin is immensely important as it preserves evidence of India-Asia collision and related records of the Himalayan orogenesis. In this paper, the depositional regime of the Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin and variations in composition of the hinterland at different stages of the basin developments are presented. The Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin developed in two stages, i.e. syn-collisional stage and post-collisional stage. At the onset, chert breccia containing fragments derived from the hanging walls of faults and reworked bauxite developed as a result of erosion of the forebulge. The overlying early Eocene succession possibly deposited in a coastal system, where carbonates represent barriers and shales represent lagoons. Up-section, the middle Eocene marl beds likely deposited on a tidal flat. The late Eocene/Oligocene basal Murree beds, containing tidal bundles, indicate that a mixed or semi-diurnal tidal system deposited the sediments and the sedimentation took place in a tide-dominated estuary. In the higher-up, the succession likely deposited in a river-dominated estuary or in meandering rivers. In the beginning of the basin evolution, the sediments were derived from the Precambrian basement or from the metasediments/volcanic rocks possessing terrains of the south. The early and middle Eocene (54.7–41.3 Ma succession of the embryonic foreland possibly developed from the sediments derived from the Trans-Himalayan schists and phyllites and Indus ophiolite of the north during syn-collisional stage. The detrital minerals especially the lithic fragments and the heavy minerals suggest the provenance for the late Eocene/Oligocene sequences to be from the recycled orogenic belt of the Higher Himalaya, Tethyan Himalaya and the Indus-suture zone from the north during post-collisional stage. This is also supported by the paleocurrent

  15. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Droughts in the Xijiang River Basin, China and Its Responses to Global Climatic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Qiu


    Full Text Available The Xijiang River is a main branch of the Pearl River, the largest river in South China. Droughts in this area have seriously influenced local water resource utilization, and socio-economic development. The spatiotemporal distribution of droughts and its responses to global climatic events are of critical significance for the assessment and early warning of drought disasters. In this paper, the spatiotemporal patterns of droughts characterized by Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function/Rotated Principal Components (REOF/RPC in the Xijiang River Basin, China were evaluated using the Self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI. The drought responses to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, India Ocean Dipole (IOD, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO were analysed by Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise regression. The results showed that one year earlier NAO was the dominant factor impacting the droughts in the Xijiang Basin. Its contribution for the RPC2s of the annual, the first and second half years, winter, summer, autumn, and February were −0.556, −0.419, 0.597, −0.447, 0.542, 0.600, and −0.327, respectively. Besides the two adjacent Pacific and India oceans, the droughts seem be influenced by distant Atlantic climatic events. These results offer new reference insights into the early warning of droughts as well as the planning and management of water resources in the study area.

  16. Seismological evidence of the Hales discontinuity in northeast India (United States)

    Anand, Aakash; Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Madhab Borgohain, Jayanta


    The crust and upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the northeast India is estimated by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data recorded at nine broadband seismic stations. The Assam valley and the Shillong-Mikir plateau are the two important tectonic blocks in the northeast India, which are surrounded by the Himalayan collision zone in the north, Indo-Burma subduction zone in the east and by the Bengal basin in the south. The joint inversion followed by forward modeling reveal crustal thicknesses of 30-34 km beneath the Shillong plateau, 36 km beneath the Mikir hills and 38-40 km beneath the Assam valley with an average shear wave velocity (Vs) of 3.4-3.5 km/s. The estimated low upper mantle shear wave velocity (Vsn) 4.2-4.3 km/s may be due to the rock composition or grain size or increased temperature and partial melt (<1%) in the upper mantle, or an effect of all. Also, we report for the first time, the existence of the Hales discontinuity at depths 56-74 km with Vs ∼4.4-4.6 km/s. Variable depth of the Hales discontinuity may be explained by the geotherm and/or addition of Cr3+ and Fe2+ in the spinel-garnet system.

  17. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin, eastern continental margin of India based on seismic and potential field modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Twinkle, D.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    . The presence of pull-apart basin geometry and the structural high observed in section MCS1 further support the characteristics of sheared mar- gin (Edwards et al. 1997; Krishna et al. 2009). In the onshore Cauvery basin, Rangaraju et al. (1993) have mapped a...

  18. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.


    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  19. Energy India 'dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygler, C.


    India has an economic growth between 8 to 10 % by year. To become a great country of the twenty first century and to stop poverty it is necessary to keep this growth but the growth of India is dependant of its ability to supply electric power necessary to increase the industrial production. The country has to multiply by four its energy production. The electric production comes from thermal power plants for 65%, 26% from hydroelectric power plants, 6% from renewable energy sources and 3% from nuclear energy. Between solar energy ( India has three hundred solar days by years) and nuclear energy using thorium that can be increased India has to choose an energy policy to answer its energy demand and independence need. (N.C.)

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mismanagement of groundwater resources in the basin causes negative effects ... Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios ... Statistical downscaling and projection of future temperature and precipitation change in middle catchment of Sutlej River Basin, India.

  1. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere


    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  2. Groundwater potential zonation by Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and its relation to the Groundwater level in the Coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganthi


    Full Text Available Groundwater is being pumped extensively from the coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India for irrigation and water supply to the city of Chennai. The objective of this study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of this area using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. Weighted overlay analysis was used to demarcate the ground- water potential zones. Various thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, rainfall and landuse maps were prepared. The geological map was prepared using a Geological Survey of India (GSI district resource map. Indian Remote Sensing System Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor III (IRS-1D LISS III satellite imagery was used to prepare the geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, and landuse maps. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage to different thematic maps and adding them to the final groundwater potential map. The derived groundwater potential map was overlaid with the groundwater level and location of well fields for validation. The map prepared will help in systematic and proper development of groundwater resources in this area to meet the growing water requirements of the city of Chennai.  Resumen Aguas subterráneas se bombean en gran cantidad desde la parte costera en las cuencas de los ríos Arani, en Tamil Nadu, India, para el riego y el aprovisionamiento de agua a la ciudad de Chennai. El objetivo de este estudio es delinear las zonas potenciales de aguas subterráneas en esta área a través de sistemas de Teledeteción (RS y de Información Geográfica (GIS. Se hizo un análisis sobrepuesto compensado para demarcar las zonas con posibilidad de tener aguas subterráneas. Se prepararon mapas de uso de la tierra con varios elementos temáticos como geología, geomorfología, terreno, densidad de lineamiento, densi- dad de drenaje y

  3. Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics over Delhi in Northern India: Seasonal variability and possible sources (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Bisht, Ds; Tiwari, S.

    Carbonaceous aerosols have been the focus of extensive studies during the last decade due to its significant impacts on human health, visibility and climate change. As per Asian regions are concerned, aerosols in south-Asia are gaining considerable importance because of their potential impacts on regional climate, yet their possible sources are poorly understood. Semi-continuous measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosols were conducted simultaneously at Delhi during the period from January 2011 to May 2012. Delhi is the capital city of India and one of the densely populated and industrialized urban megacities in Asia, located at the Ganga basin in the northern part of India. Being highly polluted region, mass concentrations of OC, EC and BC over Delhi were found to vary from about 6-92 mug m (-3) (mean: 23±16 mug m (-3) ), 3-38 mug m (-3) (mean: 11±7 mug m (-3) ) and 1-24 mug m (-3) (mean: 7±5 mug m (-3) ), respectively during the entire measurement period, with about two times higher concentration during winter as compared to summer. A significant correlation between OC and EC (R=0.95, n=232) and relatively lower OC/EC ratio (range: 1.0-3.6; mean: 2.2±0.5) suggest fossil fuel emission as a dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols over the station. The average mass concentration of EC was found about 38% higher than BC during the study period, which is interestingly different as reported at other locations over Ganga basin. We also determined the associated optical properties of carbonaceous species (e.g. absorption coefficient and mass absorption efficiency) over the station. Significant loading of carbonaceous species over such regions emphasize an urgent need to focus on air quality management and proper impact assessment on health perspective.

  4. Synchronization of Well Log Data and Geophysical Data with Remote Sensing Technique to Develop the Hydrocarbon System of Bengal Basin (United States)

    Kesh, S.; Samadder, P. K.


    Remote sensing along with more conventional exploration techniques such as geophysics and reconnaissance field mapping can help to establish regional geologic relationships, to extract major structural features and to pinpoint anomalous patterns. Many well have been drilled in Bengal basin still no commercially viable reserves have been discovered. Geophysical well logging is used in virtually every oil well. It is the primary means by which we characterize the subsurface in search of hydrocarbons. Oil and gas exploration activities for large areas require ground gravity surveys to facilitate detailed geological interpretations for subsurface features integrating geological cross-sections with the sub-surface structural trends leads to the identification of prospect areas. Remote sensing, geological and geophysical data integration provide accurate geometric shapes of the basins. Bengal basin has a sedimentary fill of 10-15 km, is the northernmost of the east coast basins of India In the first phase Remote sensing satellite sensors help in identifying surface anomaly which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon reservoirs providing regional geological settings of petroleferous basins. It provides accurate and visual data for directly determining geometric shapes of basin. It assists in the selection of exploration regions by defining the existence of sedimentary basin. Remote sensing methods can generate a wealth of information useful in determining the value of exploratory prospecting. In the second phase Well Log data provide relative subsurface information for oil and gas exploration. Remote sensing data are merged with other available information such as Aeromagnetic, gravity, geochemical surveys and 2D seismic surveys. The result of this phase is to estimate the outcome of oil discovery probabilities for locating oil prospects

  5. Lithospheric rheological heterogeneity across an intraplate rift basin (Linfen Basin, North China) constrained from magnetotelluric data: Implications for seismicity and rift evolution (United States)

    Yin, Yaotian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jian'en; Zhang, Letian; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Liang, Hongda


    We take the Linfen Basin, which is the most active segment of the Cenozoic intraplate Shanxi Rift, as an example, showing how to use magnetotelluric data to constrain lithospheric rheological heterogeneities of intraplate tectonic zones. Electrical resistivity models, combined with previous rheological numerical simulation, show a good correlation between resistivity and rheological strength, indicating the mechanisms of enhanced conductivity could also be reasons of reduced viscosity. The crust beneath the Linfen Basin shows overall stratified features in both electrical resistivity and rheology. The uppermost crustal conductive layer is dominated by friction sliding-type brittle fracturing. The high-resistivity mid-crust is inferred to be high-viscosity metamorphic basement being intersected by deep fault. The plastic lower crust show significantly high-conductivity feature. Seismicity appears to be controlled by crustal rheological heterogeneity. Micro-earthquakes mainly distribute at the brittle-ductile transition zones as indicated by high- to low-resistivity interfaces or the high pore pressure fault zones while the epicenters of two giant destructive historical earthquakes occur within the high-resistivity and therefore high-strength blocks near the inferred rheological interfaces. The lithosphere-scale lateral rheological heterogeneity along the profile can also be illustrated. The crust and upper mantle beneath the Ordos Block, Lüliang Mountains and Taihang Mountains are of high rheological strength as indicated by large-scale high-resistivity zones while a significant high-conductivity, lithosphere-scale weak zone exists beneath the eastern margin of the Linfen Basin. According to previous geodynamic modeling works, we suggest that this kind of lateral rheological heterogeneity may play an essential role for providing driving force for the formation and evolution of the Shanxi Rift, regional lithospheric deformation and earthquake activities under the

  6. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.


    indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  7. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  8. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Mei Sim


    Full Text Available In the world, river basins often interwoven into two or more states or prefectures and because of that, disputes over water are common. Nevertheless, not all shared river basins are associated with water conflicts. Rivers in Japan and Malaysia play a significant role in regional economic development. They also play a significant role as water sources for industrial, domestic, agricultural, aquaculture, hydroelectric power generation, and the environment. The research aim is to determine the similarities and differences between the Sagami and Muda River Basins in order to have a better understanding of the governance needed for effectively implementing the lessons drawn from the Sagami River Basin for improving the management of the Muda River Basin in Malaysia. This research adopts qualitative and quantitative approaches. Semi-structured interviews were held with the key stakeholders from both basins and show that Japan has endeavored to present policy efforts to accommodate the innovative approaches in the management of their water resources, including the establishment of a river basin council. In Malaysia, there is little or no stakeholder involvement in the Muda River Basin, and the water resource management is not holistic and is not integrated as it should be. Besides that, there is little or no Integrated Resources Water Management, a pre-requisite for sustainable water resources. The results from this comparative study concluded that full support and participation from public stakeholders (meaning the non-government and non-private sector stakeholders is vital for achieving sustainable water use in the Muda River Basin. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM approaches such as the introduction of payments for ecosystems services and the development of river basin organization in the Muda River Basin should take place in the spirit of political willingness.

  9. Natural Gas Exploration and Supply in India and the Prospects of a Bangladesh-to-India Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Mamunur [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)


    Energy consumption in India is growing very rapidly. India.s own existing as well as any new discoveries of natural gas revenues may meet only a fraction of its growing demand for energy. Hence, it will become more dependent on the global market for the supply of gas. But it is always difficult for different nations to reach a bilateral agreement on joint projects such as gas pipelines. India has been importing natural gas mostly in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). But for the last two decades, it has shown an increasing interest in importing gas from international market by a pipeline. For example, it has planned to import natural gas from Iran, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Turkmenistan via a pipeline. But India.s best option is to purchase gas from its neighbor Bangladesh via a pipeline. Union Oil of California (Unocal), a large investor in Bangladeshi gas, has proposed to build a pipeline, to sell the gas from its Bibiyana field. A Bangladesh-India pipeline potentially offers several socio-economic benefits. But the project, however, so far has made a little progress. Political issues attached to the project. If the Bangladeshi pipeline plan fails, India will turn other alternative options to meet its gas demand. India already has entered into agreement with International consortiums for LNG purchase. Furthermore, the country is also keen on increasing its effort to develop non-conventional sources in the near future. If these alternatives become viable, India.s demand for and dependence on foreign natural gas will decrease and natural gas (of Bangladesh, for example) might lose some of its value. Keywords: Natural gas exploration and supply in India and Bangladesh, Bangladesh-to-India pipeline, Unocal, natural gas import, market, politics, LNG, non-conventional hydrocarbon sources.

  10. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  11. Modelling of SH- and P-SV-wave fields and seismic microzonation based on response spectra for Talchir basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, W.K.; Yanger Walling, M.; Vaccari, F.; Tripathy, T.; Panza, G.F.


    The P-SV- and SH-wave field in the Talchir basin is simulated along eight profiles: four profiles strike across the basin and the other four are along the basin. The hybrid method, which combines two computational techniques, modal Summation and finite differences, is used to produce multiphase synthetic seismograms. An M = 6 earthquake is considered, with hypocenter along the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF) at a depth of 5 km and with the focal mechanisms parameters: dip = 90 deg., strike = 160 deg. and rake = 180 deg. The peak acceleration (AMAX) along each profile is determined considering the maximum acceleration obtained at the horizontal components. The response spectra ratio (RSR) as a function of frequency is computed for the eight profiles and the higher amplification is seen to increase in correspondence with the thicker sedimentary cover, especially for the radial component. Higher site amplification for all the profiles is observed in the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.4 Hz. To validate the obtained site-effects, the sources, for the profiles across the basin, are placed near to the southern end of the profile and the site amplifications are recomputed. Even if the spatial distribution of AMAX is mainly controlled by the epicentral distance, i.e. the geometrical spreading prevails on local soil effects, the RSR shows a pattern that can be easily correlated with the local site conditions. The RSR at the intersection of the profiles is dependent not only upon the local lithology and sediment thickness but also upon the epicentral distance. The Talchir basin is classified into three zones based on the RSR values: low RSR zone (1.0 - 1.9), intermediate RSR zone (2.0 - 2.8) and high RSR zone (2.9 - 5.2). The PGA estimated for the bedrock model by Bhatia et al. (1999) for the study region is around 0.05 to 0.10 g while the Indian seismic zonation map estimated it to be in the range from 0.1 to 0.2g. In the present study, that considers the effects of

  12. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha


    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  13. Nuclear policy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, B.M.


    Changes in India's nuclear policy from time to time are discussed. Though firmly wedded to the principle of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, India did not sign in 1965 the NPT as it discriminated between nuclear weapons powers and non-nuclear weapon powers as regards the safeguards. India wanted to keep open the option of conducting peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs). In May 1974, India did conduct a PNE which, however, resulted into the stoppage of Canadian aid for India's nuclear power programme and created difficulties in obtaining enriched uranium for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station from the U.S.. The new Indian Government formed after the March 1977 general electtions has endorsed the earlier government's policy of opposing manufacture of nuclear weapons and has gone a step further by declearing 'If it (PNE) not necessary it should never be done'. (M.G.B.)

  14. [History of acupuncture in India]. (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    India and China are both featured with ancient civilization. During the communication between the two countries, the communication from Indian culture, especially Buddhism, to China was predominant, while communication from Chinese culture to India was rare. So it was with medical communication until the end of 1950s when acupuncture was introduced to India. In this article, the medical communication between India and China as well as the introduction of acupuncture to India were discussed, and the resulting phenomenon was analyzed. The introduction of acupuncture to India proved personnel exchange was not necessary to acupuncture communication, and several invisible factors, such as language, religion and culture tradition might be the reasons for foreign nations to accept acupuncture. Therefore, these factors should be valued in the future international communication of acupuncture.

  15. India's nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Raju G.C.; Gupta, Amit


    The nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests conducted by India and Pakistan in the late 1990s substantially altered the security environment, both in the region and globally. Examining the complexities, and dynamics of this new strategic context, this timely and significant book examines the claim of many Indian strategists that stability in the region is better served under conditions of declared-rather than covertly developed-nuclear weapons. Bringing together original essays by a diverse group of scholars, this volume discusses a number of important issues such as: the political considerations that caused India and Pakistan to go nuclear; the type of nuclear doctrine that is likely to emerge and its implications for the safety of nuclear weapons, the potential for an arms race in the region, and the likelihood of war; the political and economic consequences for India after Pokhran-II and the impact of economic sanctions; the technological ramifications of the nuclear program on India's defence science scenario; the impact of these tests on the future of India's relationship with the United States, the main bulwark against nuclear weapons proliferation, also, the changed role that India sees for itself in international fora; the possible arms control measures that might succeed in stabilizing the South Asian nuclear rivalry. This insightful, comprehensive and topical volume is a must-read for all those in the fields of political science, international relations, strategic affairs, conflict/peace studies, economics, and policy studies

  16. India's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    India made an early commitment to being as self-sufficient as possible in nuclear energy and has largely achieved that goal. The country operates eight nuclear reactors with a total capacity of 1,304 MWe, and it remains committed to an aggressive growth plan for its nuclear industry, with six reactors currently under construction, and as many as twelve more planned. India also operates several heavy water production facilities, fabrication facilities, reprocessing works, and uranium mines and mills. Due to India's decision not to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the country has had to develop nearly all of its nuclear industry and infrastructure domestically. Overall, India's nuclear power program is self-contained and well integrated, with plans to expand to provide up to ten percent of the country's electrical generating capacity

  17. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.


    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  18. Breaking the Logic of Groundwater-Led Agrarian Change in India (United States)

    Siegfried, T.


    for the investigation of the trajectories of agrarian change is to properly account for social and natural system dynamics. For this purpose, an integrated, hierarchical computational modeling framework will be presented. More precisely, the agent-based allocation, production and trade model allows studying incomplete markets with few participants and limited information environments. It will help to identify mixed allocation baskets at different spatial scales. These baskets may consist to a variable degree of the allocation of renewable runoff, the development of renewable and non-renewable storage (e.g. rainwater harvesting, artificial groundwater recharge, surface reservoir, and fossil groundwater), investment in alternative sources (desalinization, wastewater reuse, inter-basin water transfer, etc.) and int. commodity trade so as to increase system resilience of economic activity. With such model, local and regional policy interventions (such as cap and trade, differential pricing, etc.) can be tested and consequently ranked based on benchmarks of observable outcomes. These benchmarks include sustainability, Pareto optimality, equitability and the exposure to production risk. Case studies from the Gangetic Plain in Northern India will be presented.

  19. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.


    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  1. Energy in India's Future: Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Boillot, Jean-Joseph; Autheman, Nicolas; Ruet, Joel; Siddiqui, Zakaria; Zaleski, C. Pierre; Cruciani, Michel


    In the decades following India's independence from British rule in 1947, the West's image of India was summarized in three simple cliches: the world's largest democracy, an impoverished continent, and economic growth hampered by a fussy bureaucracy and the caste system, all in a context of a particular religion. These cliches are perhaps one of the reasons that the success of India's green revolution was recognized so late, a revolution that allowed the country to develop its agricultural sector and to feed its population. Since the 1990's, the easing of planning constraints have liberated the Indian economy and allowed it to embark on a more significant path of growth. New cliches have begun to replace the old: India will become a second China and, lagging by 10 to 20 years, will follow the same trajectory, with its development marked more by services and the use of renewable energy. However, these trends will not prevent primary energy demand from exploding. On the contrary, India faces difficult choices on how it increases clean, secure, affordable energy to all its citizens. Many of the choices are the same as found elsewhere, but on a scale matched only by China. The IFRI European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Project intends this study to deepen public understanding of the magnitude of India's challenges. Various aspects of the serious energy problems are studied throughout this monograph. The authors have written freely on these matters without attempting to reconcile their different viewpoints. The first chapter, by Maite Jaureguy-Naudin and Jacques Lesourne, presents an overview of India's present and future energy system. The authors follow a prudent but realistic view of India's future. The second chapter, by Jean-Joseph Boillot, a French expert on India who has published several books and articles on this subject, and Nicolas Autheman, research fellow, describes in greater detail the specifics of India's economy and the actors who are now present

  2. Technical vocational education in India


    溝上, 智恵子


    In India, several efforts have been made for the development of skilled manpower during the last twenty years since the launch of formal technical vocational education at school. A huge education infrastructure has developed in India. However, 45~50 percent of the population of India is still illiterate. To solve the mismatch between education and employment, a revolution in education is really needed. Additionally, there is a need for a system of National Vocational Qualifications in India a...

  3. On the theoretical aspects of improved fog detection and prediction in India (United States)

    Dey, Sagnik


    The polluted Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in northern India experiences fog (a condition when visibility degrades below 1 km) every winter (Dec-Jan) causing a massive loss of economy and even loss of life due to accidents. This can be minimized by improved fog detection (especially at night) and forecasting so that activities can be reorganized accordingly. Satellites detect fog at night by a positive brightness temperature difference (BTD). However, fixing the right BTD threshold holds the key to accuracy. Here I demonstrate the sensitivity of BTD in response to changes in fog and surface emissivity and their temperatures and justify a new BTD threshold. Further I quantify the dependence of critical fog droplet number concentration, NF (i.e. minimum fog concentration required to degrade visibility below 1 km) on liquid water content (LWC). NF decreases exponentially with an increase in LWC from 0.01 to 1 g/m3, beyond which it stabilizes. A 10 times low bias in simulated LWC below 1 g/m3 would require 107 times higher aerosol concentration to form the required number of fog droplets. These results provide the theoretical aspects that will help improving the existing fog detection algorithm and fog forecasting by numerical models in India.

  4. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India). (United States)

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is…

  5. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.


    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  6. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.


    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  7. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom (United States)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph


    The Vøring and the Faroe-Shetland basins are offshore deep sedimentary basins which are situated on the outer continental margin of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Both basins are underlain by thinned continental crust whose structure is still debated. In particular the nature of the lower continental crust and the origin of high velocity bodies located at the base of the lower crust are a subject of discussion in recent literature. Regional interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, combined with well data, suggest that both basins share several common features: (i) Pre-Cretaceous faults that are distributed across the entire basin width. (ii) Geometries of pre-Jurassic strata reflecting at least two extensional phases. (iii) Three common rift phases, Late Jurassic, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. (iv) Large pre-Cretaceous fault blocks that are buried by several kilometres of Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. (iii). (v) Latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene inversion. (vi) Occurrence of partial mantle serpentinization during Early Cretaceous times, as proposed by other studies, seems improbable. The detailed analysis of the data, however, revealed significant differences between the two basins: (i) The Faroe-Shetland Basin was a fault-controlled basin during the Late Jurassic but also the Late Cretaceous extensional phase. In contrast, the Vøring Basin is dominated by the late Jurassic rifting and subsequent thermal subsidence. It exhibits only minor Late Cretaceous faults that are localised above intra-basinal and marginal highs. In addition, the Cretaceous strata in the Vøring Basin are folded. (ii) In the Vøring Basin, the locus of Late Cretaceous rifting shifted westwards, affecting mainly the western basin margin, whereas in the Faroe-Shetland Basin Late Cretaceous rifting was localised in the same area as the Late Jurassic phase, hence masking the original Jurassic geometries. (iii) Devono-Carboniferous and Aptian/Albian to Cenomanian rift phases

  8. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui


    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  9. Perturbations in the initial soil moisture conditions: Impacts on hydrologic simulation in a large river basin (United States)

    Niroula, Sundar; Halder, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Subimal


    Real time hydrologic forecasting requires near accurate initial condition of soil moisture; however, continuous monitoring of soil moisture is not operational in many regions, such as, in Ganga basin, extended in Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Here, we examine the impacts of perturbation/error in the initial soil moisture conditions on simulated soil moisture and streamflow in Ganga basin and its propagation, during the summer monsoon season (June to September). This provides information regarding the required minimum duration of model simulation for attaining the model stability. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity model for hydrological simulations after validation. Multiple hydrologic simulations are performed, each of 21 days, initialized on every 5th day of the monsoon season for deficit, surplus and normal monsoon years. Each of these simulations is performed with the initial soil moisture condition obtained from long term runs along with positive and negative perturbations. The time required for the convergence of initial errors is obtained for all the cases. We find a quick convergence for the year with high rainfall as well as for the wet spells within a season. We further find high spatial variations in the time required for convergence; the region with high precipitation such as Lower Ganga basin attains convergence at a faster rate. Furthermore, deeper soil layers need more time for convergence. Our analysis is the first attempt on understanding the sensitivity of hydrological simulations of Ganga basin on initial soil moisture conditions. The results obtained here may be useful in understanding the spin-up requirements for operational hydrologic forecasts.

  10. Heat flow, deep formation temperature and thermal structure of the Tarim Basin, northwest China (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Li, Xianglan


    depth are the favorable conditions for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. As far as heat budget of the Tarim Basin is concerned, the radiogenic heat from the sedimentary cover accounts only for 20 percent of the surface heat flow (~9 mW/m2), while the mantle heat flow is estimated to be low as 6~15 mW/m2; this indicates the dominant contribution of crustal radiogenic heat to the observed heat flow. Any variations in surface heat flow for the Tarim Basin can be due only to changes in crustal heat production. Thermal contrast between the Tarim Basin and Tibet Plateau, represented by a difference in surface heat flow and deep crustal temperature, is remarkable. This inherited thermal contrast can be traced as far as before the India-Asia collision. Moreover, the lithosphere beneath the Tarim Basin is sufficiently strong to resist the gravitational potential energy difference and tectonic forces from Tibet. The observed thermal and rheological contrast accounts for the differential Cenozoic deformation in the Tarim Basin and adjacent areas.

  11. Multi-proxy evidence for compositional change of organic matter in the largest tropical (peninsular) river basin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Ying Wu; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, G.

    and concentrations of lignin phenols were analyzed in total suspended matter (TSM), sediments, agriculture soils and plants from Godavari basin. The results indicated that the upper tributaries drained heavier carbon (δ13Corg = −20.4 ± 2.2‰) than the lower...

  12. India: nuclear policy, opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaddevolu Balaji Nagendra Kumar


    From the policy point of view, India nuclear scenario can be classified into three phases. During the first phase lasting between 1947 (the time of India independence) and 1974 (when India conducted the first nuclear test), India emphasized the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Many developed countries including the countries of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) including the USA, the Canada and France apart from the erstwhile USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) cooperated with India in the construction of Nuclear power reactors, supply of Fuel and providing technical knowledge. This cooperation lasted for about 27 years from 1947 and 1974. During the second phase lasting between 1974 (the time when India conducted the first nuclear test for military purpose) and 2008 (when Indian Parliament ratified the Indo-US Nuclear Deal), India refused to sign the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty) and reserved the right to use nuclear energy for military purpose. Indian insecurity was due to the presence of China - a nuclear power in the neighbourhood, the high probability of Pakistan - another neighbour Becoming the nuclear power and the unwillingness of the major nuclear powers : viz : the USA and USSR to provide a nuclear umbrella to India. The phase was marked by nuclear sanctions imposed against India by the US and the non cooperation from the nuclear powers in building nuclear power reactors and dissemination of technical knowledge. The phase did however lead to India efforts towards self reliance in nuclear technology and the advancement of knowledge leading to the construction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactors) and the possibility of fructifying the Thorium based reactors. The third and present phase from the year 2008 when Indian Parliament ratified the Indo-US Nuclear deal symbolizes the recognition of India's Scientific and technological Prowess by major nuclear powers, the benefits of India knowledge to the world and realization of the fact that

  13. Western Continental Margin of India - Re-look using potential field data (United States)

    Rajaram, M.; S P, A.


    The Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) evolved as a result of rifting between India and Madagascar that took place during mid Cretaceous (~88Ma).The WCMI is equally important in terms of natural resources as well as research point of view. The major tectonic elements in the western offshore includes the Laxmi and Chagos- Laccadive ridge dividing the WCMI and the adjoining Arabian sea into two basins, Pratap Ridge, Alleppey platform etc. Different theories have been proposed for the evolution of each of these tectonic elements. In the current paper we look at geopotential data on the west coast of India and the western off-shore. The data sets utilized include Satellite derived High Resolution Free Air Gravity data over the off-shore, Bouguer data onland, Champ Satellite Magnetic data, published Marine Magnetic data collected by ONGC, NIO, ground magnetic data over west cost collected by IIG and available aeromagnetic data. From the free air gravity anomaly the structural details of the western offshore can be delineated. The Euler depths of FAG depict deep solutions associated with Pratap Ridge, Comorin Ridge, the west coast fault and the Laxmi Ridge. These may be associated with continental margin and continental fragments. From the aeromagnetic and marine magnetic data it is evident that the West Coast Fault is dissected at several places. The shallow circular feature associated with Bombay High is evident both on the FAG and the analytic signal derived from satellite Magnetic data. The crustal magnetic thickness from MF5 lithospheric model of the Champ appears to suggest that the continental crust extends up to the Chagos- Laccadive ridge. Based on the analysis of these geopotential data sets the various theories for the evolution of the WCMI will be evaluated and these results will be presented.

  14. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  15. Venereology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Mohan Thappa


    Full Text Available Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease, control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective.

  16. Re-Linking Governance of Energy with Livelihoods and Irrigation in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Buechler


    Full Text Available Hydropower is often termed “green energy” and proffered as an alternative to polluting coal-generated electricity for burgeoning cities and energy-insecure rural areas. India is the third largest coal producer in the world; it is projected to be the largest coal consumer by 2050. In the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, India, over 450 hydroelectric power schemes are proposed or are under development. Hydropower projects ranging from micro hydro (run-of-the-river systems with generating capacity up to 100 kW to large reservoirs (storage systems up to 2000 MW such as the Tehri Dam are in various stages of planning, construction or implementation. Run-of-the-river hydropower projects are being developed in Uttarakhand in order to avoid some of the costs to local communities created by large dams. Stakeholders in this rapid hydropower expansion include multiple actors with often diverging sets of interests. The resulting governance challenges are centered on tradeoffs between local electricity and revenue from the sale of hydropower, on the one hand, and the impacts on small-scale irrigation systems, riparian-corridor ecosystem services, and other natural resource-based livelihoods, on the other. We focus on the Bhilangana river basin, where water dependent livelihoods differentiated by gender include farming, fishing, livestock rearing and fodder collection. We examine the contradictions inherent in hydropower governance based on the interests of local residents and other stakeholders including hydropower developers, urban and other regional electricity users, and state-level policymakers. We use a social justice approach applied to hydropower projects to examine some of the negative impacts, especially by location and gender, of these projects on local communities and then identify strategies that can safeguard or enhance livelihoods of women, youth, and men in areas with hydropower projects, while also maintaining critical ecosystem services

  17. History of Nuclear India (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram


    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  18. Current strain accumulation in the hinterland of the northwest Himalaya constrained by landscape analyses, basin-wide denudation rates, and low temperature thermochronology (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kohn, Barry; Codilean, Alexandru; Fülöp, Réka-H.; Ahmad, Talat


    Rupture associated with the 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake highlighted our incomplete understanding of the structural architecture and seismic cycle processes that lead to Himalayan mountain building in Central Nepal. In this paper we investigate the style and kinematics of active mountain building in the Himalayan hinterland of Northwest India, approximately 400 km to the west of the hypocenter of the Nepal earthquake, via a combination of landscape metrics and long- (Ma) and short-term (ka) erosion rate estimates (from low temperature thermochronometry and basin-wide denudation rate estimates from 10Be concentrations). We focus our analysis on the area straddling the PT2, the physiographic transition between the Lesser and High Himalaya that has yielded important insights into the nature of hinterland deformation across much of the Himalaya. Our results from Northwest India reveal a distinctive PT2 that separates a Lesser Himalaya region with moderate relief (∼1000 m) and relatively slow erosion (400 km distance between them, similar spatiotemporal patterns of erosion and deformation observed in Northwest India and Central Nepal suggest both regions experience similar styles of active strain accumulation and both are susceptible to large seismic events.

  19. Renewable Energy Education in India (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman


    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  20. Problem Etnisitas India Dalam Cerita Pendek Malaysia


    M. Shoim Anwar


    Karya sastra adalah dokumen kemanusiaan dan kebudayaan. Kumpulan cerita pendek Menara 7 (1998), terutama enam cerpen yang ditulis oleh pengarang Malaysia beretnis India, memberi gambaran problem kehidupan etnis India di Malaysia. Dengan meminjam teori etnisitas sebagai landasan, tulisan ini bertujuan mengungkap problem etnisitas India di Malaysia. Problem etnis India terkait dengan kemiskinan, pendidikan, gender, religi, budaya, dan persatuan. Keberadaan etnis India di Malaysia secara histori...

  1. Preliminary observations from the 3 January 2017, MW 5.6 Manu, Tripura (India) earthquake (United States)

    Debbarma, Jimmi; Martin, Stacey S.; Suresh, G.; Ahsan, Aktarul; Gahalaut, Vineet K.


    On 3 January 2017, a MW 5.6 earthquake occurred in Dhalai district in Tripura (India), at 14:39:03 IST (09:09:03 UTC) with an epicentre at 24.018°N ± 4.9 km and 91.964°E ± 4.4 km, and a focal depth of 31 ± 6.0 km. The focal mechanism solution determined after evaluating data from seismological observatories in India indicated a predominantly strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping plane. The estimated focal depth and focal mechanism solution places this earthquake in the Indian plate that lies beneath the overlying Indo-Burmese wedge. As in the 2016 Manipur earthquake, a strong motion record from Shillong, India, appears to suggest site amplification possibly due to topographic effects. In the epicentral region in Tripura, damage assessed from a field survey and from media reports indicated that the macroseismic intensity approached 6-7 EMS with damage also reported in adjacent parts of Bangladesh. A striking feature of this earthquake were the numerous reports of liquefaction that were forthcoming from fluvial locales in the epicentral region in Tripura, and at anomalous distances farther north in Bangladesh. The occurrence of the 2017 Manu earthquake emphasises the hazard posed by intraplate earthquakes in Tripura and in the neighbouring Bengal basin region where records of past earthquakes are scanty or vague, and where the presence of unconsolidated deltaic sediments and poor implementation of building codes pose a significant societal and economic threat during larger earthquakes in the future.

  2. Framework for a National STEMI Program: Consensus document developed by STEMI INDIA, Cardiological Society of India and Association Physicians of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander


    Full Text Available The health care burden of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in India is enormous. Yet, many patients with STEMI can seldom avail timely and evidence based reperfusion treatments. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure, poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of the population. Addressing some of these issues, STEMI India, a not-for-profit organization, Cardiological Society of India (CSI and Association Physicians of India (API have developed a protocol of “systems of care” for efficient management of STEMI, with integrated networks of facilities. Leveraging newly-developed ambulance and emergency medical services, incorporating recent state insurance schemes for vulnerable populations to broaden access, and combining innovative, “state-of-the-art” information technology platforms with existing hospital infrastructure, are the crucial aspects of this system. A pilot program was successfully employed in the state of Tamilnadu. The purpose of this article is to describe the framework and methods associated with this programme with an aim to improve delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in India. This programme can serve as model STEMI systems of care for other low-and-middle income countries.

  3. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye


    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  4. AIDS in India. (United States)

    Shreedhar, J


    A major HIV epidemic is underway in India, home to 900 million people and the world's second largest population. The director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research expects India by the year 2000 to be the country with the largest number of HIV infections, with some experts predicting 5 million people to be infected with HIV in India by the year 2000. Others predict 30-55 million to be infected. Although HIV is increasingly spreading to typically low-risk group populations, it is the female sex workers and their clients, long distance truck drivers, men who have sex with men, blood transfusion donors and recipients, and IV drug users throughout the country who are both the reservoirs of HIV and vectors of transmission to the general population. For example, 52% of sex workers in Bombay in 1994 were found to be infected with HIV. Studies indicate that India's long-distance truck drivers average 200 sexual encounters per year; at any given time, 70% of them have STDs. Preliminary surveys estimate that almost 33% are infected with HIV. HIV seroprevalence among truckers in Madras requesting HIV testing because they have STDs increased from almost 60% in 1993 to 91% in 1995. Moreover, the illegal status of homosexuality in India has created an underground culture in which HIV and STDs are rampant; one 1995 study in the Sangli district of Maharashtra found 50% of men who have sex with men to be infected with HIV. Half of India's blood for transfusion is drawn from commercial donors. A Bombay study, however, found 86% of such donors screened in 1992 to be HIV-seropositive and not all blood banks comply with mandatory screening laws. As widespread HIV infection evolves into a multitude of AIDS cases, India's health care system and economy will be heavily taxed, and the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases greatly increased. More than half the population carries the TB bacillus. The government by 1992 had drafted a national prevention and control plan and formed the

  5. Geochemical characterization of the siliciclastic rocks of Chitravati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The high ICV value (~1) reflects that the sediments were. 316. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 ..... mineralogical changes in Holocene soil and stream sediment: a case study in the Wet. 536 ..... Geological mapping of the Gandikota hill range in Cuddapah. 640.

  6. Geochemical characterization of the siliciclastic rocks of Chitravati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Somasekhar


    May 23, 2018 ... Chitravati Group of Cuddapah Supergroup to decipher the provenance and depositional environment. Both the units ... Based on major element geochemical classification diagram, Pulivendla Quartzite .... The youngest age limit of the Nallamalai ...... eastern Oregon and western Idaho, USA: Implications for.

  7. Representing Farmer Irrigation Decisions in Northern India: Model Development from the Bottom Up. (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.


    The plains of northern India are among the most intensely populated and irrigated regions of the world. Sustaining water demand has been made possible by exploiting the vast and hugely productive aquifers underlying the Indo-Gangetic basin. However, an increasing demand from a growing population and highly variable socio-economic and environmental variables mean present resources may not be sustainable, resulting in water security becoming one of India's biggest challenges. Unless solutions which take into consideration the regions evolving anthropogenic and environmental conditions are found, the sustainability of India's water resources looks bleak. Understanding water user decisions and their potential outcome is important for development of suitable water resource management options. Computational models are commonly used to assist water use decision making, typically representing natural processes well. The inclusion of human decision making however, one of the dominant drivers of change, has lagged behind. Improved representation of irrigation water user behaviour within models provides more accurate, relevant information for irrigation management. This research conceptualizes and proceduralizes observed farmer irrigation practices, highlighting feedbacks between the environment and livelihood. It is developed using a bottom up approach, informed through field experience and stakeholder interaction in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. Real world insights are incorporated through collected information creating a realistic representation of field conditions, providing a useful tool for policy analysis and water management. The modelling framework is applied to four districts. Results suggest predicted future climate will have little direct impact on water resources, crop yields or farmer income. In addition, increased abstraction may be sustainable in some areas under carefully managed conditions. By simulating dynamic decision making, feedbacks and interactions

  8. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins (United States)

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.


    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  9. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de


    A 3-D basin model of the Paris basin is presented in order to simulate through geological times fluid, heat and solute fluxes. This study emphasizes: i) the contribution of basin models to the quantitative hydrodynamic understanding of behaviour of the basin over geological times; ii) the additional use of Atmospheric General Circulation model (AGCM) to provide palaeo-climatic boundaries for a coupled flow and mass transfer modelling, constrained by geochemical and isotopic tracers and; iii) the integration of different types of data (qualitative and quantitative) to better constrain the simulations. Firstly, in a genetic way, basin model is used to reproduce geological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the course of the 248 My evolution of the Paris basin that ought to explain the present-day hydraulic properties at the regional scale. As basin codes try to reproduce some of these phenomena, they should be able to give a plausible idea of the regional-scale permeability distribution of the multi-layered system, of the pre-industrial hydrodynamic conditions within the aquifers and of the diagenesis timing and type of hydrodynamic processes involved. Secondly, climate records archived in the Paris basin groundwater suggest that climate and morphological features have an impact on the hydrogeological processes, particularly during the last 5 My. An Atmospheric General Circulation model is used with a refined spatial resolution centred on the Paris basin to reproduce the climate for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky) and the middle Pliocene (3 My). These climates will be prescribed, through forcing functions to the hydrological code with the main objective of understanding the way aquifers and aquitards react under different climate conditions, the period and the duration of these effects. Finally, the Paris basin has been studied for a number of years by different scientific communities, thus a large amount of data has been collected. By

  10. Followings of nuclear cooperation with India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahla, Nasr


    This article speaks about the agreements of nuclear cooperation between India and USA,France and Russia. The Nuclear Suppliers Group,NSG, opened the door to the civil nuclear commercial with India, with the support of Canada, after 35 years of forbidden. The responsibility of NSG and any country enters in new arrangements for nuclear civil cooperation with India to assure the action of India towards its commitments to support world efforts for non-nuclear proliferation

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India. Financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Nilsson Axberg, Goeran; Goel, Nitu; Kumar, Atul; Lazarus, Michael; Ostwald, Madelene; Polycarp, Clifford; Tollefsen, Petter; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Upadhyaya, Prabhat; Zetterberg, Lars


    This report illuminates potential areas for collaboration between the EU and India on actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in India. If human-induced climate change is to have any hope of being limited to 2 degrees, it is essential that ways are found to address rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions in India, as elsewhere. This is a challenging proposition: even though India's per capita emissions are very low, her 1.15 billion people are collectively a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This fact, coupled with the immediate task of tackling widespread poverty, means that the international community must play a major role in providing financial and technological resources to support India's domestic efforts. As India's 2008 National Action Plan on Climate Change recognises, tackling the country's greenhouse gas emissions means not least finding ways to transform a rapidly growing energy sector. International financial mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Global Environment Facility have been unable to deliver the scale of transformative change needed to shift India's emissions trajectory. While the Indian government has already initiated some ambitious policy measures - particularly pertaining to solar energy and energy efficiency- the effectiveness of international finance mechanisms and other forms of international partnership will be crucial in determining the success of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. The EU India Summit is held a month before COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen. While this provides challenges in terms of seeking concrete agreements on questions of finance, it is also an important opportunity to devise complementary efforts outside the UNFCCC process. Genuine, productive collaboration could not only be used to foster the sorts of transformative changes that are needed in India's growing economy but could also create a spirit of cooperation that spills over into UNFCCC

  12. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang


    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  13. Spatiotemporal Drought Analysis and Drought Indices Comparison in India (United States)

    Janardhanan, A.


    Droughts and floods are an ever-occurring phenomenon that has been wreaking havoc on humans since the start of time. As droughts are on a very large scale, studying them within a regional context can minimize confounding factors such as climate change. Droughts and floods are extremely erratic and very difficult to predict and therefore necessitate modeling through advanced statistics. The SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) and the SPEI (Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) are two ways to temporally model drought and flood patterns across each metrological sub basin in India over a variety of different time scales. SPI only accounts for precipitation values, while the SPEI accounts for both precipitation and temperature and is commonly regarded as a more reliable drought index. Using monthly rainfall and temperature data from 1871-2016, these two indices were calculated. The results depict the drought and flood severity index, length of drought, and average SPI or SPEI value for each meteorological sub region in India. A Wilcox Ranksum test was then conducted to determine whether these two indices differed over the long term for drought analysis. The drought return periods were analyzed to determine if the population mean differed between the SPI and SPEI values. Our analysis found no statistical difference between SPI and SPEI with regards to long-term drought analysis. This indicates that temperature is not needed when modeling drought on a long-term time scale and that SPI is just as effective as SPEI, which has the potential to save a lot of time and resources on calculating drought indices.

  14. India-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A


    The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear...

  15. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean- New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Chaubey, A.K.; Mishra, A.; Kumar, S.; Rajawat, A.S.

    due to rifting between Seychelles and Laxmi Ridge-India and subsequent sea- floor spreading along paleo-Carlsberg Ridge since the Paleocene (magnetic Chron 28n, �63 Ma). The evolution of these two large conjugate ocean basins (Fig. 2) was dominated... by two major geo- Indian Ocean (Morgan, 1981; Duncan and Hargr the Indian plate moved over it. These tectonic e found impact on both the evolving conjugate o result, structural and tectonic elements of the ba Earlier studies suggest that oceanic...

  16. Emplacement of pillow lavas from the ~ 2.8 Ga Chitradurga Greenstone Belt, South India: A physical volcanological, morphometric and geochemical perspective (United States)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Inamdar, Mustaqueem M.; Shaikh, Tahira N.


    The physical volcanology and morphometric analyses of pillowed lava flows from the Chitradurga basin of Chitradurga Greenstone Belt, South India have been undertaken. In the Chitradurga hills individual pillowed flows alternate with massive submarine sheet flows. The pillows from such flows are separated by chert and occur as spheroidal, elongated or reniform units that are devoid of vesicles, vesicle bands or pipe vesicles. The Mardihalli flow is exposed as a small elongated mound in the basin and consists of a massive core that is draped by pillows along the flow crest and flanks. The pillows from Mardihalli occur as spheroidal to elongate units with smooth, spalled or wrinkled surfaces with vesicular interiors. Repeated budding of larger pillows have produced a series of interconnected pillow units indicating fluid lava that was emplaced on steeply dipping flanks. Based on the morphological features the pillowed flows from the Chitradurga basin were emplaced at low effusion rates (≤ 5 m3/s). Pillows in these flows formed from low viscosity lavas that underwent negligible to moderate inflation due to rapid chilling. Sporadic occurrences of pillow breccias, hyaloclastite and chert breccias in the pillowed flow fields indicate disruption of pillows due to lava surges and slumping. It is envisaged that the Chitradurga basin witnessed distinct episodes of submarine tholeiite eruptions that produced pillowed lavas that variably interacted with sea water to produce geochemistries. The field and stratigraphic relationships of the volcanics and associated clastic sediments suggest that the pillow lavas were emplaced in a shallow marine marginal inter/back arc basin.

  17. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  18. Overview of ENSDF activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Gopal


    The importance of the evaluation of nuclear structure and decay data has been emphasized in this presentation. Some of the details of the ENSDF evaluation have been discussed. India has been included as one of the centres of NSDD network and several evaluators from India have contributed significantly to the ENSDF evaluation. The interest of the researchers from India in the nuclear structure data evaluation include the mass chain evaluations, decay data evaluation, horizontal evaluation as well as specific measurements related to important nuclear data. There have been several significant contributions in these fields from India. The interest in the ENSDF evaluation and measurements among the nuclear physicists in India is growing. (author)

  19. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  20. U.S.-India safeguards dispute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.


    The current U.S.-India dispute over nuclear safeguards is likely to be the single most important test of the Carter administration's anti-proliferation policies. The Carter administration wants India to accept comprehensive safeguards that would bar further production of nuclear explosives. The Desai government wants to maintain unsafeguarded facilities, in effect keeping the weapons option open. It has been a basic tenet of Indian nuclear policy since the mid-1950s that the big powers must disarm if the small powers are to renounce acquisition of nuclear weapons. As a matter of practical policy, India is willing to forego a nuclear deterrent only if sustained world pressure keeps China's nuclear aspirations in check. As a matter of basic principle, India regards it as unfair and imperialistic that the heavily armed big powers ask for special assurances from the lightly armed small powers. India takes the position that it will cooperate with the United States only voluntarily and only if the nuclear weapon states or at least the superpowers start to clean up their own act. The superpowers must (1) negotiate a comprehensive test ban treaty; (2) accept full-scope safeguards themselves, which would be tantamount to a ban on any further production of weapons-grade materials; and (3) make significant moves toward total nuclear disarmament. The dependence of India on the United States for nuclear supplies is almost negligible. India's major nuclear facilities in operation or under construction include five research reactors, seven power reactors and three reprocessing facilities. Of these 15 facilities, the United States supplied only one (the Tarapur reactor) and 12 of them are not under IAEA safeguards. The United States, in short, is threatening to terminate supplies of low-enriched uranium for just one reactor unless India places these 12 facilities under IAEA safeguards

  1. Intra- and inter-basin mercury comparisons: Importance of basin scale and time-weighted methylmercury estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Button, Daniel T.; Riva-Murray, Karen


    To assess inter-comparability of fluvial mercury (Hg) observations at substantially different scales, Hg concentrations, yields, and bivariate-relations were evaluated at nested-basin locations in the Edisto River, South Carolina and Hudson River, New York. Differences between scales were observed for filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) in the Edisto (attributed to wetland coverage differences) but not in the Hudson. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and bivariate-relationships did not vary substantially with scale in either basin. Combining results of this and a previously published multi-basin study, fish Hg correlated strongly with sampled water FMeHg concentration (ρ = 0.78; p = 0.003) and annual FMeHg basin yield (ρ = 0.66; p = 0.026). Improved correlation (ρ = 0.88; p < 0.0001) was achieved with time-weighted mean annual FMeHg concentrations estimated from basin-specific LOADEST models and daily streamflow. Results suggest reasonable scalability and inter-comparability for different basin sizes if wetland area or related MeHg-source-area metrics are considered. - Highlights: ► National scale mercury assessments integrate small scale study results. ► Basin scale differences and representativeness of fluvial mercury samples are concerns. ► Wetland area, not basin size, predicts inter-basin methylmercury variability. ► Time-weighted methylmercury estimates improve the prediction of mercury in basin fish. - Fluvial methylmercury concentration correlates with wetland area not basin scale and time-weighted estimates better predict basin top predator mercury than discrete sample estimates.

  2. PMP Estimations at Sparsely Controlled Andinian Basins and Climate Change Projections (United States)

    Lagos Zúñiga, M. A.; Vargas, X.


    Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimation implies an extensive review of hydrometeorological data and understandig of precipitation formation processes. There exists different methodology processes that apply for their estimations and all of them require a good spatial and temporal representation of storms. The estimation of hydrometeorological PMP on sparsely controlled basins is a difficult task, specially if the studied area has an important orographic effect due to mountains and the mixed precipitation occurrence in the most several storms time period, the main task of this study is to propose and estimate PMP in a sparsely controlled basin, affected by abrupt topography and mixed hidrology basin; also analyzing statystic uncertainties estimations and possible climate changes effects in its estimation. In this study the PMP estimation under statistical and hydrometeorological aproaches (watershed-based and traditional depth area duration analysis) was done in a semi arid zone at Puclaro dam in north Chile. Due to the lack of good spatial meteorological representation at the study zone, we propose a methodology to consider the orographic effects of Los Andes due to orographic effects patterns based in a RCM PRECIS-DGF and annual isoyetal maps. Estimations were validated with precipitation patterns for given winters, considering snow route and rainfall gauges at the preferencial wind direction, finding good results. The estimations are also compared with the highest areal storms in USA, Australia, India and China and with frequency analysis in local rain gauge stations in order to decide about the most adequate approach for the study zone. Climate change projections were evaluated with ECHAM5 GCM model, due to its good quality representation in the seasonality and the magnitude of meteorological variables. Temperature projections, for 2040-2065 period, show that there would be a rise in the catchment contributing area that would lead to an increase of the

  3. Introducing Waqf Based Takaful Model in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Salman


    Full Text Available Objective – Waqf is a unique feature of the socioeconomic system of Islam in a multi- religious and developing country like India. India is a rich country with waqf assets. The history of waqf in India can be traced back to 800 years ago. Most of the researchers, suggest how waqf can be used a tool to mitigate the poverty of Muslims. India has the third highest Muslim population after Indonesia and Pakistan. However, the majority of Muslims belong to the low income group and they are in need of help. It is believed that waqf can be utilized for the betterment of Indian Muslim community. Among the available uses of waqf assets, the main objective of this paper is to introduce waqf based takaful model in India. In addition, how this proposed model can be adopted in India is highlighted.Methods – Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughlyreviewing the most relevant literature.Result – India as a rich country with waqf assets should fully utilize the resources to help the Muslims through takaful.Conclusion – In this study, we have proposed waqf based takaful model with the combination of the concepts mudarabah and wakalah for India. We recommend this model based on the background of the  country and situations. Since we have not tested the viability of this model in India, future research should be continued on this testing.Keywords : Wakaf, Takaful, Kemiskinan dan India

  4. Monitoring Changes in Croplands Due to Water Stress in the Krishna River Basin Using Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Reddi


    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based assessments of large river basins such as the Krishna, which supplies water to many states in India, are useful for operationally monitoring agriculture, especially basins that are affected by abiotic stress. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series products can be used to understand cropland changes at the basin level due to abiotic stresses, especially water scarcity. Spectral matching techniques were used to identify land use/land cover (LULC areas for two crop years: 2013–2014, which was a normal year, and 2015–2016, which was a water stress year. Water stress-affected crop areas were categorized into three classes—severe, moderate and mild—based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and intensity of damage assessed through field sampling. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived classification individual products. Water inflows into and outflows from the Krishna river basin during the study period were used as direct indicators of water scarcity/availability in the Krishna Basin. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived LULC classification of individual year products. Rainfall data from the tropical rainfall monitoring mission (TRMM was used to support the water stress analysis. The nine LULC classes derived using the MODIS temporal imagery provided overall accuracies of 82% for the cropping year 2013–2014 and 85% for the year 2015–2016. Kappa values are 0.78 for 2013–2014 and 0.82 for 2015–2016. MODIS-derived cropland areas were compared with national statistics for the cropping year 2013–2014 with a R2 value of 0.87. Results show that both rainfed and irrigated areas in 2015–2016 saw significant changes that will have significant impacts on food security. It has been also observed that the farmers in the basin tend to use lower inputs and labour per ha during drought years. Among

  5. Morphodynamics and Sediment connectivity in the Kosi River basin in the Himalaya and their implications for river management (United States)

    Sinha, R.; Mishra, K.; Swrankar, S.; Jain, V.; Nepal, S.; Uddin, K.


    Sediment flux of large tropical rivers is strongly influenced by the degree of linkage between the sediments sources and sink (i.e. sediment connectivity). Sediment connectivity, especially at the catchment scale, depends largely on the morphological characteristics of the catchment such as relief, terrain roughness, slope, elevation, stream network density and catchment shape and the combined effects of land use, particularly vegetation. Understanding the spatial distribution of sediment connectivity and its temporal evolution can be useful for the characterization of sediment source areas. Specifically, these areas represent sites of instability and their connectivity influences the probability of sediment transfer at a local scale that will propagate downstream through a feedback system. This paper evaluates the morphodynamics and sediment connectivity of the Kosi basin in Nepal and India at various spatial and temporal scales. Our results provide the first order assessment of the spatial sediment connectivity in terms of the channel connectivity (IC outlet) and source to channel connectivity (IC channel) of the upstream and midstream Kosi basin. This assessment helped in the characterization of sediment dynamics in the complex morphological settings and in a mixed environment. Further, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to quantify soil erosion and sediment transport capacity equation is used to quantify sediment flux at each cell basis. Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) was calculated for each sub-basin to identify the sediment production and transport capacity limited sub-basin. We have then integrated all results to assess the sediment flux in the Kosi basin in relation to sediment connectivity and the factors controlling the pathways of sediment delivery. Results of this work have significant implications for sediment management of the Kosi river in terms of identification of hotspots of sediment accumulation that will in turn be manifested

  6. The Myths of India. (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.


    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  7. Hinduism and the Culture of India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India). (United States)

    Winikur, Ilene

    This packet contains sixth and seventh grade level interdisciplinary lesson outlines about India. Concepts to be developed include: (1) "Geography and Its Impact upon the Development of India's Different Cultures"; (2) "Religion and Philosophy Focusing on Hinduism and Festivals"; (3) "Literature using the Ramayana and…

  8. Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Implications of Contrasting Trends in the Spatial Variability of Means and Extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subimal Ghosh

    Full Text Available India's agricultural output, economy, and societal well-being are strappingly dependent on the stability of summer monsoon rainfall, its variability and extremes. Spatial aggregate of intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events over Central India are significantly increasing, while at local scale they are spatially non-uniform with increasing spatial variability. The reasons behind such increase in spatial variability of extremes are poorly understood and the trends in mean monsoon rainfall have been greatly overlooked. Here, by using multi-decadal gridded daily rainfall data over entire India, we show that the trend in spatial variability of mean monsoon rainfall is decreasing as exactly opposite to that of extremes. The spatial variability of extremes is attributed to the spatial variability of the convective rainfall component. Contrarily, the decrease in spatial variability of the mean rainfall over India poses a pertinent research question on the applicability of large scale inter-basin water transfer by river inter-linking to address the spatial variability of available water in India. We found a significant decrease in the monsoon rainfall over major water surplus river basins in India. Hydrological simulations using a Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model also revealed that the water yield in surplus river basins is decreasing but it is increasing in deficit basins. These findings contradict the traditional notion of dry areas becoming drier and wet areas becoming wetter in response to climate change in India. This result also calls for a re-evaluation of planning for river inter-linking to supply water from surplus to deficit river basins.

  9. Communication dated 25 July 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of India concerning a document entitled 'Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of July 18, 2005: India's Separation Plan'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 25 July 2008 from the Permanent Mission of India to the Agency, attaching a document entitled 'Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of July 18, 2005: India's Separation Plan'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of India to the Agency, the communication and its attachment are herewith circulated for information

  10. An assessment to prioritise the critical erosion-prone sub-watersheds for soil conservation in the Gumti basin of Tripura, North-East India. (United States)

    Ahmed, Istak; Das Pan, Nibedita; Debnath, Jatan; Bhowmik, Moujuri


    Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river. Thus, the present study is an attempt to prioritize the sub-watersheds of the Gumti basin by estimating soil loss through the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. For that purpose, five parameters of the USLE model were processed, computed and overlaid in a GIS environment. The result shows that potential mean annual soil loss of the Gumti basin ranges between 0.03 and 114.08 t ha -1  year -1 . The resultant values of soil loss were classified into five categories considering the minimum and maximum values. It has been identified that low, moderate, high, very high and severe soil loss categories occupy 68.71, 8.94, 5.86, 5.02 and 11.47% of the basin respectively. Moreover, it has been recognised that sub-watersheds like SW7, SW8, SW12, SW21, SW24 and SW29 fall under very high priority class for which mitigation measures are essential. Therefore, the present study recommends mitigation measures through terrace cultivation, as an alternative of shifting cultivation in the hilly areas and through construction of check dams at the appropriate sites of the erosion prone sub-watersheds. Moreover, proper afforestation programmes that have been implemented successfully in other parts of Tripura through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Joint Forest Management, and National Afforestation Programme should be initiated in the highly erosion-prone areas of the Gumti River basin.

  11. Changes in Water-Food-Energy Nexus in India and its consistency with changes in Monsoon (United States)

    Barik, B.; Ghosh, S.; Pathak, A.


    Meeting the growing demand for food, water, and energy for a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. Green Revolution helped to maintain the food security, with Government policies such as distribution of electricity at a subsidised rate, resulting in an unregulated withdrawal of groundwater. Thus, the depleting groundwater went unnoticed as the high agricultural productivity overshadowed it. Here we present a comprehensive analysis which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India. We find that with the growth of population and consequent increase in the food demands, the food production has also increased, and this has been made possible with the intensification of irrigation. However, during the recent decade (after 1996), the increase in food production has not been sufficient to meet its growing demands, precipitating a decline in the per-capita food availability. Also, there has been a decline in the groundwater storage in India during the last decade, as derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Regional studies reveal contrasting trends, where North-western India and the middle Ganga basin show a decrease in the groundwater storage as opposed to an increasing storage over western-central India. We also find that, after a drought, the groundwater storage drops but is unable to recover to its original condition even after good monsoon years. The groundwater storage reveals a very strong negative correlation with the electricity consumption for agricultural usage, which may also be considered as a proxy for groundwater pumped for irrigation in a region. The electricity usage for agricultural purposes has an increasing trend and, interestingly, it does not have any correlation with the monsoon rainfall. This reveals an important finding that the irrigation has been intensified irrespective of rainfall. This also resulted in a decreasing correlation between the food production and monsoon


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  13. The Hanze-India Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo


    Hanze India connection. Presentatie gehouden op 09-06-2010. Bestaat uit foto's. Op uitnodiging van KPN, sponsor van het lectoraat New Business & ICT, bezocht Hugo Velthuijsen een aantal steden in India. Het doel was om ter plekke een beeld te krijgen van de mogelijkheden van IT en Business

  14. Hydrogeochemistry of the Paravanar River Sub-Basin, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shankar


    Full Text Available To assess the groundwater quality of the Paravanar river basin, groundwater data were collected by conventional methods. Hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater of study area reveals fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. Piper plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the mixed field of Ca-Mg-Cl type. Using GIS mapping technique, major element concentration of groundwater has been interpolated and studied. Groundwater thematic maps on electrical conductivity (EC, hydrogen ion concentration, bicarbonates, chlorides and nitrates were prepared from the groundwater quality data. Different classes in thematic maps were categorized as i good, ii moderate and iii poor with respect to groundwater quality. Northeast and southeast parts of the study area represent the doubtful water class regarding the concentration of EC to represent connate nature of water adjacent to the coast. NNE (North-North-East and southern parts of the study area have pH ranging from 7 to 8 indicating acidic nature as they were from the weathered Cuddalore sandstone. As northern part of the study area is irrigated, fertilizer used for agriculture may be the source for increase in concentration of nitrates. Chloride clusters in the south central part of the study area from coast up to NLC mines and reveals the chloridization of aquifer in 48 years either due to upwelling of connate water from the deeper aquifer as a result of depressurization of Neyveli aquifer for the safe mining of lignite.

  15. Clinical trials in India. (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra


    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  16. Zika virus: Current concerns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.

  17. Challenges in India and Bhutan. (United States)

    Zaman, W


    While India is making overall progress in maternal and child health and reproductive health (MCH/RH), all states are not moving ahead. In fact, it is the states with the larger populations which are lagging behind. Primary education, women's status, and literacy remain problematic. UNFPA has worked in India for a long time, helping to realize the decline in total fertility rate from 6 to 3.5 over the past 20-30 years. India's population, however, is still growing at the annual rate of 1.8%. UNFPA's program in India for the period 1997-2001 will stress women's health as a matter of overall reproductive health, a new approach in India which has long relied upon sterilization. Attention must be given to meeting the needs of the poor in India as the country continues to grow in size and wealth. While Bhutan's estimated population is just over 1 million, the annual population growth rate of 3.1% threatens development over the long term. With a mountainous terrain and a low resource base, Bhutan cannot sustain a high population growth rate. Significant improvements have been made and women's status is good, the infant mortality rate has been reduced, and the health infrastructure is not bad. UNFPA's 5-year program beginning in 1998 will mainly address RH, especially adolescent RH.

  18. Crustal Structure and Evolution of the Eastern Himalayan Plate Boundary System, Northeast India (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Gaur, V. K.


    We use data from 24 broadband seismographs located south of the Eastern Himalayan plate boundary system to investigate the crustal structure beneath Northeast India. P wave receiver function analysis reveals felsic continental crust beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, and mafic thinned passive margin transitional crust (basement layer) beneath the Bengal Basin. Within the continental crust, the central Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have the thinnest crust (30 ± 2 km) with similar velocity structure, suggesting a unified origin and uplift history. North of the plateau and Mikir Hills the crustal thickness increases sharply by 8-10 km and is modeled by ˜30∘ north dipping Moho flexure. South of the plateau, across the ˜1 km topographic relief of the Dawki Fault, the crustal thickness increases abruptly by 12-13 km and is modeled by downfaulting of the plateau crust, overlain by 13-14 km thick sedimentary layer/rocks of the Bengal Basin. Farther south, beneath central Bengal Basin, the basement layer is thinner (20-22 km) and has higher Vs (˜4.1 km s-1) indicating a transitional crystalline crust, overlain by the thickest sedimentary layer/rocks (18-20 km). Our models suggest that the uplift of the Shillong Plateau occurred by thrust faulting on the reactivated Dawki Fault, a continent margin paleorift fault, and subsequent back thrusting on the south dipping Oldham Fault, in response to flexural loading of the Eastern Himalaya. Our estimated Dawki Fault offset combined with timing of surface uplift of the plateau reveals a reasonable match between long-term uplift and convergence rate across the Dawki Fault with present-day GPS velocities.

  19. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA


    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  20. The Atlantic Basin: A New Africa-Americas Oil and Gas Geopolitical Arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin


    The Atlantic Ocean (North and Latin America, Africa and Europe) is bordered by states experiencing a significant change in their relationships regarding hydrocarbons. The rapid development of shale oil and gas in USA allows the country more and more independence from African states in the gulf of Guinea. Some of these producing countries like Nigeria are worried that the special political and security ties with America will turn into a mere trade relationship. Africa's excess oil and gas capacity, no longer sold to USA, is bought by Latin America and Europe (alongside countries such as India). Oil and gas transactions are creating new networks and fresh ties between countries from these zones that previously had to do with each other. From a geological perspective, the Atlantic Ocean is bordered by coastal countries with multiple similarities, and which we will refer to as the Atlantic basin. Millions of years back, they formed one single continent. Oil companies, bearing this geological similarity in mind and profiting from better technology, apply for oil blocks on one side of the Atlantic basin whenever a discovery is made on the opposite side. New relationships are thus flourishing between Latin-American and African states. New players, competing to control new zones, gives rise to a fresh geopolitical situation that we are going to examine in this article

  1. Exploring Emerging India - Eight Essays


    Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, Gisela; Gieg, Philipp; Lowinger, Timo; Gsänger, Matthias; Becker, Michael; Kundu, Amitabh; Valerian, Rodrigues; S, Shaji; Schömbucher-Kusterer, Elisabeth; Biswas, Aparajita


    India's economic rise since the 1990s has been followed by a more prominent global role for the country. Despite economic setbacks in recent years and huge domestic challenges like poverty, caste issues, and gender inequality, India today is almost universally characterised as an “emerging power”. At the same time, the country continues to show an enormous diversity. Thus, exploring emerging India can surely not be confined to economic analysis only. Instead, it is vital to take current devel...

  2. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  3. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA. (United States)

    STYLER, W.E.



    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. N. Narasimhan


    Aug 25, 2009 ... of science, technology, and management will lead the way. • Justifiably so. Alumni of ... INDIA'S WATER CRISIS. • Water availability in India is ... developments stress India's already stressed water systems. • Economy drives ...

  5. Plate-tectonic evolution of the deep ocean basins adjoining the western continental margin of India - A proposed model for the early opening scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Yatheesh, V.

    strength with an apparent breakthrough few years later, when Bhattacharya et al. (1994a) reported the presence of short sequence of two- limbed seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies in the Laxmi Basin sector of the WCMI-ADOB. Subsequently, Malod et... al. (1997) reported the presence of two-limbed seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies in the Gop Basin sector of WCMI-ADOB. In the subsequent years several publications (Reeves and Leven 2001; Chatterjee et al. 2006, 2013; Bastia et al. 2010...

  6. Basins in ARC-continental collisions (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  7. Determinants of Foreign Institutional Investors’ Investment in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjinder KAUR


    Full Text Available The present study aims at exploring the determinants of Foreign Institutional Investors’ (FIIs investment in India. Returns on Indian stock market have positive impact whereas US stock market returns have no significant influence on FIIs investment to India. Stock market risk has negative influence on FIIs inflows to India. Market capitalization and stock market turnover of India have significant positive influence only in short-run. Among macroeconomic determinants, economic growth of India has positive impact on FIIs investment both in long-run and shortrun. But all other macroeconomic factors have significant influence only in long-run like inflation in US has positive influence whereas inflation in India has negative influence on FIIs investment. Further, US interest rate has adverse impact on FIIs investment while liberalization policies of India exhibited significant contribution to FIIs inflows. Study concludes that FIIs inflows in India are determined by both stock market characteristics and macroeconomic factors.

  8. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  9. Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin (Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera) (United States)

    Martínez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Martínez-Moreno, Francisco José; Calvo-Rayo, Raquel; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos


    The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins. The Alhabia basin, situated in the central part of the Internal Zones, is located at the intersection of the Alpujarran Corridor, the Tabernas basin, both trending E-W, and the NW-SE oriented Gádor-Almería basin. The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. The basin is limited to the North by the Sierra de Filabres and Sierra Nevada antiforms that started to develop in Serravallian times under N-S shortening and to the south by Sierra Alhamilla and Sierra de Gádor antiforms. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults. In this setting, NE-SW extension, orthogonal to the shortening direction, was accommodated by normal faults on the SW edge of Sierra Alhamilla. The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection. This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

  10. Soft-sediment deformation structures from an ice-marginal storm-tide interactive system, Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bhattacharya, Biplab


    Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India, records sedimentation during a phase of climatic amelioration in an ice-marginal storm-affected shelf. Evidences of subtidal processes are preserved only under thick mud drapes deposited during waning storm phases. Various soft-sediment deformation structures in some sandstone/siltstone-mudstone interbeds, like syn-sedimentary faults, deformed laminations, sand-silt flows, convolute laminations and various flame structures, suggest liquefaction and fluidization of the beds due to passage of syn-depositional seismic shocks. In the Late Paleozoic ice-marginal shelf, such earthquake tremors could be generated by crustal movements in response to glacioisostatic adjustments of the basin floor.

  11. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail:; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail:


    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  12. India's population in transition. (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P


    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  13. Energy use in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revelle, R


    The methods are described by which human and animal energies have been calculated for India. From an energy standpoint, rural India can be thought of as a partially closed ecosystem in which energy derived by people and animals from the photosynthetic products of plants is used to grow and prepare food for humans which in turn provides an essential energy input to grow more food, resulting in an endless cycle. The ecosystem is being disrupted by rapid population growth in India. The extent of the use of non-commercial fuels in villages and towns was determined by the Energy Survey of India Committee in the early 1960's. The committee reported utilization of about 120 million metric tons of wood, 50 million tons of dried dung, and 30 million tons of vegetable waste each year in villages and in urban areas. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the energy derived from burning wood, dung, and crop residues adds up to 227 kg per capita per year, or a total for rural India of 100 million tons, with an energy content of 7.53 x 10/sup 14/ kcal. It is projected that 90 percent of this is utilized for cooking and space heating and 10 percent for pottery and brickmaking, metalworking and blacksmithing, and sugar making. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the commercial energy use per capita in rural India in 1971 was 37 kg, and the total use in rural population was 16.3 million tons. It is projected here that 12 percent was used for cooking and space heating, 40 percent for lighting, and 48 percent for agriculture. A comparison of U.S. and Indian energy consumption is made. The conclusion that more energy will be needed to support the populace in India is discussed. (MCW)

  14. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India). (United States)

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  15. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.


    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  16. Women's cardiovascular health in India. (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Patel, Anushka A


    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adult women in many parts of India and a major cause of morbidity. In some parts of the world, gender inequities have been observed in cardiovascular healthcare and cardiovascular outcomes. The authors discuss the data for potential disparities in cardiovascular healthcare for women in India. Data on cardiovascular healthcare provision and CVD outcomes among women in India are generally lacking. The little available data suggest that women in rural areas, younger women and girl children with CVD are less likely to receive appropriate management than men, with this disparity most apparent in those of lower socioeconomic status and education. However, there is a particular lack of information about the prevention and management of atherosclerotic heart disease in women from a range of communities that comprise the extremely diverse population of India.

  17. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-


    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  18. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  19. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin (United States)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald


    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  20. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, R.G.


    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  1. India: Asia’s Next Productivity Success Story


    Joydeep Mukherji


    India has created the basic rules of modern economic and political life. While the country’s institutional framework needs strengthening, it will allow India to prosper without drastic changes. Gradual economic reform has transformed India, putting it on a much faster growth path. Economic growth in the next ten years may not equal China’s current double-digit growth rate, but India is nevertheless very likely to become one of the fastest growing economies in the world, growing at a pace simi...

  2. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  3. India äri eripära / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-


    India antiikmööblit maale toova ID House juht Jaak Morna kirjeldab isikliku kogemuse kaudu India äritavasid ning töökorraldust. Lisa: India; Indiast saab triljonimajandus; Eesti-India majandussuhted; Kinnisvarahinnad teevad meile silmad ette

  4. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment (United States)


    in China, see Banister, Bloom, and Rosenberg (2010). 13 For a discussion of inequality in India, see Bardhan (2003). population trends in China and...WorkingPapers/2010/PGDA_WP_53.pdf 132 China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment Bardhan , Pranab, “Crouching Tiger, Lumbering Elephant: A China-India

  5. Energy in India's Future: Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Boillot, Jean-Joseph; Autheman, Nicolas; Ruet, Joel; Siddiqui, Zakaria; Zaleski, C. Pierre; Cruciani, Michel


    In the decades following India's independence from British rule in 1947, the West's image of India was summarized in three simple cliches: the world's largest democracy, an impoverished continent, and economic growth hampered by a fussy bureaucracy and the caste system, all in a context of a particular religion. These cliches are perhaps one of the reasons that the success of India's green revolution was recognized so late, a revolution that allowed the country to develop its agricultural sector and to feed its population. Since the 1990's, the easing of planning constraints have liberated the Indian economy and allowed it to embark on a more significant path of growth. New cliches have begun to replace the old: India will become a second China and, lagging by 10 to 20 years, will follow the same trajectory, with its development marked more by services and the use of renewable energy. However, these trends will not prevent primary energy demand from exploding. On the contrary, India faces difficult choices on how it increases clean, secure, affordable energy to all its citizens. Many of the choices are the same as found elsewhere, but on a scale matched only by China. The IFRI European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy Project intends this study to deepen public understanding of the magnitude of India's challenges. Various aspects of the serious energy problems are studied throughout this monograph. The authors have written freely on these matters without attempting to reconcile their different viewpoints. The first chapter, by Maite Jaureguy-Naudin and Jacques Lesourne, presents an overview of India's present and future energy system. The authors follow a prudent but realistic view of India's future. The second chapter, by Jean-Joseph Boillot, a French expert on India who has published several books and articles on this subject, and Nicolas Autheman, research fellow, describes in greater detail the specifics of India

  6. India's energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, N. B.


    Only a small portion (15%) of India's commerical energy requirements is imported, but this import accounts for nearly 75% of total imports. Noncommercial energy (firewood, agricultural waste, cow dung) will still have an important role in the future. The major thrust of India's energy policy should be to ensure that energy will not be a constraint to economic growth, and to increase the per capita energy consumption. In the future, hydroelectric and nuclear power will become increasingly important. Solar energy will also be utilized. (DLC)

  7. Healthcare biotechnology in India. (United States)

    Srivastava, L M


    Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices. Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding the revenues of biotech companies that were acquired by pharmaceutical companies, India has yet to register a measurable success. The conservative nature and craze of the Indian Industry for marketing imported biotechnology products, lack of Government support, almost non-existing national healthcare system and lack of trained managers for marketing biological and new products seem to be the important factors responsible for poor economic development of biotechnology in India. With the liberalization of Indian economy, more and more imported biotechnology products will enter into the Indian market. The conditions of internal development of biotechnology are not likely to improve in the near future and it is destined to grow only very slowly. Even today biotechnology in India may be called to be in its infancy.

  8. Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Implications of Contrasting Trends in the Spatial Variability of Means and Extremes (United States)

    Ghosh, Subimal; Vittal, H.; Sharma, Tarul; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kasiviswanathan, K. S.; Dhanesh, Y.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.


    India’s agricultural output, economy, and societal well-being are strappingly dependent on the stability of summer monsoon rainfall, its variability and extremes. Spatial aggregate of intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events over Central India are significantly increasing, while at local scale they are spatially non-uniform with increasing spatial variability. The reasons behind such increase in spatial variability of extremes are poorly understood and the trends in mean monsoon rainfall have been greatly overlooked. Here, by using multi-decadal gridded daily rainfall data over entire India, we show that the trend in spatial variability of mean monsoon rainfall is decreasing as exactly opposite to that of extremes. The spatial variability of extremes is attributed to the spatial variability of the convective rainfall component. Contrarily, the decrease in spatial variability of the mean rainfall over India poses a pertinent research question on the applicability of large scale inter-basin water transfer by river inter-linking to address the spatial variability of available water in India. We found a significant decrease in the monsoon rainfall over major water surplus river basins in India. Hydrological simulations using a Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model also revealed that the water yield in surplus river basins is decreasing but it is increasing in deficit basins. These findings contradict the traditional notion of dry areas becoming drier and wet areas becoming wetter in response to climate change in India. This result also calls for a re-evaluation of planning for river inter-linking to supply water from surplus to deficit river basins. PMID:27463092

  9. India has got the best possible agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, T.P.


    The Indians wanted an agreement that will be acceptable to their people and the IAEA wanted to make sure that Uncle Sam was on board. The positions of both are reflected in the balanced document that has been emerged from negotiations. The terms of the proposed inspections have been set without compromising India's sovereign right to manage its nuclear facilities in its best interests in the spirit of the India-US Joint Statement of 2005. The non-proliferationists complain that India got away with too much and the liberationists complain that India gave away too much in the negotiations on the safeguards agreement. The fact that India has nuclear weapons make the inspections less stringent. The expectations is that as India switches to indigenous fuel, the inspections will cease altogether. Much has been said about the reference to the 'corrective measures' that India may take in the event of disruption of supplies. The non- proliferationists and the liberationists find this provision too vague. One windfall that has come in India's way, whether by design or as logical consequence of the new approach, is that the other safeguards agreements, which are applicable to facilities that use imported fuel, will be suspended as long as the new safeguards agreement is in force. The goodwill of the IAEA and its Director General, Mohammed ElBaradei, has played a major role in the accomplish of this agreement.

  10. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  11. Nurse migration from India: a literature review. (United States)

    Garner, Shelby L; Conroy, Shelley F; Bader, Susan Gerding


    A profound nursing shortage exists in India where nurses are increasingly outmigrating to practice nursing in surrounding countries and abroad. This is important globally because countries with the lowest nursing and healthcare workforce capacities have the poorest health outcomes. This review sought to synthesize and unify the evidence about nurse migration from India and includes a look at nurse retention within India. A comprehensive literature review was performed to synthesize and unify both qualitative and quantitative research. Bibliographic databases searched included CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EconLit using associated keywords for empirical and descriptive literature published between January 2004 and May 2014. Hand searches of the Nursing Journal of India from 2004 to February 2014 and the Journal of Nursing Research Society of India from its inception in 2007-February 2014 were also completed. 29 studies were selected and analyzed for the review. Data were appraised for quality; reduced through sub-categorization; extracted; and coded into a framework. Thematic interpretation occurred through comparing and contrasting performed by multiple reviewers. Findings included an exponential growth in nurse recruitment efforts, nurse migration, and a concomitant growth in educational institutions within India with regional variations in nurse migration patterns. Decision-making factors for migration were based on working conditions, salience of family, and the desire for knowledge, skill, technology, adventure and personal enrichment. Challenges associated with migration included questionable recruiting practices, differing scopes of practice encountered after migration and experiences of racism and cultural differences. A shift toward a positive transformation of nursing status in India has resulted in an increased respect for individual nurses and the profession of nursing. This was attributed to the increased globalization of nursing. Results from this

  12. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.


    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  13. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. (United States)

    Acharya, Subrat K


    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website ( was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL.

  14. Biobanking and Privacy in India. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha


    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  15. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually......The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene...

  16. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  17. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.


    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  18. India's nuclear energy programme: prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Arvind


    India has announced ambitious plans to expand its nuclear energy programme nearly 15 fold in the next 20 years, from the current 4,500 MWe to about 62,000 MWe by 2032. By 2020, India's Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) plans to install 20,000 MWe of nuclear power generation capacity (the fifth largest in the world). The department has plans beyond 2030 too. According to these plans India will have the capacity to produce 275 GWe (Giga Watt of electricity) of nuclear power by the year 2052. The DAE's projections are summarised. This is a truly ambitious plan. Without sufficient quantities of energy, India cannot hope to become a global power. Its dream of registering eight to nine per cent economic growth per annum will remain just that, a dream. Even with such ambitious plans on the nuclear energy front, the share of nuclear power in the overall energy mix will remain small. Currently nuclear energy constitutes only about three per cent of the total energy consumed in India. If the current projections are realised, the share of nuclear energy in the total energy output will still be about 20 per cent. India takes pride in its nuclear programme. Over the years, successive governments have fully supported the DAE's plans. This support is likely to continue in the future. In fact, following the Indo-US civil nuclear deal and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) waiver in 2008, the mood in India has turned upbeat. India is now getting integrated into the global nuclear regime even though it has not signed the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NNPT). The NSG waiver has, however, allowed India to enter into civil nuclear cooperation with several countries

  19. India-Africa: trade, investments and humanitarian projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov


    Full Text Available Active growth of trade volume between India and Africa which has increased in twenty times since the beginning of the twenty-first century or in seventy times since 1991, certainly actualized a question of features of the modern Indo-African relations. In this regard the purpose of article is consideration of features of policy of India to the African countries. The author does the short historical review of the Indo-African relations, and considers key spheres of realization of modern regional strategy of India on the African continent - humanitarian projects, foreign trade and investments. The main methods of research are the comparative-historical approach and the statistical analysis, being used for identification of positive or negative dynamics of development of the Indo-African cooperation. Now the African region takes strategic significance for India. Rapid economic development of the African countries and increase in a standard of living of the population turn the continent into a perspective sales market of the Indian goods and services. Besides, India actively develops humanitarian projects and renders the financial help to many African countries. However, India faces set of problems and factors - geographical remoteness, the discrimination and racism, instability of political systems of many African countries and the African policy of China. The active economic policy of China on the African continent has compelled India to develop cooperation with the countries of Africa more actively. In recent years India also as well as China tries to make active and modernize the economic and humanitarian policy in Africa. Struggle for commodity markets of the goods and services in Africa makes Africa by strategic region not only in the Indo-Chinese relations, but in foreign policy of India as a whole.

  20. River basin administration (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  1. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan


    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  2. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari


    Full Text Available The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation. Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions – and especially groundwater extractions – have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1 reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater and water demands; (2 water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3 the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4

  3. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management (United States)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.


    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use

  4. Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the Lower Cenozoic sediments, NW Himalayan foreland basin: Clues for exhumation and denudation of the Himalaya during the India-Asia collision (United States)

    Jain, A.; Lal, N.; Suelmani, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Singh, S.; Kumar, R.


    Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the synorogenically-deposited Subathu-Dagshai-Kasauli-Lower Siwalik Formations of the Sub-Himalayan Lower Cenozoic foreland basin reflects progressive effects of the Himalayan tectonometamorphic events on the Proterozoic-Paleozoic source rock as a consequence of the India-Asia collision. The oldest transgressive marine Subathu Formation (57.0-41.5 Ma) contains a very dominant 302.4 ± 21.9 Ma old detrital zircon FT suite with a few determinable 520.0 Ma grains. This old suite was derived by mild erosion of the Zircon Partially Annealed Zone (ZPAZ) of 240-180 oC, which affected the Himalayan Proterozoic basement and its Tethyan sedimentary cover as a consequence of first imprint of the collision. In addition, 50.0 Ma old detrital zircons in this formation were derived possibly from the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone and the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith. Sudden source rock changes and unroofing are manifested in the overlying fluvial Dagshai (~30-20 Ma) and Kasauli (20-13 Ma) molassic sediments, which are characterised by dominant 30.0 and 25.0 Ma old youngest zircon FT peaks, respectively. A distinct unconformity spanning for about 10 Myr gets established between the Subathu-Dagshai formations on the basis of detrital- zircon FT ages. Molassic sedimentation since ~30 Ma coincides with the depletion of detritus from the suture zone, and the bulk derivation from the main Higher Himalayan source rock, which has undergone sequentially the UHP-HP-amphibolite facies metamorphism (53-40 Ma) in the extreme north and widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan tectonothermal events in the middle. Strength of the Pre-Himalayan Peaks (PHP) >50 Ma in these younger sediments gradually decreases with the intensification of the Himalayan thermal events till the end of the Kasauli sedimentation. Widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan metamorphic events (40.0-30.0 and 25.0-15.0 Ma) have almost remobilised the provenance and obliterated most of the

  5. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  6. Sediment-hosted micro-disseminated gold mineralization constrained by basin paleo-topographic highs in the Youjiang basin, South China (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Ye, Jie; Ying, Hanlong; Liu, Jiajun; Zheng, Minghua; Gu, Xuexiang


    The Youjiang basin is a Devonian-Triassic rift basin on the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton in South China. Strong syndepositional faulting defined the basin-and-range style paleo-topography that further developed into isolated carbonate platforms surrounded by siliciclastic filled depressions. Finally, thick Triassic siliciclastic deposits covered the platforms completely. In the Youjiang basin, numerous sediment-hosted, micro-disseminated gold (SMG) deposits occur mainly in Permian-Triassic chert and siliciclastic rocks. SMG ores are often auriferous sedimentary rocks with relatively low sulfide contents and moderate to weak alteration. Similar to Carlin-type gold ores in North America, SMG ores in the Youjiang basin are characterized by low-temperature mineral assemblages of pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar, stibnite, cinnabar, marcasite, chalcedony and carbonate. Most of the SMG deposits are remarkably distributed around the carbonate platforms. Accordingly, there are platform-proximal and platform-distal SMG deposits. Platform-proximal SMG deposits often occur in the facies transition zone between the underlying platform carbonate rocks and the overlying siliciclastic rocks with an unconformity (often a paleo-karst surface) in between. In the ores and hostrocks there are abundant synsedimentary-syndiagenetic fabrics such as lamination, convolute bedding, slump texture, soft-sediment deformation etc. indicating submarine hydrothermal deposition and syndepositional faulting. Numerous fluid-escape and liquefaction fabrics imply strong fluid migration during sediment basin evolution. Such large-scale geological and fabric evidence implies that SMG ores were formed during basin evolution, probably in connection with basinal fluids. It is well known that basinal fluids (especially sediment-sourced fluids) will migrate generally (1) upwards, (2) towards basin margins or basin topographic highs, (3) and from thicker towards thinner deposits during basin evolution

  7. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan (United States)

    Mian, Zia


    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  8. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)


    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  9. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Zia


    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future

  10. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani KV


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems

  11. India's nuclear energy programme and future power need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, M.K.


    Critics of the recently negotiated 123 Nuclear Agreement between India and the United States of America often cite its retrograde effects on India's longstanding policy of non-alignment in foreign relations. The major part of this article will, therefore, is devoted to various aspects of DAE's performance, areas and problems that need more attention, their future plan on stepping up the production of nuclear energy by a big factor beyond their indigenous reach, and the consequent imperative and compulsion of opening the doors to the international market for bulk purchases. India's access to the international market for nuclear energy was barred because of our refusal to sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT). Hence, when George Bush, ex-President of U.S.A., offered to sign a bilateral treaty with India, opening the door for nuclear and other strategic co-operation, the offer was welcome by the DAE and the Government of India with open arms. However, obligations under the rules of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), of which India is a member, still required applying to the Body for their approval so that India could approach the Consortium of nuclear supplier countries for their agreement to do business with India without raising any hindrance arising from NPT and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

  12. Mapping Monthly Water Scarcity in Global Transboundary Basins at Country-Basin Mesh Based Spatial Resolution. (United States)

    Degefu, Dagmawi Mulugeta; Weijun, He; Zaiyi, Liao; Liang, Yuan; Zhengwei, Huang; Min, An


    Currently fresh water scarcity is an issue with huge socio-economic and environmental impacts. Transboundary river and lake basins are among the sources of fresh water facing this challenge. Previous studies measured blue water scarcity at different spatial and temporal resolutions. But there is no global water availability and footprint assessment done at country-basin mesh based spatial and monthly temporal resolutions. In this study we assessed water scarcity at these spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results showed that around 1.6 billion people living within the 328 country-basin units out of the 560 we assessed in this study endures severe water scarcity at least for a month within the year. In addition, 175 country-basin units goes through severe water scarcity for 3-12 months in the year. These sub-basins include nearly a billion people. Generally, the results of this study provide insights regarding the number of people and country-basin units experiencing low, moderate, significant and severe water scarcity at a monthly temporal resolution. These insights might help these basins' sharing countries to design and implement sustainable water management and sharing schemes.

  13. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.


    In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new...... data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted...... to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior...

  14. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen


    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  15. Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge of Aquifers in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandha, D. K.


    India has proud traditions and wisdom which have evolved over thousands of years for developing technologies for water conservation and groundwater recharge using surplus monsoon precipitation runoff. This is imperative as the average rainfall/precipitation period is about 27 days/year and with uneven distribution across the country. Groundwater development is now the mainstay for sustaining agricultural production and rural water supplies. As such, groundwater development is increasing at an exponential rate and the estimated draft is now 231 000 hm{sup 3} with the result that almost 15% of the groundwater development areas are showing a continuous decline of water levels. There is an anomalous situation whereby water levels are declining in 831 blocks (assessment units) out of a total of 5 723 blocks across the country, and availability of excessive 864 000 hm{sup 3} runoff in different river basins brings floods and creates water logging in some parts of the country. This non-utilizable water can be planned for creating small surface water storage and to create additional sub-surface storage through groundwater recharge. At present, total water available is estimated at 660 000 hm{sup 3} and the minimum estimated water demand will be 843 000 hm{sup 3} in 2025 and 973 000 hm{sup 3} in 2050. Therefore, if India wants sustainable food supplies and to meet domestic/industrial water requirements, there is no other option than to implement projects for water conservation/groundwater recharge. Although a number of forward looking steps have been planned by the government and other institutions, many lacunae have been observed which need to be addressed for the successful implementation of water conservation and recharge programmes. This paper discusses various practices from the pre-historic to the present day, with case studies showing technological intervention. (Author)

  16. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility · India, a paradise for Genetic Studies · Involved in earlier stages of Immune response protecting us from Diseases, Responsible for kidney and other transplant rejections Inherited from our parents · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7.

  17. Frequency and sources of basin floor turbidites in alfonso basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Products of slope failures (United States)

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar E.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Douglas, Robert G.


    Alfonso Basin is a small margin basin formed by extensional tectonics in the actively rifting, seismically active Gulf of California. The basin is centered at 24°40' N and 110° 38' W, and is a closed depression (maximum depth 420 m) with an effective sill depth of about 320 m (deepest sill), a width of 20 km and length of 25 km. Basin floor area below a depth of 350 m is about 260 km 2. The climate is arid to semiarid but was wetter during the early (ca. 10,000-7000 Calendar years Before Present [BP]) and middle Holocene (ca. 7000-4000 Cal. Years BP). Basin-wide turbidity currents reach the floor of Alfonso Basin at centennial to millennial intervals. The peninsular drainages tributary to the basin are small and have maximum flood discharges of the order of 10 4m 3. The basin-floor turbidites thicker than 1 cm have volumes of the order of 10 6m 3 to 10 8m 3 and require a much larger source. The largest turbidite seen in our cores is ca. 1 m thick in the central basin floor and was deposited 4900 Calendar Years Before Present (BP). Two smaller major events occurred about 1500 and 2800 Cal. Years BP. Seismicity over the past century of record shows a clustering of larger epicenters along faults forming the eastern Gulf side of Alfonso Basin. In that period there have been four earthquakes with magnitudes above 7.0 but all are distant from the basin. Frequency of such earthquakes in the basin vicinity is probably millennial. It is concluded that the basin-wide turbidites thicker than 1 cm must be generated by slope failures on the eastern side of the basin at roughly millennial intervals. The thin flood turbidites have a peninsular source at centennial frequencies.



    February 1996), p.5 12 Ibid, p.71 and p.5 13 Ibid, p.13 14 Habib . “India-Bangladesh relations” and trade/ (Accessed July 27, 2011) 17 Ibid 18 Habib , Haroon. “India-Bangladesh relations”. Frontline-Indian...P 20-21. Ghulam, Murshed. “Dynamics of South Asian Security.” The Daily Independent, Dhaka, April 10, 2006. Habib , Harun. “India-Bangladesh

  19. Problem Etnisitas India Dalam Cerita Pendek Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoim Anwar


    Full Text Available Karya sastra adalah dokumen kemanusiaan dan kebudayaan. Kumpulan cerita pendek Menara 7 (1998, terutama enam cerpen yang ditulis oleh pengarang Malaysia beretnis India, memberi gambaran problem kehidupan etnis India di Malaysia. Dengan meminjam teori etnisitas sebagai landasan, tulisan ini bertujuan mengungkap problem etnisitas India di Malaysia. Problem etnis India terkait dengan kemiskinan, pendidikan, gender, religi, budaya, dan persatuan. Keberadaan etnis India di Malaysia secara historis merupakan bagian dari kolonialisme Inggris di masa lampau. Residu kolonialisme menciptakan jejak hitam kemanusiaan yang mendalam. Sebagai pendatang, tersirat ada ketegangan sosial-budaya yang dialami etnis India, tetapi bukan konflik. Problem etnis India dalam cerpen Malaysia adalah sarana untuk becermin bagi masyarakat dalam negara yang multietnis. Abstract: Literature is a document of humanity and culture. A collection of short stories Menara 7 (1998, especially five short stories written by Malaysian Indian, gives an overview of Indian ethnic problems in Malaysia. Using postcolonial theory as an anchor, their problems are poverty, education, gender, religion, culture, and unity. The existence Malaysian Indian was British colonial legacy. The leftover of colonialism deeply creates dark footprints of humanity. As a newcomer, it’s implied there was social-cultural tension, but not conflict, experienced by Malaysian Indian. The problems in Malaysia short stories are a tool of reflection in a multiethnic society. Key Words: problem, ethnic, ethnicity, short story

  20. Analysis of india and Pakistan's nuclear capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin


    The development and capacity of both India and Pakistan's nuclear weapons are described in production of weapon-grade materials, nuclear testing, weaponization engineering and delivery systems. India is capable of designing and manufacturing both small yield tactic nuclear weapons and big yield strategic ones and also possesses the technique to design and manufacture H-bombs. Weapon-grade plutonium constitutes the primary fission material for India's nuclear weapon and it has plutonium enough to make 70 to 100 nuclear weapons. India can also produce some tritium. India has already possessed delivery systems but it has not yet mounted nuclear warheads on its ballistic missiles even though its missiles, which India has already owned or is under development, have the ability to carry nuclear warheads. Pakistan also has the ability to make both tactic nuclear weapons and strategic ones. With its weapon-grade uranium, 20 to 30 nuclear weapons can be made. Besides the uranium production facility. Pakistan also has the facility to produce tritium. It is supposed that Pakistan has the ability to carry nuclear weapons with airplane, but it has a long way to go if it wants to mount nuclear weapon, especially bit yield ones, on its own missile. As a whole, India's nuclear force is stronger than Pakistan's, and its development far more advanced than Pakistan's

  1. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011. Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic.

  2. Predictors of caregivers’ burden of Parkinson’s disease in India: experience of a tertiary care center in India


    Agrawal V; Goyal V; Shukla G; Behari M


    Vikas Agrawal,1 Vinay Goyal,2 Garima Shukla,2 Madhuri Behari21Department of Neurology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaIntroduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increasing dependence on caregivers for activities of daily living that imposes a major burden upon the patients’ caregiver. Caregiver burden (CB) refers to the...

  3. India | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-supported research in India has also focused on women's rights, security, and access ... Other IDRC employment-oriented research includes an initiative to help women ... enhance research quality at 43 public policy institutions in India.

  4. A Tale of Two Indias (United States)

    Sidhu, Jonathan


    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  5. Constraining Basin Depth and Fault Displacement in the Malombe Basin Using Potential Field Methods (United States)

    Beresh, S. C. M.; Elifritz, E. A.; Méndez, K.; Johnson, S.; Mynatt, W. G.; Mayle, M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbwa, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.


    The Malombe Basin is part of the Malawi Rift which forms the southern part of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. At its southern end, the Malawi Rift bifurcates into the Bilila-Mtakataka and Chirobwe-Ntcheu fault systems and the Lake Malombe Rift Basin around the Shire Horst, a competent block under the Nankumba Peninsula. The Malombe Basin is approximately 70km from north to south and 35km at its widest point from east to west, bounded by reversing-polarity border faults. We aim to constrain the depth of the basin to better understand displacement of each border fault. Our work utilizes two east-west gravity profiles across the basin coupled with Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) derived from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey. The first gravity profile was done across the northern portion of the basin and the second across the southern portion. Gravity and magnetic data will be used to constrain basement depths and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Additionally, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to understand the topographic expression of the fault scarps. Estimates for minimum displacement of the border faults on either side of the basin were made by adding the elevation of the scarps to the deepest SPI basement estimates at the basin borders. Our preliminary results using SPI and SRTM data show a minimum displacement of approximately 1.3km for the western border fault; the minimum displacement for the eastern border fault is 740m. However, SPI merely shows the depth to the first significantly magnetic layer in the subsurface, which may or may not be the actual basement layer. Gravimetric readings are based on subsurface density and thus circumvent issues arising from magnetic layers located above the basement; therefore expected results for our work will be to constrain more accurate basin depth by integrating the gravity profiles. Through more accurate basement depth estimates we also gain more accurate displacement

  6. Gestational surrogacy in India


    Rozée , Virginie; Unisa , Sayeed; De La Rochebrochard , Elise


    International audience; While gestational surrogacy is illegal in France, it is authorized in other countries, such as India. Drawing upon a study of Indian surrogates, Indian and foreign intended parents pursuing surro­gacy, as well as physicians, lawyers and Indian clinic and agency managers, Virginie Rozée, Sayeed Unisa and Elise de La Rochebrochard describe how surrogacy services are organized in India and examine the expectations and rationales of the protagonists.

  7. Three-dimensional modeling of pull-apart basins: implications for the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin (United States)

    Katzman, Rafael; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, Jian


    We model the three-dimensional (3-D) crustal deformation in a deep pull-apart basin as a result of relative plate motion along a transform system and compare the results to the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin. The brittle upper crust is modeled by a boundary element technique as an elastic block, broken by two en echelon semi-infinite vertical faults. The deformation is caused by a horizontal displacement that is imposed everywhere at the bottom of the block except in a stress-free “shear zone” in the vicinity of the fault zone. The bottom displacement represents the regional relative plate motion. Results show that the basin deformation depends critically on the width of the shear zone and on the amount of overlap between basin-bounding faults. As the width of the shear zone increases, the depth of the basin decreases, the rotation around a vertical axis near the fault tips decreases, and the basin shape (the distribution of subsidence normalized by the maximum subsidence) becomes broader. In contrast, two-dimensional plane stress modeling predicts a basin shape that is independent of the width of the shear zone. Our models also predict full-graben profiles within the overlapped region between bounding faults and half-graben shapes elsewhere. Increasing overlap also decreases uplift near the fault tips and rotation of blocks within the basin. We suggest that the observed structure of the Dead Sea Basin can be described by a 3-D model having a large overlap (more than 30 km) that probably increased as the basin evolved as a result of a stable shear motion that was distributed laterally over 20 to 40 km.

  8. Energy sector reform in India : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruna, M.; Raj, M.G.


    The government of India cannot afford to fund the total investment needed for restructuring the country's electric power sector. As such, India's Electricity Act of 2003 encouraged private participation to implement the required measures for efficient and optimum use of energy resources available in India and to supply quality power at the best cost to consumers. This paper described the present status of India's power sector with respect to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. India's economy is growing at a faster rate compared to many other developing countries. It is expected that in the next 6 to 7 years additional capacity of 84,000 MW will be needed to meet the projected electricity demand. The Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC) was established in 1986 in order to generate and provide funds for the power sector, which is in the process of reforms in every element of the electricity value chain. India is facing an energy deficit and peak power deficit of 8 per cent and 12.2 per cent, respectively. The inter-regional power transmission capacity is planned to be increased from 16,500 MW to 37,000 MW by 2012. Thermal and nuclear energy are major sources for electricity production in India. As most of these resources are non renewable, they must be efficiently used. Coal will continue to contribute about 60 per cent of power generation in India. It was concluded that a large capacity national power grid is necessary for inter-regional power transfer, and that Transmission Super Highways are needed for the development of a high capacity National Power Grid. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. AIDS in India: emerging from initial chaos. (United States)

    Chatterjee, A


    India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."

  10. Energies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, Michel


    Based on information gathered during a mission in India, and also from reports and local newspapers and magazines, the author gives an overview of the energy issue in India: population, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, electricity consumption, economic activities and life conditions, biomass production, potential for solar energy production, hydraulic energy production and operators, situation regarding coal, oil and natural gas as primary energies, situation of the nuclear industry and sector (international agreements and cooperation, reactor fleet, research centres). A table indicates the level and percentage of the different produced and imported consumed primary and final energies

  11. Will India set the price for teleradiology? (United States)

    McLean, Thomas R


    With a lower cost for labour, Indian teleradiologists have an absolute price advantage in the global market. However, because trade is determined by comparative advantage rather than absolute price advantage, India's ability to export teleradiology services may be limited. The issue is, can the 'India price' for teleradiology set the price for these services in the USA? Review of the economic literature concerning the global teleradiology market. Currently, minimal information exists concerning the economic of global teleradiology market. However, a Ricardian analysis of this market suggests that India's ability to export teleradiology may be limited by rising opportunity costs (i.e. social unrest). Similarly, Heckscher-Ohlin analysis suggests that a lack of English-speaking physicians will limit India's ability to export teleradiology services to the USA. It appears unlikely that India will gain sufficient market share in the USA to determine the price of teleradiology services.

  12. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...

  13. Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan


    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology of five common thyroid diseases in India: (1 hypothyroidism, (2 hyperthyroidism, (3 goiter and iodine deficiency disorders, (4 Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, and (5 thyroid cancer. This review will also briefly cover the exciting work that is in progress to ascertain the normal reference range of thyroid hormones in India, especially in pregnancy and children.

  14. India's Trade in Higher Education (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra


    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  15. A woman ecologist in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    in India. Priya Davidar. 28. As one of the first women to become a professor of eco- ogy in India, I ... gender as being of any significance to research involving fieldwork. This gave ... indifference. Looking back, I can see that having support from estab- ... Smithsonian Institution and Harvard University, among others, and had ...

  16. Adult Education in India & Abroad. (United States)

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  17. Assessment of soil erosion by RUSLE model using remote sensing and GIS - A case study of Nethravathi Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Ganasri


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious problem arising from agricultural intensification, land degradation and other anthropogenic activities. Assessment of soil erosion is useful in planning and conservation works in a watershed or basin. Modelling can provide a quantitative and consistent approach to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield under a wide range of conditions. In the present study, the soil loss model, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE integrated with GIS has been used to estimate soil loss in the Nethravathi Basin located in the southwestern part of India. The Nethravathi Basin is a tropical coastal humid area having a drainage area of 3128 km2 up to the gauging station. The parameters of RUSLE model were estimated using remote sensing data and the erosion probability zones were determined using GIS. The estimated rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic and crop management factors range from 2948.16 to 4711.4 MJ/mm·ha−1hr−1/year, 0.10 to 0.44 t ha−1·MJ−1·mm−1, 0 to 92,774 and 0 to 0.63 respectively. The results indicate that the estimated total annual potential soil loss of about 473,339 t/yr is comparable with the measured sediment of 441,870 t/yr during the water year 2002–2003. The predicted soil erosion rate due to increase in agricultural area is about 14,673.5 t/yr. The probability zone map has been derived by the weighted overlay index method indicate that the major portion of the study area comes under low probability zone and only a small portion comes under high and very high probability zone. The results can certainly aid in implementation of soil management and conservation practices to reduce the soil erosion in the Nethravathi Basin.

  18. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS. (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S


    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  19. Quantification and Postglacial evolution of an inner alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos Basin, Hohe Tauern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, J.


    The overall objective of this thesis is the quantification of sediment storage and the reconstruction of postglacial landscape evolution within the glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos Basin (subcatchment size: 4.1 km 2 ; basin floor elevation: 1920 m) in the central Gradenbach catchment (Schober Range, Hohe Tauern, Austrian Alps). Following the approach of denudation-accumulation-systems, most reliable results are obtained (1) if sediment output of a system can be neglected for an established period of time, (2) if sediment storage can be assessed with a high level of accuracy, (3) if the onset of sedimentation and amounts of initially stored sediments are known, and (4) if sediment contributing areas can be clearly delimited. Due to spatial scale and topographic characteristics, all mentioned aspects are fulfilled to a high degree within the studied basin. Applied methods include surface, subsurface and temporal investigations. Digital elevation data is derived from terrestrial laserscanning and geomorphologic mapping. The quantification of sediment storage is based on core drillings, geophysical methods (DC resistivity, refraction seismic, and ground penetrating radar), as well as GIS and 3D modelling. Radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses are additionally used to reconstruct the postglacial infilling progress of the basin. The study reveals that a continuous postglacial stratigraphic record is archived in the basin. As proposed by Lieb (1987) timing of basin deglaciation could be verified to late-Egesen times by means of radiocarbon ages (oldest sample just above basal till: 10.4 ka cal. BP) and first palynologic results. Lateglacial oscillations seem to have effectively scoured the basin, leaving only a shallow layer of basal till. The analysis of postglacial sedimentation in the basin is further improved by the existence of a former lake in the basin lasting for up to 7500 years until approx. 3.7 ka cal. BP. Both, the stratigraphic (fine, partly

  20. Geomorphological context of the basins of Northwestern Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Sautter, Benjamin; Pubellier, Manuel; Menier, David


    -SW) appear more penetrative in both granitic and limestone units. On most of the studied outcrops, exfoliation fractures are reactivated into normal faults. Deformation is particularly severe at the contact of the granites and the sediments which is underlined by cataclasic quartz dykes and hornfelds. Off-shore, in the Straits of Malacca, nine tertiary half-grabens are present, all oriented in N-S to NE-SW direction with N-S boundary faults on their western margin. We propose a tectonic scenario for the north-western Malaysia Peninsula according to which the northward motion of India induced first right-lateral transpressionnal tectonics at the End of the Mesozoics (Cretaceous early Tertiary). This system is illustrated in the NW-SE trending fractures of the Main Range Batholith and other Triassic plutons within a system bounded and controlled by the Bok Bak Fault, the KL fault zone and the Bentong Raub Suture Zone. Later, a second stage of transtension led to the opening of the en echelon onshore basins in a tear-faults system, and to the opening of half grabens offshore in the Straits of Malacca.

  1. Natural 3H radioactivity analysis in groundwater and estimation of committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R.K.


    The present study aimed at the assessment of natural tritium radioactivity in groundwater, being used for domestic and irrigation purposes in Varahi and Markandeya river basins. The study also intended to assess human health risk by estimating committed effective dose due to groundwater ingestion in the study area, taking into consideration the obtained tritium activity concentrations and annual water consumption. Tritium concentration of groundwater samples from the Varahi and Markandeya river basins were determined by liquid scintillation counting and the results laid in the range of 1.95 ± 0.25 to 11.35 ± 0.44 TU and 1.49 ± 0.75 to 9.17 ± 1.13 TU in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, respectively. Majority of the samples from Varahi (46.67%) and Markandeya (62.5%) river basins belong to modern water category aged between 5 and 10 years, while the remaining 53.33% and 37.5% of the samples from Varahi and Markandeya river basins respectively belong to sub-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river in flowing/sea water intrusion. The effective committed dose for general public consumption considering the highest concentration value of 0.02 μSv year -1 , which is very negligible compared to EPA (0.04 mSv year -1 ), WHO (0.1 mSv year -1 ), ICRP (1.0 mSv year -1 ) and UNSCEAR (2.4 mSv year -1 ) recommended dose limits, should not mean any additional health risk for the population living nearby. (author)

  2. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide


    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  3. International nurse recruitment in India. (United States)

    Khadria, Binod


    This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

  4. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  5. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins (United States)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco


    The latest Early to Middle Jurassic succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar) records the complex transition from the continental rifting of Gondwana to the drifting of Madagascar-India from East Africa. The Madagascan Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic successions have been included in several paleogeographic and geodynamic models explaining the evolution of the Gondwana margins. Nevertheless, in some cases, as for the Toarcian-Bathonian deposits of the Antsiranana Basin, no significant stratigraphic revision has been carried out since the early 1970s. New field surveys allow reconsidering the stratigraphic and structural context and the palaeoenvironmental meaning of Toarcian-Bathonian successions occurring in different parts of the basin. These successions rest on the Triassic-Early Jurassic Isalo Sandstone which records pre-breakup rift events with a dominantly fluvial deposition. This situation is similar to other continental rift basins of Gondwana. After a regional Toarcian transgression the different portions of the Antsiranana Basin were characterized by significantly diversified and coeval depositional environments. The basin can be subdivided in a SW and NE part separated by a NW-SE trending structural high. In the SW part of the basin (Ampasindava sub-basin) the so-called "Jurassique paralique" [Rerat, J.C., 1964. Note sur les variations de faciès des sèries jurassiques du nord de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus Semaine gèologique, Tananarive, pp. 15-22] or " Facies Mixtes de la Presqu'ile de Ampasindava" [Besairie, H., Collignon, M., 1972. Géologie de Madagascar; I. Les terrains sédimentaires. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 35, 1-463], a 1500 m thick prevalently terrigenous deposit, has been subdivided into four units. They document the long-lasting development of coastal-deltaic systems in a highly subsiding area. In the NE portion of the basin (Ankarana-Analamera sub-basin), a coeval mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession subdivided in five units

  6. Migration from India to Australia. (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A


    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  7. Benthos of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 13 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name India_EEZ_1996_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info India_EEZ_1996_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Multidisciplinary investigations exploring indicators of gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Paropkari, A.L.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Desa, M.; Kocherla, M.; Joao, H.M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Pattan, J.N.; Khadge, N.H.; PrakashBabu, C.; Sathe, A.V.; Kumar, P.; Sethi, A.K.

    , in the Gulf of Mexico, the Norwegian Sea, and along the northern Cascadian margin— are long known not only for their conventional hydrocarbon potential but also for their gas hydrate accumulation fields (e.g. Brooks et al. 1986; Kennicutt et al. 1988... in future studies attempting to collect long cores and extract methane gas for exploration purposes in the Krishna–Godavari Basin. Hardage and Roberts (2006) have summarized the mechanism of hydrate formation in the Gulf of Mexico by adopting the concept...

  9. Reconciling drainage and receiving basin signatures of the Godavari River system (United States)

    Ojoshogu Usman, Muhammed; Kirkels, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne; Zwart, Huub Michel; Basu, Sayak; Ponton, Camilo; Blattmann, Thomas Michael; Ploetze, Michael; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron; Peterse, Francien; Lupker, Maarten; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy Ian


    The modern-day Godavari River transports large amounts of sediment (170 Tg per year) and terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr; 1.5 Tg per year) from peninsular India to the Bay of Bengal. The flux and nature of OCterr is considered to have varied in response to past climate and human forcing. In order to delineate the provenance and nature of organic matter (OM) exported by the fluvial system and establish links to sedimentary records accumulating on its adjacent continental margin, the stable and radiogenic isotopic composition of bulk OC, abundance and distribution of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), sedimentological properties (e.g. grain size, mineral surface area, etc.) of fluvial (riverbed and riverbank) sediments and soils from the Godavari basin were analysed and these characteristics were compared to those of a sediment core retrieved from the continental slope depocenter. Results show that river sediments from the upper catchment exhibit higher total organic carbon (TOC) contents than those from the lower part of the basin. The general relationship between TOC and sedimentological parameters (i.e. mineral surface area and grain size) of the sediments suggests that sediment mineralogy, largely driven by provenance, plays an important role in the stabilization of OM during transport along the river axis, and in the preservation of OM exported by the Godavari to the Bay of Bengal. The stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) characteristics of river sediments and soils indicate that the upper mainstream and its tributaries drain catchments exhibiting more 13C enriched carbon than the lower stream, resulting from the regional vegetation gradient and/or net balance between the upper (C4-dominated plants) and lower (C3-dominated plants) catchments. The radiocarbon contents of organic carbon (Δ14COC) in deep soils and eroding riverbanks suggests these are likely sources of old or pre-aged carbon to the Godavari River that increasingly dominates the late Holocene portion of

  10. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  11. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  12. Indigenisation of Psychology in India (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.


    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  13. From Hair in India to Hair India. (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M


    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  14. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements...... between growth in GNP per capita and growth in medal points (no. 1: five points, no. 2: three points, no.3: two points) in Olympic Summer Games. The findings show no correlation and in a few calculations a very weak correlation. Among the countries behaving in accordance with the hypothesis in the most...

  15. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.


    India has now nine years of experience with her in nuclear power generation. The system has been acclaimed on various grounds by the authority concerned with its organization in the country. The present paper intends to examine critically the claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal power which is asserted often by the spokesmen for the former. Information about the cost of nuclear power that is available to researchers in India is very meagre. Whatever appears in official publications is hardly adequate for working out reasonable estimates for scrutiny. One is therefore left to depend on the public statements made by dignitaries from time to time to form an idea about the economics of nuclear power. Due to gaps in information we are constrained to rely on the foreign literature and make careful guesses about possible costs applicable to India

  16. Female feticide in India. (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin


    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  17. Sedimentary architecture of a Plio-Pleistocene proto-back-arc basin: Wanganui Basin, New Zealand (United States)

    Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Nodder, Scott; Kamp, Peter J. J.


    The sedimentary architecture of active margin basins, including back-arc basins, is known only from a few end-members that barely illustrate the natural diversity of such basins. Documenting more of these basins types is the key to refining our understanding of the tectonic evolution of continental margins. This paper documents the sedimentary architecture of an incipient back-arc basin 200 km behind the active Hikurangi subduction margin, North Island, New Zealand. The Wanganui Basin (WB) is a rapidly subsiding, Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary basin located at the southern termination of the extensional back-arc basin of the active Central Volcanic Region (TVZ). The WB is asymmetric with a steep, thrust-faulted, outer (arc-ward) margin and a gentle inner (craton-ward) margin. It contains a 4-km-thick succession of Plio-Pleistocene sediments, mostly lying offshore, composed of shelf platform sediments. It lacks the late molasse-like deposits derived from erosion of a subaerial volcanic arc and basement observed in classical back-arc basins. Detailed seismic stratigraphic interpretations from an extensive offshore seismic reflection data grid show that the sediment fill comprises two basin-scale mega-sequences: (1) a Pliocene (3.8 to 1.35 Ma), sub-parallel, regressive "pre-growth" sequence that overtops the uplifted craton-ward margin above the reverse Taranaki Fault, and (2) a Pleistocene (1.35 Ma to present), divergent, transgressive, "syn-growth" sequence that onlaps: (i) the craton-ward high to the west, and (ii) uplifted basement blocks associated with the high-angle reverse faults of the arc-ward margin to the east. Along strike, the sediments offlap first progressively southward (mega-sequence 1) and then southeastward (mega-sequence 2), with sediment transport funnelled between the craton- and arc-ward highs, towards the Hikurangi Trough through the Cook Strait. The change in offlap direction corresponds to the onset of arc-ward thrust faulting and the rise of

  18. Female sterilization in India : The quality and effect of an observed sterilization camp at The Methodist Public Health Centre, Mursan, India


    Wikborg, Pia; Svensk, Marie


    Population growth is a big challenge for India, and family planning is highly prioritized by the Government of India. Sterilization is the most common voluntary contraceptive method in India and has for many years been performed in camps. This thesis is based on our observation of a sterilization camp at the Methodist Public Health Centre in Mursan, India and available literature on the subject. We have looked closer at the effect of female sterilization as a method of contraception and t...

  19. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid


    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  20. Reorienting India's financial system: In conversation with Dr Duvvuri Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Moorthy


    Full Text Available Confronted by a slowing economy, the Reserve Bank of India has undertaken steps to revive it. These measures, however, run the risk of worsening current high levels of inflation. This paper examines certain aspects of India's financial system that have contributed to this situation. It argues that unduly low yields on Government bonds have prevented a healthy financial system from developing, with adverse impact upon inflation and other macroeconomic outcomes. It suggests that India should focus far more on domestic, and less on external, financial liberalisation. Specifically, yields on non-market borrowing, such as Provident Fund deposits, should be benchmarked to a low frequency measure of consumer price inflation.

  1. Multivariate analysis of subsurface radiometric data in Rongsohkham area, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India): implication on uranium exploration. (United States)

    Kukreti, B M; Pandey, Pradeep; Singh, R V


    Non-coring based exploratory drilling was under taken in the sedimentary environment of Rangsohkham block, East Khasi Hills district to examine the eastern extension of existing uranium resources located at Domiasiat and Wakhyn in the Mahadek basin of Meghalaya (India). Although radiometric survey and radiometric analysis of surface grab/channel samples in the block indicate high uranium content but the gamma ray logging results of exploratory boreholes in the block, did not obtain the expected results. To understand this abrupt discontinuity between the two sets of data (surface and subsurface) multivariate statistical analysis of primordial radioactive elements (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) was performed using the concept of representative subsurface samples, drawn from the randomly selected 11 boreholes of this block. The study was performed to a high confidence level (99%), and results are discussed for assessing the U and Th behavior in the block. Results not only confirm the continuation of three distinct geological formations in the area but also the uranium bearing potential in the Mahadek sandstone of the eastern part of Mahadek Basin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  3. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay


    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  4. India, Octavio Paz y los retos de la multiculturalidad. Un ensayo sobre la diversidad cultural en India


    Felipe Arocena


    Solo India y China pasan la barrera de los mil millones de habitantes y el siglo XXI los tendrá a ambos como protagonistas centrales. La transformación de la economía india y la modernización social incrementaron su velocidad en las últimas décadas, pero visibles rasgos de su cultura y su pobreza resultan difíciles de comprender para la mirada occidental. La exuberante multiculturalidad de la India se expresa en la coexistencia a veces explosiva de varias religiones (hindúes 81%, musulmanes 1...

  5. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1) (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.


    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  7. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross


    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  8. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.


    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  9. Social marketing of condoms in India. (United States)

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R


    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  10. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.


    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  11. Current status and history of teleradiology in India. (United States)

    Jankharia, B


    Teleradiology is yet to take off in India. This is unfortunate since this technology is ideal for a country like India, where expertise in remote areas for advanced investigations such as CT and MR, is lacking. We were the first center in India to use teleradiology on a regular basis. Our initial methodology in 1996 was using video-capture cards and Windows 95 dial-up protocols. Now we use DICOM transfers and remote-access software. Even today, 4 years later, we are the only center in India using teleradiology on a regular basis.

  12. Crustal characteristic variation in the central Yamato Basin, Japan Sea back-arc basin, deduced from seismic survey results (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; No, Tetsuo; Miura, Seiichi; Kodaira, Shuichi


    The crustal structure of the Yamato Bank, the central Yamato Basin, and the continental shelf in the southern Japan Sea back-arc basin is obtained based on a seismic survey using ocean bottom seismographs and seismic shot to elucidate the back-arc basin formation processes. The central Yamato Basin can be divided into three domains based on the crustal structure: the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. In the deep basin domain, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-13 km thick. Very few units have P-wave velocity of 5.4-6.0 km/s, which corresponds to the continental upper crust. In the seamount and transition domains, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-16 km thick. The P-wave velocities of the upper and lower crusts differs among the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. These results indicate that the central Yamato Basin displays crustal variability in different domains. The crust of the deep basin domain is oceanic in nature and suggests advanced back-arc basin development. The seamount domain might have been affected by volcanic activity after basin opening. In the transition domain, the crust comprises mixed characters of continental and oceanic crust. This crustal variation might represent the influence of different processes in the central Yamato Basin, suggesting that crustal development was influenced not only by back-arc opening processes but also by later volcanic activity. In the Yamato Bank and continental shelf, the upper crust has thickness of about 17-18 km and P-wave velocities of 3.3-4.1 to 6.6 km/s. The Yamato Bank and the continental shelf suggest a continental crustal character.

  13. Worldwide WANO biennial in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrubelova, A.


    At the turn of January and February 2010, there was an annual general conference of the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO held in Delhi, India. One of the representatives, participating on behalf of Slovenske elektrarne, was also Mr. Robert Guns, a former Director of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. After his return from India, he was approached by Anna Vrubelova. (author)

  14. CDM Country Guide for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on India

  15. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J


    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  16. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.


    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  17. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  18. Tradition and Modernity: India's Quantum Leap into the 21st Century. Independent Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India). (United States)

    Stewart, Elise

    This lesson on India is suggested as a culminating activity to bring together previously taught units about infrastructure, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, ancient India, and contemporary India. The lesson's goals are to examine how a country's cultural background can influence change and to study the development of modern infrastructure. The students…

  19. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan


    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  20. Declining Groundwater Levels in North India: Understanding Sources of Irrigation Inefficiency (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.


    Over the last half century, the green revolution has transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country, into the world's third largest grain producer and one of the most intensely irrigated regions on the planet. This is in no small part due to the country's vast water resources along with an increase in tubewells and more advanced abstraction methods. While agricultural intensification has had undeniable benefits, it has, and continues to have a significant impact on water resources. Unless solutions which take into consideration the ever evolving socio-economic, hydrological and climatic conditions are found, India's agricultural future looks bleak.This research examines the irrigation behaviour of farmers, using data collected during field work in the State of Uttar Pradesh within the Ganges Basin of North India. Significant differences in farmer behaviour and irrigation practices are highlighted, not only between State districts but between individual farmers. This includes the volume of irrigation water applied and the price paid, as well as differences in the yields of crops produced. Analyses of results suggest that this is due to a number of factors, particularly the source of irrigation water. Study areas which had access to cheaper, but crucially less reliable, canal water were found to invest in more efficient water saving technologies in order to reduce the overall cost of irrigation during periods where less expensive canal water is not available. As a result, overall water use and irrigation cost is lower and yields are higher despite very similar climatic conditions. While cheap canal water is not an option for all farmers, the results show that the introduction of more efficient water saving technologies, despite the significant capital expenditure is a viable option for many farmers and costs can be recovered in a relatively short space of time. In addition, the reduction of declining water levels mean that water is abstracted from

  1. Cenozoic Deformation of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China): a Record of the Deformation Propagation through the Asian Orogenic System (United States)

    Laborde, A.; Barrier, L.; Simoes, M.; Li, H.


    During the Cenozoic, the ongoing India-Eurasia collision resulted in the formation of the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau and reactivated the Tian Shan and Altai ranges located thousands of kilometers further north. Despite numerous studies carried out on the geology and tectonics of this large convergent orogenic system, several mechanisms remain controversial such as the stress propagation through the Asia Continent or the strain partitioning between crustal thickening and lateral extruding of its lithosphere. Located between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tian Shan Range, the Tarim Basin and its several kilometres thick Cenozoic sediments derived from the surrounding mountain belts are key recorders to reconstruct the evolution of the latters. Moreover, this basin is often considered as a relatively rigid block, which behaved as a secondary ``indenter'' transmitting collisional stresses to the Tian Shan. However, due to the size of the Tarim and its thick Cenozoic sedimentary series hiding most of its structures, the constraints on the spatial distribution and timing of the its Cenozoic deformation remain fragmentary. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to produce a synthetic view of this deformation at the scale of the whole basin. Based on numerous surface and subsurface data (satellite images, field surveys, seismic profiles, and well data), we established a tectonic map of the Cenozoic structures in the region and built balanced geological cross-sections across the basin. Our surface and subsurface observations confirm that, contrary to what had been proposed, the Tarim block has also undergone a major deformation during the Cenozoic. The quantification and history of this deformation provide useful insights into the modalities of the crustal shortening in the area and the problems of stress propagation and strain partitioning following the Indo-Asian collision.

  2. Spent LWR fuel storage costs: reracking, AR basins, and AFR basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Whenever possible, fuel storage requirements will be met by reracking existing reactor basins and/or transfer of fuel to available space in other reactor basins. These alternatives represent not only the lowest cost storage options but also the most timely. They are recognized to face environmental and regulatory obstacles. However, such obstacles should be less severe than those that would be encountered with AR or AFR basin storage. When storage requirements cannot be met by the first two options, the least costly alternative for most utilities will be use of a Federal AFR. Storage costs of $100,000 to $150,000 MTU at a AFR are less costly than charges of up to $320,000/MTU that could be incurred by the use of AR basins. AFR storage costs do not include transportation from the reactor to the AFR. This cost would be paid by the utility separately. Only when a utility requires annual storage capacity for 100 MTU of spent fuel can self-storage begin to compete with AFR costs. The large reactor complexes discharging these fuel quantities are not currently those that require relief from fuel storage problems

  3. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  4. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie


    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  5. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri


    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  6. Growing Atmospheric Pollution and Its Relation with Occurrences of Natural Hazards in India (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh

    In the last three decades, multi satellite remote sensing data have revealed increasing atmospheric pollution. The satellite data have shown spatial distribution of fine and coarse atmospheric particles which impact human health, cloud albedo and atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The long range dusts coming over India travel through Arabian Sea and reach to the Bay of Bengal, such long range transport of dust influences atmospheric and ocean parameters, as a result strong coupling exists between land-ocean-atmosphere. Various kind of natural hazards, such as cyclone, algal bloom, cloud burst, excessive rainfall have been observed apart from the intense fog, haze and smog during winter and post monsoon seasons that have serious impacts on human health of people living in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The long range transport of dust and local anthropogenic emissions also reach to the Himalayan region affecting snow and glaciers of Himalaya and accelerating melting of snow and glaciers which is a threat of flooding of rivers originate from Himalayan region.

  7. PV opportunities in India (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.


    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  8. India: General Survey Unit for World Civilization Course Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India). (United States)

    Brinton, Victoria

    This unit is intended to provide high school students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Lessons include: (1) "Early India"; (2) "Indian Civilization 1500 BC - 500 AD: Hinduism"; (3) "Buddhism"; (4) "Indian Empires"; (5) "Indian Empires, Continued"; (6)…

  9. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.


    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  10. Cross-subsidy in electricity tariffs: evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.


    The recent reforms in India have been equated to the reduction of cross-subsidization in electricity tariffs. Examining the usefulness of cross subsidies in electricity tariffs in India, I have argued that they are prone to considerable inefficiencies and should be discontinued. I have also formally examined the viability of above-cost tariffs in the industrial sector to allow subsidized domestic and agricultural consumption. Finally, I have used data from a distribution company in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India to estimate industrial demand for electricity and have found that the policy of cross-subsidy may have indeed gone overboard in India. (author)

  11. Power generation in India: analysing trends and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objective of this report is to provide up-to-date data, critical analysis and information encompassing all aspects of power generation in India. The report provides historic and future outlook for power generation in India. It also provides an evaluation of private participation in power generation segment of India and investment opportunities in Indian power sector. In addition, the report examines policies, regulatory framework and financing of power generation in India. It also highlights key issues and challenges that are restricting the accelerated development of this sector. The report has thirteen chapters in total. (author)

  12. Population Growth and National Population Policy of India (United States)

    Thukral, A. K.; Singh, B. P.


    The population growth in India may overtake China by the year 2030. The National Population Policy of India targets population stabilization in India by the year 2045. The present paper carries out objective analysis of the population growth in India in terms of change in specific growth. At the present rate of specific growth rate decline, the population by the end of the century will be 2.49 billion. For the population to achieve zero growth by the year 2045, a decline in specific growth rate will have to be achieved at the rate of 0.000428 per year.

  13. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, development and perspectives. (United States)

    Joshi, Vinod Kumar; Joshi, Apurva; Dhiman, Kartar Singh


    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) is a unique book of standards describing the quality, purity and strength of selected drugs that are manufactured, distributed, and sold by the licensed manufacturers in pan India. It is developed in two parts; the part one comprises of mono-monographs of medicinal substances of natural origin and part two includes selected compound formulations sourced from the schedule - I books under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 comprising of popular Ayurvedic classics of different period of times. The first part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India was published in 1978 and thereafter, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (mono-monograph) Part-I, Vol. I was published in the year 1989 and subsequently, the other volumes were published with their legalized status under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. The study was aimed to bring out the existing knowledge on the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia with its chronological development reviewed from the ancient Vedic Compendia with its continuum in Ayurvedic classics of different period of time till recent past. A literary search based on the ancient origin of Ayurveda was carried out. The drug making from the natural resources and utility of the knowledge exist in classical Ayurvedic works of different period of time till composition of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and its importance as official documents of Govt. of India for Standards of Ayurvedic Drugs and its perspectives have been discussed. The present paper reviews on the systemic development and different aspects of drug-making (Pharmacopoeia) with evidence lying in the 5000 years old work of India. During the systematic review of the various works of different period of times (ancient, medieval and modern), it was found that the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has its development during 20th Century as an official document of Govt. of India comprising of single drugs monograph and compound formulations. In India, the development of

  14. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  15. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India. (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj


    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  16. Multiple sclerosis in India: Iceberg or volcano. (United States)

    Zahoor, Insha; Haq, Ehtishamul


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) 1 is a chronic neurodegenerative disease involving destruction of the myelin sheath around axons of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve. There has been a tremendous transformation in its perspective across globe. In recent years, its prevalence has changed dramatically worldwide and India is no exception. Initially, MS was believed to be more common in the Caucasians of Northern Europe and United States; however, it has been found to be present in Indian subcontinent as well. There has been a considerable shift in MS prevalence in India and this has really changed the notion of considering India as a low risk zone for MS. In this review, a concise overview and latest update on changing scenario of MS in India is presented along with some major challenges regarding it persisting across globe even today. In India, remarkable upsurge is needed in carrying out large scale population-based epidemiological studies to get an idea about the true incidence and prevalence rates of MS viz a viz disease burden. Through this review, we have probably tried to identify the actual picture of MS prevalence in India and this could serve as harbinger for upcoming research and at the same time it would definitely aid in working out future strategies for MS management in the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. India mental health country profile. (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K


    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akande, S.O; Adekeye, O.A.; Oj, O.J; Erdtmann, B.D.; Koutsokous, E.I.


    The stratigraphy, facies relationship and paleoenvironment of selected West African and the Brazillian rift basins permit the recognition of at least two major petroleum systems apart from the prolific Niger Delta petroleum system. The Lower Cretaceous fluivio-lacustrine petroleum system and Upper Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary, marine dominated petroleum system. Our combined studies of the stratigraphic, structural framework, paleoenvironment and time-space relationships of the petroleum systems in the Benue/Dahomey and the Potiguar/Ceara basins indicated that rifting and subsequent drifting during the opening of the South Atlantic controlled subsidence, sediment deposition and facies associations in individual basins. Whereas in the Potiguar/Ceara basins, the best developed source rocks are within the Neomacin-Aptian fluvio- lacustrine sequence of the Pendencia and Alagamar Formations which generated reserved hydrocarbon in the Acu Formation, empirical evidence for this petroleum system in the contiguous Benue/Dahomey basins are only based on the geochemical characteristics of the lower parts of the Bima Formation and the Abeokuta Group. In contrast, the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary marine petroleum system, which is constrained by poor development of reservoirs in the Potiguar/Ceara basin is productive in the Benue/Dahomey basins where source rocks, reservoir and sealing facies occur at this interval. Considering the recent hydrocarbon discoveries of the East Niger basin, the Doba (southern Chad), the Muglad basin (southern Sudan) sourced from the fluvio-lacustrine rift sequences, we suggest that this petroleum system needs more detailed exploration and has some potentials in the Benue/Dahomey frontier basins

  19. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume II. Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and high variable precipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  20. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between the Valencia and Liguro-Provençal Basins (NW Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Pellen, Romain; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Silenziario, Carmine; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup


    The present-day compartmented Mediterranean physiography is inherited from the last 250 Ma kinematic plate evolution (Eurasian, Africa, Iberic and Nubia plates) which implied the formation of orogenic chains, polyphased basins, and morphological - geodynamic thresholds. The interactions between these entities are strongly debated in the North-Western Mediterranean area. Several Neogene reconstructions have been proposed for the Valencia basin depending of the basin segmentation where each model imply a different subsidence, sedimentary, and palaeo-environmental evolution. Our study propose a new kinematic model for the Valencia Basin (VB) that encompasses the sedimentary infill, vertical movement and basin segmentation. Detailed analyses of seismic profiles and boreholes in the VB reveal a differentiated basin, the Minorca Basin (MB), lying between the old Mesozoic Valencia Basin sensu strico (VBss) and the young Oligocene Liguro-Provencal Basin (LPB) (Pellen et al., 2016). The relationship between these basins is shown through the correlation of four Miocene-to-present-day megasequences. The Central and North Balearic Fracture Zones (CFZ and NBFZ) that border the MB represent two morphological and geodynamical thresholds that created an accommodation in steps between the three domains. Little to no horizontal Neogene movements have been found for the Ibiza and Majorca Islands and imply a vertical "sag" subsidence. In contrast, the counterclockwise movement of the Corso-Sardinian blocks induced a counterclockwise movement of the Minorca block towards the SE along the CFZ and NBFZ, during the exhumation of lower continental crust in the LPB. The South-Eastward Minorca block translation stops when the first atypical oceanic crust occurs. The influence of the Neogene Betic compressional phase is thus limited to the VBss on the basis of a different MB origin. This new understanding places the AlKaPeCa blocks northeastward of the present-day Alboran Area. Both NW-SE and

  1. India-Australia energy cooperation: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rahul


    Energy ties between India and Australia are centuries old and can be traced back to the days of East India Company of the British-Indian era. From the first commercial export in the form of a shipment of coal to India from Australia in 1797, energy cooperation has come a long way. For instance, apart from making unswerving attempts to get Australian yellowcake, attempts have been made by India to ensure greater supply of coal and natural gas. Both the countries are also trying to find ways and means to work jointly on increasing the production of geo-thermal and solar energy as also to enhance clean-energy technology cooperation among other things. Energy forms the core of a nation's national security as a country's economy is fuelled by energy resources and India is no exception in this respect. It holds a prime position as the Indian economy has been growing at a rate of six to seven per cent in the past few years. There is no denying that India has come a long way since independence in the energy sector. However greater levels of consumption, both industrial and domestic have led to a stage where the supply of energy falls short of the demand. The main focus of the government of late has been on capacity-building of the economy. Energy-intensive projects such as infrastructure development are the top priorities of the government; something which had been neglected in most parts of independent India. And this is where the importance of Australia for India lies, given its abundant energy resources. Indian companies are interested in investing in coal mining and oil and gas exploration in Australia. The five action plans that were signed in November 2008 with the Ministries of Power, Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mines, and New and Renewable Energy are the buildings blocks to build on and to take forward the bilateral engagement in the energy sector

  2. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys along southern margin of Indravati basin, Central India - a guide to unconformity related uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, I.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Sreenivas, R.; Chari, M.N.; Dash, J.K.; Roy, M.K.


    Geophysical methods play vital role at various stages in mineral exploration programme particularly in case of buried deposits. The unconformity related uranium deposits owing to their concealed nature are explored by geophysical methods as an indirect tool. Regional ground gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted to decipher the basin configuration, presence of fault/ fractures and basic activity. These structural features may form favorable criteria for mineralisation. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data along the southern margin of Mesoproterozoic Indravati basin has been correlated with ground follow up geological investigation. There exists a good correlation between interpreted faults, fracture zones and mafic activity from the magnetic and gravity surveys with available borehole data in the area. Further, 2D models generated from magnetic data have paved the way for planning boreholes and thereby reorienting the sub-surface exploration programme. Evidence of alteration and fracturing intercepted from the borehole correlates well with the low gravity and magnetic. Hence, gravity and magnetic surveys can be effectively utilized in delineating basement configuration and to estimate sediment thickness besides deciphering post sedimentary fault/fractures which are favorable factors for unconformity related uranium mineralisation. (author)

  3. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  4. Malaria in inter-war British India. (United States)

    Bynum, W F


    British India was an important site of much important malaria research. Although Ronald Ross left India in 1899, a number of malariologists continued the task of evaluating the incidence and distribution of malaria in the country. Implementing practical solutions was hampered by formidable social and economic problems. This paper examines the Indian situation in the late 1920s, through a retrospective selection of writings chosen by J.A. Sinton for reproduction in an early issue of 'The records of the malaria survey of India', and the analysis of the Indian malaria situation through a visit of the League of Nations Malaria Commission in 1929.

  5. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan


    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  6. GIS based application tool -- history of East India Company (United States)

    Phophaliya, Sudhir

    The emphasis of the thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which gives an in depth information on history of East India Company. The GIS tool also incorporates various achievements of East India Company which helped to establish their business all over world especially India. The user has the option to select these movements and acts by clicking on any of the marked states on the World map. The World Map also incorporates key features for East India Company like landing of East India Company in India, Darjeeling Tea Establishment, East India Company Stock Redemption Act etc. The user can know more about these features simply by clicking on each of them. The primary focus of the tool is to give the user a unique insight about East India Company; for this the tool has several HTML (Hypertext markup language) pages which the user can select. These HTML pages give information on various topics like the first Voyage, Trade with China, 1857 Revolt etc. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the Indian map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the World map was designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface was intentionally kept simple and easy to use. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that pictures will help the user garner interest in the history of East India Company.

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation