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Sample records for cucurbita pepo var

  1. (cucurbita pepo) and sorghum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ... properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour blends fermented with pure strains of Lactobacillus ... good storage characteristics and affordable cost. (Akinrele ... (MRS), Nutrient agar (NA) and Potato dextrose.

  2. Physiological response of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo mycorrhized by Sonoran desert native arbuscular fungi to drought and salinity stresses

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    Citlalli Harris-Valle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium, and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa. Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa, as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.

  3. Characterization of Hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of Cucurbita pepo var Styriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, István; Palkovics, László

    2003-04-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in Hungary. The Hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. The virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. It can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo (L) var Styriaca), although at a very low rate. Three isolates from seed transmission assay experiments were chosen and their nucleotide sequences of coat proteins have been compared with the available CP sequences of ZYMV. According to the sequence analysis, the Hungarian isolates belong to the Central European branch in the phylogenetic tree and, together with the ZYMV isolates from Austria and Slovenia, share specific amino acids at positions 16, 17, 27 and 37 which are characteristic only to these isolates. The phylogenetic tree suggests the common origin of distantly distributed isolates which can be attributed to widespread seed transmission.

  4. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  5. Genetic diversity in Cucurbita pepo landraces from northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram mainly grouped the populations according to their mature fruit colour, and then according to their geographical origin. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in C. pepo landraces of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Key words: Cucurbita pepo landraces, genetic ...

  6. Genetics of oil pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Berenji Janoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. belongs to alternative crops grown for seeds and high quality seed oil. One of the basic prerequisites of successful production of oil pumpkin is the proper choice of cultivar. The genetics of different traits of oil pumpkin represents the basis for breeding of new cultivars of oil pumpkin. Of special interest for oil pumpkin breeding are the genetics of seed- coat, plant growth type, resistance to diseases and genetic basis of male sterility. For practical breeding of oil pumpkin the theory of monogenic inheritance of seed coat is quite satisfactory. In light of the theory of developmental reversal of dominance, it may be concluded for C. pepo that the bush type of growth is almost completely dominant over the vine habit at the beginning of plant growth, be- coming incompletely dominant in the second part of the season. In C. moshata several resistance genes of interest in oil pumpkin breeding for virus resistance were discovered. Male sterility, which was transferred to different genotypes of naked seeded oil pumpkin has potential for production of F1 hybrid seed. In addition to traits mention above, other genes of interest for genetics and breeding of oil pumpkin are also mentioned in this paper.

  7. Kompostų įtaka sunkiųjų metalų kiekio kaupimuisi aliejinių moliūgų (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca) vaisiuose

    OpenAIRE

    Neverauskaitė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Magistrantūros studijų baigiamajame darbe pateikiami aliejinių moliūgų sausųjų medžiagų, sunkiųjų metalų: kadmio, švino, chromo, vario, cinko ir nikelio duomenys, gauti juos auginant augalinių ir komunalinių atliekų kompostuose. Darbo objektas – aliejiniai moliūgai (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca) ‘Olivia’, auginti augalinių ir komunalinių atliekų kompostuose. Darbo metodai. Standartiniais metodais tirta sausųjų medžiagų kiekis aliejinio moliūgo minkštime, žievėje ir sėklose. Sunkiųjų metalų...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cucurbita pepo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Cucurbita pepo (backpeel and seeds) against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were carried out using standard procedures. The extraction was achieved using percolation method with ethanol and methanol as solvents. Higher yield of the ...

  10. Different AT-rich satellite DNAs in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganal, M; Hemleben, V

    1986-11-01

    The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) were cloned and their DNA structure was investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satellite DNA in Cucurbita pepo is 349-352 base pairs. The percentage of AT-base pairs is about 61%. This satellite is highly conserved in restriction enzyme pattern and DNA sequence; sequence heterogeneity is about 10%. In contrast, the satellite DNA of Cucurbita maxima has a repeat length of 168-169 base pairs. This satellite is also rich in AT-base pairs (64%), existing in at least three different variants as revealed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. The sequence heterogeneity between these variants is about 15%. The two satellite DNAs showed no cross-hybridization to each other and sequence homology is only limited. Nevertheless, we found in the C. pepo genome a high amount of sequences resembling the satellite of C. maxima. In contrast, the satellite repeat of C. pepo is found in the C. maxima DNA only in a few copies. These observations were discussed with respect to satellite DNA evolution and compared to the data received from monocotyledonous species.

  11. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  12. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of ΣDDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([ΣDDT] ∼ 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of ΣDDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about ΣDDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the ΣDDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that ΣDDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that ΣDDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of ΣDDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of ΣDDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  13. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  14. Extracellular Glycoproteins in Embryogenic Culture of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Hana Čipčić Paljetak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular proteins in three distinctly induced embryogenic lines of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. cultivated in four MS media modified regarding the nitrogen composition or auxin presence/absence have been analyzed. Extracellular glycoproteins containing α-D-mannose were specifically detected by the lectine concavalin A. During the cultivation of embryogenic tissue in the medium supplemented with reduced nitrogen, the embryos were mostly arrested at preglobular and globular developmental stages, which coincide with the absence of protein secretion. Secreted glycoproteins of 76, 68, 37 and 34 kDa were detected only if any of the three lines were cultivated in the medium that stimulates embryo development, irrespectively of the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or tunicamycin. The glycoprotein of 64 kDa was detected in all lines cultivated in hormone-free MS medium with conventional nitrogen sources and it appears to be associated with embryo maturation. Tunicamycin treatment did not influence embryogenesis, although it specifically affected glycosylation of proteins in the investigated lines. Our results show that besides auxin, the source of nitrate is of great importance for proper protein glycosylation, excretion and developmental transition of pumpkin somatic embryos.

  15. The Effect of Pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L) Seeds and L-Arginine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on androgenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in ...

  16. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  17. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, José; Cañizares, Joaquín; Roig, Cristina; Ziarsolo, Pello; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2011-02-10

    Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue) prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp) that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic variation in C. pepo, where limited prior genomic

  18. Identification of the proteins responsible for SAR DNA binding in nuclear matrix of ''Cucurbita pepo''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzepecki, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Szopa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear matrices from White bush (''Cucurbita pepo var. patisonina'') cell nuclei have been isolated using three methods: I, standard procedure involving extraction of cell nuclei with 2 M NaCl and 1% Triton X-100; II, the same with pre-treatment of cell nuclei with 0.5 mM CuSO 4 (stabilisation step); and III, method with extraction by lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS), and compared the polypeptide pattern. The isolated matrices specifically bind SAR DNA derived from human β-interferon gene in the exogenous SAR binding assay and in the gel mobility shift assay. Using IgG against the 32 kDa endonuclease we have found in the DNA-protein blot assay that this protein is one of the proteins binding SAR DNA. We have identified three proteins with molecular mass of 65 kDa, 60 kDa and 32 kDa which are responsible for SAR DNA binding in the gel mobility shift assay experiments. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  19. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is collecting and preserving of unique Cucurbita pepo germplasm in Serbia. This study also describes the intraspecific variation of C. pepo within twenty germplasm accessions. Conservation work aimed to develop a representative core collection of C. pepo germplasm, to guide future studies and breeding of its ornamental use. A wide range of C. pepo germplasm was collected from diferent parts of the world. Nineteen variables were recorded in 20 varieties to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among them. Qualitative traits of fruit such is shape, color and texture, showed immense variation. Coefficient of variation were highest for fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (CV=56.69161.32%, while they were the lowest for leaf length (CV=20.65%. Morphological characterization is need to facilitate the use of C. pepo varieties in breeding work. Based on the PCA results, 20 accessions of squash are separate in five groups. Those groups are unique in qualitative and quantitative traits. Knowledge of genetic divergence among varieties is essential for breeding.

  20. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras, Cristina; Gómez, Pedro; Monforte, Antonio J; Blanca, José; Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Roig, Cristina; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2012-02-22

    Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species.The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL). We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo) × Scallop (subsp. ovifera). The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research, especially considering that most of these markers are located in

  1. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Kofler, R.; Pachner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety “Lady Godiva” (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety “Bianco Friulano” (CN), which are the parents of our previous F2 mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0750-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18379753

  2. Inheritance of p,p'-DDE phytoextraction ability in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jason C

    2010-07-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) has been shown to uniquely phytoextract percent level amounts of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and other organic contaminants from soil. Since C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash) does not have this ability, a three-year field trial was conducted to follow the inheritance pattern of DDE accumulation for cross pollinated C. pepo cultivars. Parental zucchini and squash cultivars (3 each) had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) of 16 and 1.7, respectively, and phytoextracted 1.8 and 0.18% of the DDE from soil. The 18 possible first filial (F1) hybrids of zucchini and squash accumulated significantly different DDE levels than the respective parents. The zucchini F1 hybrid (zucchini pollinated with squash) stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were 10 and 0.96, respectively, or 36% and 47% less than the parental zucchini. The squash F1 hybrid (squash pollinated with zucchini) stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were 8.3 and 0.68, respectively, or 490% and 370% greater than the parental squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parent, the nine zucchini F1 BC cultivars did not regain the capability to take up DDE; stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were equivalent to those of the F1 generation. However, the nine squash F1 BC cultivars lost much of the DDE uptake capability of the F1 generation; stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were intermediate but closer to those of the parental squash. The inheritance patterns suggest single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability in C. pepo ssp pepo.

  3. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-03

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  4. Mathematical modelling of light-induced electric reaction of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves

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    Jan Stolarek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioelectRIc reactions of 14-16 day old plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and internodal cells of Nitellopsis obtusa to the action of visible and ultraviolet light (UV-C were studied. The possibility of analyzing the bioelectric reaction of pumpkin plants induced by visible light by means of mathematical modelling using a linear differential equation of the second order was considered. The solution of this equation (positive and negative functions can, in a sufficient way, reflect the participation of H+ and CI- ions in the generation of the photoelectric response in green plant cells.

  5. [Influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, V S; Shesterneva, O N; Surova, L M; Rumiantsev, E A; Vodeneev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.) was investigated in our work. It was shown that the variation potential induced by cotyledon burning propagates into a leaf. It decreases CO2 assimilation and transpiration as well as increases nonphotochemical quenching. Investigation of isolated chloroplasts showed that lowering of the pH in incubation medium from 6.9-7.2 to 6.5 increases nonphotochemical quenching. It was proposed that lowering of the cytoplasmic pH induced by the variation potential takes place in the photosynthetic response development.

  6. Inheritance profile of weathered chlordane and p,p'-DDTs accumulation by Cucurbita pepo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; Hawthorne, Joseph; Berger, William; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) accumulates significant levels of persistent organic pollutants in its roots, followed by unexpectedly high contaminant translocation to the stems. Most other plant species, including the closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash), do not have this ability. To investigate the mechanism of contaminant accumulation, two cultivars each of parental zucchini and squash, as well as previously created first filial (F1) hybrids and F1 backcrosses (BC) of those parental cultivars, were grown under field conditions in a soil contaminated with weathered chlordane (2.29 microg/g) and DDX residues (0.30 microg/g; sum of DDT, DDE, DDD). The parental zucchini had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) for chlordane and DDX of 6.23 and 3.10; these values were 2.2 and 3.7 times greater than the squash, respectively. Chlordane and DDX translocation factors, the ratio of contaminant content in the stems to that in the root, were 2.1 and 3.2 times greater for zucchini than for squash. The parental zucchini and squash also differed significantly in chlordane component ratios (relative amounts of trans-nonachlor [TN], cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC]) and enantiomer fractions for the chiral CC and TC. Hybridization of the parental squash and zucchini resulted in significant differences in contaminant uptake. For both the three separate component ratios (CR) and two sets of enantiomer fraction (EF) values, subspecies specific differences in the parental generation became statistically equivalent in the F1 hybrid zucchini and squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parental plants, the zucchini and squash F1 BC cultivars reverted to the statistically distinct CR and EF patterns. This pattern of trait segregation upon hybridization suggests either single gene or single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability by C. pepo ssp pepo.

  7. Changes in endogenous cytokinin levels in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) during natural and dark-induced senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, H.; Malbeck, Jiří; Kamínek, Miroslav; Staden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-142 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini) * chlorophyll content * Cytokinin Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004

  8. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  9. Effects of different fixation and freeze substitution methods on the ultrastructural preservation of ZYMV-infected Cucurbita pepo (L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2005-08-01

    Different fixation protocols [chemical fixation, plunge and high pressure freezing (HPF)] were used to study the effects of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) disease on the ultrastructure of adult leaves of Styrian oil pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) with the transmission electron microscope. Additionally, different media were tested for freeze substitution (FS) to evaluate differences in the ultrastructural preservation of cryofixed plant leaf cells. FS was either performed in (i) 2% osmium tetroxide in anhydrous acetone containing 0.2% uranyl acetate, (ii) 0.01% safranin in anhydrous acetone, (iii) 0.5% glutaraldehyde in anhydrous acetone or (iv) anhydrous acetone. No ultrastructural differences were found in well-preserved cells of plunge and high pressure frozen samples. Cryofixed cells showed a finer granulated cytosol and smoother membranes, than what was found in chemically fixed samples. HPF led in comparison to plunge frozen plant material to an excellent preservation of vascular bundle cells. The use of FS-media such as anhydrous acetone, 0.01% safranin and 0.5% glutaraldehyde led to low membrane contrast and did not preserve the inner fine structures of mitochondria. Additionally, the use of 0.5% glutaraldehyde caused the cytosol to be fuzzy and partly loosened. ZYMV-induced ultrastructural alterations like cylindrical inclusions and dilated ER-cisternae did not differ between chemically fixed and cryofixed cells and were found within the cytosol of infected leaf cells and within sieve tube elements. The results demonstrate specific structural differences depending on the FS-medium used, which has to be considered for investigations of selected cell structures.

  10. Protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4 induced neurotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, Sania; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Cucurbita pepo is a common vegetable used all over the world. In folk medicine it is used in gastroenteritis, hepatorenal and in brain anomalies. In the present study, protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4-induced neurotoxicity in rats was investigated. In this study, 36 Sprague-Dawley female rats (190±15 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group I was given 1 ml/kg bw (body weight) of corn oil intraperotoneally (i.p); Group II, III and IV were treated with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1ml/kg bw i.p.). However, animals of Group III and IV were also treated with CPME (methanol extract of C. pepo fruit peel) at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. Animals of Group V and VI were administered only with CPME at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. These treatments were administered 3 days a week for two weeks. Administration of CCl4 cause acute neurotoxicity as depicted by significant depletion (p<0.05) in the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase, while enhanced the γ-glutamyl transferase level in brain samples. CCl4 intoxication decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level whereas markedly (p<0.05) enhanced lipid peroxidation in brain samples. Co-treatment of CPME significantly (p<0.05) protected the brain tissues against CCl4 constituted injuries by restoring activities of antioxidant enzymes and ameliorated lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent fashion. These neuroprotective effects might be due to the presence of antioxidant constituents.

  11. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoextraction of weathered p,p-DDE by Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jason C; Ross, Daniel W; Gent, Martin P N; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia

    2006-10-11

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil by three cultivars of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo cv Costata Romanesco, Goldrush, Raven). Three commercially available mycorrhizal products (BioVam, Myco-Vam, INVAM) were inoculated into the root system of the zucchini seedlings at planting. In agreement with our previous findings, plants not inoculated with fungi accumulated large but variable amounts of contaminant, with root bioconcentration factors (BCFs, ratio of p,p'-DDE, on a dry weight basis, in the root to that in the soil) ranging from 10 to 48 and stem BCFs ranging from 5.5 to 11. The total amount of contaminant phytoextracted during the 62 day growing season ranged from 0.72-2.9%. The effect of fungal inoculation on the release of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and on the subsequent uptake of the parent compound by zucchini appeared to vary at the cultivar level. For Goldrush, fungal inoculation generally decreased tissue BCFs but because of slightly larger biomass, did not significantly impact the percent contaminant phytoextracted. Alternatively, for Costata, BioVam and Myco-Vam generally enhanced p,p'-DDE accumulation from soil, and increased the amount of contaminant phytoextracted by up to 34%. For Raven, BioVam reduced contaminant uptake whereas Myco-Vam and INVAM increased contaminant phytoextraction by 53 and 60%, respectively. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. The apparent cultivar specific response to mycorrhizal inoculation is unexpected and the subject of ongoing investigation.

  12. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stpiczynska, M.; Nepi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  14. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  15. First TILLING platform in Cucurbita pepo: a new mutant resource for gene function and crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Troadec, Christelle; Moya, Manuel; del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Picó, Belén; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Although the availability of genetic and genomic resources for Cucurbita pepo has increased significantly, functional genomic resources are still limited for this crop. In this direction, we have developed a high throughput reverse genetic tool: the first TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource for this species. Additionally, we have used this resource to demonstrate that the previous EMS mutant population we developed has the highest mutation density compared with other cucurbits mutant populations. The overall mutation density in this first C. pepo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1/133 Kb by screening five additional genes. In total, 58 mutations confirmed by sequencing were identified in the five targeted genes, thirteen of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was studied in a peroxidase gene, revealing that the phenotype of seedling homozygous for one of the isolated mutant alleles was albino. These results indicate that the TILLING approach in this species was successful at providing new mutations and can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to biological function and also the identification of novel variation for crop breeding.

  16. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  17. Morphological and Nutritive Variation in a Collection of Cucurbita pepo L. Growing in Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali ALIU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is the one of the important diversity centers for Cucurbita pepo because of their adaptation to diverse agro ecological conditions as a result of natural and also farmer�s selection. In Kosovo, in most cases C. pepo is grown both in maize fields and vegetable gardens as well as in other more intensive systems. Our expedition have identified different location in the part of Kosovo where were collected a samples at altitudes from 545 till 748 MASL. Kjeldahl method we have used to determine Protein content (PC. Lipids were determined by extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and diethyl ether was used as extraction solvent. The aim of the present investigation was carried out to study morphological diversity, protein and lipids content. Pumpkin populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit weight (FW, fruit shape (FSH. All populations for FW were on higher genetic variability + 2556.9 g or 97.71%. The collection showed appreciable phenotypic variation in fruit shape (FSH. The greater part of variance was accounted for protein content (PC and lipids content (LC. The estimation overall value ? in seed for PC and LC were 14.59%, and 32.99% respectively. This evaluation of traits variability can assist breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding programs.

  18. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  19. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  20. Accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDTs in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; White, Jason C

    2012-08-01

    Cucurbita pepo spp pepo (zucchini) is known as an exceptional weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) accumulator, whereas Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera (squash) is termed a nonaccumulator. Experiments were conducted with hybridized zucchini and squash to assess the inheritance pattern of DDX (the sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE]) accumulation potential in xylem sap and tissues of parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 backcross (BC) generations of plants. Plants were grown in pots containing soil with weathered DDX at 732 to 1,130 ng/g soil or under field conditions in soil with 322 to 2,700 ng/g. The DDX stem bioconcentration factors and xylem sap values showed differences between parental and hybridized plants of squash and zucchini. For squash grown in greenhouse conditions, the DDX flow rate in the xylem sap was 17.3, 121, and 40.8 ng/h in parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 BC plants, respectively. Similarly, the stem DDX content of parental, F1, and F1 BC squash was 11, 253, and 96 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. A similar inheritance pattern for squash was observed when the plants were grown under field conditions. The DDX flow rates in the xylem sap of pot-grown parental, F1, and F1 BC zucchini cultivars were 100, 8.5, and 26 ng/hr, respectively, and the stem DDX content was 191, 102, and 142 ng/g, respectively. Again, similar trends in accumulation potential were observed for hybridized zucchini grown under field conditions. The DDX concentrations in parental plants matched the expected pattern, with hybrids midway between the two species, and the backcross being more like the parent again for both species. This inheritance pattern of contaminant accumulation and translocation ability follows classical Mendelian segregation and suggests single-gene or single-locus control. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Effects of Gamma Rays on the Keeping Quality of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita Pepo L.); Pengaruh Iradiasi Gama pada Kualitas Tepung Labu Parang (Cucurbita Pepo L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irawati, Zubaidah [Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Atika, M. A .N. [Bogor Institute of Agriculture, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2004-02-15

    Pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L.) can be used as food diversification originally derived from plant as local product and raw material for making jam, cookies, spaghetti and instant noodles. Effects of gamma irradiation on pumpkin powder at medium doses during storage was observed. Whole pumpkin was cut into small pieces, then blanched at 90 {sup o}C for 5 min. followed by transforming it into paste form using wet grinder. The pumpkin paste was dried using drum drier then powdered by willey mill until a 60 mesh particle size was obtained. The powder was packed in a high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouch at 0.01 mm thickness. Pumpkin powder was irradiated at doses of 3 and 5 kGy respectively then stored at 28-30 {sup o}C for 2 and 4 months, respectively. Unirradiated individual pouch was also used as control. Irradiation with doses of 3 dan 5 kGy could reduce 2 log cycle of total bacterial count, no mold nor yeast growth in irradiated samples. Irradiation with doses of 3 and 5 kGy could effectively reduce the microbiological counts of the pumpkin powder observed. Pumpkin powder originated from 2 different habitat i.e., Cipanas and Brebes did not show any differences in some physico-chemical characteristics such as moisture content, Aw, protein, fat, starch, amylose contents, colour, but significantly different in sugar content. Both radiation and storage treatments could significantly reduce some of the physico-chemical characteristics of the investigated samples, but did not affect the general quality of pumpkin powder. (author)

  2. Determining the mineral composition in Cucurbita pepo fruit using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Gómez, Pedro; Blanco-Díaz, Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2014-12-01

    Efforts through conventional breeding to improve the mineral content in horticultural crops have not always been successful mainly due to the fact that standard analytical methods are both costly and time-consuming. We investigated the feasibility of applying near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to the estimation of essential mineral composition in the skin and flesh of summer squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) using a 200-sample set from diverse morphotypes. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (R(2) VAL) obtained for the skin and flesh of the fruit were: total mineral content, 0.84 and 0.70; P, 0.74 and 0.62; K, 0.83 and 0.67; Ca, 0.57 and 0.60; Mg, 0.78 and 0.45; Fe, 0.78 and 0.65; Cu, 0.67 and 0.66; Mn, 0.67 and 0.64; Zn, 0.80 and 0.79 and Na, 0.33 and 0.33; respectively. NIRS combined with different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression has shown to be useful in determining the mineral composition of summer squash fruit, being a fast and low-cost analytical technique. Components such as chlorophyll, starch and lipids were used by MPLS for modelling the predicting equations. The promotion of micronutrient-rich summer squash varieties could have a significant long-term beneficial impact on the health of mineral deficient human populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  4. The role of Cucurbita pepo in the management of patients affected by lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Rocco; Cai, Tommaso; Fornara, Paolo; Franzese, Corrado Antonio; Leonardi, Rosario; Mirone, Vincenzo

    2016-07-04

    Phytotherapeutic compounds are largely used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due to low side-effect profiles and costs, high level of acceptance by patients and a low rate of dropout. Here, we aimed to analyze all available evidence on the role of Cucurbita pepo in the treatment of LUTS-BPH. In May 2016 a systematic search was carried out thorough National Library of Medicine Pubmed, Scopus database and the ISI Web of Knowledge official website in order to identify all published studies on Cucurbita pepo and BPH. The following search strings were used: "Cucurbita pepo" OR "pumpkin seed" AND "prostate"; "Cucurbita pepo" AND "antiandrogen" OR "antiproliferative" OR "anti-inflammatory" OR "antioxidant activities"; "cucurbita pepo" OR "pumpkin seed" AND "LUTS" AND "symptoms improvement" OR "quality of life". We consider for the present analysis only studies related to LUTS-BPH. Among all 670 screened, 16 were related to LUTSBPH and finally analyzed. Among all, ten of them were performed in "in vitro setting" showing anti-inflammatory and antiandrogen effect, and a reduction in prostate growth and detrusor activity, while six were clinical studies. In all studies an improvement in International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry parameters has been reported. In 4 studies, an improvement in quality of life has been reported. On the basis of our narrative review, the use of Cucurbita pepo in the management of patients affected by LUTS-BPH seems to be useful for improving symptoms and quality of life. However, future clinical trials are requested to confirm these promising results.

  5. Degradation of direct azo dye by Cucurbita pepo free and immobilized peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, Nabila; Abouseoud, Mahmoud; Adour, Lydia

    2013-06-01

    Enzymatic decolourization of the azo dye, Direct Yellow (DY106) by Cucurbita pepo (courgette) peroxidase (CP) is a complex process, which is greatly affected by pH, temperature, enzyme activity and the concentrations of H2O2 and dye. Courgette peroxidase was extracted and its performance was evaluated by using the free-CP (FCP) and immobilized-CP (ICP) forms in the decolourization of DY106. Immobilization of peroxidase in calcium alginate beads was performed according to a strategy aiming to minimize enzyme leakage and keep its activity at a maximum value by optimizing sodium alginate content, enzyme loading and calcium chloride concentration. The initial conditions at which the highest DY106 decolourization yield was obtained were found at pH 2, temperature 20 degrees C, H2O2 dose 1 mmol/L (FCP) and 100 mmol/L (ICP). The highest decolourization rates were obtained for dye concentrations 50 mg/L (FCP) and 80 mg/L (ICP). Under optimal conditions, the FCP was able to decolorize more than 87% of the dye within 2 min. While with ICP, the decolourization yield was 75% within 15 min. The decolourization and removal of DY106 was proved by UV-Vis analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was also performed on DY106 and enzymatic treatment precipitated byproduct.

  6. Expression Profile of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Genes in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, Clara I; Obrero, Ángeles; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary components that can be found in vegetable crops. The accumulation of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is altered by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) enzymes that produce their degradation. The aim of this work was to study the possible implication of CCD genes in preventing carotenoid storage in the horticultural crop summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). The relationship between the presence of these compounds and gene expression for CCDs was studied in three varieties showing different peel and flesh colour. Expression analysis for the CCD genes CpNCED1, CpNCED2, CpNCED3, CpNCED9, CpCCD1, CpCCD4a, CpCCD4b and CpCCD8 was carried out on different organs and at several fruit developmental stages. The results showed that the CpCCD4a and CpCCD4b genes were highly expressed in the variety with lowest carotenoid content suggesting a putative role in carotenoid accumulation pattern in summer squash fruit.

  7. Relationship Between Seed Yield And Some of Fruit Traits in Iranian Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Accissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barzegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of squash (Cucurbita pepo seed yield per fruit and its relations with other characteristics of fruit include: length, diameter, length: diameter ratio (fruit shape, flesh thickness, thousand seed weight and fruit weight, an experiment was conducted using 24 accessions of squash as a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Morphological traits were evaluated according to UPOV descriptor and UPGMA clustering algorithm clustered the accessions in 4 groups (predominantly on the basis of fruit shape. Correlation, regression and path analysis were done for mentioned characteristics in 4 type-fruit groups. There was negative correlation between seed yield of individual fruit and its length and fruit length: diameter ratio. But fruit weight, fruit diameter, and thousand seeds weight had positive correlation with seed yield. Seed weight: fruit weight ratio had negative relationship with fruit weight. Therefore small size fruit is more suitable for seed yield per area. Path analysis was showed fruit weight had the most positive direct effect on seed yield per fruit in all groups.

  8. Nano-silicon dioxide mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Faisal, Mohammad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz A

    2014-11-01

    Research into nanotechnology, an emerging science, has advanced in almost all fields of technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 ) in plant resistance to salt stress through improvement of the antioxidant system of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. white bush marrow). Seeds treated with NaCl showed reduced germination percentage, vigor, length, and fresh and dry weights of the roots and shoots. However, nano-SiO2 improved seed germination and growth characteristics by reducing malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as electrolyte leakage. In addition, application of nano-SiO2 reduced chlorophyll degradation and enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate, and water use efficiency. The increase in plant germination and growth characteristics through application of nano-SiO2 might reflect a reduction in oxidative damage as a result of the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase. These results indicate that nano-SiO2 may improve defense mechanisms of plants against salt stress toxicity by augmenting the Pn , gs , transpiration rate, water use efficiency, total chlorophyll, proline, and carbonic anhydrase activity in the leaves of plants. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. The morphology and ultrastructure of the nectaries of marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. giromontiina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the size and structure of the nectaries in flowers of marrow – Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina cv. ‘Weiser Busch’. The diameter and thickness of nectariferous layer were compared in female and male flowers of this taxon. The micromorphology as well as the anatomical and ultrastructural characters of the nectary from the female flower were observed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The density and size of stomata of the nectary epidermis from both types of flowers were examined using light microscopy. The nectaries in female flowers were found to have a larger size than in male flowers. The stomata occurring in the nectary epidermis of both types of flowers have a similar size and density. We observed that nectar was released onto the surface of the nectary not only via the stomata, but also through the walls of the epidermal cells. In TEM examination, large nuclei, different-shaped plastids, ER tubules, dictyosomes, and ribosomes were observed in the nectariferous tissue cells. A large number of mitochondria accompanying the plastids were found in the parenchyma cells of the nectary. The degradation of the nectary parenchyma cells in the flowers living for about 6 hours was asynchronous.

  10. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Stoner

    Full Text Available There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata" when applied to soil by two methods: (1 sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2 applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  11. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  12. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Developmental instability: measures of resistance and resilience using pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Dobson, Melissa; Jordan, Yolanda; Kizy, Anne; Micallef, Chris; Hancock, Leandria C.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry measures random deviations from bilateral symmetry, and thus estimates developmental instability, the loss of ability by an organism to regulate its development. There have been few rigorous tests of this proposition. Regulation of bilateral symmetry must involve either feedback between the sides or independent regulation toward a symmetric set point. Either kind of regulation should decrease asymmetry over time, but only right–left feedback produces compensatory growth across sides, seen as antipersistent growth following perturbation. Here, we describe the developmental trajectories of perturbed and unperturbed leaves of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepoL., grown at three densities. Covering one side of a leaf with aluminium foil for 24 h perturbed leaf growth. Reduced growth on the perturbed side caused leaves to become more asymmetrical than unperturbed controls. After the treatment the size-corrected asymmetry decreased over time. In addition, rescaled range analysis showed that asymmetry was antipersistent rather than random, i.e. fluctuation in one direction was likely to be followed by fluctuations in the opposite direction. Development involves right–left feedback. This feedback reduced size-corrected asymmetry over time most strongly in the lowest density treatment suggesting that developmental instability results from a lack of resilience rather than resistance. 

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  16. Oil from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds: evaluation of its functional properties on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaa, Sana; Ben Halima, Nihed; Aloui, Fatma; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Jabeur, Hazem; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-04-11

    Increasing natural drug demand for pharmaceutical uses has encouraged scientifics all over the world to explore medicinal plants recognized as efficient remedies. In this context, extracted oil from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an interesting target, as it is composed with prominent pharmacological properties to possible wound healing treatments. The composition and content of certain bioactive constituents of the cold pressed oil obtained from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) were analyzed and studied for their wound healing properties. Uniform wounds were induced on the dorsum of 18 rats, randomly divided into three groups. The wounds were photographed, and topically treated with saline solution (control group), 0.13 mg/mm(2) of a reference drug ("Cicaflora cream®"), and 0.52 μl/mm(2) of pumpkin's oil each 2 days until the first group is completely healing and so far biopsies were histologically assessed. The composition and content of tocopherols, fatty acids, and phytosterols were determined. The results showed an excellent quality of pumpkin oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Linoleic acid: 50.88 ± 0.106 g/100 g of total fatty acids), tocopherols (280 ppm) and sterols (2086.5 ± 19.092 ppm). High content of these bioactive components were in agreement with an efficient wound healing by the mean of an in vivo study. In fact, morphometric assessment and histological findings revealed healed biopsies from pumpkin oil treated group of rats, unlike untreated group, and a full re-epithelialization with reappearance of skin appendages and well organized collagen fibers without inflammatory cells. This study showed the significance of oil from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a promising drug to healing wounds in animal assays. As a whole, pumpkin's oil would be recommended in the nutritional and medicinal purposes.

  17. Combined impact of solar UV-B radiation and selenium treatment on respiratory potential in pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ, M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ambient and filtered solar UV-B radiation and of selenium treatment on respiratory potential measured by electron transport system (ETS) activity in pumpkins, Cucurbita pepo L. were studied. Measurements were conducted three times in the growth period. Solar UV-B radiation decreased ETS activity in plants, regardless selenium treatment. The results suggested that the solar UV-B radiation impaired flow of electrons in the respiratory chain. Selenium decreased ETS activity in plants exposed to solar UV-B radiation in the end of the vegetation period

  18. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Richard [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: rp232604@muhlenberg.edu; Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2007-07-15

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost.

  19. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2007-07-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media.

  20. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W.; White, Jason C.

    2007-01-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost

  1. Xylan-degrading enzymes in male and female flower nectar of Cucurbita pepo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, M.; Bini, L.; Bianchi, L.; Puglia, M.; Abate, M.; Cai, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nectar is a very complex mixture of substances. Some components (sugars and amino acids) are considered primary alimentary rewards for animals and have been investigated and characterized in numerous species for many years. In contrast, nectar proteins have been the subject of few studies and little is known of their function. Only very recently have detailed studies and characterization of nectar proteins been undertaken, and then for only a very few species. This current work represents a first step in the identification of a protein profile for the floral nectar of Cucurbita pepo. In this regard, the species studied is of particular interest in that it is monoecious with unisexual flowers and, consequently, it is possible that nectar proteins derived from male and female flowers may differ. Methods Manually excised spots from two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis were subjected to in-gel protein digestion. The resulting peptides were sequenced using nanoscale LC–ESI/MS-MS (liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry). An MS/MS ions search was carried out in Swiss-Prot and NCBInr databases using MASCOT software. Key Results Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a total of 24 spots and a different protein profile for male and female flower nectar. Four main proteins recognized by 2-D electrophoresis most closely resemble β-d-xylosidases from Arabidopsis thaliana and have some homology to a β-d-xylosidase from Medicago varia. They were present in similar quantities in male and female flowers and had the same molecular weight, but with slightly different isoelectric points. Conclusions A putative function for xylosidases in floral nectar of C. pepo is proposed, namely that they may be involved in degrading the oligosaccharides released by the nectary cell walls in response to hydrolytic enzymes produced by invading micro-organisms. Several types of oligosaccharides have been reported to increase the pathogenic

  2. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, S.; Flores-Ramirez, G.; Glasa, M.; Danchenko, M.; Fiala, R.; Škultéty, L'udovít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 2015 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cucurbita pepo cultivars * Zucchini yellow mosaic virus * resistance to phytopatogen Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  3. Effects of Gamma Rays on the Keeping Quality of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita Pepo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Atika, M. A .N.

    2004-01-01

    Pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L.) can be used as food diversification originally derived from plant as local product and raw material for making jam, cookies, spaghetti and instant noodles. Effects of gamma irradiation on pumpkin powder at medium doses during storage was observed. Whole pumpkin was cut into small pieces, then blanched at 90 o C for 5 min. followed by transforming it into paste form using wet grinder. The pumpkin paste was dried using drum drier then powdered by willey mill until a 60 mesh particle size was obtained. The powder was packed in a high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouch at 0.01 mm thickness. Pumpkin powder was irradiated at doses of 3 and 5 kGy respectively then stored at 28-30 o C for 2 and 4 months, respectively. Unirradiated individual pouch was also used as control. Irradiation with doses of 3 dan 5 kGy could reduce 2 log cycle of total bacterial count, no mold nor yeast growth in irradiated samples. Irradiation with doses of 3 and 5 kGy could effectively reduce the microbiological counts of the pumpkin powder observed. Pumpkin powder originated from 2 different habitat i.e., Cipanas and Brebes did not show any differences in some physico-chemical characteristics such as moisture content, Aw, protein, fat, starch, amylose contents, colour, but significantly different in sugar content. Both radiation and storage treatments could significantly reduce some of the physico-chemical characteristics of the investigated samples, but did not affect the general quality of pumpkin powder. (author)

  4. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  5. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  6. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  7. Some biological effects of one water based ferrofluid in cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Olteanu, Z.; Horga, E. I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The biological interest in the ferrofluid effect in living organisms represents an important application field, mainly for biotechnological use, since the small ferrophase size allows the penetration through the biological membranes. Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of an aqueous ferrofluid on the assimilatory pigments, the peroxide level, nucleic acid level and on the substance accumulation. Water based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added in various concentrations (10-50-100- 150-200-250 micro L/L) (after vigorous shaking) in the culture medium of Cucurbita pepo plantlets (pumpkin). Spectrophotometric standard assay methods have been applied in order to get experimental data regarding the levels of assimilatory pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenes), nucleic acids and peroxydase like enzymes. JASCO V350 spectrophotometer provided with. The stimulatory effect of relatively high ferrofluid concentrations have been observed in the ratio chlorophyll a/b, known as a measure of photosynthesis ratio. Non-significant changes in the nucleic acid level were noticed. Inhibitory effect upon the enzyme biosynthesis was assigned to the ferrofluid addition. The statistic analysis was accomplished by considering five repetitions of every measurement in ferrofluid samples and control ones. Average values of ferrofluid samples and control ones have been compared by means of t-test. Statistic significance was revealed in comparison to the significance threshold of 0.05. (Also one figure included.) References: [1] C. Gro , K.Buescher, E. Romanus, C,A, Helm, W.Weitschies, European cells and Materials, 2002, 3(2), 163. [2] M.M.Zamfirache, G. Capraru, D. Creanga, M. Racuciu, Gh. Calugaru, Ferrofluid experiment for simulating pollution effect on plant growth, The Annals of University Galati, 2004(XXVII), Fasc.II, 37. [3] A.Goodarzi, Y.Sahoo, M.T.Swihart, P.N. Prasad, Mat.Res.Soc.Symp.Proc., 2004,Vol.789, N6.6.1

  8. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  9. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  11. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g -1 ). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: → Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. → Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. → [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  12. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  13. Hormonal and epigenetic regulation during embryogenic tissue habituation in Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Mrvková, Mihaela; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Habituated embryogenic line of pumpkin contained more CKs and IAA, but less ABA than the non-habituated line. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azaC, and the process of habituation. A comparative analysis between habituated and non-habituated embryogenic cultures of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in relation to endogenous phytohormones, global DNA methylation, and developmental and regeneration capacities of the cultures was conducted. The analysis revealed more cytokinins (CKs) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but less abscisic acid (ABA) in the habituated HEC line than in the non-habituated DEC line. Ribosides and ribotides were the most abundant CK forms in both HEC and DEC lines (75.9 and 57.6 %, respectively). HEC contained more free-base CKs (5.8 vs. 3.2 %), whereas DEC contained considerably more O-glycosides (39.1 vs. 18.3 %). Although prevalence of IAA was common for both lines, relative ratio of CKs and ABA differed between DEC and HEC lines. ABA was prevailing over CKs in DEC, while CKs prevailed over ABA in HEC line. Taking into account the importance of ABA for embryo maturation, the reduced endogenous ABA content in HEC line might be the reason for a 5-fold reduction in regeneration capacity compared to DEC. Both habituated and non-habituated embryogenic lines were highly methylated in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), but also with the process of habituation. The habituated line was resistant to the effect of hypomethylation drug 5-azaC and remained highly methylated even after the addition of 5-azaC. Also, 5-azaC did not change the developmental pattern in the habituated line, indicating the existence of separate mechanisms by which 2,4-D influences global DNA methylation in comparison to habituation-related global DNA methylation.

  14. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  16. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  17. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (ppumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  18. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In silico analysis of compounds characterized from ethanolic extract of Cucurbita pepo with NF-κB-inhibitory potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon O. Rotimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB controls cellular growth properties of cells and its regulation is key to the management of disease like cancer. Although plant-derived bioactives have been reported to inhibit NF-κB, there is limited knowledge on the interactions between the phytochemicals and NF-κB. In this study, we identified the phytochemicals in ethanolic extract of Cucurbita pepo using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy technique and used in silico approach to understand the interaction between the identified phytochemicals and NF-κB using Molegro Virtual Docker. The docking algorithm showed that nine phytochemicals fit well into the pocket on NF-κB. Our analysis showed that Lys144 is a prominent residue by involving in the binding of 9-octadecenoic acid (Z-, methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and octadecanoic acid, methyl ester with the moldock score of -55.5264, -57.4634 and -61.1258 respectively. Hence, the binding of these phytochemicals to NF-κB could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer property of C. pepo.

  1. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  3. RNA transcription in isolated chloroplasts during senescence and rejuvenation of intact cotyledons of CUCURBITA PEPO L. (ZUCCHINI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, K.; Ananiev, E.; Denev, L.; Radeva, G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA transcription was studied in intact chloroplasts isolated from cotyledons of Cucurbita pepoL. (zucchini) during their growth and development including natural senescence and rejuvenation. Rejuvenation of cotyledons was studied after decapitation of the epicotyl above the senescing yellow cotyledons. Maximal incorporation of [32P] UTP into overall chloroplast RNA was measured two days after exposure of seedlings to light (day 6 th after the onset of germination), followed by a gradual decrease reaching minimal values at the age of 25-28 days when cotyledons began to yellow and eventually die. Rejuvenation of cotyledons completely restored chloroplast RNA synthesis and fifteen days after decapitation (at the age of 40 days), the values of chloroplast transcription even exceeded that of the maximal transcriptional activity in young cotyledons. Inhibitory analysis with tagetitoxin (a specific inhibitor of plastid encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase (PEP)) showed that in young and rejuvenated cotyledons about 85% of chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was due to PEP and only 15% corresponded to the nuclear encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP). Definite regions of two chloroplast encoded genes were amplified by means of PCR technique using specific DNA primers for Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) and the housekeeping gene for chloroplast 16S rRNA as well as chloroplast DNA as a template. The appropriate lengths of the amplified DNA fragments were checked by restriction analysis

  4. Activity of β-Galactosidase and Polygalacturonase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Stored at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Renato Balandrán-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When fruits are exposed to chilling temperatures, enzymatic systems are affected and normal cell metabolism is altered; cell wall enzymes are the least studied in this respect. Our objective is to determine the effect of storage temperature and/or kind of tissue on the activity of the enzymes polygalacturonase (PG and β-galactosidase (β-gal in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. subjected to 2.5 and/or 12 °C for 16 days. Exocarp and endocarp samples were analyzed every 4 days for PG and β-gal activities. The highest β-gal activity was found in the exocarp at 12 °C; in both tissues β-gal decreased with time at 2.5 °C, but increased at 12 °C. PG activity was higher in the endocarp (highest activity at 2.5 °C than in the exocarp (highest activity at 12 °C. It was concluded that PG activity in the exocarp constitutes an adequate system for studying the relationship between chilling injury and cell wall biological activity.

  5. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Effect of Irrigation Intervals, Black Plastic Mulch and Biofertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abbasi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. Styriaca is one of the medicinal plants belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is valuable in terms of seed oil and its fatty acids. The seed oil of this crop is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Reduction of agrochemicals (herbicides and fertilizers is considered as research priority in medicinal plants production. Therefore, the selected practices and inputs should be environmentally sound, cost-effective and lead to high yield. Because of large inter-row space in pumpkin field, there is vast area of the bare soil which leads to weed establishment and loss of soil moisture. It seems that black plastic mulch protects soil moisture and controls weeds, thus increases seed yield. Also, biofertilizers due to available micronutrients, solubility of phosphorus, biological nitrogen fixation and phyto-hormones production increase the yield and improve the quality characteristics such as the seed oil and seed protein content. Therefore, in this research, the effect of black plastic mulch and biofertilizer on yield and quality of pumpkin under different irrigation intervals were studied. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan during 2013 growing season. Treatments were included two irrigation intervals (I1: 7 days and I2: 12 days interval, black plastic mulch in two levels (M1: mulch and M2: no mulch, and four fertilizer regimes (F1: Supply 25% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources (urea + triple super phosphate + biofertilizers (nitroxin+bio-phosphate, F2: Supply 50% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources + biofertilizers, F3: Supply 75% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources + biofertilizers and F4: Supply 100% of nitrogen and

  7. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  8. Tocopherol from seeds of Cucurbita pepo against diabetes: validation by in vivo experiments supported by computational docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Prakash, Om; Jaiswal, Sudhir Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2013-11-01

    Tocopherol from raw pumpkin seeds has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant activities. This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of the tocopherol fraction of raw seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. (CPSE) in a diabetic rat model. In addition, the putative action mechanisms of its botanicals were computationally investigated. Seed water activity (Aw) was assessed. Tocopherol was extracted and quantified from raw seed oil. The effect of CPSE was studied in poloxamer-407 (PX-407)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. Glycemic, insulinemic, and lipid profiles, as well as lipid peroxidation status, were evaluated. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content in the cecum was evaluated and histopathological analysis of the pancreas was performed. Further, HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 10 documented CPSE botanicals, for putative action mechanisms concerning three proteins [protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)] known to have diabetic therapeutic potential. The Aw of raw seeds was found to be 0.544 ± 0.002. Using tocopherol standards, HPLC determination of CPSE revealed the presence of tocopherol isomers (α, β, γ, and δ). The tocopherol content was found to be 107.4 ± 2.9 mg/100 g of CPSE. When compared to diabetic control (DC) rats, the CPSE-treated diabetic rats presented a significant amelioration of glycemia, insulinemia, and lipid dysmetabolism. A remarkable reduction in oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics were also observed. Tocopherol isomers have shown a considerable interaction potential with the aforesaid proteins in docking. The results provide pharmacological evidence of CPSE as an antihyperglycemic mediated by the interaction of various botanicals with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus (DM).

  9. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  11. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE BIOMASA Y ACUMULACIÓN DE PLOMO EN CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L. CULTIVADA EN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriberto Solis-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del suelo contaminado con plomo en el híbrido experimental de calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L. denominado 'Termo'. Se cultivó calabacita en bolsas negras de polietileno, a cielo abierto. Se evaluaron las variables distribución de la producción de biomasa, altura de planta, contenido de clorofila y acumulación de plomo en raíz, tallo, hoja, flor y fruto. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 65, 300 y 1000 ppm de plomo aplicado al suelo a través de Pb(NO32. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones, y la unidad experimental fue una bolsa negra de polietileno con dos plantas. Las evaluaciones se hicieron 50 días después del trasplante para altura de planta y contenido de clorofila, y a los 52 días para peso fresco, peso seco y acumulación de plomo. Se observó que la altura de planta fue significativamente menor cuando se aplicó plomo a cualquier dosis. También se observó que la mayor acumulación de biomasa en raíz y tallo fue producida con la dosis 300 ppm y en fruto con 65 ppm de plomo, en tanto que la biomasa total y las unidades SPAD (clorofila no resultaron afectadas. De las estructuras comestibles, la flor presentó una mayor acumulación del metal que el fruto. A bajas dosis de plomo, la flor fue la estructura que más lo acumuló. Esto sugiere que es conveniente evaluar el contenido de metales pesados en productos agrícolas para consumo humano, aun cuando provengan de suelos contaminados sin intención.

  13. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.

  15. Determinação de paracetamol em produtos farmacêuticos usando um biossensor de pasta de carbono modificado com extrato bruto de abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Iolanda Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of several vegetables such as peach (Prunus persica, yam (Alocasia macrorhiza, manioc (Manihot utilissima, artichoke (Cynara scolymus L, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., turnip (Brassica campestre ssp. rapifera, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo were investigated as the source of peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7. Among those, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo crude extract was found to be the best one. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of paracetamol to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which the electrochemical reduction back to paracetamol was obtained at a peak potential of fraction three-quarters0.10V. A cyclic voltammetric study was performed by scanning the potential from + 0.5 to fraction three-quarters 0.5 V. The recovery of paracetamol from two samples ranged from 97.3 to 106% and a rectilinear calibration curve for paracetamol concentration from 1.2x10-4 to 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9965 were obtained. The detection limit was 6.9x10-5 mol L-1 and the relative standard deviation was less than 1.1% for a solution containing 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 paracetamol and 2.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide (n=12. The results obtained for paracetamol in pharmaceutical products using the proposed biosensor and Pharmacopoeial procedures are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  16. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  17. Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťálová, Zuzana; Hromádková, Zdenka; Ebringerová, Anna

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the seeded fruit biomass of the Styrian oil-pumpkin in view of its pectin component, a series of acidic polysaccharides were isolated by a six-step sequential extraction using hot water, EDTA, dilute HCl (twice) and dilute and stronger NaOH solutions. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses revealed that the first four fractions comprised partially methyl-esterified and acetylated pectins with varying proportions of rhamnogalacturonan regions ramified with galactose- and arabinose-containing side chains and showed considerable polymolecularity. The alkali-extracted polysaccharides contained lower amounts of pectins with homogalacturonan and arabinose-rich rhamnogalacturonan regions next to hemicelluloses prevailing in the last polysaccharide. Using (1)H-(13)C HSQC and HMBC spectroscopy, the resonances of free and methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in the purified acid-extracted pectin were unambiguously established and various diads formed by both residues identified. The results might serve as a basis for searching technological conditions to produce pectin from the oil-pumpkin fruit biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Cucurbita pepo L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Mehrnaz

    2017-08-01

    The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL -1 ) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1.5MPa) induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) for 14 days. Seeds exposed to MWCNTs showed reduction in germination percentage, root and shoot length, biomass accumulation and vigor index in a dose-dependent manner. However, seedlings germinated in MWCNTs-fortified media had significantly lower germination and growth attributes than those of control under water stress conditions. This happened due to increased oxidative injury indices including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as electrolyte leakage index (ELI) of tissues. The impaired morpho-physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs under both PEG-induced stress and non-stress growing conditions were consequence of changes in the activation of various cellular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (POD). Taken together, our findings reveal that MWCNTs played negative role on seed germination and subsequent growth of C. pepo L. seedlings under both levels of water potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição” = Pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição”

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    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima, variedade Exposição, realizaram-se dois ensaios, utilizando-se 128 plantas, numa área de 2.000 m2. A abertura e o murchamento das flores ocorreu, em média, às 6h35 e 13h52, respectivamente. Havia, em média, 2,26 flores masculinas para cada flor feminina. As flores femininas produziram, em média, 138,9% mais néctar que as masculinas. A produção de néctar foi menor no segundo ensaio devido à menor precipitação e menor umidade relativa do ar. A concentração total de açúcares do néctar foi 0,3 e 3,8% maior nas flores femininas em relação às masculinas, respectivamente, para o primeiro e segundo ensaios. As flores masculinas produziram, em média, 129.021 grãos de pólen por flor, com 91,2% viáveis às 9h00. O estigma das flores femininas foi receptivo aos grãos de pólen, em média, até às 13h40. As flores femininas foram mais atrativas que as masculinas.In order to study pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima var. “Exposição”, were conduced two tests, using 128 plants, in 2,000 m2. The opening and the withering of the flowers happened, on average, 6h35 and 13h52, respectively. There were, on average, 2.26male flowers for each female flower. The female flowers produced, on average 138.9% more nectar than the male ones. The nectar production was smaller in the second test because of a lesser due precipitation and smaller relative humidity of the air. The sugar concentration in the nectar was 0.3 and 3.8% larger in the female flowers in relation to the male ones, respectively for the 1st and 2nd tests. The male flowers produced 129,021 pollen grains for flower, with 91.2% viable at 9h00. The stigma of the female flowers was receptive to the pollen grains, on average, to the 13h40. The female flowers were more attractive than the male ones.

  20. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhu-Gang; Wang, Xun; Han, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Chun-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68μg/mL and 45.46μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

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    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  2. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity

  3. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Maciej Grzybek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo L. hot water extract (HWE, cold water extract (CWE or ethanol extract (ETE on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri. Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94. A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I. nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative

  5. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts-In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybek, Maciej; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Strachecka, Aneta; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Phiri, Andrew M; Paleolog, Jerzy; Tomczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo) L. hot water extract (HWE), cold water extract (CWE) or ethanol extract (ETE) on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri). Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01-2.94). A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC) was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative to the currently available

  6. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybek, Maciej; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Strachecka, Aneta; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Phiri, Andrew M.; Paleolog, Jerzy; Tomczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo) L. hot water extract (HWE), cold water extract (CWE) or ethanol extract (ETE) on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri). Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94). A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC) was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative to the

  7. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  8. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  9. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Phillips

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600–1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600–0800 h of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600–1200 h. Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  10. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin W; Gardiner, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600-1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600-0800 h) of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600-1200 h). Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  11. The reduction of nitrate, nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia by enzymes from Cucurbita pepo L. in the presence of reduced benzyl viologen as electron donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, C. F.; Hageman, R. H.; Hewitt, E. J.; Hucklesby, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    1. Enzyme systems from Cucurbita pepo have been shown to catalyse the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia in yields about 90–100%. 2. Reduced benzyl viologen serves as an efficient electron donor for both systems. Activity of the nitrite-reductase system is directly related to degree of dye reduction when expressed in terms of the function for oxidation–reduction potentials, but appears to decrease to negligible activity below about 9% dye reduction. 3. NADH and NADPH alone produce negligible nitrite loss, but NADPH can be linked to an endogenous diaphorase system to reduce nitrite to ammonia in the presence of catalytic amounts of benzyl viologen. 4. The NADH– or NADPH–nitrate-reductase system that is also present can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen, but shows relationships opposite to that for the nitrite-reductase system with regard to effect of degree of dye reduction on activity. The product of nitrate reduction may be nitrite alone, or nitrite and ammonia, or ammonia alone, according only to the degree of dye reduction. 5. The relative activities of nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems show different relationships with degree of dye reduction and may become reversed in magnitude when effects of degree of dye reduction are tested over a suitable range. 6. Nitrite severely inhibits the rate of reduction of hydroxylamine without affecting the yield of ammonia as a percentage of total substrate loss, but hydroxylamine has a negligible effect on the activity of the nitrite-reductase system. 7. The apparent Km for nitrite (1 μm) is substantially less than that for hydroxylamine, for which variable values between 0·05 and 0·9mm (mean 0·51 mm) have been observed. 8. The apparent Km values for reduced benzyl viologen differ for the nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems: 60 and 7·5 μm respectively. 9. It is concluded that free hydroxylamine may not be an intermediate in the reduction of nitrite

  12. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  13. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  14. Биологические свойства ассоциативных ризобактерий Cucurbita pepo L

    OpenAIRE

    АРТАМОНОВА М.Н.; ПОТАТУРКИНА-НЕСТЕРОВА Н.И.

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied root zone microbocenosis of Cucurbita pepo. It has been identified bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere and rhizoplan of pumpkin. It has been researched species composition in the rhizosphere of different periods of the growing season. It has been established that gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were prevailed in pumpkin’s rhizosphere of the early vegetative stages and spore-forming bacillus were dominated in the later phases. Thus, the highest species...

  15. Estudio Farmacognóstico de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza (Cucurbita SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos parámetros farmacognósticos de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza, con vistas a su posterior uso en formulaciones antiparasitarias. Se comparan semillas de 3 variedades: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 y C. maxima var INIVIT C88, en cuanto a masa, humedad residual, cenizas, sustancias solubles y tamizaje fitoquímico, a fin de proponer la mejor para su empleo como antiparasitario, y se trata de forma breve la propuesta de una técnica sencilla para la extracción del principio activo de la semilla (cucurbitina.Some pharmacognostic parameters of the raw drug from the pumpkin seed are presented in order to use it later in antiparasitic formulations. The seeds of 3 varieties are compared: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 and C. maxima var INIVIT C88. Mass, residual humidity, ashes, soluble substances and phytochemical screening were analyzed aimed at proposing the best for its use as antiparasitic. The proposal of a simple technique for the extraction of the active principle of the seed (cucurbitina is briefly explained.

  16. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  18. Adaptación de una nueva hortaliza (Cucurbita pepo var. vegetable spaghetti a diferentes condiciones de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M Castagnino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de zapallo spaghetti constituye una nueva alternativa productiva que ha despertado el interés de los consumidores argentinos por sus virtudes. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de investigar la influencia de la densidad y fecha de siembra en el cultivo de zapallo spaghetti. El mismo se llevó a cabo en la Chacra Experimental de la Facultad de Agronomía, sobre la Ruta Nacional Núm. 3 km 305, en el Partido de Azul, en un suelo argiudol típico. La superficie total del mismo fue de 5,952 m2. Cada parcela tenía una superficie de 88 m2 y estaba constituida por cuatro surcos distanciados a 2 m entre sí y 11 m de largo, habiéndose evaluado los dos surcos centrales. Se trabajó con dos fechas de siembra: 10 y 24 de noviembre y con cuatro densidades: 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 y 1 m entre pl. 20,000; 15,000; 10,000 y 5,000 planta·ha-1. La siembra se realizó manualmente. Se fertilizó en banda en presiembra y se efectuó control químico preventivo de malezas con Naptalam en la línea de siembra y con Trifluralina incorporada con motocultivador en los entresurcos. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos bajo un modelo de parcelas divididas. Para la variable peso total de producción no se detectaron diferencias significativas para ninguno de los efectos e interacciones consideradas. Para la variable peso promedio de producción se detectaron diferencias significativas para los efectos densidad y fecha. Con las densidades de cultivo 2 y 3 se lograron la mayor cantidad de calibres intermedios (2 y 3, más adecuados a las exigencias del mercado.

  19. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Montesano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L., was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively. The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%. The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  20. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Domenico; Blasi, Francesca; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Santini, Antonello; Cossignani, Lina

    2018-03-01

    Pumpkin ( Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ 7,22,25 -stigmastatrienol, Δ 7,25 -stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  2. The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

    2009-03-15

    This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control.

  3. Cold-pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils from the central Anatolia region of Turkey: Characterization of phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and fatty acid bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cold-pressed oils because they present high contents of bioactive compounds. These oils have the characteristic properties of seeds and are specific products of their regions. The aim of this study was to determine the compositions and contents of fatty acids, phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and phenolic bioactives, and the free radical scavenging as well as antioxidant activities of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed oils. Oil samples from raw pumpkin seeds cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey were prepared using a laboratory screw-pressing machine. The results indicate that cold-pressed pumpkin seed oils (PSO have excellent quality with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (%ΣPUFAs (53.60 ±0.06-53.73 ±0.05, total phytosterols (782.1±9.7–805.2 ±11.3 mg/100 g oil, squalene (591.3±10.6–632.5±11.4 mg/100 g oil, tocols (97.79 ±0.76?94.29 ±0.34 mg/100 g oil, phenolic acids (22.73 ±0.41–23.98 ±0.46 mg/100 g oil, carotenoids (6.95 ±0.03–7.60 ±0.03 mg/100 g oil, total phenolics (3.96 ±0.13 –5.82±0.15 mg GAE/100 g, free radical-scavenging activity (5.70 ±0.13?7.35 ±0.15 mg GAE/100 g and total antioxidant activity (26.67±0.97-38.89±1.41 mg GAE/100 g values. Thus, this study demonstrates that the cold- pressed PSOs from the central Anatolia regions of Turkey are an excellent source of natural bioactive compounds, free of chemical contaminants and nutritious.

  4. Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from the fruit of Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard. Physicochemical and fluorescence properties and enzyme-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirr, H W; Schabort, J C; Weitz, C

    1986-02-01

    Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard fruit displays an apparent Mr of 32,000, a Stokes radius of 263 nm and a diffusion coefficient of 8.93 X 10(-7) cm2 X s-1. The enzyme appears to possess a homogeneous dimeric quaternary structure with a subunit Mr of 15,000. Two tryptophan and fourteen tyrosine residues per dimer were found. Emission spectral properties of the enzyme and fluorescence quenching by iodide indicate the tryptophan residues to be buried within the protein molecule. In the pH range 5-7, where no conformational changes were detected, protonation of a sterically related ionizable group with a pK of approx. 6.0 markedly influenced the fluorescence of the tryptophan residues. Protein fluorescence quenching was employed to determine the dissociation constants for binding of NADPH (Kd 17 microM), NADP+ (Kd 30 microM) and elaterinide (Kd 227 microM). Fluorescence energy transfer between the tryptophan residues and enzyme-bound NADPH was observed.

  5. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  6. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Prisenžňáková, Lubica; Košťálová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-08

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico.

  8. Evaluación de la eficiencia de tres fertilizantes edáficos sobre el rendimiento y calidad del zapallo (Cucurbita maxima var. Unapal- Mandarino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Menjivar-Flores

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación evaluó la eficiencia agronómica del cultivo de zapallo (Cucurbita máxima var Unapal Mandarino por efecto de la aplicación de tres fertilizantes edáficos en el desarrollo, producción y rendimiento del cultivo en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se estableció un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones para un total de 12 unidades experimentales. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron T1: dosis comercial, T2: dosis comercial + 25%. T3: dosis comercial +50%. La variables de respuesta evaluadas incluyen: peso total de frutos y número de frutos por unidad experimental, peso del fruto, diámetro polar, diámetro ecuatorial, índice de esfericidad, espesor de la pulpa, color de pared, número total de semillas, peso total de semillas, peso de 100 semillas, peso unitario de semilla y % materia seca. Los resultados mostraron que la eficiencia agronómica en los tratamientos dosis comercial y dosis comercial +25% no presentaron diferencias significativas, sin embargo en el tratamiento con dosis comercial +50% se encontraron diferencias significativas especialmente en variables de peso total de frutos, diámetro ecuatorial del fruto, diámetro polar del fruto, número total de semillas por fruto y en el peso total de semillas por fruto, por tanto al aumentar la dosis comercial del fertilizante, se aumentan las características agronómicas del fruto.

  9. First Known Image of Cucurbita in Europe, 1503–1508

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARIS, HARRY S.; DAUNAY, MARIE-CHRISTINE; PITRAT, MICHEL; JANICK, JULES

    2006-01-01

    • Background The genus Cucurbita (pumpkin, squash, gourd) is native to the Americas and diffused to other continents subsequent to the European contact in 1492. For many years, the earliest images of this genus in Europe that were known to cucurbit specialists were the two illustrations of C. pepo pumpkins that were published in Fuchs' De Historia Stirpium, 1542. Images of fruits of two Cucurbita species, drawn between 1515 and 1518, were recently discovered in the Villa Farnesina in Rome. • Findings An even earlier image of Cucurbita exists in the prayer book, Grandes Heures d'Anne de Bretagne, illustrated by Jean Bourdichon in Touraine, France, between 1503 and 1508. This image, which shows a living branch bearing flowers and fruits, had not been examined and analysed by cucurbit specialists until now. The image is identified as depicting Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana. Unlike some of the fruits of Cucurbita depicted in the Villa Farnesina a decade later, this image does not depict an esculent and does not constitute evidence of early European contact with New World agriculture. Based on the descriptive, ecological and geographical accounts of C. pepo subsp. texana in the wild, the idea is considered that the image was based on an offspring of a plant found growing along the Gulf Coast of what is now the United States. PMID:16687431

  10. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Andres, Thomas C.; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  13. Accumulation and phytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Sinha, Saion K; White, Jason C

    2012-04-01

    The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.

  14. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  16. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  17. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  18. Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus: a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, Jacques D; Laing, Mark D; Gubba, Augustine

    2017-02-01

    Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) has been proposed as a putative representative of a new species in the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The genomes of two South African (SA) isolates of cucurbit-infecting PABYV were described in this record. Total RNA, extracted from a pattypan (Cucurbita pepo L.) and a baby marrow (C. pepo L.) leaf samples, was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to authenticate the integrity of PABYV's genome generated from de novo assembly of the NGS data. PABYV genome of SA isolates consists of 5813 nucleotides and displays an organisation typical of poleroviruses. Genome sequence comparisons of the SA PABYV isolates to other poleroviruses support the classification of PABYV as a new species in the genus Polerovirus. Recombination analyses showed that PABYV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) shared the same ancestor for the genome part situated between breaking points. Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein genes showed that SA PABYV isolates shared distant relationship with CABYV and Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus. Based on our results, we propose that PABYV is a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus.

  19. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  20. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  1. Agronomics characteristics and nutritional quality of fruits and seeds of pumpkin Cucurbita sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rodríguez R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Butternut Squash is food security in ancient pre-Columbian America for its agronomic plasticity and culinary versatility. Today its value in use is evident in both its diversity within the genus Cucurbita and 20-27 species, where the most used are: Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo, C. argyrosperma; C. ficifolia. The high biological value in the pulp (80% in vitro digestibility and oil in the seeds (45%, where 55% are unsaturated (56% linoleic acid fatty. The processed pumpkin is a competitive and sustainable raw material for agro food industry, and is a source of carotenoids, lutein, Vitamima A, Vitamin C, starch, long chain polyunsaturated oils, and this entire means an increase in research in squash due to its comprehensive utility in the pulp and seed.

  2. Cucurbita moschata L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité antiparasitaire de la poudre de graines de courge ( Cucurbita moschata L.) sur les helminthes gastro-intestinaux de la chèvre locale élevée à Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo.

  3. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  4. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. a phosphorus hyperaccumulator to high phosphorus and poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    priya

    Priya Padmanabhan, Daniel L Starnes and Shivendra V Sahi*. Department of Biology ... squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo), and sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) ... well as from hydroponic media (Sharma et al., 2004;. Sharma and Sahi ...

  6. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Logachov, Anton A; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-07-01

    In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

  7. Methyl jasmonate down-regulates endogenous cytokinin levels in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, H.; Malbeck, Jiří; Kamínek, Miroslav; Staden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2004), s. 496-503 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : methyl jasmonate * senescence * cytokinin Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004

  8. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  9. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  10. Hormonal and epigenetic regulation during embryogenic tissue habituation in Cucurbita pepo L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leljak-Levanić, D.; Mrvková, Michaela; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 77-89 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ABA * CKs * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  11. Influence of honey bee visits to flowers on the yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Lescay Batista1 y Rafael Orasma Pérez2

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was done from August through December 2012, on a Fluvisol in Río Cauto municipality, Granma. The objective was to evaluate the effect of honey bee visits on the yield of pumpkin cultivation. The variety INIVIT- C - 2000 was used, and was planted on two parcels of 1 ha each. One parcel was located five meters away from various beehives in “Angel Castillo” farm; the other one was located in the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “December 15th” without beehives. Both parcels were located within 7 km of each other. The data were processed with the student’s t-test for a level of significance pd”0.05. The results showed that in the treatment with bees, the yield significantly increased in 45% with respect to the treatment without bees.

  12. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed protein isolate and hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučko Sandra Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI was enzymatically hydrolysed by pepsin to obtain pumpkin seed protein hydrolysate, PSPH. Investigation on solubility, interfacial and emulsifying properties of both PSPI and PSPH was conducted under different conditions of pH (3-8 and ionic strength (0-1 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPI had the lowest solubility, i.e. isoelectric point (pI, at pH 5. PSPH had higher solubility than PSPI over whole range of pH and ionic strengths tested. Decrease in surface and interfacial tension evidenced that both PSPI and PSPH adsorb at air/protein solution and oil/protein solution interface. Emulsions (20 % oil in water stabilized by 1 g/100cm3 PSPI or PSPH solution were prepared at pH 3, 5 and 8 and ionic strength of 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPH stabilized emulsions from coalescence at all pH and ionic strengths tested. PSPI was able to stabilize emulsions at pH 3 and 0 mol/dm3 NaCl, and at pH 8 regardless of ionic strength, while emulsions at pH 5 and both 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl and at pH 3 when ionic strength was increased separated to oil and serum layer immediately after preparation. All emulsions were susceptible to creaming instability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  15. Sulfated modification and anticoagulant activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady Godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Ao, Le; Ma, Tao; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Song, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Sulfated modification of pumpkin polysaccharide using CAS with pyridines as catalysts under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of sulfation on a laboratory scale. Anticoagulant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were also investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of high ratio of CAS/pyridine under constant conditions could increase the degree of substitution. Sulfate substitution was further confirmed by the FT-IR and 13 C NMR analysis. The d f values between 2.11-2.73 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the sulfated derivatives. The sulfated polysaccharides showed higher anticoagulant activities through activated partial thrombosis time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and anti-Xa activity assay, which revealed that better anticoagulant activities could be obtained when DS remained higher and M w maintained in a moderate range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Snježana; Radić, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Garić, Rade; Mihaljević, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2011-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  18. De novo assembly of the zucchini genome reveals a whole-genome duplication associated with the origin of the Cucurbita genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pau, Javier; Blanca, José; Bombarely, Aureliano; Ziarsolo, Peio; Esteras, Cristina; Martí-Gómez, Carlos; Ferriol, María; Gómez, Pedro; Jamilena, Manuel; Mueller, Lukas; Picó, Belén; Cañizares, Joaquín

    2017-11-07

    The Cucurbita genus (squashes, pumpkins and gourds) includes important domesticated species such as C. pepo, C. maxima and C. moschata. In this study, we present a high-quality draft of the zucchini (C. pepo) genome. The assembly has a size of 263 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 1.8 Mb and 34 240 gene models. It includes 92% of the conserved BUSCO core gene set, and it is estimated to cover 93.0% of the genome. The genome is organized in 20 pseudomolecules that represent 81.4% of the assembly, and it is integrated with a genetic map of 7718 SNPs. Despite the small genome size, three independent lines of evidence support that the C. pepo genome is the result of a whole-genome duplication: the topology of the gene family phylogenies, the karyotype organization and the distribution of 4DTv distances. Additionally, 40 transcriptomes of 12 species of the genus were assembled and analysed together with all the other published genomes of the Cucurbitaceae family. The duplication was detected in all the Cucurbita species analysed, including C. maxima and C. moschata, but not in the more distant cucurbits belonging to the Cucumis and Citrullus genera, and it is likely to have occurred 30 ± 4 Mya in the ancestral species that gave rise to the genus. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin ( Curcurbita pepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of Nigerian pumpkin (Curcurbita pepo) seed oil. NC Ihediohanma, CN Ubbaonu, ENT Akobundu, EOI Banigo. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 123-126. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Bioethanol production from Curcubita pepo and Opilia amentacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, the highest outputs of 60.72 ± 0.68 and 50.93 ± 1.61 g ethanol/kg were obtained respectively with O. amentacea and C. pepo. In the same time, 460.97 ± 8.66 g ethanol/kg were got as maximum output from sucrose (NG). Keywords: Fruit juices, enrichment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, bioethanol

  1. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  2. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  3. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species, also inhibit ethylene production and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes. A model is presented that discusses the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the control of fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash.

  4. Role of organic acids in enhancing the desorption and uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE by Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Jason C.; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Lee, W.-Y.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Iannucci-Berger, William

    2003-01-01

    The addition of low molecular weight organic acids to soil may enhance phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants. - Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of seven organic acids [succinic, tartaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, citric, ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)] over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude (0.001-0.10 M) on the abiotic desorption of weathered p,p'-DDE and the extraction of polyvalent inorganic ions from soil. At 0.05 M all organic acids significantly increased contaminant desorption by 19-80%. Organic acids also increased the aqueous concentration of eight inorganic constituents extracted from soil, with at least a six-fold increase in the release of Al, Fe, Mn, and P at 0.001 M. Zucchini seedlings grown for 28 d in soil containing weathered p,p'-DDE (300 ng/g, dry weight) were periodically amended with distilled water, citric or oxalic acids (0.01 M). Plants receiving water removed 1.7% of the p,p'-DDE from the soil. Seedlings amended with citric or oxalic acids removed 2.1 and 1.9% of the contaminant, respectively, and contained up to 66% more contaminant in the shoot system than unamended vegetation. A second crop of untreated (distilled water) zucchini in the same soil removed more contaminant than the first crop (2.5%), although the addition of organic acids did not further enhance contaminant uptake. The data indicate that the addition of low molecular weight organic acids causes the partial dissolution of the soil structure through the chelation of inorganic structural ions, potentially enhancing bioavailability and having implications for the phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants in soil

  5. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  6. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of silver and copper to Cucurbita pepo: differential effects of nano and bulk-size particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Craig; White, Jason C

    2012-09-01

    The phytotoxicity of bulk and nanoparticle Cu and Ag was directly compared. NP Ag reduced biomass and transpiration by 66-84% when compared with bulk Ag. The Ag ion concentration was 4.4-10-times greater in NP than bulk particle solutions. The Cu ion concentration was 1.4-4.4-times greater in bulk than NP amended solutions. Humic acid (50 mg/L) decreased the ion content of bulk Cu solution by 38-42% but increased ion Cu content of NP solutions by 1.4-2.9 times. Bulk and NP Cu were highly phytotoxic; growth and transpiration were reduced by 60-70% relative to untreated controls. NP Cu phytotoxicity was unaffected by solution type, but humic acid (50 mg/L) completely alleviated phytotoxicity caused by bulk Cu. The data demonstrate differential toxicity of Ag NP relative to bulk Ag. The finding that humic acid and solution chemistry differentially impact bulk and NP behavior highlights the importance of evaluating nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SUBSPECIES-LEVEL VARIATION IN THE PHYTOEXTRACTION OF WEATHERED P,P'-DDE BY CUCURBITA PEPO. (R829405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Comparative review of the nutritional value of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed oil of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabrenovic Biljana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of seven samples of cold pressed a pumpkin oil of different origins and influence of seed origin on the content of the most important bioactive components. Four samples of a pumpkin oil is obtained by cold pressing of the seeds of domestic and Austrian varieties, and three samples of cold pressed oils were obtained from the seeds of unknown origin, taken by free choice in the market. As indicators of the nutritional values are determined by the composition and content of fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols. In the composition of the fatty acid were oleic dominant (34,2±0,09 - 43,9±0,04% and linolenic fatty acid (30,8±0,09 - 46,9±0,015%. This study confirmed that the oil pumpkin dominant ?+?-tocopherol, whose contents ranged from 34,65±0,03 to 44,59±0,69 mg/100g. We determine the composition and content of ?7 phytosterols, especially for specific oil pumpkins. Was detected five ?7 sterol: Spinasterol, ?7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, ?7,25-stigmastadienol, ?7-stigmasterol and ?7-avenasterol. Dominant its content was ?7,22-stigmastadienol or Spinasterol with 39,98 to 50,31% of the total content of sterols.

  10. Protective effect of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L. on fetal testicular tissue damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of abnormalities in different organs of the fetus and newborn of diabetic mothers has been proven today. Considering the irreversible damages of the disease in newborns’ reproductive system any action to reduce the abnormalities has an especial importance and necessity. In this experimental study, the protective effects of pumpkin powder on reducing testicular tissue damages of rats born from diabetic mothers has been studied. The pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats, as follows: 1 treatment group with pumpkin powder, 2 diabetic control group, 3 treatment group (diabetic animals treated with pumpkin powder and 4 healthy control group. Experimental diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg b.w. alloxan monohydrate. The first and third groups received 2 g/kg b.w. pumpkin powder for 4 weeks via gavage. The histological and morphometric changes such as weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cell numbers were compared. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons test and p

  11. Ammonium regulates embryogenic potential in Cucurbita pepo through pH-mediated changes in endogenous auxin and abscisic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěnčík, Aleš; Turečková, Veronika; Paulisić, S.; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-100 ISSN 0167-6857 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Ammonium * Indole-3-acetic acid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2015

  12. The Effects of Simultaneous Application of Different Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of relations and interactions between ecosystem’s components and plants is one of the main conditions for sustainable production of medicinal plants. To study the effect of simultaneous application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of zucchini squash, a split plot arrangement of factors based on randomized complete block design with tree replications was used during 2009-10 growing season. The mainplot factor was the type of organic fertilizers, including 1-cow manure, 2-sheep manure, 3-chicken manure, 4-vermicompost and 5-control. The subplot factor was the biofertilizer (namely Nitragin, containing Azotobacter sp. , Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., utilization. The results showed the positive but non significant effect of organic and biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of zucchini squash. Amongst the organic fertilizers, cow and chicken manure, have superiority compared the others. The highest seed oil and protein percent resulted in chicken manure, although there was not significant different between treatments due to seed oil percent. The positive effect of organic and biological fertilizers on seed yield was higher than fruit yield. Positive correlations found between fruit and seed yield, and between one fruit weight and one fruit seed weight (R2=0.72** and 0.56**, respectively. At a glance, cow manure solely application was better than its application with nitragin. Nitragin application has no significant effect on some traits, when utilized with sheep manure and vermicompost. The possibilities of antagonistic effect among organic and biological fertilizers needs to be more studied.

  13. MANFAAT BIJI LABU (Cucurbita sp. UNTUK KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hargono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daging buah C. moschata Duch. ex Poir yang telah masak dapat dimakan setelah dikukus, disayur atau dijadikan kolak. Daun tumbuhan yang muda dan kuncup bunganya dimakan sebagai sayuran. Bijinya setelah diasin dan dikeringkan di sinar matahari atau cara lain dikonsumsi sebagai kuaci. Daging buah dan biji C. pepo L dan C. maxima Duch dimakan setelah diolah seperti daging buah dan biji C. moschata Duch. ex Poir. Secara tradisional biji C. moschata Duch ex Poir digunakan sebagai obat kecacingan, terutama untuk cacing pita.

  14. Hemagglutinating and acid phosphatase (AcPASE activities in developing seedlings of four species of Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acid phosphatase and hemagglutinating activities of four species of Cucurbitaceae were determined during seeds germination and seedlings development. In all cases traces of enzyme and hemagglutinating activities were found in dry and imbibided seeds. In developing seedlings of Cucumis sativus the activities increased to maximum on the 3rd day while in other species on the 6th day of germination and than fell down. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that in seeds and seedlings of all investigated species present were proteins which cross-reacted with antibodies raised against lectins: CLBa and Con A. It has been shown that proteins from seeds and seedlings of Cucurbita maxima var. bambino, Cucurbita pepo var. giromontia and Cucumis sativus had more pronounced antigenical similarity to lectin CLBa (from Cucurbitaceae than Con A, while proteins from cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo var. patissonina reacted better with antibodies raised against Con A (the lectin from Papilionaceae than with CLBa.

  15. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  16. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  17. Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    Metabolomic analysis aims at a comprehensive characterization of biological samples. Yet, biologically meaningful interpretations are often limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of the acquired data sets. One way to remedy this is to limit the complexity of the cell types being studied. Cucurbita maxima Duch. vascular exudates provide an excellent material for metabolomics in this regard. Using automated mass spectral deconvolution, over 400 components have been detected in these exudates, but only 90 of them were tentatively identified. Many amino compounds were found in vascular exudates from leaf petioles at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in tissue disks from the same leaves, whereas hexoses and sucrose were found in far lower amounts. In order to find the expected impact of assimilation rates on sugar levels, total phloem composition of eight leaves from four plants was followed over 4.5 days. Surprisingly, no diurnal rhythm was found for any of the phloem metabolites that was statistically valid for all eight leaves. Instead, each leaf had its own distinct vascular exudate profile similar to leaves from the same plant, but clearly different from leaves harvested from plants at the same developmental stage. Thirty to forty per cent of all metabolite levels of individual leaves were different from the average of all metabolite profiles. Using metabolic co-regulation analysis, similarities and differences between the exudate profiles were more accurately characterized through network computation, specifically with respect to nitrogen metabolism.

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-26

    Nov 26, 2016 ... quarry mining effluent discharge soils (cm) CP = Cucurbita pepo, CS ... Table 1: Carotenoid content of Cucurbita pepo vegetable grown in quarry mining effluent ..... Boerhavia diffusa L. Journal of ... Hydroponic System.

  19. Some Plant Characteristics Of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucurbita moschata Duchesne Genotypes Collected From Western Anatolia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Babaoğlu, Dursun; Türkmen, Önder

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of 147 Cucurbita maxima Duchesne species collected from the cities of İstanbul, Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli, Muğla, Manisa, Afyon, Kütahya, Uşak, Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova, Ankara, Konya, Karaman, Antalya, Isparta, Burdur where 76% of winter pumpkin production is made in Turkey and, a total of 54 Cucurbita moschata Duchesne were compiled. The pumpkins were sown on 23th of May 2013 in Ha...

  20. Chemical characterization of a hypoglycemic extract from Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, ...

  1. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) adult female wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on immunity. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (A,B,C and D) with five rats in each group. Group A, served as control while group B, C and D served as the experimental groups.

  2. An overview of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Balkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita L. species of the pumpkin and winter squash are grown all over the world. Winter squash and pumpkin are two of the most important Cucurbit vegetable crops in Turkey. Turkey is one of the important diversity areas, for the cultivated cucurbits because of their adaptation to diverse ecological conditions as a result of both natural selection and also the selection by farmers. Farmers have maintained the local population of winter squash and pumpkin, which are mainly sold in local markets. Only one improved cultivar of the winter squash is currently grown commercially in Turkey. It is a traditional vegetable often grown in small gardens. In this contribution, the last status of winter squash and pumpkin production in Turkey, the growing techniques and problems of these winter squash and pumpkin species, their genetic collection and characterization, and the utilization of the presented species in Turkey are examined.

  3. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  4. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  5. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-06-01

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Local induction of senescence by darkness in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) cotyledons or the primary leaf induces opposite effects in the adjacent illuminated organ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, K.; Ananiev, E. D.; Doncheva, S.; Stefanov, D.; Mishev, K.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre; Malbeck, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2011), s. 459-471 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380701; GA AV ČR IAA600380805; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cotyledons * Cytokinins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2011

  7. ROLE OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ENHANCING THE DESORPTION AND UPTAKE OF WEATHERED P,P'-DDE BY CUCURBITA PEPO. (R829405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  9. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Broznić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold-pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ- in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  10. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    Summary The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways. PMID:27904410

  11. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels (Cucurbita pepo) on serum iron in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, pfoods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the effect of iron fortification on iron nutrition and status among the target population, and mainly in young children, adolescents, women of reproductive ages and pregnant women.

  12. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step proces...

  13. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  14. Fibre from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds and rinds: physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Lau, M; Tan, C P

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Formulations for bread substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken. The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also conducted. Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were higher than the values in control bread. Pumpkin seeds and rinds can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.

  15. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed press-cake

    OpenAIRE

    Radočaj Olga F.; Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly ...

  16. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of PEPO grafted carboxymethyl guar and carboxymethyl tamarind as new thermo-associating polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nivika R; Torris A T, Arun; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P; Rajamohanan, P R; Ducouret, Guylaine; Hourdet, Dominique; Creton, Costantino; Badiger, Manohar V

    2015-03-06

    New thermo associating polymers were designed and synthesized by grafting amino terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (PEPO) onto carboxymethyl guar (CMG) and carboxymethyl tamarind (CMT). The grafting was performed by coupling reaction between NH2 groups of PEPO and COOH groups of CMG and CMT using water-soluble EDC/NHS as coupling agents. The grafting efficiency and the temperature of thermo-association, T(assoc) in the copolymer were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The graft copolymers, CMG-g-PEPO and CMT-g-PEPO exhibited interesting thermo-associating behavior which was evidenced by the detailed rheological and fluorescence measurements. The visco-elastic properties (storage modulus, G'; loss modulus, G") of the copolymer solutions were investigated using oscillatory shear experiments. The influence of salt and surfactant on the T(assoc) was also studied by rheology, where the phenomenon of "Salting out" and "Salting in" was observed for salt and surfactant, respectively, which can give an easy access to tunable properties of these copolymers. These thermo-associating polymers with biodegradable nature of CMG and CMT can have potential applications as smart injectables in controlled release technology and as thickeners in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  19. Karyotype stability and unbiased fractionation in the paleo-allotetraploid Cucurbita genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Honghe; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Guoyu; Jiao, Chen; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; Jia, Zhangcai; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Jiaxing; Lucas, William; Doyle, Jeff; Li, Haizhen

    2017-01-01

    The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Interspecific hybrids between C. maxima and C. moschata are widely used as rootstocks for other cucurbit crops. We report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber and watermelon in...

  20. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  1. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE Rosellinia pepo Pat. EN PLANTAS DE MACADAMIA ISOLATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Rosellinia pepo Pat. IN MACADAMIA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Eliana Realpe Ortiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Rosellinia pepo Pat., causante de la llaga estrellada, se considera uno de los principales problemas fitosanitarios de la macadamia por ocasionar la muerte de la planta en su etapa productiva. Debido a que no existe una metodología de aislamiento confiable que asegure la recuperación del hongo con un porcentaje mínimo de contaminación y los estudios relacionados con este patógeno son escasos se planteó una investigación con el fin de perfeccionar una metodología de aislamiento y realizar algunas caracterizaciones morfológicas de este patógeno. La nueva metodología permitió obtener aislamientos con un 91,26% de pureza del hongo. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 4,68 mm día-1. Las colonias son de color blanco y apariencia algodonosa en su inicio, pero a medida que envejece el micelio toma un color café o negro y su apariencia se torna quebradiza. La observación de micelio blanco en forma de estrella en el lado interior del medio sintético permite diferenciarlo de otras especies como R. bunodes. Las mediciones microscópicas de los hinchamientos piriformes presentaron en promedio 106,4mm de largo y 75,3mm de ancho. Este trabajo también permitió determinar el nivel de inóculo infectivo.The fungus Rosellinia pepo Pat, the causal agent of star gall, is considered to be a main phytosanitary problem to the Macademia tree by causing the death of the tree while in its productive stage. Because no reliable isolation method exists that assures recovery of the mushroom with a minimum percentage of contamination and studies of this pathogen are scarce. This study was conducted to perfect an isolation methodology and permit some morphological characterizations of this pathogen. The new methodology allowed isolations with 91,26% purity of mushroom to be obtained. The rate of growth was 4,68 mm day-1. The colonies were of white color and cottony appearance in the beginning, but as the micelio aged it assumed a brown or black color and a

  2. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  3. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  4. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  5. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  6. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-08

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  7. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  8. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  9. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  10. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR 1 H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  11. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  12. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia. It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation with ethanol and by affinity chromatography on con A-Sepharose. Two glycoprotein enzymes AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb which differ in their affinity to immobilized con A were obtained. Both acid phosphatates retained the enzyme activity after binding to free con A. Rocket affinity electrophoresis of AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb, isolated from cotyledons of seeds and seedlings, revealed differences in their ability to bind to con A during seeds germination and seedling develop-ment indicating changes in their sugar component. Con A was found to activate both enzymes. The enzymes cross-reacted with monospecific antibodies raised against grass seed acid phosphatate Ba indicating an antigenic relationship between squash and grass acid phosphatases.

  13. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Harder, Márcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dep. Roque Trevisan; Arthur, Paula B.; Pires, Juliana; Filho, Jorge C., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  14. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  15. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  16. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  17. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  18. Pre-inoculation by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances male reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Male and female reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima, a gynodioecious native perennial, was examined in a 2-yr greenhouse/outplanting study. Plants were divided into three treatment groups: (1) a lowphosphorus (P) soil mix control; (2) a low-P soil mix with the addition of mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus intraradices); and (3) a high-P soil mix. Plants were...

  19. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  20. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  1. Macrogeographic population structuring in the cosmopolitan agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, M; Delatte, H; Backeljau, T; De Meyer, M

    2010-07-01

    The macrogeographic population structure of the agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated in order to identify the geographic origin of the species and reconstruct its range expansion. Individuals of B. cucurbitae were collected from 25 worldwide-distributed localities (n = 570) and genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering reveals that B. cucurbitae can be subdivided into five main groups corresponding to populations from (i) the African continent, (ii) La Réunion, (iii) Central Asia, (iv) East Asia and (v) Hawaii. The proportions of inter-regional assignments and the higher values of genetic diversity in populations from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh suggest that B. cucurbitae originated in Central Asia and expanded its range to East Asia and Hawaii on one hand and to Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean on the other. A number of outliers (10-19 specimens according to different clustering algorithms) show high levels of admixture (Q > 0.70) with populations from different regions and reveal complex patterns of inter-regional gene flow. Anthropogenic transport is the most plausible promoter of this large-scale dispersal. The introduction of individuals from geographically distant sources did not have a relevant role in the most recent African invasions, which originated from the expansion of local populations. These results could provide a useful background to better evaluate invasion risks and establish priorities for the management of this cosmopolitan agricultural pest.

  2. RESCUE OF Cucurbita spp. GERMPLASM IN RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRACE KELLY LEITE DE LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de resgatar germoplasma de Cucurbita spp. da agricultura familiar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, quantificar a variabilidade fenotípica e identificar as principais espécies cultivadas, foram organizadas 17 expedições para coleta de acessos, nos municípios de Baraúna, Rio do Fogo e Touros (principais fornecedores de frutos para o comercio estadual e de mais oito municípios de diferentes microrregiões do Estado (Apodi, Caraúbas, Ceará Mirim, Cerro Corá, Currais Novos, João Câmara, Lagoa Nova e Macaíba. Cada acesso coletado foi composto por um fruto ou aproximadamente vinte sementes fornecidas pelo próprio agricultor. Todos os acessos foram identificados quanto à espécie botânica e realizados os procedimentos de acondicionamento, identificação e armazenamento das sementes em câmara fria para preservação do material. Uma amostra dos acessos coletados como frutos e uma pequena parte dos acessos obtidos como sementes da espécie C. moschata foram multiplicados usando-se autofecundação das plantas. Plantas e frutos foram caracterizados preliminarmente com auxílio de descritores morfológicos. Resgatou-se acessos em todos os municípios visitados, sendo 112 de C. moschata e 50 de C. maxima. Verificou-se predominância do cultivo da espécie C. moschata bem como constatou-se grande variabilidade para vários descritores de planta e fruto nos acessos que foram caracterizados.

  3. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  4. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  5. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers (∼ 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval-pupal parasitoid

  6. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  7. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  8. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  9. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  10. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) candy

    OpenAIRE

    Sabeera Muzzaffar; Waqas N Baba; Nuzhat Nazir; F.A. Masoodi; Mohd Munaff Bhat; Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also st...

  11. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima) FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wasmo Wakmana; M.S. Kontong; D.S. Teakle; D.M. Persley

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  12. Watermelon Mosaic Virus Of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima) From Sulawesi: Identification, Transmission, And Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Wakmana, Wasmo; Kontong, M.S; Teakle, D.S; Persley, D.M

    2002-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  13. Cucurbita ficifolia (Cucurbitaceae) modulates inflammatory cytokines and IFN-γ in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortis-Barrera, Á; García-Macedo, R; Almanza-Perez, J C; Blancas-Flores, G; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Flores-Sáenz, J L; Cruz, M; Román-Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cucurbita ficifolia extract decreased body mass and inflammation in MSG-obese mice by reducing the expression of TNF-α and IL-6; these decreases were parallel to significant reductions in protein levels. The extract also increased protein levels of IL-10 in lean mice and IFN-γ in both lean and MSG-obese mice. In conclusion, C. ficifolia extract modulates systemic chronic inflammation in MSG-obese mice and could have a beneficial effect on the adaptive immune system in obesity.

  14. Transcription and translation of phloem protein (PP2) during phloem differentiation in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, M H; Northcote, D H

    1987-03-01

    The synthesis of a major phloem protein, PP2, was investigated by measurement of the mRNA at various stages of phloem development in Cucurbita. Quantitative assays with immuno-electrophoresis showed that the amounts of PP2 in hypocotyls of Cucurbita seedlings increased with the age of seedlings. An increase in mRNA for PP2 during the early stages of seedling growth was also observed by immunoprecipitation of the invitro translation products of hypocotyl polyadenylated RNA. There was close timing in the variations of PP2 synthesised in vivo and in the changes in amounts of translatable PP2-mRNA during the course of seedling growth. A complementary-DNA (cDNA) library to polyadenylated RNA from hypocotyls of 3-d-old Cucurbita seedlings has been constructed. Two cDNA clones, A and B, have been identified by hybrid-release translation to be complementary to the mRNA coding for PP2. The levels of total mRNA for PP2 measured with clone A were found to increase in the first 4 d of seedling growth but decreased to lower levels in older seedlings. Regulatory controls on both transcription and modification of transcripts appeared to occur during the synthesis of PP2.

  15. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  16. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  17. Molecular discrimination and genetic relationships between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo; zucchini group is a widely grown and economically important group belonging to genus Cucurbita, and being one of the easiest groups to cultivate in temperate climate with overwhelming production. Since, RAPD analysis provides a fast and reliable method for molecular characterization and ...

  18. Efficacy of protein bait sprays in controlling melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] in vegetable agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Z.U.A.; Baloch, N.

    2017-01-01

    Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them , B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on onemeter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80+-2.63, 21.20+-2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80+-3.26, 24.20+-3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40+-13.81, 115.00+-14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. (author)

  19. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  20. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  1. Senescence progression in a single darkened cotyledon depends on the light status of the other cotyledon in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings: potential involvement of cytokinins and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, K.; Ananiev, E. D.; Doncheva, S.; Georgieva, K.; Tzvetkova, N.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre; Gajdošová, Silvia; Malbeck, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 4 (2008), s. 609-624 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR IAA600380701; GA AV ČR IAA600380805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : INDUCED LEAF SENESCENCE * SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.334, year: 2008

  2. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff., CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L., CANOLA (Brassica napus L. Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez

    2009-01-01

    (Brassica napus L. y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.. Se realizó un análisis proximal y la cuantificación de saponinas en semillas y germinados de las cuatro especies. El contenido de proteína fue más alto en los germinados de canola que en las semillas, pero en huauzontle, calabacita y amaranto no varió. El contenido de lípidos en las semillas de canola, huauzontle y amaranto disminuyó en sus germinados, pero se incrementó en calabacita. El contenido de saponinas en los germinados fue de 2,873.23 en huauzontle, 155.40 en calabacita, 429.81 en canola, y 491.45 mg 100·g-1 de peso seco en amaranto. El contenido de saponinas en semillas fue de 5280.57, 0.00, 35.77 y 42.84 mg 100·g-1 en peso seco, respectivamente. Los niveles del contenido de saponinas en semillas y germinados para las cuatro especies estudiadas no representan toxicidad para humanos. El valor nutricio fue mejor en el germinado de canola que en el de huauzontle, calabaza y amaranto. El sabor de los germinados de huauzontle y amaranto fue mejor que en los de canola y calabacita.

  3. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  4. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  5. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  6. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  7. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  8. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  9. P-protein distribution in mature sieve elements of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, R F; Eschrich, W; Eichhorn, S E

    1972-09-01

    Portions of the hypocotyls of 16-day-old Cucurbita maxima plants, from which the cotyledons and first foliage leaves had been removed 2 days earlier, were fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in osmium tetroxide for electron microscopy. In well over 90% of the mature sieve elements examined the P-protein was entirely parietal in distribution in both the lumina and sieve-plate pores. In addition to the parietal P-protein, the unoccluded sieve-plate pores were lined by narrow callose cylinders and the plasmalemma. Segments of endoplasmic reticulum also occurred along the margins of the pores.

  10. In vitro health beneficial activities of Pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Lemnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai Sakka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seeds are commonly consumed in Greece. Although Cucurbita moschata is locally grown in Lemnos and is traditionally used in pumpkin pies, the seeds are currently discarded after consumption of the fruit flesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional functionality of pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata grown in Lemnos.Cucurbita moschatas’ seeds, raw or roasted, were appropriately extracted and the results are presented for raw versus (vs roasted seed extracts. The phenolic content was expressed as μg gallic acid/g of seeds according to Folin-Ciocalteau assay (370.3 ± 19.1 vs 551.0 ± 22.0. Antioxidant capacity was expressed as equivalent amount for 50% scavenging in mg of seeds for DPPH (50.03 ± 5.91 vs 25.82 ± 6.77 and ABTS (17.85 ± 0.77 vs 12.77 ± 0.76 assays, and as μmol of trolox/g of seeds for FRAP (1.19 ± 0.05 vs 2.50 ± 0.23 and CUPRAC (2.13 ±0.11 vs 3.25 ± 0.06 assays. Anti-inflammatory/anti-thrombotic and anti-diabetic activities were expressed as mg of seeds for 50% inhibition of platelet activating factor (0.62 vs 0.15 and as μg of seeds for 25% inhibition of alpha-glycosidase (40.0 vs 61.0 activities respectively. Moreover, anti-atherogenic activity was expressed as the % increase in lag time of human plasma oxidation (62.7 versus 163.2Raw and roasted pumpkin seed extracts exert anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic/anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and antidiabetic activities. Cucurbita moschata seeds may represent a novel opportunity for development of functional foods, with a local interest in Lemnos that would contribute also to the regional public health improvement.

  11. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  12. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  13. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  14. A Chromosome-scale assemby of the Bactrocera cucurbitae genome provides insight to the genetic basis of white pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, is a destructive agricultural pest and is the subject of strict quarantines that are enforced to prevent its establishment outside of its current geographic range. In addition to quarantine efforts, additional control measures are necessary for its eradication i...

  15. Biodegradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that accumulate recombinant bacterial LinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Namiki, Sayuri; Oshima, Masao; Moriuchi, Ryota; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Otani, Takashi; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Tabei, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    γ-HCH was successfully degraded using LinA-expressed transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata . Fusing an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide to LinA was essential for stable accumulation in the hairy roots. The pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that raises public health and environmental pollution concerns worldwide. Although several isolates of γ-HCH-degrading bacteria are available, inoculating them directly into γ-HCH-contaminated soil is ineffective because of the bacterial survival rate. Cucurbita species incorporate significant amounts of POPs from soils compared with other plant species. Here, we describe a novel bioremediation strategy that combines the bacterial degradation of γ-HCH and the efficient uptake of γ-HCH by Cucurbita species. We produced transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that expressed recombinant bacterial linA, isolated from the bacterium Sphingobium japonicum UT26. The LinA protein was accumulated stably in the hairy root cultures by fusing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting signal peptide to LinA. Then, we demonstrated that the cultures degraded more than 90 % of γ-HCH (1 ppm) overnight and produced the γ-HCH metabolite 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, indicating that LinA degraded γ-HCH. These results indicate that the gene linA has high potential for phytoremediation of environmental γ-HCH.

  16. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  17. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  18. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  19. First report of powdery mildew on cucumis zambianus, cucurbita digitata and zehneria scabraCaused by podosphaera xanthii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of cucurbit crops worldwide. In the fall of 2016, symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on 2-month old plants of Cucumis zambianus, Cucurbita digitata and Zehneria scabra in research plots in Charleston, SC. Incidence on 28 plants of C. zambianus was 64.3%. On ...

  20. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  1. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  2. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  3. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  5. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  6. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  7. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  8. Synthesis of P-protein in mature phloem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, J; Eschrich, W

    1976-01-01

    Cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima Duch. seedlings were provided with (14)C-labeled amino acids for 12 h. Besides the bulk of labeled amino acids the sieve-tube exudate also carried labeled proteins. 80% of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the P-protein, 20% in a neutral protein, and traces were found in acidic proteins after fractionation on diethyl-aminoethyl cellulose columns. The radioactive elutes were characterized by autoradiographs of both disc- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gelelectropherograms, and by isoelectric focusing. The P-protein fraction appeared with the void volume from the diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. Obviously, this is the protein that gels when oxidized and that is reversibly precipitable giving rise to filaments when processed for electron microscopy. Its main component has a molecular weight of 115,000 Dalton. By isoelectric focusing this fraction separated into 3 proteins with isoelectric points of 9.8, 9.4, and 9.2. The isoelectric point 9.2-protein probably is identical with an oligomer of a 30,000 Dalton protein with neutral isoelectric point, which keeps 20% of the incorporated label. Microautoradiographs suggest that the labeled proteins were synthesized in companion cells. The results indicate that P-protein of Cucurbita maxima is synthesized continuously in mature phloem. It can be assumed that P-protein has a relatively high turn-over rate. Therefore it seems unlikely that P-protein is a "structural" protein.

  9. Karyotype Stability and Unbiased Fractionation in the Paleo-Allotetraploid Cucurbita Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honghe; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Guoyu; Jiao, Chen; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; Jia, Zhangcai; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Jiaxing; Lucas, William J; Doyle, Jeff J; Li, Haizhen; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2017-10-09

    The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here, we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber, and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), respectively, and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C. maxima and C. moschata diverged. The subgenomes have largely maintained the chromosome structures of their diploid progenitors. Such long-term karyotype stability after polyploidization has not been commonly observed in plant polyploids. The two subgenomes have retained similar numbers of genes, and neither subgenome is globally dominant in gene expression. Allele-specific expression analysis in the C. maxima × C. moschata interspecific F 1 hybrid and their two parents indicates the predominance of trans-regulatory effects underlying expression divergence of the parents, and detects transgressive gene expression changes in the hybrid correlated with heterosis in important agronomic traits. Our study provides insights into polyploid genome evolution and valuable resources for genetic improvement of cucurbit crops. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chaves analíticas para determinação de cultivares de aboboreiras, morangueiras e mogangueiras

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle, Luiz Antonio

    1980-01-01

    De sete cultivares de aboboreiras rasteiras, pertencentes à espécie Cucurbita moschata Duch., duas morangueiras e duas mogangueiras, da espécie Cucurbita maxima Duch., uma aboboreira nao rasteira e uma morangueira pertencente a Cucurbita pepo L., elaborou-se chaves analíticas para determina-los, fundamentando-se nos caracteres morfológicos do caule e das folhas. Keys determining cultivars of squashes and pumpkins (Cucurbita mosohata Duch., Cueurbita maxima Duch., and Cucurbita pepo L.) bas...

  11. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  12. Polinização entomófila em abóbora caipira, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae = Entomophilus pollination in pumpkins, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lattaro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os insetos visitantes nas flores masculinas e femininas da abóbora caipira (Cucurbita mixta, em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, foram realizadas contagens dos insetos presentes nas flores das 7h00 às 18h00, durante 10 minutos em cada horário, com três repetições (três dias distintos, em agosto de 2004. Observou-se que abelha africanizada (Apis mellifera foi o inseto visitante mais freqüente nas flores. Essa abelha visitou as flores até 13h00 e preferiu coletar néctar nasflores masculinas (68,4%, em comparação ao pólen nas flores masculinas (18,6% e ao néctar nas flores femininas (13,0%. A freqüência dessas abelhas nas flores diminuiu no decorrer do dia. A relação de flor masculina para feminina foi 3,2:1.This study aimed to evaluate the insect visitors in the male and female flowers of the pumpkin, Cucurbita mixta, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in August, 2004. The insects in the flowers were counted from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00p.m., for 10 minutes, every hour, with three replications and in three different days. It was observed that the insect which most frequently visited the flowers was the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera. That bee visited flowers until 1:00 p.m. and preferred to collect nectar from the male flowers (68.4%, when compared to pollen from the male flowers (18.6% and nectar from the female flowers (13.0%. The frequency of those bees in the flowers decreased in elapsing of the day. The relationship between male and female flowers was 3.2:1.

  13. Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronezi, Carolina Médici; Jorge, Neuza

    2012-06-01

    Seeds are considered to be agro-industrial residues, which can be used as source of macronutrients and/or raw material for extraction of vegetable oils, since they present great quantities of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the lipid fractions and the seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) varieties Nova Caravela, Mini Paulista, Menina Brasileira, and Moranga de Mesa aiming at using them in food. The chemical composition of the seeds was performed according to the official methods of American Oil Chemists' Society and Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were determined by spectrophotometry, while the levels of tocopherols were analyzed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. It was noted that the seeds contain high amounts of macronutrients that are essential for the functioning of the human organism. As to total carotenoids, Mini Paulista and Menina Brasileira pumpkin varieties presented significant amounts, 26.80 and 26.03 μg/g, respectively. Mini Paulista and Nova Caravela pumpkin varieties showed high amounts of total phenolic compounds in the lipid fractions and in the seeds. It was also found that γ-tocopherol is the isomer that stood out in the lipid fractions and in the seeds, mainly in Menina Brasileira. Finally, the consumption of these seeds and use of lipid fractions provide the supply of large quantities of compounds that are beneficial for health and that may be potentially used in food, besides representing an alternative to better use of agro-industrial residues. Bioactive compounds, besides presenting basic nutritional functions, provide metabolic and physiological health benefits when consumed as part of the usual diet. Therefore, there is a growing interest in vegetable oils of special composition, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds. The seeds of Cucurbita sp are shown to be promising sources of oils, and especially the Cucurbita moschata and maxima species have not yet

  14. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  15. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  16. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  17. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  18. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  19. A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Richardson, M

    1990-10-29

    A protein inhibitor (CMTI-V; Mr 7106) of trypsin and activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa), a serine protease involved in blood coagulation, has been isolated for the first time from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds by means of trypsin-affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dissociation constants of the inhibitor complexes with trypsin and Factor XIIa have been determined to be 1.6 x 10(-8) and 4.1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The primary structure of CMTI-V is reported. The protein has 68 amino acid residues and one disulfide bridge and shows a high level of sequence homology to the Potato I inhibitor family. Furthermore, its amino terminus consists of an N-acetylates Ser. The reactive site has been established to be the peptide bond between Lys44-Asp45. The modified inhibitor which has the reactive site peptide bond hydrolyzed inhibits trypsin but not the Hageman factor.

  20. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  1. PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. Poir SEED KERNEL OIL AND THEIR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipids (PL of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch Poir seed kernel and their fatty acid composition were investigated. The crude oil was obtained by maceration with isopropanol followed by steps of extraction yielded polar lipids. The quantitative determination of PLs content of the dried pumpkin seed kernel and their polar lipids were calculated based on the elemental phosphorus (P contents which was determined by means of spectrophotometric methods. PL classes were separated from polar lipids via column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of individual PL was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The total of PL in the pumpkin seed kernels was 1.27% which consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE. The predominant fatty acids of PL were oleic and palmitic acid in PC and PE while PS's fatty acid were dominantly consisted of oleic acid and linoleic acid.

  2. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  3. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cucurbita moschata and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-30

    In this study, cellulase-assisted extraction of water soluble polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and their antibacterial activity were investigated. The polysaccharides yield was monitored during the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 40 min; temperature, 55°C; pH, 4.5; and cellulase amount, 4,000 U/g. The extracts were centrifuged, filtered, proteins removed by Sevag method, concentrated to approximately 15% (w/v), precipitated with 5 volumes of absolute ethanol, freeze-dried, and pulverized to yield a water soluble powder of pumpkin polysaccharides (PP). The sugar content of the product was 68.3%, and the yield was 17.34% (w/w), respectively. The PP had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  5. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  6. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  7. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. leaves infected with powdery mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Guo

    Full Text Available Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.. The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation and untreated (control plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi, respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ERF014 (Ethylene response factor, WRKY21 (WRKY domain, HSF (heat stress transcription factor A, MLO3 (Mildew Locus O, and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1, in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding". The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.

  9. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  10. Variabilidad en frutos y semillas de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L.H. Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates: Fruit and seeds variability in butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch. and Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L. H.Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En las cucurbitáceas (zapallo se presenta una gama amplia de variantes para el color de la semilla, desde blanco a café, que pueden tener significado evolutivo y de distribución geográfica. Se evaluó la variabilidad en semillas de 295 introducciones de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y 99 de Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, todas procedentes de libre polinización. El análisis de conglomerados evidenció 11 grupos para cada una de las especies, las cuales expresaron alta variabilidad entre y dentro de las introducciones para los caracteres porcentaje de extracto etéreo en semilla (EE, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y número de frutos por planta (NFP. En C. moschata se destacaron dos grupos (5 y 9 por presentar altos promedios para producción por planta (PPL, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y extracto etéreo por planta (EEPP, con coeficientes de variación (CV entre 52% y 93%. En C. argyrosperma subsp. sororia se destacaron para los mismos caracteres los grupos 5 y 11, con un CV entre 53% y 79%. Los elevados coeficientes de variación evidenciaron amplia variabilidad entre y dentro de introducciones para los caracteres de importancia agronómica y agroindustrial. Teniendo en cuenta el análisis de agrupamiento y el índice de selección ponderado (ISP se seleccionaron las seis mejores introducciones en cada especie.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) leaves infected with powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Li; Chen, Bi-Hua; Chen, Xue-Jin; Guo, Yan-Yan; Yang, He-Lian; Li, Xin-Zheng; Wang, Guang-Yin

    2018-01-01

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi), respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology) database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor), ERF014 (Ethylene response factor), WRKY21 (WRKY domain), HSF (heat stress transcription factor A), MLO3 (Mildew Locus O), and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1), in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding"). The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.

  12. Amino-acid sequence of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, T; Wieczorek, M; Polanowski, A; Denton, A; Cook, J; Laskowski, M

    1983-01-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III, from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were determined. Both isoinhibitors contain 29 amino-acid residues, including 6 half cystine residues. They differ only by one amino acid. Lysine in position 9 of ITD III is substituted by glutamic acid in ITD I. Arginine in position 5 is present at the reactive site of both isoinhibitors. The previously published sequence of ITD III has been shown to be incorrect.

  13. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  14. Competitive Interactions between Immature Stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, K; Hu, J; Wu, B; An, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, R

    2014-08-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and the pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker), are economically important pests that attack mainly cucurbitacean fruits. The two fruit fly species have similar natural distributions, host ranges, and population growth capacities. This study was designed to assess the asymmetrical competitions through resource exploitation between the larvae of B. cucurbitae and B. tau at different density levels and temperatures, and on different hosts by comparing the relative effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions on four life history parameters: survival rate, puparial mass, puparial duration, and developmental duration. Our results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competitions occurred under some laboratory conditions, and B. cucurbitae took advantage over B. tau at the high-density level and at low and high temperatures on pumpkin, bitter gourd, and bottle gourd when interspecific competition took place. Intraspecific and interspecific competitions mainly affected the puparial mass and the survival rate of the two fruit fly species but had no marked effect on the puparial duration or development duration.

  15. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  16. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  18. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  19. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  1. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  2. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  3. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  4. Etude des possibilités de valorisation agricole des écumes et de la bagasse de canne à sucre de SOSUHO (Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita-Ngadi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the possibilities of agricultural valorisation of sugarcane scums and bagasse of SOSUHO (Gabon. As a first step towards the general use of organic fertilizers in improving poor agricultural yields of soils in the province of Haut-Ogooue, in Gabon, we studied germination and growth of seven different types of plants (maize, Zea mays L. var. 60 ; rice Oryza sativa Var. 1345 ; cacao-tree, Theobroma cacao Var. Forastero ; gombo, Hibiscus esculantus Clenson Spineless var ; culin, Cucurbita pepo Basma var ; aubergine, Solanum melongena, Asgrow var ; soya-bean, Glycine max tropical var. on two six months old sugar cane residues. These residues, froth and bagasse were used by hemselves or mixed with earth or sand. By comparison with commercial compost, we found that froth and bagasse do not inhibit the germination of the seeds studied. However, we found that the growth of all species studied was better in froth than in bagasse. The results of chemical analysis carried out on these residues can explain partially the good growth observed in froth themselves or mixed with earth.

  5. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  7. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  8. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  9. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788

  10. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  12. Physico-chemical studies and evaluation of diuretic activity of Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkattapuram Sampath Saravanan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study physico-chemical nature and diuretic activity was evaluated to establish the purity and diuretic activity by comparing with the standard acetazolamide. Pulp of Cucurbita maxima is a common cost effective Indian dish, rich in nutrients. Physico-chemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and loss on drying were performed to find the purity. The hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by extracting the powder in soxhlet apparatus for 36 hrs. The laboratory qualitative analysis was done and constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, flavonoids, alkaloids and vitamin C were found. The two doses of extract (150 and 300 mg/kg were given to the rats. Group I served as control, Group II served as standard and Group III and IV served as test. Electrolytes and urine volume was measured after 5 hrs of treatment and the same was compared with the control and the standard drug acetazolamide. Physico-chemical parameters were in the limit and the extract shows significant (p<0.01 diuretic activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with control.

  13. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  14. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E

    2010-08-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring approximately 10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30-40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca(2+)-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca(2+) influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca(2+) ions.

  16. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  17. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  18. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Bahramsoltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE. Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALTITUDES AND THE CONTENTS OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranto Tjiptowibisono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita moschata or pumpkin can be used as an alternative food mainly due to its carbohydrate content, and it is very easy to grow in many different habitats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical contents of C. moschata based on the altitudes and also to examine whether any relationship between the environmental conditions and protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Proximate analysis was used for statistical consideration of the results obtained. Chemical analysis was conducted by using mesocarp of pumpkin after cleaning, peeling and removing seeds from the center of fruits. Kjedahl and soxhlet methods were used to look at the content of protein and lipid respectively. Meanwhile, the method of difference was employed to measure the percentage of carbohydrates. Although there was no significant relationship between the biochemical contents and the environmental conditions, it was recorded that plants grown at higher altitudes with high soil pH and air temperature tended to have higher protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, compared to that of higher soil moisture. This results showed that the highest biochemical contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipid of two varieties C. moschata were evident at the lowest altitude.

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  1. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rahimi, Roja; Samadi, Nasrin; Heidari, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Mohammadamin; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Soltani, Saba; Pourvaziri, Ali; Amin, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin) is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE). Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent. PMID:28852445

  2. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Diao, Wenchao; Wang, Chengrong

    2014-11-26

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) of Cucurbita moschata polysaccharides (CMCP) was established and the CMCP antioxidant activities were studied. The UAEE operating parameters (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, pH, and liquid-to-material ratio) were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) and the mass transfer kinetic study in UAEE procedure was used to select the optimal extraction time. Enzymolysis and ultrasonication that were simultaneously conducted was selected as the UAEE synergistic model and the optimum extraction conditions with a maximum polysaccharide yield of 4.33 ± 0.15% were as follows: extraction temperature, 51.5 °C; ultrasonic power, 440 W; pH, 5.0; liquid-to-material ratio, 5.70:1 mL/g; and extraction time, 20 min. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CMCP has good potential as a natural antioxidant used in the food or medicine industry because of their high reducing power and positive radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  4. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  5. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  6. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: → Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. → Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. → SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. → Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  7. Diagnosis and Integrated Management of Fruit Rot in Cucurbita argyrosperma, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz Nájera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1 identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2; 2 evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3 evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro, combined with fungicides during two crop cycles. Number of commercial and non-commercial fruits at harvest, and seed yield (kg ha-1 were registered. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization identified Sclerotium rolfsii as the causal agent of rot in pipiana pumpkin fruits. Now, in vitro conditions, the highest inhibition of S. rolfsii were obtained by Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (70.72%, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 (69%, and the fungicides metalaxyl (100%, pyraclostrobin (100%, quintozene (100%, cyprodinil + fludioxonil (100%, and prochloraz (100%. Thiophanate-methyl only delayed growth (4.17%. In field conditions, during the spring-summer 2015 cycle, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 + metalaxyl, and T. asperellum + cyprodinil + fludioxonil, favored the highest number of fruits and seed yield in the crop.

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  10. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  11. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  12. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  13. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  14. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  15. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  16. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz-Neto, A; Mataqueiro, M I; Santana, A E; Alessi, A C

    1994-06-01

    The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.

  18. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  20. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  1. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  2. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  3. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  4. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  5. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  7. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  8. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  9. Effect of disruption of a cutinase gene (cutA) on virulence and tissue specificity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 toward Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, R N; Binnie, S J; Bowen, J K; Hawthorne, B T; Plummer, K M; Rees-George, J; Rikkerink, E H; Templeton, M D

    1997-04-01

    A 3.9-kb genomic DNA fragment from the cucurbit pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 690 nucleotides interrupted by a single 51-bp intron. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed 92 and 98% identity, respectively, to those of the cutA gene of the pea pathogen F. solani f. sp. pisi. A gene replacement vector was constructed and used to generate cutA- mutants that were detected with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Seventy-one cutA- mutants were identified among the 416 transformants screened. Vector integration was assessed by Southern analysis in 23 of these mutants. PCR and Southern analysis data showed the level of homologous integration was 14%. Disruption of the cutA locus in mutants was confirmed by RNA gel blot hybridization. Neither virulence on Cucurbita maxima cv. Delica at any of six different inoculum concentrations, nor pathogenicity on intact fruit of four different species or cultivars of cucurbit or hypocotyl tissue of C. maxima cv. Crown, was found to be affected by disruption of the cutA gene.

  10. Secagem de fatias de abóboras (Cucurbita moschata, L. por convecção natural e forçada Drying of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. slices by natural and forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata, L. é uma importante fonte de provitamina A, de baixo custo, e sob a forma desidratada oferece diferentes opções de utilização e consumo. Secagens por convecção natural e forçada foram comparadas quanto ao grau de secagem atingido e encolhimento, em função da temperatura, velocidade de ar e dimensões do produto. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso de fatias com volume de 6,25 cm³ em secador por convecção forçada a 50 °C e à velocidade de 5,5 x 10-4 ms-1 resultaram em produtos de menor encolhimento, sendo recomendadas estas condições.Besides its low price, Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. is an important source of provitamin-A, and when dehydrated it offers different options of utilizations and consumption. Natural and forced convection drying were compared according to the drying degree shrinkage as a function of temperature, and air velocity and product dimensions. The obtained results showed that slices with the volume of 6.25 cm³ in forced convection oven at 50 °C and at the velocity of 5.5 x 10-4 ms-1 resulted in a lower shrinkage products, so these conditions were recommended.

  11. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  12. Changes in the composition of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita moschata during development and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova, Zh. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical and lipid composition of Cucurbita moschata seeds and seed oils at different stages of development were investigated. The oil content of the seeds at 30, 60 and 90 days after flowering was 10.7, 41.1, and 47.1%, respectively. The amount of proteins was 26.0, 35.9, and 38.2%. The contents of carbohydrates soluble in ethanol were 9.5, 1.8 and 1.3%. The starch and fiber percentage contents were 16.3, 6.8, 2.3 and 4.0, 6.9 and 10.0, respectively and the ash contents were 7.2, 4.7, and 4.5%. The total sterol percentages were found to be 2.0, 0.8 and 0.6 in the oils and 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3 in the seeds. The tocopherol contents were 2010, 512 and 527 mg·kg−1 in the oil, and 215, 210 and 250 mg·kg−1 in the seeds. The total phospholipid percentages were 8.7, 0.8 and 0.4 in the oils and 0.9, 0.3 and 0.2 in the seeds. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography and the major fatty acids in the oils at all stages of ripening were linoleic (40.8–50.2% followed by palmitic (21.5–25.9% and oleic (20.5–21.0%.Se determinaron los cambios en la composición química y en los lípidos de semillas de Cucurbita moschata así como en los aceites extraídos en diferentes etapas del desarrollo de las semillas. El contenido de aceite a los 30, 60 y 90 días después de la floración fue de 10,7, 41,1 y 47,1%, respectivamente. La cantidad de proteínas fue del 26,0, 35,9 y 38,2% y el contenido de hidratos de carbono solubles en etanol fue de 9,5, 1,8 y 1,3%. Los contenidos de almidón y fibras fueron 16,3, 6,8, 2,3% y 4,0, 6,9 y 10,0%, respectivamente y el contenido de cenizas fue de 7.2%, 4.7% y 4.5%. Se encontró un contenido total de esteroles del 2,0, 0,8 y 0,6% en los aceites y de 0,2, 0,3 y 0,3% en las semillas. El contenido de tocoferoles fue 2010, 512 y 527 mg·kg−1 en el aceite, y 215, 210 y 250 mg·kg−1 en las semillas. Los contenidos de fosfolípidos totales fueron de 8,7, 0,8 y 0,4% en los aceites y 0,9, 0

  13. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  14. Subunit structure and interactions of the phloem proteins of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S M; Northcote, D H

    1983-08-15

    The two major proteins from the phloem exudate of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin), PP1 and PP2, were stable in the absence of reducing agents after modification of their accessible cysteine residues with iodoacetamide. This permitted their purification without precautions to prevent oxidation. PP2, a lectin specific for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, was shown by sedimentation-equilibrium ultracentrifugation to be a dimer of Mr of 48000. Neither dithiothreitol nor tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) altered this value. The constituent polypeptides were linked by two buried disulphide bridges. PP2 behaved aberrantly on gel-filtration on both Sephadex and Bio-Gel unless tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) was added to the elution buffer; the Mr was then measured as 46000. Other proteins which bind oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are also retarded on gel-filtration. Soluble phloem filaments were prepared by collection of exudate into deaerated buffer containing iodoacetamide but no reducing agent. Oxidative gellation of the filaments was prevented by rapid modification of their many accessible cysteine residues, and is assumed to have maintained the degree of polymerisation found in vivo. Those disulphide bridges which were present allowed the incorporation of approximately 60% of the PP1 and 80% of the PP2 into polymeric material. It is concluded that PP1 and PP2 are both structural proteins present in the filaments observable in vivo. PP2 had an elongated binding-site for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is suggested that this lectin immobilises bacteria and fungi to the cross-linked filaments which seal wounded phloem sieve-tubes, and thus maintains sterility.

  15. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  16. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  17. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  18. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation on ascorbate oxidase activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Tatiana S; Porto, Camila S; Cavalcanti, Maria T H; Filho, José L Lima; Perego, Patrizia; Porto, Ana L F; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of ascorbate oxidase (AO) activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract were investigated. Activity tests performed at 25 degrees C using initial ascorbic acid concentration in the range 50-750 M allowed estimating the Michaelis constant for this substrate (Km = 126 microM) and the maximum initial rate of ascorbic acid oxidation (A0,max = 1.57 mM min-1). The main thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme reaction (DeltaH* = 10.3 kJ mol-1; DeltaG* = 87.2 kJ mol-1; DeltaS* = -258 J mol-1 K-1) were estimated through activity tests performed at 25-48 C. Within such a temperature range, no decrease in the initial reaction rate was detected. The long-term thermostability of the raw extract was then investigated by means of residual activity tests carried out at 10-70 degrees C, which allowed estimating the thermodynamic parameters of the irreversible enzyme inactivation as well (DeltaH*D = 51.7 kJ mol-1; DeltaG*D = 103 kJ mol-1; S*D = -160 J mol-1 K-1). Taking into account the specific rate of AO inactivation determined at different temperatures, we also estimated the enzyme half-life (1047 min at 10 degrees C and 21.2 min at 70 degrees C) and predicted the integral activity of a continuous system using this enzyme preparation. This work should be considered as a preliminary attempt to characterize the AO activity of a C. maxima extract before its concentration by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  20. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  1. Anti-insect potential of lectins from Arisaema species towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-11-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), also known as melon fruit fly, is one of the major insect pests of cucurbits in several parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific. In the present investigation, effect of lectins from two sources i.e. Arisaema intermedium Blume and Arisaema wallichianum Hook f. (Family-Araceae) has been studied on the development of second instar larvae of melon fruit fly. The lectins were incorporated separately in artificial diet at a concentration of 10 to 160 microg ml(-1) and fed adlibitum to the second instar larvae. Both the lectins were found to prolong the development period and significantly inhibited the pupation and emergence in a dose dependent manner. Total development period was found to be prolonged by 3.5 and 2.3 days in case of larvae fed on artificial diet containing A. intermedium (AIL) and A. wallichianum (AWL), respectively. LC50 values calculated on the basis of adult emergence came out to be 32.8 and 29 microg ml(-1) for AIL and AWL, respectively. Both the lectins tested, were found to increase the activity of esterases as larvae proceeded from 24 to 72 hr of treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly in larvae reared on diet containing LC50 of AIL, while in case of AWL significant decrease was observed only at 72 hr of treatment. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly on treatment with both of these lectins. These results showed that AIL and AWL have promising anti-insect potential. So, lectin gene/s from either of these species can be cloned and subsequently can be employed to develop transgenics to control melon fruit flies specifically and insect pests in general. This approach could be used as a part of Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.

  2. Cytoprotective Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Fruit Extract against Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Reyhaneh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Adiban, Hasan; Kardan, Azin; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  4. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  6. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  7. Ethephon on the growth of squash plants in protected environment / Aplicação de ethephon em plantas de abobrinha (Curcubita pepo var. melopepo cultivadas em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumy Goto

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of Ethephon on the growth of squash plants, under conditions of protected environment. The application of Ethephon at 200 and 400 mgt1, was carried out in two stages of development, 2nd and 4th true leaf. The growth of the plants was evaluated with the following parameters of the growth analysis: Leaf Area Ratio (g.g1 - LAR; Specific Leaf Area (cm2.g1 - SLA; Leaf Mass Ratio (9-91 - LMR; Relative Growth Rate (g.g-1 .day1 - RGR and Net Assimilation Rate (g.cm2.day1 - NAR. The LAR increased from the first to the second collect to decreased soon after that, being that the Ethephon 400 mg.L1 applied in the stage of 4th true leaf presented difference to the 57 DAS (days after seeding. The SLA curves are increasing in the beginning of the development, presenting reduction through the long of the cycle. How much the LMR all the treatments had presented similar behaviour, not evidencing effect of Ethephon application. Ethephon 200 mg.L1 applied in the stage of 4th true leaf presented constant values of RGR. All the treatments had presented at least two peaks of NAR values and except for control, showed decreasing results in the last interval.O trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito do ethephon sobre o crescimento de plantas de abobrinha sob condições de ambiente protegido. As aplicações de ethephon a 200 e 400 mg.L foram realizadas nos estádios de 2ã e 4a folha verdadeira, sendo a primeira aos 22 DAS (dias após a semeadura e a segunda aos 30 DAS. O crescimento das plantas foi avaliado através dos seguintes parâmetros: razão de área foliar (cm2.g1 - RAF; área foliar específica (cm2.g1 - AFE; razão de massa foliar (g.g1 - RMF; taxa de crescimento relativo (g.g-1 .dia-1 - TCR e taxa assimilatória líquida (g.cm-2.dia-1 - TAL. A RAF aumentou da 1ã para a 2a coleta para diminuir logo em seguida, sendo que o tratamento com ethephon 400 mg.L-1, aplicado no estádio de 4a folha verdadeira, apresentou diferença aos 57 DAS. As curvas de AFE são crescentes no início do desenvolvimento, apresentando diminuição ao longo do ciclo. Quanto a RMF, todos os tratamentos apresentaram comportamento semelhante, não evidenciando efeito da aplicação de ethephon. Ethephon 200 mg.L-1, aplicado no estádio de 4ã folha verdadeira, apresentou valores constantes de TCR. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram pelo menos dois picos de valores de TAL e com exceção da testemunha, apontaram dados decrescentes no último intervalo.

  8. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  9. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Gong, Y; Kao, J L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-04-18

    The solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V), which is also a specific inhibitor of the blood coagulation protein, factor XIIa, was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with a distance-geometry and simulated annealing algorithm. Sequence-specific resonance assignments were made for all the main-chain and most of the side-chain hydrogens. Stereospecific assignments were also made for some of the beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-hydrogens and valine methyl hydrogens. The ring conformations of all six prolines in the inhibitor were determined on the basis of 1H-1H vicinal coupling constant patterns; most of the proline ring hydrogens were stereospecifically assigned on the basis of vicinal coupling constant and intraresidue nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns. Distance constraints were determined on the basis of NOEs between pairs of hydrogens. Dihedral angle constraints were determined from estimates of scalar coupling constants and intraresidue NOEs. On the basis of 727 interproton distance and 111 torsion angle constraints, which included backbone phi angles and side-chain chi 1, chi 2, chi 3, and chi 4 angles, 22 structures were calculated by a distance geometry algorithm and refined by energy minimization and simulated annealing methods. Both main-chain and side-chain atoms are well-defined, except for a loop region, two terminal residues, and some side-chain atoms located on the molecular surface. The average root mean squared deviation in the position for equivalent atoms between the 22 individual structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.58 +/- 0.06 A for the main-chain atoms and 1.01 +/- 0.07 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 3-40 and 49-67. These structures were compared to the X-ray crystallographic structure of another protein of the same inhibitor family-chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 from barley seeds [CI-2; McPhalen, C. A., & James, M. N. G. (1987) Biochemistry 26

  11. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L -1 . DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the

  13. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  14. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  15. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than 0.2 pt of pesticide formulation Light stabilizer Hydroxypropyl guar gum Thickener Isobornyl... per acre Preservative/stabilizer Boric acid Sequestrant Buffalo gourd root powder (Cucurbita foetidissima root powder); or, Zucchini juice (Cucurbita pepo juice) or Hawkesbury melon Citrullus lanatus. No...

  16. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  17. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  20. Changing the inhibitory specificity and function of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L; Lee, I; Chen, G; Huang, J K; Gong, Y; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-02-27

    Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V) is also a specific inhibitor of human blood coagulation factor beta-factor XIIa. A recombinant version of CMTI-V has allowed probing of roles of individual amino acid residues including the reactive site residue, lysine (P1), by site-directed mutagenesis. The K44R showed at least a 5-fold increase in inhibitory activity toward human beta-factor XIIa, while there was no change toward bovine trypsin. This result demonstrates that beta-factor-XIIa prefers an arginine residue over lysine residue, while trypsin is non-specific to lysine or arginine in its binding pocket. On the other hand, the specificity of CMTI-V could be changed from trypsin to chymotrypsin inhibition by mutation of the P1 residue to either leucine or methionine (K44L or K44M).

  1. Comparison of two methodologies to estimate microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in blooming and maturity phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Silvio F; Madrinan, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The measure of soil microbial activity is a significant feature in fertility and conservation diagnostic thinking about it, we compared two methodologies: volumetric Calcimeter that measures CO 2 released by soil into closed atmospheric system (glass tubes), cab method that retains CO 2 released during incubation phase in a closed system (glass bottles) at 23 degrades celsius subsequently titrate with HCL 0.5N. Results showed microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in Palmira, Valle del Cauca - Colombia, is higher in maturity than blooming phase. It occurs beca use contribution of nutritive substances from pumpkin's roots as it is in physiological maturity and microclimate offered by full foliage of pumpkin. Because in CAB method, soil is put on trial with its natural wet the numeric results express as mgC-CO 2 .g 1 of soil are most reliable than volumetric Calcimeter method. The cost analysis showed that cab is twenty percent cheaper than volumetric Calcimeter method

  2. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  3. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  4. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HYPOGLYCEMIC EXTRACT FROM CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA BOUCHE THAT INDUCES LIVER GLYCOGEN ACCUMULATION IN DIABETIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica, Garcia Gonzalez; Mario, Garcia Lorenzana; Alejandro, Zamilpa; Cesar, Almanza Perez Julio; Ivan, Jasso Villagomez E; Ruben, Roman Ramos; Javier, Alarcon-Aguilar Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, on liver carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, in addition to the isolation and structural elucidation of the principal components in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia , the aim of this study was to determine whether or not the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit is due to accumulation of liver glycogen in diabetic mice. The aqueous extract from fruit of C. ficifolia was fractionated and its main secondary metabolites were purified and chemically characterized (NMR and GC-MS). Alloxan-induced diabetic mice received daily by gavage the aqueous extract (30 days). The liver glycogen content was quantified by spectroscopic method and by PAS stain; ALT and AST by spectrometric method; glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and GLUT2 by Western blot; the mRNA expression of GLUT2 and glucagon-receptor by RT-PCR; while serum insulin was quantified by ELISA method. A liver histological analysis was also performed by H&E stain. Chemical fingerprint showed five majoritarian compounds in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia : p -coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicin, stigmast-7,2,2-dien-3-ol and stigmast-7-en-3-ol. The histological analysis showed accumulation of liver glycogen. Also, increased glycogen synthase and decreased glycogen phosphorylase were observed. Interestingly, the histological architecture evidenced a liver-protective effect due the extract. Five compounds were identified in C. ficifolia aqueous extract. The hypoglycemic effect of this extract may be partially explained by liver glycogen accumulation. The bioactive compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of this extract will be

  5. Molecular characterization of a phloem-specific gene encoding the filament protein, phloem protein 1 (PP1), from Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A M; Jacobsen, K R; Bostwick, D E; Dannenhoffer, J M; Skaggs, M I; Thompson, G A

    1997-07-01

    Sieve elements in the phloem of most angiosperms contain proteinaceous filaments and aggregates called P-protein. In the genus Cucurbita, these filaments are composed of two major proteins: PP1, the phloem filament protein, and PP2, the phloem lactin. The gene encoding the phloem filament protein in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) has been isolated and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the reconstructed gene gPP1 revealed a continuous 2430 bp protein coding sequence, with no introns, encoding an 809 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced polypeptide had characteristics of PP1 and contained a 15 amino acid sequence determined by N-terminal peptide sequence analysis of PP1. The sequence of PP1 was highly repetitive with four 200 amino acid sequence domains containing structural motifs in common with cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Expression of the PP1 gene was detected in roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons, stems, and leaves of pumpkin plants. PP1 and its mRNA accumulated in pumpkin hypocotyls during the period of rapid hypocotyl elongation after which mRNA levels declined, while protein levels remained elevated. PP1 was immunolocalized in slime plugs and P-protein bodies in sieve elements of the phloem. Occasionally, PP1 was detected in companion cells. PP1 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in companion cells at early stages of vascular differentiation. The developmental accumulation and localization of PP1 and its mRNA paralleled the phloem lactin, further suggesting an interaction between these phloem-specific proteins.

  6. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  7. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  8. Effect of an aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on the glutathione redox cycle in mice with STZ-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Flores, M; Angeles-Mejia, S; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Medina-Navarro, R; Hernández-Saavedra, D; Ortega-Camarillo, C; Roman-Ramos, R; Cruz, M; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    2012-10-31

    Cucurbita ficifolia is used in Mexican traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent and its actions can be mediated by antioxidant mechanisms. Disturbance in the homeostasis of glutathione has been implicated in the etiology and progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was evaluated, the effect of an aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia on glycemia, plasma lipid peroxidation; as well as levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione and activities of enzymes involved in glutathione redox cycle: glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver, pancreas, kidney and heart homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Increased blood glucose and lipid peroxidation, together with decreased of GSH concentration, GSH/GSSG ratio and its redox potential (E(h)), and enhanced activity of GPx and GR in liver, pancreas and kidney were the salient features observed in diabetic mice. Administration of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia to diabetic mice for 30 days, used at a dose of 200 mg/kg, resulted in a significant reduction in glycemia, polydipsia, hyperphagia and plasma lipid peroxidation. Moreover, GSH was increased in liver, pancreas and kidney, and GSSG was reduced in liver, pancreas and heart, therefore GSH/GSSG ratio and its E(h) were restored. Also, the activities involved in the glutathione cycle were decreased, reaching similar values to controls. An aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia with hypoglycemic action, improve GSH redox state, increasing glutathione pool, GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio and its E(h), mechanism that can explain, at least in part, its antioxidant properties, supporting its use as an alternative treatment for the control of diabetes mellitus, and prevent the induction of complications by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  10. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  11. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  12. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  13. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  14. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  15. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  16. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  17. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  18. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  19. Disulfide bond effects on protein stability: designed variants of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodszky, M; Chen, C W; Huang, J K; Zolkiewski, M; Wen, L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to increase protein stability by insertion of novel disulfide bonds have not always been successful. According to the two current models, cross-links enhance stability mainly through denatured state effects. We have investigated the effects of removal and addition of disulfide cross-links, protein flexibility in the vicinity of a cross-link, and disulfide loop size on the stability of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V; 7 kD) by differential scanning calorimetry. CMTI-V offers the advantage of a large, flexible, and solvent-exposed loop not involved in extensive intra-molecular interactions. We have uncovered a negative correlation between retention time in hydrophobic column chromatography, a measure of protein hydrophobicity, and melting temperature (T(m)), an indicator of native state stabilization, for CMTI-V and its variants. In conjunction with the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of denaturation, this has led to the following deductions: (1) In the less stable, disulfide-removed C3S/C48S (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -4 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -22 degrees C), the native state is destabilized more than the denatured state; this also applies to the less-stable CMTI-V* (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -3 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -11 degrees C), in which the disulfide-containing loop is opened by specific hydrolysis of the Lys(44)-Asp(45) peptide bond; (2) In the less stable, disulfide-inserted E38C/W54C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +2 degrees C), the denatured state is more stabilized than the native state; and (3) In the more stable, disulfide-engineered V42C/R52C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = +1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +17 degrees C), the native state is more stabilized than the denatured state. These results show that a cross-link stabilizes both native and denatured states, and differential stabilization of the two states causes either loss or gain in protein stability. Removal of hydrogen

  20. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  1. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F1 and F2 progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus. PMID:12149443

  2. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  3. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  5. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  6. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  7. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  8. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  9. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  10. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  11. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  12. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  13. Correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales en Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio estimó las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales entre doce caracteres agronómicos en dos dialélicos de zapallo (uno entre cinco variedades y otro entre cinco líneas S1, originadas de las anteriores. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con 15 tratamientos (5 progenitores + 10 cruzamientos F1 para cada dialélico y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados señalaron mayor estimación de las correlaciones (en magnitud y significancia estadística a favor del dialélico de líneas S1. Las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y las ambientales. La producción por planta (PFP presentó las correlaciones parciales fenotípicas y genéticas más altas con el peso por fruto (PPF y el número de frutos por planta (NFP (rPF y rPG > 0.80. El PPF y NFP pueden usarse como criterios de selección para la obtención de cultivares de altos rendimientos en C. moschata. ABSTRACT Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. The study evaluated phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations among 12 agronomy characters, in two set diallelic from five parents each one. The first set from five open pollinated varieties and the second one from five self-pollinated lines S1, obtained from the previous varieties. The two experiments were in completely randomized blocks with five replications. A higher estimation of correlation (in magnitude and statistical significance was observed in favor of the S1 lines diallelic. The genetic correlations were higher than the phenotypic and environmental correlations. The plant yield (PFP showed the highest partial phenotypic and genetic correlations with the fruit weight (PPF and fruits per plant (NFP (rPF and rPG > 0.80. It is suggested to use the PPF and NFP as selection criteria for breeding of C. moschata for development of high yield cultivars. Key words: Calabaza (cucurbita, genetic correlation, agronomic

  14. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  16. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  17. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  18. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  19. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  1. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  2. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  3. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  4. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  5. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  6. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  7. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  10. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  11. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  12. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  13. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  14. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and αs-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and αs-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ≤23 and ≤60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ≤47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of α-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

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    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  16. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-06

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  17. Growth of Cucurbita maxima L. plants in the presence of the cycloartenol synthase inhibitor U18666A.

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    Fenner, G P; Raphiou, I

    1995-03-01

    Squash, like other Cucurbitaceae, have unique sterol profiles that offer an excellent opportunity to examine the relationship between sterol biosynthesis and plant growth. To determine the effect of sterol biosynthesis inhibition on squash growth, Cucurbita maxima seedlings with and without cotyledons were subjected to increasing concentrations of the cycloarternol synthase (EC 5.4.99.8) inhibitor 3 beta-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)androstenone (U18666A). Inhibition of shoot growth was concentration-dependent (from 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 microM); plants with intact cotyledons grew to 26.4, 23.7, 21.6, 20.0, and 15.6 cm, respectively, at the above inhibitor concentrations, compared to 25.5, 19.4, 17.0, 12.0, and 11 cm for plants with severed cotyledons. In plants with severed cotyledons, 10 and 20 microM U18666A caused rapid necrosis of the first two, newly emerged, primary leaves, and halted new leaf formation. Secondary root formation was initially affected at all inhibitor concentrations regardless of whether cotyledons were present or not. Vegetative tissue showed a decrease in the accumulation of the major squash sterol, 7,22-stigmastadienol, accompanied by increased accumulation of minor sterol components. Sterol profiles in cotyledons were unaltered. The data show that sterols are crucial for maintaining plant growth and viability, but do not address the cotyledonary effect on growth with respect to sterol biosynthesis.

  18. FORMULASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita maxima DAN TERIGU TERHADAP DERAJAT PENGEMBANGAN ADONAN DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ROTI MANIS

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the formulation of pumpkin flour and wheat flour for producing the best of dough improvement and organoleptic properties of sweet bread. The research was carried out in a complete randomized block design, single factor with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The 8 formulations of pumpkin flour and wheat flour  were: (F consisted of F1 (0:100, F2 (5:95, F3 (10:90, F4 (15:85, F5 (20:80, F6 (25:75, F7 (30:70, and F8 (35:65. The results showed that F3 was the best formulation to produce sweet bread with a dough improvement  2.51% and organoleptic with score of color 4.07 (yellow, texture 3.43 (somewhat soft, taste 3.50 (sweet, flavor 3.00 (somewhat typical pumpkin, and overall acceptance 3.70  (like. The sweet bread of F3 contained moisture 18.90%, ash 1.18%, fat 8.63%, protein 9.47%, crude fiber 3.11%, and carbohydrate (by difference 58.71%. Keywords:  Cucurbita maxima, pumpkin flour, sweet bread, wheat flour

  19. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.

  20. Estratégia Reprodutiva de Cucurbita moschata Poir (Cucurbitaceae e Atividades de Forrageio dos seus Visitantes Florais

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    Paulo Abreu Tavares

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. An essential factor in maintaining agricultural productivity is pollination. Among the various pollinators, the insects are considered the main active agents in pollination of most cultures. The work aimed to understand the reproductive strategy of Cucurbita moschata Poir (Cucurbitaceae through analysis of the pollination methods used by the plant and the record of the diversity and behavior of floral visitors. To assess the efficiency of pollinators, 10 flowers of C. moschata were labeled to check the formation of fruit under natural conditions. Other 10 flowers were wrapped in waterproof bags to prevent contact with visiting insects. The insects were collected directly in the flowers, from 07:00 to 11:15 am, during 15 minutes of every hour, recording the values of temperature, luminosity, relative humidity and wind speed. The reproductive success of C. moschata depends on pollinators, since the reproductive isolation of the flowers did not allow the formation of fruit. The most abundant order was Diptera, followed by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. The effective pollinators of C. moschata were represented by species of bees of large body size: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, Centris sp., Oxaea flavescens Klug and Bombus sp. These species visited the flowers to collect nectar and pollen. The abiotic factors had little influence on foraging activities of floral visitors.

  1. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

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    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  2. A high-density linkage map and QTL mapping of fruit-related traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun-Xing; Yu, Ting; Wu, Ting-Quan; Luo, Jian-Ning; Luo, Shao-Bo; Huang, He-Xun

    2017-10-06

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is an economically worldwide crop. Few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were reported previously due to the lack of genomic and genetic resources. In this study, a high-density linkage map of C. moschata was structured by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, using 200 F2 individuals of CMO-1 × CMO-97. By filtering 74,899 SNPs, a total of 3,470 high quality SNP markers were assigned to the map spanning a total genetic distance of 3087.03 cM on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with an average genetic distance of 0.89 cM. Based on this map, both pericarp color and strip were fined mapped to a novel single locus on LG8 in the same region of 0.31 cM with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of 93.6% and 90.2%, respectively. QTL analysis was also performed on carotenoids, sugars, tuberculate fruit, fruit diameter, thickness and chamber width with a total of 12 traits. 29 QTLs distributed in 9 LGs were detected with PVE from 9.6% to 28.6%. It was the first high-density linkage SNP map for C. moschata which was proved to be a valuable tool for gene or QTL mapping. This information will serve as significant basis for map-based gene cloning, draft genome assembling and molecular breeding.

  3. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

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    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  4. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  5. Physiological effects of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Kou, Xiaoming; Pei, Zhiguo; Xiao, John Q; Shan, Xiaoquan; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-01

    To date, knowledge gaps and associated uncertainties remain unaddressed on the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants. This study was focused on revealing some of the physiological effects of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta cv. white cushaw) plants under hydroponic conditions. This study for the first time reports that Fe(3)O(4) NPs often induced more oxidative stress than Fe(3)O(4) bulk particles in the ryegrass and pumpkin roots and shoots as indicated by significantly increased: (i) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, and (ii) lipid peroxidation. However, tested Fe(3)O(4) NPs appear unable to be translocated in the ryegrass and pumpkin plants. This was supported by the following data: (i) No magnetization was detected in the shoots of either plant treated with 30, 100 and 500 mg l(-1) Fe(3)O(4) NPs; (ii) Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study confirmed that the coordination environment of Fe in these plant shoots was similar to that of Fe-citrate complexes, but not to that of Fe(3)O(4) NPs; and (iii) total Fe content in the ryegrass and pumpkin shoots treated with Fe(3)O(4) NPs was not significantly increased compared to that in the control shoots.

  6. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  7. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  8. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  10. Nutrientes e propriedades funcionais em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Nutrients and functional properties in pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos processamentos térmicos sobre os nutrientes e propriedades funcionais das sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima. As sementes foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes processamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises de composição centesimal, minerais e propriedades funcionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os processamentos para os níveis de proteína bruta, fibra alimentar, extrato etéreo, cinzas, S, P, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, solubilidade do nitrogênio (nos pH 4, 5 e 6, absorção de água e óleo, volume de espuma e estabilidade de emulsão. O cozimento em água em ebulição reduziu o teor de K. Todos os processamentos térmicos diminuíram os níveis de Mn e Fe. As sementes cruas apresentaram a maior solubilidade do nitrogênio nos pH 2, 3, 7, 8 e 9. Conclui-se que os processamentos acarretaram diferença significativa apenas nos teores de K, Mn, Fe e solubilidade do nitrogênio; e que as sementes apresentam potencial para serem incorporadas, provavelmente, em alimentos que requeiram elevada taxa de absorção de óleo.The objective of this paper was to verify the influence of the thermal processings on the nutrients and functional properties of the pumpkin seeds Cucurbita maxima. Seeds were, in four repetitions, submitted to the following processings: used in the raw form; cooked in boiling water for three times: 5, 10 and 15 minutes; and cooked in steam for 10 minutes. Thereafter were freeze-dried, grinded and stored at room temperature up to accomplishment of the analyses of centesimal composition, minerals and functional properties. There wasn't significant difference among the processings to the levels of crude protein, dietary fiber, ether

  11. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein

  12. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  13. Eficiência de acessos de Cucurbita maxima como polinizadores de abóbora híbrida do tipo "Tetsukabuto" Efficiency of Cucurbita maxima accessions as pollinators in the commercial production of pumpkin ("Tetsukabuto" type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto” é um híbrido interespecífico, macho estéril, resultante do cruzamento entre Cucurbita maxima e C. moschata. Uma das estratégias utilizadas para produção comercial de frutos de “Tetsukabuto” tem sido o plantio adjacente e concomitante de acessos de C. maxima ou C. moschata como polinizadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes acessos de C. maxima como fontes de pólen para produção comercial de abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto”. A cultivar de moranga "Exposição" e o acesso "Nirvana" foram utilizados como polinizadores para produção de frutos de dois híbridos do tipo varietal “Tetsukabuto” ("Jabras" e "Kyoto". Foram avaliados os tratamentos (cruzamentos Jabras x Exposição, Jabras x Nirvana, Tetsukabuto x Exposição, Tetsukabuto x Nirvana, em quatro repetições. Foram determinados os parâmetros massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, espessura da polpa, número e massa de sementes. O acesso "Nirvana" (cultivar em fase de validação pode ser utilizado na produção comercial como polinizador de abóboras deste grupo varietal sem nenhum prejuízo quando comparado com a moranga "Exposição"."Tetsukabuto" pumpkins are interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata accessions. Such hybrids, however, are often male-sterile due to the impaired ability of the staminate flowers to produce functional pollen. The use of intervening rows of staminate (pollen-donor plants is one strategy employed in order to have commercial fruit production. In the present work, two C. maxima accessions ["Exposição" (E and "Nirvana" (N] were employed as pollen-donors (staminate parents and their efficiency was compared considering fruit and seed yield parameters. Two pistillate Tetsukabuto hybrids ["Jabras" (J and "Kyoto Tetsukabuto" (KT] were employed in four possible unidirectional crosses (J x E, J x N, KT x E and KT x N. Fruits were produced using standard manual

  14. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  15. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  16. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  17. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  18. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  19. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  20. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  1. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  2. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  3. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  4. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  5. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  6. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  7. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  8. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  9. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  10. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  11. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  12. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  13. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  14. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  15. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  16. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  17. Effects of Salinity Stress on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of some Local Landrace and Inter specific Hybrids of Cucurbits Seedlings as Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farhadi

    2017-12-01

    with 200 ml of saline water (0, 2 and 4 ds/m for 35 days. Excess solution was allowed to drain from the plants through drainage holes in the base of the pots. Hybrids of 152,426 and Trichosanthes cucumerina, Luffa cylindrical and Cucurbita pepo con. Pepo var. Styriaca was added. In the second phase measured shoot and root dry mass, SPAD index, relatively water content and seedling vigor index. Results and Discussion: the results showed that all parameters were significantly influenced by salinity except root: shoot ratio in Petri dish. Salinity stress reduced chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content in cucurbita leaves than control (without saline and also seeds germination, seedlings fresh mass and seedlings vigour by 51%, 53%, and 75 % respectively. .The shoot dry biomass of local landrace and inter specific hybrids in both experiment decreased linearly in response to increasing saline stress. Recorded data in Petri dish and plastic pot were significantly influenced by rootstock, whereas no significant difference was observed on germination rate and vigor index for plastic pot in greenhouse. The lowest seed germination percentage, seedling growth, vigor index and root: shoot ratio recorded on high saline concentration. NaCl threshold damage to cucurbits was evaluated 4 ds/m. Populations of C. maxima cv.Kermanshah and Shahreza, C.moschata cv. Isfahan and inters pecific hybrids Ferro, 909 and 910 were showed tolerant to salinity. It is proven that crop growth decreases with increasing saline stress (Rouphael, et al., 2012. Hybrids of C. moschata cv. Koshk, C. pepo cv. Koshk and Asgharabad, Lagenaria Siceraria, Es113 and Cucurbita pepo con. Pepo var. Styriaca were sensitive to saline stress. Kumar et al, (2008 also reported plant response to salinity depends on type of salt, salt concentration and plant genotype. Conclusions: Salinity stress adversely affect biomass and leaf water content of cucurbita. Our results indicated that local and hybrid cucurbit plants

  18. Effect of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enrichment diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Arun Kumar, Meenatchi Sundaram; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The impact of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg -1 , 4 g kg -1 , and 6 g kg -1  C. mixta seed meal diets for a period of 4 weeks. The results indicated that C. mixta seed meal diets at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 significantly (P < 0.05) enhances the survival rate, weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency (FE) from weeks 1-4 when compared to control. C. mixta seed meals administered as feed supplements significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the complement activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, and lysosome activity in infected fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diet from weeks 2-4. The cumulative mortality was lower in the fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diets (15% and 18%) than with 2 g kg -1 diet (26%). The present investigation suggested that C. mixta seed meal enriched diet at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 enhance the better growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance against A. hydrophilla in O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20–100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules. PMID:9391168

  20. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Xiang, Y; Schobert, C; Thompson, G A; Lucas, W J

    1997-12-09

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20-100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules.

  2. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  3. Reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V: function, thermodynamic stability, and NMR solution structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Gong, Y; Prakash, O; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-09-26

    Reactive-site (Lys44-Asp45 peptide bond) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V*) was prepared and characterized: In comparison to the intact form, CMTI-V* exhibited markedly reduced inhibitory properties and binding affinities toward trypsin and human blood coagulation factor XIIa. The equilibrium constant of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis, Khyd, defined as [CMTI-V*]/[CMTI-V], was measured to be approximately 9.4 at 25 degrees C (delta G degrees = -1.3 kcal.mol-1). From the temperature dependence of delta G degrees, the following thermodynamic parameters were estimated: delta H degrees = 1.6 kcal.mol-1 and delta S degrees = 9.8 eu. In order to understand the functional and thermodynamic differences between the two forms, the three-dimensional solution structure of CMTI-V* was determined by a combined approach of NMR, distance geometry, and simulated annealing methods. Thus, following sequence-specific and stereospecific resonance assignments, including those of beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-hydrogens and valine methyl hydrogens, 809 interhydrogen distances and 123 dihedral angle constraints were determined, resulting in the computation and energy-minimization of 20 structures for CMTI-V*. The average root mean squared deviation in position for equivalent atoms between the 20 individual structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.67 +/- 0.15 A for the main chain atoms and 1.19 +/- 0.23 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 5-40 and residues 48-67.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  5. Dynamics of Selected Bioactive Substances Changes in Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Ex Poir. After Storage and Different Methods of Technological Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejiová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter squash is an important source of antioxidants, especially carotenoids. The aim of submitted research work was to determine the effect of genotype, storage and different methods of technological processing (baking, boiling and sterilization on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in fruits of winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.. The small-plot field experiment was established at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2013. Five cultivars of winter squash (‘Liscia’, ‘Orange’, ‘Hannah’, ‘UG 205 F1’ and ‘Waltham’ were examined in experiment. The total carotenoids content in the pulp of fresh fruits was ranged from 9.33 to 15.10 mg.100 g−1. Its highest value was determined in case of ‘Orange’ variety. The storage and the thermal treatment of fruit pulp in case of baking had positive impact from the total carotenoid content point of view. The baking resulted in the increase of its value in winter squash. On the contrary, sterilization tended to the decrease of total carotenoid content in edible part of squash. The total carotenoids content in the baking pulp was ranged from 14.27 to 31.87 mg.100 g−1. The vitamin C content before storage and technological processing ranged in interval from 13.88 to 18.69 mg.100 g−1. Particular thermal methods of processing and storage resulted in decrease of vitamin C content in the pulp of all winter squash varieties.

  6. Winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch fruit as a source of biologically active components after its thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To one of the most valuable pumpkin fruit belongs winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. The aim of this work was to assess the quality of C. moschata fruit and to assess the dynamics of compositional changes after the heat treatment of the pulp. We used six varieties Liscia, Orange, Hannah, UG 201 F1, Waltham, Serpentine. In the samples were analyzed carbohydrate content (glucose, fructose and sucrose, total polyphenols, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. The fresh pulp and pulp after the heat treatment were observed. Content of carbohydrates was determined by FTIR infrared spectroscopy. Content of total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometry. As the dominant sugar was found to be sucrose. The lowest content of all carbohydrates was found in the variety Serpentine. Fructose content ranged from 7.59 to 12.32 g.100 g-1 dry matter, glucose content from 7.23 to 9.79 g.100 g-1 dry matter and sucrose content 38.67 to 55.94 g.100 g-1 dry matter. After processing there was found a decrease in the sucrose and the slight increase in glucose and fructose content. Total carotenoid content in fruits ranged from 39.01 to 97.67 g mg.100 g-1 dry matter, the content of total polyphenols from 443.98 to 565.44 mg GAE.100 g-1 dry matter and antioxidant activity from 680.18 to 851.87 mg AA.100 g-1 dry matter. After the heat treatment, there was found some decrease in total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well.

  7. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  8. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  9. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  10. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  11. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  12. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  13. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  15. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  16. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  17. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  19. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  20. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.