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Sample records for cucurbita pepo fruit

  1. Genes for "Reverse" fruit striping in squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal striping is a common fruit color pattern in Cucurbita pepo and is conferred by any of several alleles at the light coloration-1 locus. Normally, dark stripes appear over the fruit surface areas between the 10 main subepidermal vein tracts with the lighter background color over and adjacent to these vein tracts. Less commonly, the striping is "reversed," that is, lighter than the background color. The present work was conducted to elucidate the mode of inheritance of reverse striping. The results indicated that reverse striping is conferred by the complementary interaction of an allele for striping with a heretofore unidentified allele at the light coloration-2 locus which is hereby designated l-2(R). Fruits of plants carrying an allele for striping and that are homozygous for l-2(R) have completely reversed striping, whereas those heterozygous for l-2(R) have striping that is completely normal or that is partially normal and partially reversed.

  2. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

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    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  4. Effect of pistil age on pollen tube growth, fruit development and seed set in Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Ettore Pacini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pistil age on pollen tube growth, fruit development and seed set were studied in Cucurbita pepo L., the flower of which opens for only six hours. Stigma receptivity lasts four days, from one day before until two days after anthesis. Style receptivity lasts three days, from the day before to the day after anthesis. Ovule receptivity lasts two days: the day of anthesis and the day before. The rate of pollen tube growth varies in different parts of the pistil and in relation to pistil age. In the stigmatic and stylar region, the tubes grow faster if pollination occurs the day before anthesis; in the ovary they grow faster when pollination occurs at anthesis. In the receptacle region, where the transmitting tissue is reduced, the growth rate decreases independently of the time of pollination. The fruits are larger and heavier with more seeds when pollination occurs at anthesis. There is a positive correlation between seed number and fruit weight when pollination occurred at anthesis and the day before.

  5. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

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    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  6. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  7. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit.

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    Košťálová, Zuzana; Hromádková, Zdenka; Ebringerová, Anna

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the seeded fruit biomass of the Styrian oil-pumpkin in view of its pectin component, a series of acidic polysaccharides were isolated by a six-step sequential extraction using hot water, EDTA, dilute HCl (twice) and dilute and stronger NaOH solutions. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses revealed that the first four fractions comprised partially methyl-esterified and acetylated pectins with varying proportions of rhamnogalacturonan regions ramified with galactose- and arabinose-containing side chains and showed considerable polymolecularity. The alkali-extracted polysaccharides contained lower amounts of pectins with homogalacturonan and arabinose-rich rhamnogalacturonan regions next to hemicelluloses prevailing in the last polysaccharide. Using (1)H-(13)C HSQC and HMBC spectroscopy, the resonances of free and methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in the purified acid-extracted pectin were unambiguously established and various diads formed by both residues identified. The results might serve as a basis for searching technological conditions to produce pectin from the oil-pumpkin fruit biomass.

  9. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

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    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  10. Genetics of oil pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Berenji Janoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. belongs to alternative crops grown for seeds and high quality seed oil. One of the basic prerequisites of successful production of oil pumpkin is the proper choice of cultivar. The genetics of different traits of oil pumpkin represents the basis for breeding of new cultivars of oil pumpkin. Of special interest for oil pumpkin breeding are the genetics of seed- coat, plant growth type, resistance to diseases and genetic basis of male sterility. For practical breeding of oil pumpkin the theory of monogenic inheritance of seed coat is quite satisfactory. In light of the theory of developmental reversal of dominance, it may be concluded for C. pepo that the bush type of growth is almost completely dominant over the vine habit at the beginning of plant growth, be- coming incompletely dominant in the second part of the season. In C. moshata several resistance genes of interest in oil pumpkin breeding for virus resistance were discovered. Male sterility, which was transferred to different genotypes of naked seeded oil pumpkin has potential for production of F1 hybrid seed. In addition to traits mention above, other genes of interest for genetics and breeding of oil pumpkin are also mentioned in this paper.

  11. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

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    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species

  12. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

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    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  13. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

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    Menezes, Cícero B de; Maluf, Wilson R; Azevedo, Sebastião M de; Faria, Marcos V; Nascimento, Ildon R; Nogueira, Douglas W; Gomes, Luiz A A; Bearzoti, Eduardo

    2005-03-31

    The inheritance of the tendency to set parthenocarpic fruit in the summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) line Whitaker was studied. Two parental lines, Whitaker (parthenocarpic) and Caserta (non-parthenocarpic), and the F1 and F2 generations and backcrosses to both parents were tested. The parthenocarpic tendency of individual plants was scored on a scale from 1 (non-parthenocarpic fruit) to 5 (parthenocarpic fruit). The Whitaker line produced parthenocarpic fruit and had a mean score of 4.2, whereas Caserta did not set parthenocarpic fruit and had a score of 1.55. The heritability estimates indicated that genetic gains from selection were feasible. The additive-dominant model showed a good fit, with epistasis being negligible or nonexistent. The hypothesis of monogenic inheritance with incomplete dominance was not rejected within the degree of dominance range from 0.2 to 0.5. These results indicate that parthenocarpy is controlled by a single locus, with incomplete dominance in the direction of parthenocarpic expression.

  14. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae

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    Nuez Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. Results We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. Conclusion We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic

  15. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Mladenović Emina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is collecting and preserving of unique Cucurbita pepo germplasm in Serbia. This study also describes the intraspecific variation of C. pepo within twenty germplasm accessions. Conservation work aimed to develop a representative core collection of C. pepo germplasm, to guide future studies and breeding of its ornamental use. A wide range of C. pepo germplasm was collected from diferent parts of the world. Nineteen variables were recorded in 20 varieties to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among them. Qualitative traits of fruit such is shape, color and texture, showed immense variation. Coefficient of variation were highest for fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (CV=56.69161.32%, while they were the lowest for leaf length (CV=20.65%. Morphological characterization is need to facilitate the use of C. pepo varieties in breeding work. Based on the PCA results, 20 accessions of squash are separate in five groups. Those groups are unique in qualitative and quantitative traits. Knowledge of genetic divergence among varieties is essential for breeding.

  16. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

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    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied.

  17. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

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    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  18. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

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    Esteras Cristina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL. Results We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo × Scallop (subsp. ovifera. The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Conclusion Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research

  19. Effect of roasting on tocopherols of gourd seeds (Cucurbita pepo

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    Didier, Montet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roasting at high temperatures on the Vitamin E in hulled gourd seeds of Cucurbita pepo was studied. Roasting at 140°C for 5 min induced a swelling of the seed with an increase in volume of 43 %, and a weight loss of 6.5 %.The seed acquired the desired puffed-up appearance. The water activity of raw seeds was 0.544 and decreased during roasting to 0.105. Cucurbita pepo seeds contained 51.0 % fat. Tocopherol content of roasted seeds was 68mg/100g oil and of non roasted seeds was 107mg/100g oil. γ-tocopherol represented 96% of the total tocopherols. Total tocopherol loss during roasting was 36%. β-tocopherol loss was the highest at 50%; for α-tocopherol it was 41% and for γ-tocopherol it was 36%.Se ha estudiado el efecto del tostado a alta temperatura sobre la vitamina E en semillas de calabaza Cucurbita pepo. El tostado a 140°C durante 5 min indujo una hinchazón de la semilla con un aumento en el volumen del 43 %, y una pérdida de peso del 6,5 %. La semilla adquirió la apariencia deseada después del tostado. La actividad del agua en la semilla cruda fue de 0,544 y disminuyó durante el tostado a 0,105. Las semillas de Cucurbita pepo contenían un 51,0 % de grasa. El contenido de tocoferol de las semillas tostadas fue de 68mg/100g y el de las semillas no tostadas de 107mg/100g de aceite. El γ-tocoferol representó el 96% de los tocoferoles totales. La pérdida de tocoferoles totales durante el tostado fue del 36% siendo la má alta la del β-tocoferol con un 50%; la del α-tocoferol fue del 41% y la del γ-tocoferol del 36%.

  20. SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata and its synteny with Cucurbita pepo.

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    Gong, L; Pachner, M; Kalai, K; Lelley, T

    2008-11-01

    The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two F2 populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers and two morphological traits (Gr and n). The map is composed of 27 linkage groups with a marker density of 7 cM. Comparing the C. moschata map with the published Cucurbita pepo map, we found a high level of macrosynteny. Seventy-two of 76 common SSR markers between C. moschata and C. pepo were located in homologous linkage groups. These markers in general have conserved orders and similar genetic distances; they represent orthologous loci. A reference map based on these SSRs was obtained. No major chromosomal rearrangement between the two species could be detected at present, although four SSR markers were mapped in nonhomologous linkage groups. The comparative alignment of SSR markers did not provide any indication of a possible ancient polyploid origin of the species. The comparative mapping of C. moschata and C. pepo reported here will be useful for further studies on Cucurbit evolution, gene isolation, and breeding work.

  1. Genetic diversity of a germplasm collection of Cucurbita pepo using SRAP and AFLP markers.

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    Ferriol, M; Picó, B; Nuez, F

    2003-07-01

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly polymorphic species. The cultivars can be grouped into eight morphotypes in two subspecies, ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera. A collection of 69 accessions representative of the morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analysing the morphological and molecular diversity of this species. This collection includes commercial cultivars and Spanish landraces, which represent the great diversification of types that have arisen in Europe after this species arrived from America. For the molecular variability studies, two PCR-based systems were employed, AFLP and SRAP, which preferentially amplify ORFs. Principal coordinates analysis and cluster analysis using the UPGMA method clearly separate the accessions into the two subspecies through the use of both markers. However, the gene diversity and the genetic identity values among morphotypes and subspecies varied between the two marker systems. The information given by SRAP markers was more concordant to the morphological variability and to the evolutionary history of the morphotypes than that of AFLP markers. In ssp. ovifera, the accessions of the different morphotypes were basically grouped according to the fruit colour. This may indicate different times of development and also the extent of breeding in the accessions used. This study has allowed identification of new types that can be employed for the development of new cultivars. The landraces of the spp. ovifera, used as ornamental in Europe, have proved to be of great interest for preserving the diversity of C. pepo.

  2. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  3. Morphological and Nutritive Variation in a Collection of Cucurbita pepo L. Growing in Kosova

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    Sali ALIU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is the one of the important diversity centers for Cucurbita pepo because of their adaptation to diverse agro ecological conditions as a result of natural and also farmer�s selection. In Kosovo, in most cases C. pepo is grown both in maize fields and vegetable gardens as well as in other more intensive systems. Our expedition have identified different location in the part of Kosovo where were collected a samples at altitudes from 545 till 748 MASL. Kjeldahl method we have used to determine Protein content (PC. Lipids were determined by extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and diethyl ether was used as extraction solvent. The aim of the present investigation was carried out to study morphological diversity, protein and lipids content. Pumpkin populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit weight (FW, fruit shape (FSH. All populations for FW were on higher genetic variability + 2556.9 g or 97.71%. The collection showed appreciable phenotypic variation in fruit shape (FSH. The greater part of variance was accounted for protein content (PC and lipids content (LC. The estimation overall value ? in seed for PC and LC were 14.59%, and 32.99% respectively. This evaluation of traits variability can assist breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding programs.

  4. Shoot production in squash (Cucurbita pepo) by in vitro organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Xia, X; Elman, C; Singer, S; Paris, H S; Gal-On, A; Gaba, V

    2003-04-01

    Seedling-derived cotyledon explants of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) of commercial cultivars True French, Ma'yan and Goldy were regenerated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium augmented with 1 mg/l benzyladenine. After 4 weeks in culture small shoots and buds regenerated only on the most proximal cotyledon edge. Culture on an elongation medium with a reduced cytokinin concentration (0.1 mg/l) with or without 1 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA(3)) facilitated the recovery of shoots. Fresh shoots could be recovered at each subculture of the regenerating mass. Peak productivity was during the third cycle of subculture, and shoot production ceased after the fifth subculture. Culture on elongation medium supplemented with GA(3) was 55% more effective with respect to overall shoot production than that on medium without GA(3), with 22 shoots recovered in total per explant from the former. Regeneration occurred under both light and dark conditions. All of the shoots tested were diploid. The shoots were rooted and transferred to the greenhouse where they grew and flowered normally.

  5. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cucurbita pepo is amember of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second-most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The ¿summer squash¿ types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set o...

  6. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  7. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology).

  8. EFFECT OF SPACING SIZE AND SHAPE ON OIL PUMPKIN YIELD (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera

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    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spacing size and shape on oil pumpkin yield (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera was investigated in two – year field experiments during 2004 and 2005 on The College of Agriculture at Križevci experimental fields. The investigated planting distances were: 100x100, 140x70, 140 x 50, 80 x 80 and 140x30 cm. The experiment was set out by to the Latin square method with five replications, and data was analyzed using analysis of variance. Austrian cultivar Gleissdorf was tested. Number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, number of fruits per hectare, yield of fruits per hectare, average seed weight per fruit and seed yield per hectare were established. Highly significant large number of fruits per plant in both years was established at greater spacing size (100x100 cm – 1.43 fruit/plant in 2004; 140x70 cm – 1.1 fruit/plant in 2005. Average fruit weight regularly was higher at greater spacing size (140x70 cm – 4239 g in 2004; and 100x100 cm – 4183 g in 2005 but not significant. Even though the differences were not significant between treatmants in both years the greatest number of fruits per hectare (16 167- 2004; 13 917 – 2005 and fruit yield per hectare (60.1 t/ha – 2004; 54.2 t/ha – 2005 was obtained at spacing 140x30 cm. The highest seed yield per hectare in both years (1397.2 kg/ha – 2004; 1167.6 kg/ha – 2005 was obtained at the same spacing (140x30 cm but high significant only in 2004 year.

  9. Effects of pollen selection on progeny vigor in a Cucurbita pepo x C. texana hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, M; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    1996-05-01

    We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Black Beauty') to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (>10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12-15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed 'the selected line' because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor.

  10. Expression Profile of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Genes in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, Clara I; Obrero, Ángeles; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary components that can be found in vegetable crops. The accumulation of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is altered by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) enzymes that produce their degradation. The aim of this work was to study the possible implication of CCD genes in preventing carotenoid storage in the horticultural crop summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). The relationship between the presence of these compounds and gene expression for CCDs was studied in three varieties showing different peel and flesh colour. Expression analysis for the CCD genes CpNCED1, CpNCED2, CpNCED3, CpNCED9, CpCCD1, CpCCD4a, CpCCD4b and CpCCD8 was carried out on different organs and at several fruit developmental stages. The results showed that the CpCCD4a and CpCCD4b genes were highly expressed in the variety with lowest carotenoid content suggesting a putative role in carotenoid accumulation pattern in summer squash fruit.

  11. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  12. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  13. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  14. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Stift, G; Kofler, R; Pachner, M; Lelley, T

    2008-06-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Olkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety "Lady Godiva" (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety "Bianco Friulano" (CN), which are the parents of our previous F(2) mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%.

  15. Nectar defense and hydrogen peroxide in floral nectar of Cucurbita pepo

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    Daniele Nocentini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate some similarities between the nectaries of Nicotiana sp. and Cucurbita pepo, such as starch accumulation in the nectary parenchyma, changes in nectary color during maturation, and the production of a large quantity of sucrose-dominant nectar. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in C. pepo floral nectar was determined in order to verify the presence of a defense mechanism similar to that found in Nicotiana sp. which protects nectar from yeast and bacteria proliferation. We also tested the eventual accumulation of antioxidants in the nectary of C. pepo as a protection against oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. The level of hydrogen peroxide found in the floral nectar of C. pepo was much lower than that found in Nicotiana sp. and the male flowers of Cucurbita had a higher concentration than the female flowers. The low oxidative stress induced by this level of hydrogen peroxide caused the accumulation of a low amount of lutein inside the plastoglobules which were contained in amyloplasts. Plastids of the C. pepo nectary are specialized in the accumulation of starch rather than antioxidants.

  16. Flowering biology, nectar production and insect visits in Cucurbita pepo L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.

  17. Estudio de un producto de V gama a partir de calabacín (Cucurbita pepo)

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Uréndez, Víctor

    2007-01-01

    Actualmente se está estudiando y trabajando con los llamados alimentos de V gama: cuya característica es estar el alimento envasado al vacío y tratado térmicamente. La vida útil suele tener una durada de unas cuatro semanas. Este proyecto consiste en estudiar un producto de la V gama de alimentos, para ello se ha utilizado una hortaliza como es el calabacín (Cucurbita pepo). El objetivo del trabajo es determinar que tratamiento térmico es más idóneo para el calabacín. Para realizar el estudio...

  18. Mathematical modelling of light-induced electric reaction of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves

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    Jan Stolarek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioelectRIc reactions of 14-16 day old plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and internodal cells of Nitellopsis obtusa to the action of visible and ultraviolet light (UV-C were studied. The possibility of analyzing the bioelectric reaction of pumpkin plants induced by visible light by means of mathematical modelling using a linear differential equation of the second order was considered. The solution of this equation (positive and negative functions can, in a sufficient way, reflect the participation of H+ and CI- ions in the generation of the photoelectric response in green plant cells.

  19. [Influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, V S; Shesterneva, O N; Surova, L M; Rumiantsev, E A; Vodeneev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.) was investigated in our work. It was shown that the variation potential induced by cotyledon burning propagates into a leaf. It decreases CO2 assimilation and transpiration as well as increases nonphotochemical quenching. Investigation of isolated chloroplasts showed that lowering of the pH in incubation medium from 6.9-7.2 to 6.5 increases nonphotochemical quenching. It was proposed that lowering of the cytoplasmic pH induced by the variation potential takes place in the photosynthetic response development.

  20. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production.

  1. Inheritance profile of weathered chlordane and p,p'-DDTs accumulation by Cucurbita pepo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; Hawthorne, Joseph; Berger, William; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) accumulates significant levels of persistent organic pollutants in its roots, followed by unexpectedly high contaminant translocation to the stems. Most other plant species, including the closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash), do not have this ability. To investigate the mechanism of contaminant accumulation, two cultivars each of parental zucchini and squash, as well as previously created first filial (F1) hybrids and F1 backcrosses (BC) of those parental cultivars, were grown under field conditions in a soil contaminated with weathered chlordane (2.29 microg/g) and DDX residues (0.30 microg/g; sum of DDT, DDE, DDD). The parental zucchini had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) for chlordane and DDX of 6.23 and 3.10; these values were 2.2 and 3.7 times greater than the squash, respectively. Chlordane and DDX translocation factors, the ratio of contaminant content in the stems to that in the root, were 2.1 and 3.2 times greater for zucchini than for squash. The parental zucchini and squash also differed significantly in chlordane component ratios (relative amounts of trans-nonachlor [TN], cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC]) and enantiomer fractions for the chiral CC and TC. Hybridization of the parental squash and zucchini resulted in significant differences in contaminant uptake. For both the three separate component ratios (CR) and two sets of enantiomer fraction (EF) values, subspecies specific differences in the parental generation became statistically equivalent in the F1 hybrid zucchini and squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parental plants, the zucchini and squash F1 BC cultivars reverted to the statistically distinct CR and EF patterns. This pattern of trait segregation upon hybridization suggests either single gene or single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability by C. pepo ssp pepo.

  2. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  3. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  4. Identification of viruses infecting pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L in Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Branka B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to identify the major viruses infecting pumpkins (Cucurbita pepogrown in Serbia. Leaf samples from virus-infected pumpkin plants were collected in mid-July 2001. Naked-seeded and hulled oil pumpkins, patty pan, zucchini and summer squash from three different locations were included (Table 1. Virus-infected plants showed different symptoms (Table 2 and Figures 1-4. Due to the great variability of the symptoms, the causal viruses could not be fully and precisely determined by visual examination only. The infected samples were tested by the biotest, as well as by two serological methods, ELISA and EBIA. Polyclonal antibodies raised against cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV, zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 1 (WMV-1, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2 and squash mosaic comovirus (SqMV were used. In each of the 50 collected samples one or two viruses were detected (Tables 3 and 4. The most prevalent viruses infecting pumpkins were ZYMV (62% and CMV (58%. WMV-2 was extremely rare.

  5. Dieldrin-dissolving abilities of the xylem saps of several plant families, particularly Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu

    2010-10-01

    The uptake ability of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plants and the nature of xylem sap of the plants were studied. The plants were grown in soil contaminated with dieldrin. High amounts of dieldrin were detected in the shoots of Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus, but little was seen in the shoots of Brassica oleracea var. italica, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Helianthus annuus. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus leached dieldrin adsorbed on C8 granules, but those of the other plants did not. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus eluted high amounts of dieldrin from the size-exclusion chromatography column near the fractions of RNase A (13.7 kDa) after Aprotinin (6.5 kDa), which has a larger molecular weight than dieldrin (381). The enhancement of dieldrin solubility by xylem sap was reduced by proteinase and heating. It was suspected that the protein-like materials in the xylem sap delivered dieldrin from the roots to the shoots. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2269-2277. © 2010 SETAC.

  6. Accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDTs in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; White, Jason C

    2012-08-01

    Cucurbita pepo spp pepo (zucchini) is known as an exceptional weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) accumulator, whereas Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera (squash) is termed a nonaccumulator. Experiments were conducted with hybridized zucchini and squash to assess the inheritance pattern of DDX (the sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE]) accumulation potential in xylem sap and tissues of parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 backcross (BC) generations of plants. Plants were grown in pots containing soil with weathered DDX at 732 to 1,130 ng/g soil or under field conditions in soil with 322 to 2,700 ng/g. The DDX stem bioconcentration factors and xylem sap values showed differences between parental and hybridized plants of squash and zucchini. For squash grown in greenhouse conditions, the DDX flow rate in the xylem sap was 17.3, 121, and 40.8 ng/h in parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 BC plants, respectively. Similarly, the stem DDX content of parental, F1, and F1 BC squash was 11, 253, and 96 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. A similar inheritance pattern for squash was observed when the plants were grown under field conditions. The DDX flow rates in the xylem sap of pot-grown parental, F1, and F1 BC zucchini cultivars were 100, 8.5, and 26 ng/hr, respectively, and the stem DDX content was 191, 102, and 142 ng/g, respectively. Again, similar trends in accumulation potential were observed for hybridized zucchini grown under field conditions. The DDX concentrations in parental plants matched the expected pattern, with hybrids midway between the two species, and the backcross being more like the parent again for both species. This inheritance pattern of contaminant accumulation and translocation ability follows classical Mendelian segregation and suggests single-gene or single-locus control.

  7. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo.

  8. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH

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    Zdenko Besek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003 was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in control of annual grass- and broad-leaved weeds. The efficacy of all herbicide treatments in 2003 was lower. The best results of herbicide effectiveness were achieved with combination of linuron + dimethenamid (91.3%, trifluralin (90.1% + napropamide and clomazone + linuron (89%.

  9. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

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    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  10. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  11. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain.

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    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-05-14

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Eevers et al.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

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    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, J.D.; Bottos, E.M.; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Enterobacter aerogenes, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue. This bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacity. An analysis of its 4.5-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils.

  13. Gama-Tocopherol Accumulation and Floral Differentiation of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. in Response to Plant Growth Regulators

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    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in biochemical and agronomical characteristics were studied in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. plants under different treatments with plant growth regulators (PGRs. The seeds were subjected to priming with PGRs before planting and plants unerwent foliar sprays with different solutions of PGRs at 10 day-intervals after flowering. y-tocopherol (y-toc content of grains was found to be increased under gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment. The accumulation of y-tocopherol in the grains of GA3 treated plants was approximately 19.5 % higher than the control and reached 220.2 mg kg-1 dry pumpkin grains. The number of female flowers per plant was positively affected by PGRs and was 10.1 and 1.89 respectively, in the naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and GA3 treated plants. A significant efficiency of treatments was observed upon fresh fruit yield. The yield increased from 4831 t ha-1 in the control to 6820 t ha-1 with NAA treatment. Priming treatments increased seedling emergence rate and percent. The highest seedling emergence rate was found in GA3 treated seeds.

  14. Activity of β-Galactosidase and Polygalacturonase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Stored at Low Temperatures

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    René Renato Balandrán-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When fruits are exposed to chilling temperatures, enzymatic systems are affected and normal cell metabolism is altered; cell wall enzymes are the least studied in this respect. Our objective is to determine the effect of storage temperature and/or kind of tissue on the activity of the enzymes polygalacturonase (PG and β-galactosidase (β-gal in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. subjected to 2.5 and/or 12 °C for 16 days. Exocarp and endocarp samples were analyzed every 4 days for PG and β-gal activities. The highest β-gal activity was found in the exocarp at 12 °C; in both tissues β-gal decreased with time at 2.5 °C, but increased at 12 °C. PG activity was higher in the endocarp (highest activity at 2.5 °C than in the exocarp (highest activity at 12 °C. It was concluded that PG activity in the exocarp constitutes an adequate system for studying the relationship between chilling injury and cell wall biological activity.

  15. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  16. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  17. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS.

  18. Developmental instability: measures of resistance and resilience using pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Dobson, Melissa; Jordan, Yolanda; Kizy, Anne; Micallef, Chris; Hancock, Leandria C.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry measures random deviations from bilateral symmetry, and thus estimates developmental instability, the loss of ability by an organism to regulate its development. There have been few rigorous tests of this proposition. Regulation of bilateral symmetry must involve either feedback between the sides or independent regulation toward a symmetric set point. Either kind of regulation should decrease asymmetry over time, but only right–left feedback produces compensatory growth across sides, seen as antipersistent growth following perturbation. Here, we describe the developmental trajectories of perturbed and unperturbed leaves of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepoL., grown at three densities. Covering one side of a leaf with aluminium foil for 24 h perturbed leaf growth. Reduced growth on the perturbed side caused leaves to become more asymmetrical than unperturbed controls. After the treatment the size-corrected asymmetry decreased over time. In addition, rescaled range analysis showed that asymmetry was antipersistent rather than random, i.e. fluctuation in one direction was likely to be followed by fluctuations in the opposite direction. Development involves right–left feedback. This feedback reduced size-corrected asymmetry over time most strongly in the lowest density treatment suggesting that developmental instability results from a lack of resilience rather than resistance. 

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen.

  20. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata") when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  1. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) using qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Angeles; Die, Jose V; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro; Nadal, Salvador; González-Verdejo, Clara I

    2011-05-25

    The zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is an important food crop, the transcriptomics of which are a fundamental tool to accelerate the development of new varieties by breeders. However, the suitability of reference genes for data normalization in zucchini has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of 13 genes for their potential use as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR. Assays were performed on 34 cDNA samples representing plants under different stresses and at different developmental stages. The application of geNorm and NormFinder software revealed that the use of a combination of UFP, EF-1A, RPL36aA, PP2A, and CAC genes for the different experimental sets was the best strategy for reliable normalization. In contrast, 18S rRNA and TUA were less stable and unsuitable for use as internal controls. These results provide the possibility to allow more accurate use of qPCR in this horticultural crop.

  2. Nano-silicon dioxide mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Faisal, Mohammad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz A

    2014-11-01

    Research into nanotechnology, an emerging science, has advanced in almost all fields of technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 ) in plant resistance to salt stress through improvement of the antioxidant system of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. white bush marrow). Seeds treated with NaCl showed reduced germination percentage, vigor, length, and fresh and dry weights of the roots and shoots. However, nano-SiO2 improved seed germination and growth characteristics by reducing malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as electrolyte leakage. In addition, application of nano-SiO2 reduced chlorophyll degradation and enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate, and water use efficiency. The increase in plant germination and growth characteristics through application of nano-SiO2 might reflect a reduction in oxidative damage as a result of the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase. These results indicate that nano-SiO2 may improve defense mechanisms of plants against salt stress toxicity by augmenting the Pn , gs , transpiration rate, water use efficiency, total chlorophyll, proline, and carbonic anhydrase activity in the leaves of plants.

  3. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Stoner

    Full Text Available There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata" when applied to soil by two methods: (1 sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2 applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  4. Effects of Zeolite and Selenium Application on Some Physiological Traits and Oil Yield of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under Drought Stress

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    Kourosh Eskandari Zanjani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that certain plants offer valuable medicinal properties. But there are many challenges that local communities face in the harvesting and cultivation of these plants. Medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca is an economically important medicinal plant cultivated for oil production. Water source limitation is one of the important problems in agriculture worldwide. Natural zeolits have some properties such as water absorption and emission and nitrate leaching inhibition, which is useful for soil amendment. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite and selenium application on some physiological traits and oil yield of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under drought stress. A field experiment was carried out in a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors included: Irrigation (control, drought stress imposed during at flowering phase and drought stress imposed during fruit formation, Zeolite (non-application and application of 10 ton/ha and Selenium (nonapplication and 30 g/Lit from sodium selenate. All physiological parameters were affected by drought stress and zeolite application. Drought stress decreased total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, RWC, leaf soluble protein, oil content and oil yield and zeolite application in drought stress increased mentioned traits except oil content. Proline accumulation, WSD and CAT antioxidant enzyme activity were reduced in presence of zeolite in drought stress conditions than under control. Selenium spraying with zeolite application in drought conditions increased RWC, CAT antioxidant enzyme activity and oil yield. Drought stress at fruit formation phase reduced oil content and oil yield more severe than that on flowering stage. Finally, it seems that zeolite and selenium application in dry lands are exposed to drought stress be helpful for physiological traits and oil yield improvement and

  5. [Immunocytological localization of IAA in the parenchyma cell and vascular elements in the graft union of Cucurbita pepo/Cucurbita moschata at the early developmental stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Q; Han, J; Jia, W S; Du, Z

    2000-06-01

    Immuno-gold localization of IAA in cells of the graft union in the explant internode graft of Cucurbita pepo/Cucurbita moschata were investigated with electron microscopy. In parenchyma cells near the graft union, the gold particles were mainly accumulated in nucleus, plastid and endoplasmic reticulum, while no gold particles was detected in Golgi body, mitochondrion, cell wall and vacuoles. In the differentiating xylem element, the gold particles were labeled in secondary wall and cytoplasm. In the sieve element gold particles were found in the sieve plate, sieve pore and cytoplasm. There was a dense label of the gold particles in the companion cell. The role of IAA in the differentiation of the vascular elements was discussed.

  6. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  7. Risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Karen D; Power, Alison G; Snow, Allison A; Spencer, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    The development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. Investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. Viruses in natural plant populations can play important roles in plant fecundity and competitive interactions. Here, we show that virus-resistance transgenes and conventional crop genes can increase fecundity of wild plants under virus pressure. We asked how gene flow from a cultivated squash (Cucurbita pepo) engineered for virus resistance would affect the fecundity of wild squash (C. pepo) in the presence and absence of virus pressure. A transgenic squash cultivar was crossed and backcrossed with wild C. pepo from Arkansas. Wild C. pepo, transgenic backcross plants, and non-transgenic backcross plants were compared in field plots in Ithaca, New York, USA. The second and third generations of backcrosses (BC2 and BC3) were used in 2002 and 2003, respectively. One-half of the plants were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and one-half of the plants were maintained as healthy controls. Virus pressure dramatically decreased the fecundity of wild C. pepo plants and non-transgenic backcross plants relative to transgenic backcross plants, which showed continued functioning of the virus-resistance transgene. In 2002, non-transgenic backcross fecundity was slightly higher than wild C. pepo fecundity under virus pressure, indicating a possible benefit of conventional crop alleles, but they did not differ in 2003 when fecundity was lower in both groups. We detected no fitness costs of the transgene in the absence of the virus. If viruses play a role in the population dynamics of wild C. pepo, we predict that gene flow from transgenic, virus-resistant squash and, to a much lesser

  8. Kinetics of the extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been used to obtain total lipid extracts from other oilseeds, and it has also proved successful in the isolation and enrichment of sterols from oilseeds. The SFE of pumpkin seed oil on a laboratory scale was investigated in thus paper, with special interest in the influence of the extraction pressure on the overall yield of pumpkin seed oil. Extractions were carried out at the pressures of 15, 25 and 30 MPa and at 313 K, and at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperatures 313, 323, and 333 K. The yield of the extractions conducted at 15 MPa was rather low, 0.1814 g oil per 1g of seed feed (18.4% for an extraction time of 14 h. However, extractions at higher pressures yielded greater quantities of the oil; at 22.5 MPa for 9 h, 36.3% of the oil and at 30 MPa for 6 h, 41.0% of the oil. For comparison, hexane extraction of the seed material yielded less than 40% of the oil. Temperature did not influence the extraction yield. At a pressure of 30 MPa, the color of the fractions yielded during successive extraction time intervals varied greatly, from pail yellow (the first 2 h, through orange-yellow (from 2-4 h to red (after 4 h. The experimental results of the oil yields were compared with the data obtained by the mathematical model of Hong et al., presented in the literature.

  9. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  10. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  11. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  12. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  13. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  14. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system.

  15. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (ppumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  16. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on seed yield and oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on yield and seed oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L., an experiment was conducted in Kermanshah/Iran during the 2013 growing season. The experimental treatments consisted of two levels - no head pruning, control (Co and head pruning (C1 allocated to the main plots. Four levels of different fertilizing systems - control (without fertilizer (T0, chemical (T1, biological (a combination of nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus mosseae (T2, and integrated fertilizing system (biological fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizer (T3 were assigned to the sub-plots. The experimental treatments were arranged as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the highest percentage of seed oil was obtained (37% in the integrated nutritional system along with the head pruning treatment. The highest grain yields of 53 and 50 g per square meter were obtained in integrated and chemical fertilizing systems, respectively while no pruning was applied. The highest fruit yields of 3,710 and 3,668 kg per hectare were produced by chemical and integrated fertilizing systems, respectively. The biological nutrition system required more time to demonstrate its positive effect on the growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  18. Changes in the ascorbate system in the response of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) roots to aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierro, Nunzio; Mondelli, Donato; Paciolla, Costantino; Brunetti, Gennaro; Dipierro, Silvio

    2005-05-01

    The involvement of the ascorbate (AsA) system in the response of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) roots to aluminium stress was studied. The treatment of 5-day-old pumpkin seedlings with 50 microM aluminium sulphate resulted in approximately 60% inhibition of root growth within 48-60 h of treatment, while aluminium accumulated in the roots reaching a maximum within 48h. During the same period, the hydrogen peroxide content of the roots was strongly enhanced. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide was matched by both increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) activity and ascorbate free radical reductase (AFRR) (EC 1.1.5.4) activity, while dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) (EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) did not change. The levels of AsA in the roots were also increased by the Al treatment. It was concluded that an oxidative burst is probably involved in the toxicity of Al in pumpkin roots and that plants react to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species by expressing higher levels of scavenging systems such as the AsA-APX system.

  19. A biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) homogenate as a biorecognition layer for ascorbic acid determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Koca, Halit Buğra; Ozben, Yavuz Selim; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2010-08-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) tissue homogenate is presented. The zucchini tissue homogenate was crosslinked with gelatine using glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. The zucchini tissue contained the enzyme ascorbate oxidase and this enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The principle of the measurements was based on the determination of the decrease in the dissolved oxygen level. Determinations were carried out by standard curves, which were obtained by the measurement of the decrease in the oxygen level related to ascorbic acid concentration. Optimization and characterization studies of the biosensor were carried out in detail. First of all, the amounts of zucchini tissue homogenate, gelatin, and glutaraldehyde percentage were optimized. Experimental parameters such as buffer system, pH, buffer concentration, and temperature were also optimized carefully. Thermal stability, storage stability, and repeatability of the biosensor were investigated. A linear response was observed from 5x10(-6) M to 1.2x10(-3) M ascorbic acid. Finally, the results of some plant and drug samples analyzed with the presented biosensor compared with the spectrophotometric method (Tillman reagent) used as a reference.

  20. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  1. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations.

  2. Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Bonilha; Ricardo Gioria; Rômulo Fujito Kobori; Paulo Tarcísio Della Vecchia; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown...

  3. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  4. Oligoglucans as Elicitors of an Enzymatic Antioxidant System in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Seedlings at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ceron-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Non-controlled low temperatures affect physiological and biochemical processes leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS accumulation in plants, which normally are stabilized by the antioxidant system. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Catalase (CAT are the most important ROS-detoxification enzymes in stressed plants. Approach: The activity of these enzymes were examined in response to fungal Oligoglucans (OG in cold-stressed cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. Cold stress condition was settled in zucchini cotyledons using relative Ion Leakage (IL and H2O2 accumulation. Then, OG were obtained from Trichoderma harzianum cellwall by enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis. These elicitors were purified by size-exclusion and anionexchange chromatography and tested in cold-stressed cotyledons. Results: No significant changes on H2O2 content and IL were observed between treated and control cold-stressed cotyledons, during the first 7 days of storage at 5°C. Afterwards H2O2 values increased greatly after cold-stressed. Then, cold stress conditions were established (7 d, 5°C. The APX and CAT activities remained stable, but not SOD activity, which decreased about 42% in control cotyledons. When a chemical OG mixture (CM was applied to cold-stressed cotyledons, APX and CAT activity levels increased. The SOD activity was only increased by an enzymatic OG mixture (EM. The APX activity level was increased in coldstressed cotyledons using OG size-exclusion chromatography fractions from both CM and EM; however, changes in CAT activity were only possible using EM fractions and no changes were detected in SOD activity. The highest CAT activity levels were triggered using OG anion-exchange chromatography sub-fractions from both CM and EM fractions (120 and 119 % of enzymatic activity, respectively. Conclusion: The oxidative stress can be counteracted by the triggering of APX and CAT activity in cold

  5. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Yield of varieties of Cucurbita pepo preimmunized with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Bonilha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown in a plastic greenhouse did not exhibit typical leaf symptoms or significant alterations in quantitative and qualitative fruit yield. However, when infected with PRSV-W-1, or PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, the plants exhibited severe leaf mosaic symptoms and reduced fruit quality, although there were no changes in the number and mean fruit weight harvested from these plants. When these plants were infected with PRSV-W-1 and studied simultaneously in the field and plastic greenhouse, intensification of symptoms in the fruits and leaves was more pronounced under the greenhouse conditions. Quantitative yield did not change. Environmental factors seem to influence symptoms induced by PRSV-W-1.O Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W e o Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV são os vírus predominantes em culturas de cucurbitáceas no Brasil, onde geralmente causam danos significativos na produção. As doenças causadas por ambos os vírus são de difícil controle. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin em condições de estufa plástica e de campo. Plantas infectadas com a estirpe ZYMV-M sob condições de estufa plástica não exibiram sintomas foliares típicos da doença e alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos produzidos. No entanto, quando infectadas com a estirpe PRSV-W-1, ou PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, as plantas

  8. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  9. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  10. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  11. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  12. Determinação de paracetamol em produtos farmacêuticos usando um biossensor de pasta de carbono modificado com extrato bruto de abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Iolanda Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of several vegetables such as peach (Prunus persica, yam (Alocasia macrorhiza, manioc (Manihot utilissima, artichoke (Cynara scolymus L, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., turnip (Brassica campestre ssp. rapifera, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo were investigated as the source of peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7. Among those, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo crude extract was found to be the best one. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of paracetamol to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which the electrochemical reduction back to paracetamol was obtained at a peak potential of fraction three-quarters0.10V. A cyclic voltammetric study was performed by scanning the potential from + 0.5 to fraction three-quarters 0.5 V. The recovery of paracetamol from two samples ranged from 97.3 to 106% and a rectilinear calibration curve for paracetamol concentration from 1.2x10-4 to 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9965 were obtained. The detection limit was 6.9x10-5 mol L-1 and the relative standard deviation was less than 1.1% for a solution containing 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 paracetamol and 2.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide (n=12. The results obtained for paracetamol in pharmaceutical products using the proposed biosensor and Pharmacopoeial procedures are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  13. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants.

  14. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

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    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  15. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  16. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhu-Gang; Wang, Xun; Han, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Chun-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68μg/mL and 45.46μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials.

  17. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality.

  18. Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of certain plasma enzymes in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2005-04-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed rats were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl4 intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate. All three subgroups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all four enzymes were significantly higher than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. CCl4 intoxication resulted in significant increases in the activity levels of all four enzymes investigated. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl4 intoxication resulted in significantly reduced activity levels of all four enzymes. It is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein malnutrition.

  19. Methyl jasmonate is a more effective senescence-promoting factor in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) cotyledons when compared with darkness at the early stage of senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Kalina; Ananiev, Evgueni D; Mishev, Kiril; Georgieva, Katya; Malbeck, Jiri; Kamínek, Miroslav; Van Staden, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    The effects of short-term darkening and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on cotyledon senescence were studied 24h after transfer of intact 7-day-old Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings to darkness or spraying with 100 microM MeJA. The jasmonate inhibitory effect on chlorophyll content and chloroplast transcriptional activity was stronger compared with darkness. Further, MeJA reduced the photosynthetic rate whereas darkness did not affect photosynthesis. Neither stress factor affected the photochemical quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) estimated by the variable fluorescence (F(v))/maximal fluorescence (F(m)) ratio, suggesting the existence of mechanisms protecting the functional activity of PSII at earlier stages of senescence, thus making this parameter more stable compared to others used to quantify senescence. Both stress factors caused a decrease in the content of physiologically active cytokinins, especially trans-zeatin (Z), with the jasmonate effect being much more pronounced when compared to darkness. Our results indicate that MeJA is a more potent inducer of senescence in zucchini cotyledons, at least within the relatively short period of the 24h treatment. This is likely due to its stronger down-regulatory effect on the levels of physiologically active cytokinins.

  20. L-ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical formulations using a biosensor based on carbon paste modified with crude extract of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibello-Filho Orlando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor based on carbon paste modified with crude extract of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo as a source of peroxidase is proposed for determining L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone to p-quinone whose electrochemical reduction back to hydroquinone was obtained at peak potential of -0.14V. Thus, when L-ascorbic acid is added to the solution, this acid can reduce chemically p-quinone to hydroquinone and/or reduce hydrogen peroxide, decreasing the peak current obtained proportionally to the increase of its concentration. The recovery of L-ascorbic acid from five samples ranged from 98.1 to 102.1% and a rectilinear calibration curve for L-ascorbic acid concentration from 2.0x10-4 to 5.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9992 was obtained. The detection limit was 2.2x10-5 mol L-1 and relative standard deviation was < 1.3% for a solution containing 4.0x10-3 mol L-1 L-ascorbic acid, 7.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydroquinone and 2.0x10-4 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained for L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations using the proposed biosensor and those obtained using the Pharmacopeia method are in agreement at the 95 % confidence level.

  1. Effects of different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residue silage replacement with forage part of ration on male buffalo calves fattening performance

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    A. Hashemi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing forage part of ration with different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residual silage (PRS on fattening performance of male buffalo calves. Twenty Four calves with 203 + 27.9 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 4 groups and 6 replicates. The four groups (1, 2, 3 and 4 included 0 (control, 20, 40 and 60 percent replacement of forage part of ration with PRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 4, respectively. Daily weight gain (DWG was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DWG were shown at the groups 3 and 2, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was not significantly different between the groups. But the best FCR was obtained at group 1. It may conclude that forage part of ration can be substituted with PRS at 60 % level with no negative effects on male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  2. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Maciej Grzybek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo L. hot water extract (HWE, cold water extract (CWE or ethanol extract (ETE on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri. Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94. A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I. nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative

  3. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  4. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Phillips

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600–1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600–0800 h of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600–1200 h. Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  5. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin W; Gardiner, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600-1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600-0800 h) of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600-1200 h). Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  6. Study on characteristics of polyphenol oxidase of Cucurbita pepo L.%西葫芦多酚氧化酶酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 董海洲; 王兆升; 刘传富

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO)of Cucurbita pepo L.and effect of various inhibitors to PPO were studied by spectrophotometer.The results showed that the optimum pH and temperature were 6.6 and 35℃. However,the PPQ was inactivated in 90℃ water for 5min.The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reaction of PPO was in accord with Michaelis-Menten equation,the Km, Vmax of kinetic equation were 0.0417mol/L,208.33U using catechol as substrate,respectively.Four kinds of inhibitors had different effects on PPO, and the order of PPO as NaHSO3〉 L-Cysteine 〉 ascorbic acid 〉 citric acid.%以邻苯二酚为底物,采用分光光度法对西葫芦多酚氧化酶(PPO)的酶学特性及不同抑制剂对多酚氧化酶活性的影响进行研究。结果表明,西葫芦多酚氧化酶最适pH为6.6,最适温度为35℃,90℃处理5rain可使该酶失活。多酚氧化酶催化的酶促褐变反应动力学符合米氏方程,动力学参数为Km=0.0417mol/L,Vmax=208.33U。四种抑制剂对PPO的抑制效果由强到弱依次为:亚硫酸氢钠〉L-半胱氨酸〉抗坏血酸〉柠檬酸。

  7. The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

    2009-03-15

    This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control.

  8. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  9. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  10. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  11. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  12. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  13. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PAL Gene in Seed Coat of Cucurbita pepo%美洲南瓜(Cucurbitapepo)种皮苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 徐秉良; 薛应钰; 张树武; 陈荣贤

    2014-01-01

    Objective]The aim of this study was to clone full-length cDNA of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene (CP-PAL) in seed coat of the hulled Cucurbita pepo, analyze its expressions in seed coat development of the hulled and hull-less C. pepo, thus providing a theoretical support for revealing the mechanism of seed development and function of accumulation of lignin in seed coat development.[Method]The full sequence of CP-PAL was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The bioinformatics method was used to analyze cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence, and the real-time PCR and 2-△△Ct method were used to analyze the expression profile of PAL gene in the whole period of seed coat development. [Result] The full-length sequence of CP-PAL consists of 1 720 bp with an intact open reading frame of 1 359 bp, 5′UTR of 114 bp, 3′UTR of 236 bp, polyA of 11 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids. The molecular weight of CP-PAL was 48.86 kD, pI was 6.5, total number of atoms was 6 885 and the formula was C2158H3449N607O657S14. Homology analysis showed that the CP-PAL nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acids were highly homologous to that of PAL gene in Cucumis sativus. CP-PAL contained three functional domains of PAL-HAL, PLN02457, phe_am_lyase and the typical PAL enzyme active site sequence (GTITASGDLVPLSYIA), and it was one member of Lyase_I_Like superfamily. CP-PAL was most likely to be located in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum, without signal peptide and leader peptide. And it was non-transmembrane and soluble protein. Besides, CP-PAL included casein kinase II phosphorylation site for four, protein kinase C phosphorylation site for six, N-myristoylation site for twelve and N-glycosylation site for two. In addition, CP-PAL had eighteen serine phosphorylation sites, six threonine phosphorylation sites and five tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Random coil was the maximum structural part in the protein secondary structure of CP-PAL, alpha helix

  14. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  15. 镧对西葫芦幼苗模拟酸雨胁迫的缓解效应%Alleviative effects of LaCl_3 on simulated acid rain stresses for Cucurbita pepo seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Using Cucurbita pepo as the experimental material,the alleviative effects of foliar surface spraying for LaCl3(12 mg/L) on seedling growth and three physiological indexes of C.pepo were investigated under some simulated acid rain(SAR) stresses.Results show that the damage effects of SAR on C.pepo seedlings are alleviated by the LaCl3 treatment.The fresh weights of the seedlings treated with LaCl3 solutions of pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 are significantly higher than those of the treatments only with SAR,and are equivalent to 94.7% and 78.6% of the control level(pH 6.5).However,no significant differences are observed between the treatment with other SAR+LaCl3 solution and the treatment only with SAR.The chlorophyll and dissolved protein contents follow the trend of the seedling fresh weight,and the indexes treated with pH 3.0 and pH 3.5 SAR+LaCl3 solutions are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR,but the differences of pH 3.0 are slightly greater than those of pH 3.5.Compared with the control,the dissolved protein content treated with pH 3.5+LaCl3 solution is the highest.The proline content increase consistently with the pH value,and improved by the LaCl3 treatment.The proline contents treated with pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 SAR+LaCl3 solution are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR.Therefore,the alleviative effects of LaCl3 on middle SAR stresses for C.pepo seedling are significant.%以西葫芦为材料,研究模拟酸雨胁迫下适量镧(La)对幼苗生长及叶绿素、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量的影响。结果显示,镧处理对酸雨胁迫有一定的缓解作用。在pH 3.5和3.0时,幼苗鲜重均显著高于模拟酸雨组,并恢复到对照的94.7%和78.6%;但在其他胁迫强度下,镧处理的缓解效应不显著。叶绿素和可溶性蛋白的含量变化与幼苗鲜重类似,在pH 3.0时镧处理的缓解效应最显著;pH 3.5时镧处理的可溶性蛋白含量超过对照。脯氨酸含量呈现持

  16. 2D NMR对苦味西葫芦果实中的一个三萜皂苷进行结构解析%Structure Determination of A Cucurbitacin Glycoside Extracted from Cucurbita pepo cv Dayangua by 2D NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大成; 葛杉; 高慧媛; 蔡辉; 吴斌; 吴立军; 邓旭明

    2005-01-01

    通过核磁共振谱并结合文献对一个三萜皂苷葫芦素E 2-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷进行结构解析.通过2D NMR(1H-1H COSY、HMQC和HMBC)进行了NMR全归属.%A triterpene saponin was extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Cucurbita pepo cv Dayangua. Its structure was determined by 2D NMR. Complete assignment of the 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the compound was obtained. The structure was elucidated to be cucurbitacin E 2-O-b-D-glucoside.

  17. Antalya İli ve İlçelerindeki Örtüaltı Hıyar (Cucumis sativus L. ve Kabak (Cucurbita pepo L. Üretim Alanlarında Viral Etmenlerin Saptanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÇAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, 2014-2015 yılları arasında Antalya ili ve ilçelerinde örtüaltı hıyar (Cucumis sativus L. ve kabak  (Cucurbita pepo L. üretim alanlarında ZYMV (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, PRSV (Papaya ring spot virus, SqMV (Squash mosaic virus ve CMV (Cucumber mosaic virus’nün varlığının, serolojik, ve biyolojik yöntemlerle saptanması ve toplanan örneklerdeki yaygınlığının ortaya konulması amacıyla 2014-2015 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Örtüaltı hıyar ve kabak üretim alanlarından alınan ve virüs şüphesi duyulan 455 yaprak ve meyve örneğinin hepsi DAS-ELISA ile testlenmiştir. Teslenen 455 örneğin 346 adedininde (%76 bir ve daha fazla virüs ile enfekteli olduğu belirlenmiştir. ELISA testleri sonucunda pozitif reaksiyon veren bitkilerden alınan dokular mekanik inokulasyon çalışmalarında kullanılmıştır.  İndikatör bitkiler üzerinde 15-30 gün gibi bir sürede belirti gözlenmiştir.

  18. 不同温度对西葫芦果实冷害及生理变化的影响%Effects of Different Temperature on Chilling Injury and Physiological Changes during Storage of Cucurbita pepo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清; 杨娜; 刘凤娟; 高丽朴

    2012-01-01

    通过试验确定西葫芦果实在不同温度下贮藏的安全期,并分析不同冷藏温度下其营养品质和生理生化指标的变化.结果表明,在单纯5、8、10℃低温处理下冷害出现的时间分别为处理后的7、5、6d.但5、8、10℃处理分别冷藏3、4、5d后,再在20℃环境的货架上1d就会表现出冷害;冷害对西葫芦果实可溶性蛋白含量影响不大,但会降低可溶性固形物的含量与过氧化氢酶活性,影响细胞膜透性、丙二醛和过氧化氢含量.%To ensure the safety period of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) at different temperature, the changes of nutrition quality and physiological and biochemical indexes of summer squash at different cold storage temperature were studied. The results showed that the chilling injury of summer squash occurred 7, 5, 6d after being stored at 5, 8, 10 ℃, respectively. But chilling injury would occur on shelf just in 1 d at 20 ℃ after being stored at 5, 8, 10 ℃ for 3, 4, 5d, respectively. The effect of chilling injury on the soluble protein content of summer squash was limited. However, the soluble solid content and catalase activity were reduced; and the cell membrane permeability, content of Malondialdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide were influenced.

  19. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  20. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  1. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Fruit Extract Improves Physical Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chung Hou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen and release (as blood glucose, and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  2. Effects of different pruning ways on the sugar-decreasing matters of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits during the ripeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Shujun; JIANG Xinmei; LIU Shouwei; YU Xihong

    2007-01-01

    This experiment used pumpkin Longyuanlixiang as material to research the effect of different pruning ways with one branch, two branches, and three branches on the sugar-decreasing matters during the ripeness of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits. The results showed that pectin contents of pumpkin fruits during the ripeness all increased at first and then dropped in every treatment. The pectin contents under the treatments of one branch and two branches reached the high apex after pollinated for 30 d as well as for 35 d under the treatment of three branches. Pentose and chromium contents of fruits had the same trend under different pruning ways and increased during the ripenes. Three kinds of sugar-decreasing matters contents under treatment of two branches were bigger than treatment of one branch, while treatment of three branches was the lowest.

  3. 西葫芦单倍体诱导及分子检测鉴定%In vitro Induction of Haploid Plants in Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)and Selection by Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敏; 张国裕; 赵尊练; 张帆; 姜立纲; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    以3种基因型西葫芦为试材,探讨不同基因型与花粉辐照剂量(25~400 Gy)对西葫芦单倍体植株诱导的影响.结果表明,基因型与辐照剂量对植株坐果率和单倍体诱导率均有显著影响.辐照剂量率2 Gy/min,剂量125~250 Gy比较适宜西葫芦单倍体的诱导,获得的再生植株较多,有利于单倍体植株的产生.单倍体植株主要由点状胚与箭形胚发育而来.基因型330的单倍体诱导率为5.08%,基因型331的为7.40%,而基因型332未能获得单倍体植株.利用特异的EST-SSR标记快速对再生植株中的单倍体或自然加倍单倍体植株进行鉴定,并通过保卫细胞叶绿体计数法及流式细胞仪验证SSR标记分析结果的可靠性,确定植株染色体倍性水平.西葫芦单倍体植株生长势弱,叶片较小,花粉败育.%The influence of pollen irradiation and plant genotype on the production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos was investigated in squash (Cucurbita pepo L. ). Pollen was irradiated at different gamma-ray doses (25 - 400 Gray). Production of in vitro haploid plantlets was influenced by irradiation dose, genotype, embryo type and embryo stage. Embryos were obtained from irradiation doses within the range of 125 to 250 Gray. Necrotic embryos were higher than normal embryos when the irradiation doses higher than 250 Gray. The haploid plants were produced mostly from point and arrow-tip embryos. The frequencies of haploid plantlets were 5. 08% and 7. 40% for genotype 330 and 331, respectively. EST-SSR, chloroplast number per guard cell counting and flow cytometry were used to determine the haploid plants in this study. The haploid plants achieved low growth ability and small leaves with sterile stamen.

  4. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  5. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  6. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  7. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C

    2002-08-06

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F(1) and F(2) progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus.

  8. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Bahramsoltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE. Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico.

  10. Phenotypic stability of traits associated with fruit quality in butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés-Restrepo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and select genotypes with high fruit dry matter, represented by high starches and carotenes, to obtain a cultivar apt for agroindustrial processes. The model of Eberhart and Russell was used to measure the stability parameter and evaluate the phenotypic stability of traits associated with fruit quality in four populations of butternut squash at three localities in the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia: Candelaria, Palmira and El Cerrito. Highly significant differences were detected for the genotype x location (P=0.001 interaction for the traits of dry matter, carotene and starch. Except for population 1 in El Cerrito, there was a negative effect on the accumulation of photosynthates at 1,536 m a.s.l., probably due to the low quality of the heliophany. The populations 1, 2 and 3 were stable and predictable, complying with the parameters β = 1 and d = 0 of the Eberhart and Russell methodology. Population 1 was notable in terms of high fruit production, high dry matter content and good phenotypic stability

  11. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  12. Chemotaxonomical study of vegetables X. The carotenoids of some vegetables from Cucurbita genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrila NEAMTU

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen unserer chemotaxonomischen Untersuchungen uber die Carotinoide hoherer Pflanzen (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 befassen wir uns in vorliegender Arbeit mit den Carotinoiden einiger Pflanzen der Gattung Cucurbita. Wir berichten von C. maxima Duch. var. bananina Greb., C. maxima Duch. var. maxima cv. Marica, C. pepo var. oblonga Greb. und C. pepo var. pyriformis Alef., unter Hinweis auf carotenotaxonomisch interessante Befunde.

  13. Host plant oviposition preference of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera : Tephritidae)%瓜实蝇对寄主植物的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帅; 郑丽霞; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) has been reported to damage more than 100 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to help assess host plant specificity of the fruit fly. Six host species: Momordica charantiap, Luffa cylindrical, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata, Carica papaya and Cucurbita pepo were tested. Oviposition rates were highest on M. charantiap (56. 18% of eggs) and C. sativus (29. 00% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (1. 85% ) and C. moschata (0. 00% ) . In contrast, Oviposition rates were highest on C. sativus ( 34. 64% ) , C. pepo ( 30. 37% ) and C. moschata (18. 05% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (0. 60% ) when the fruit peel were pared. Oviposition rates of B. cucurbitae females on fruits with peel had a significant negative correlation with the hardness of peel, and the correlation coefficient was - 0. 8772. The results imply that in addition to the in - built chemical compounds, plants have physical barrier like hard fruit peel, which impact melon fruit fly oviposition.%瓜实蝇Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)可危害100多种寄主植物,是葫芦科蔬菜的重要害虫.为了探明瓜实蝇的寄主特异性,在实验室条件下研究了瓜实蝇对黄瓜Cucumis sativus、苦瓜Momordica charantiap、丝瓜Luffa cylindrica、南瓜Cucurbita moschata、番木瓜Carica papaya和西葫芦Cucurbita pepo的产卵选择性.瓜实蝇在苦瓜和黄瓜上的产卵比率较高,分别为56.18%和29.00%,在番木瓜和南瓜上产卵比率较低,分别为1.85%和0.00%,但是在去掉果皮后,黄瓜、西葫芦和南瓜的产卵比率较高,分别达到34.64%、30.37%和18.05%,在番木瓜上的产卵率较低仅为0.60%.瓜实蝇雌虫在带皮果实上的产卵比率与果皮硬度呈显著的负相关关系,相关系数为-0.8772结果表明除了自身的化合物之外,植物具有的物理屏障如坚硬的

  14. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  15. Variabilidad en frutos y semillas de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L.H. Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates: Fruit and seeds variability in butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch. and Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L. H.Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En las cucurbitáceas (zapallo se presenta una gama amplia de variantes para el color de la semilla, desde blanco a café, que pueden tener significado evolutivo y de distribución geográfica. Se evaluó la variabilidad en semillas de 295 introducciones de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y 99 de Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, todas procedentes de libre polinización. El análisis de conglomerados evidenció 11 grupos para cada una de las especies, las cuales expresaron alta variabilidad entre y dentro de las introducciones para los caracteres porcentaje de extracto etéreo en semilla (EE, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y número de frutos por planta (NFP. En C. moschata se destacaron dos grupos (5 y 9 por presentar altos promedios para producción por planta (PPL, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y extracto etéreo por planta (EEPP, con coeficientes de variación (CV entre 52% y 93%. En C. argyrosperma subsp. sororia se destacaron para los mismos caracteres los grupos 5 y 11, con un CV entre 53% y 79%. Los elevados coeficientes de variación evidenciaron amplia variabilidad entre y dentro de introducciones para los caracteres de importancia agronómica y agroindustrial. Teniendo en cuenta el análisis de agrupamiento y el índice de selección ponderado (ISP se seleccionaron las seis mejores introducciones en cada especie.

  16. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  17. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  18. Evaluación de familias de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca en el fruto y otras características agronómicas Evaluation of squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. families selected for higher content of dry matter in the fruit and other agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Enith Tobar Tosse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cuatro familias de hermanos completos de zapallo, Cucurbita moschata Duch, provenientes de dos ciclos de estabilización genética mediante cruzamientos fraternales y seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca (MS en el fruto y buenas características para consumo en fresco. La familia F7a sobresalió por su mayor contenido de materia MS en el fruto (15.86% ± 2.17 en comparación con el testigo comercial Unapal-Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, forma esférica levemente achatada, color externo amarillo claro, color de pulpa amarilla a salmón, espesor de pulpa de 3.71 ± 0.58 cm y peso promedio del fruto de 3.10 ± 0.73 kg, que la convierte en una alternativa para consumo en fresco.Four full-sib families of squash, Cucurbita moschata Duch, from two cycles of genetic stability through crosses fraternal and selected by a higher content of dry matter in fruit and good characteristics for fresh consumption was evaluated. The F7a family had at increased dry matter content in fruit (15.86% ± 2.17 compared with the control-commercial Unapal Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, slightly flattened spherical form, external color yellow, light yellow flesh color to salmon, flesh thickness of 3.71 cm ± 0.58 and average fruit weight of 3.10 kg ± 0.73, which makes it an alternative for fresh consumption.

  19. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... variation in fruit shape, fruit colour, fruit brightness, fruit dimension and fruit ... The Cucurbita genus is of American origin. ... typic information in the development of breeding popula- ...... Origin and evolution of the cultivated.

  20. Herança de formato e produção de frutos imaturos em abobrinha (Cucurbita moschata Inheritance of immature fruit shape and production in summer squash (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I.I. Cardoso

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança de formato e produção de frutos imaturos de 2 novas linhagens de C. moschata. Para tal obtiveram-se as gerações Fl, F2 e retrocruzamentos para ambos os progenitores. Para a avaliação das diferentes gerações utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições e número variável de plantas por repetição. As estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos foram obtidas segundo o modelo de MATHER & JINKS. Foram avaliados o peso, comprimento e diâmetros próximos das extremidades peduncular e estilar dos frutos. Observou-se dominância para maior velocidade de crescimento dos frutos, caracterizada pelos maiores comprimentos, diâmetros e peso médio na geração F1. Observou-se também dominancia para frutos mais bojudos e com menor relação entre o comprimento e a média dos diâmetros. Devido ao maior peso médio de frutos, e não ao número, obteve-se heterose significativa (20,5% para produção total por planta.Two inbred lines of C. moschata were crossed to obtain Fl, F2 and F1BC1 for both parental generations to study the inheritance of immature fruit shape and production. Four replications for each generation were choosen in a randomized block design. For each one of the eleven harvestings, the following parameters were evaluated: weight, length and diameter near peduncle and style ends of the immature fruits. Through the results it is concluded that there is dominance for higher growth speed of the fruits, which determines greater length, diameters and weight, when they were harvested at the same age, and, therefore, greater yield per plant.

  1. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

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    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also

  2. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  3. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

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    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  4. 印度南瓜梭形果突变体的发现及遗传分析%Discovery and Genetic Analysis of a Fusiform Fruit Mutant in Winter Squash (Cucurbita Maxima Duch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 韩红艳; 岳青; 梁燕平

    2012-01-01

    A fusiform fruit mutant HL-fu was found from inbred line HL of Cucurbita maxima. There was obvious biological characteristic variation on a lot of organs of the mutant, such as flower, fruit, stem. The residual degree of the stamen from female flower and the pistil from male flower of the mutant were more than the wild type one. Its fruit was fusiform, it was five times on the fruit shape index of the mutant than the wild type one. The arrangement status of the mutant internode was long short alternative distribution, the phyllotaxis was similar to the opposite phyllotaxis. The reciprocal cross F, was constructed by crossing mutant HL-fu and wild type HL, the genetics of the groups of cross F2, BC1 ( P1 ) F1, and BC, ( P2) F1 were analyzed. We speculated that the variation type was recessive mult-effect single gene mutant, the mutant character was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear genera. We discussed the potential value of fusiform fruit mutant on the pumpkin breeding and the basic study.%从印度南瓜自交系HL中发现了一个梭形果突变体HL-fu.该突变体的花、果、茎等多器官的生物学特性同时发生了明显变异:雌花及雄花花器中异性花蕊的残存度较野生型高;果实为梭形,果形指数达野生型5倍;节间呈现长短交替分布的排列状态,叶序类似于对生.以突变体HL-fu与野生型HL杂交分别构建了正、反交F1,正交F2,BC1(P1)F1、BC1( P2)F1群体进行遗传分析,推测该变异类型为隐性多效单基因突变,突变性状受1对隐性核基因fu控制.探讨了梭形果突变体在南瓜育种及相关基础研究方面的潜在价值.

  5. Chloroplast phylogeny of Cucurbita: Evolution of the domesticated and wild species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hong ZHENG; Andrew J.ALVERSON; Qing-Feng WANG; Jeffrey D.PALMER

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) includes five species that were domesticated independently in the Americas,giving rise to an immense diversity of squashes,pumpkins,and gourds.To gain an improved understanding of the evolution of Cucurbita and its domesticated taxa,we used four chloroplast loci to estimate the phylogeny of 23 taxa that represent the broad-level diversity within Cucurbita.Our results provide a strongly supported framework hypothesis for the phylogeny of the genus,robustly confirming the basal position of the C.digitata group of xerophytic perennials and the monophyly of a large group of mesophytic annuals that represent most of the known diversity in the genus,both wild and domesticated.The chloroplast evidence provides strong support for a novel grouping of the mesophytic annual C ficifolia (known only from cultivation) with the xerophytic perennials C.foetidissima and C.pedatifolia.This study also provides the first DNA-based evidence in support of the isozymebased hypothesis that C.pepo subsp.ovifera var.ovifera (represented by most ornamental gourds and several squashes) was domesticated from the wild taxon C.pepo subsp.ovifera var.ozarkana.This lends support to the hypothesis that var.ovifera was domesticated in the eastern United States and that this region served as one of about 10 independent centers of origin of human agriculture.Although the level of bootstrap support for this and certain other peripheral relationships in Cucurbita is low,definitive resolution of these issues is within reach,as nextgeneration sequencing should soon deliver entire organelle genome sequences from a comprehensive sampling of the genus.

  6. An SNP-based saturated genetic map and QTL analysis of fruit-related traits in Zucchini using Genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pau, Javier; Blanca, José; Esteras, Cristina; Martínez-Pérez, Eva Ma; Gómez, Pedro; Monforte, Antonio J; Cañizares, Joaquín; Picó, Belén

    2017-01-18

    Cucurbita pepo is a cucurbit with growing economic importance worldwide. Zucchini morphotype is the most important within this highly variable species. Recently, transcriptome and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR)- and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based medium density maps have been reported, however further genomic tools are needed for efficient molecular breeding in the species. Our objective is to combine currently available complete transcriptomes and the Zucchini genome sequence with high throughput genotyping methods, mapping population development and extensive phenotyping to facilitate the advance of genomic research in this species. We report the Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis of a RIL population developed from the inter subspecific cross Zucchini x Scallop (ssp. pepo x ssp. ovifera). Several thousands of SNP markers were identified and genotyped, followed by the construction of a high-density linkage map based on 7,718 SNPs (average of 386 markers/linkage group) covering 2,817.6 cM of the whole genome, which is a great improvement with respect to previous maps. A QTL analysis was performed using phenotypic data obtained from the RIL population from three environments. In total, 48 consistent QTLs for vine, flowering and fruit quality traits were detected on the basis of a multiple-environment analysis, distributed in 33 independent positions in 15 LGs, and each QTL explained 1.5-62.9% of the phenotypic variance. Eight major QTLs, which could explain greater than 20% of the phenotypic variation were detected and the underlying candidate genes identified. Here we report the first SNP saturated map in the species, anchored to the physical map. Additionally, several consistent QTLs related to early flowering, fruit shape and length, and rind and flesh color are reported as well as candidate genes for them. This information will enhance molecular breeding in C. pepo and will assist the gene cloning underlying the studied QTLs, helping to reveal the

  7. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  8. Estudio Farmacognóstico de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza (Cucurbita SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos parámetros farmacognósticos de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza, con vistas a su posterior uso en formulaciones antiparasitarias. Se comparan semillas de 3 variedades: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 y C. maxima var INIVIT C88, en cuanto a masa, humedad residual, cenizas, sustancias solubles y tamizaje fitoquímico, a fin de proponer la mejor para su empleo como antiparasitario, y se trata de forma breve la propuesta de una técnica sencilla para la extracción del principio activo de la semilla (cucurbitina.Some pharmacognostic parameters of the raw drug from the pumpkin seed are presented in order to use it later in antiparasitic formulations. The seeds of 3 varieties are compared: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 and C. maxima var INIVIT C88. Mass, residual humidity, ashes, soluble substances and phytochemical screening were analyzed aimed at proposing the best for its use as antiparasitic. The proposal of a simple technique for the extraction of the active principle of the seed (cucurbitina is briefly explained.

  9. 5个南瓜自交系光合特性的比较%Comparison of Photosynthetic Characteristics in Five Pumpkin(Cucurbita moschata Duch) Inbred Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振威; 李新峥; 孙丽; 李贞霞

    2007-01-01

    南瓜为一年生葫芦科南瓜属植物,是一种古老而又普通的蔬菜种类,在世界范围内广泛栽培。主要栽培种有3个:南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch),又叫中国南瓜;笋瓜(Cucurbita maxima Duch),又叫印度南瓜;西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo L.),又叫美洲南瓜。随着科技的进步和对南瓜研究的深入,南瓜在中国人民的膳食结构中被赋予了新的功能,它不仅是人们喜食的菜肴,而且是重要的营养保健食品。

  10. Contribution of polyamines and other related metabolites to the maintenance of zucchini fruit quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-09-01

    In order to investigate the contribution of polyamines and related amino acids in the maintenance of zucchini fruit quality during cold storage, two varieties of Cucurbita pepo with different degrees of chilling tolerance were used, Natura (more tolerant) and Sinatra (moresensitive). After harvest, free putrescine levels decreased during storage at 20 °C, whereas in fruit kept at 4 °C this polyamine accumulated in both varieties, but with higher levels in the sensitive variety (Sinatra). This behavior suggests that putrescine is accumulated as a response to low temperature in zucchini fruit by stress-induced chilling injury, and not due to the postharvest storage itself. ADC activity responds quickly to chilling but sharply decreases after 14 days, whereas its expression remains high in both varieties. ODC activity takes over when the cold stress is relatively severe, as this activity was found to be much higher in Sinatra. ODCexpression also correlated with ODC activity. DAO activity increased in Natura fruit, and conversely decreased in Sinatra fruit during storage at 4 °C, whereas the proline content was higher in Natura and lower in Sinatra. Therefore, we suggest that putrescine degradation and proline accumulation contribute to the acquisition of chilling tolerance in zucchini fruit. GABA content decreased in both varieties, with a greater reduction in Natura fruit and less in Sinatra fruit. In addition, GABA transaminase showed a higher activity in Natura fruit than in Sinatra fruit during cold storage, suggesting that GABA catabolism could be involved in the tolerance to postharvest cold storage in zucchini fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  12. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fruit characterization of winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) populations from the Black Sea Region of Turkey. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... fruit brightness, skin thickness , flesh thickness and colour in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  14. Influence of different fertilizer types of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) on the structure of nematode communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytova, D; Bileva, T

    2011-01-01

    Increasing efficiency of production of vegetable crops is directly related to search for appropriate solution to increase their productivity. Organic amendments have been used for centuries to improve soil fertility and crop yield. Our study suggests that organic amendments can also be used as nematicidal agents. The survey was conducted on Experimental field of Department Horticulture at Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2009 on nematode infested sites. Combination with two types of fertilizers was used to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Characterization and comparative analysis among treatments of soil nematode community structure based on different ecological measures such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity and etc., was made. Changes in the composition and structure of nematode community as result of different fertilizer types were assessed.

  15. Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Snježana; Radić, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Garić, Rade; Mihaljević, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2011-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin.

  16. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  17. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  18. Functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed protein isolate and hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučko Sandra Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI was enzymatically hydrolysed by pepsin to obtain pumpkin seed protein hydrolysate, PSPH. Investigation on solubility, interfacial and emulsifying properties of both PSPI and PSPH was conducted under different conditions of pH (3-8 and ionic strength (0-1 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPI had the lowest solubility, i.e. isoelectric point (pI, at pH 5. PSPH had higher solubility than PSPI over whole range of pH and ionic strengths tested. Decrease in surface and interfacial tension evidenced that both PSPI and PSPH adsorb at air/protein solution and oil/protein solution interface. Emulsions (20 % oil in water stabilized by 1 g/100cm3 PSPI or PSPH solution were prepared at pH 3, 5 and 8 and ionic strength of 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPH stabilized emulsions from coalescence at all pH and ionic strengths tested. PSPI was able to stabilize emulsions at pH 3 and 0 mol/dm3 NaCl, and at pH 8 regardless of ionic strength, while emulsions at pH 5 and both 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl and at pH 3 when ionic strength was increased separated to oil and serum layer immediately after preparation. All emulsions were susceptible to creaming instability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  19. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  20. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  1. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial Evaluation of squash (Cucurbita moschata populations for significant agribusiness traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P The agribusiness potential of seven squash (Cucurbita moschata populations derived of the recombination of genotypes of high performing in characters associated with yield and quality of the fruit was evaluated. The Anova analyses for semesters 2008-A and 2008-B allowed to detect highly significant differences (P < 0.01 among populations, for all the variables, except for color flesh fruit in 2008-A. The populations 1 and 5 showed a relative permanence in dry matter content in two cycles of genetic recombination.

  2. Chemical and Physicochemical Characterization of Winter Squash (Cucurbita moschata D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia JACOBO-VALENZUELA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash cv ‘Cehualca’ (Cucurbita moschata Duchense is a seasonal crop that has been used as food and animal feed. The objective of the present study was to characterize physical, chemical and physicochemical properties of the winter squash cv ‘Cehualca’. Morphological, chemical and physicochemical analyses were performed, including fiber, carotenoids, phenolic and mineral contents in the winter squash. The morphological analysis showed that the squash ‘Cehualca’ did not have a homogeneous morphology. Data about their physical and physicochemical characteristics showed large variability. Also, high content of carotenoids and dietary fiber was observed in squash. The oil and total phenolic content was low in comparison with other fruits. The mineral content exceeded the values recommended to meet the nutritional needs of consumers, except for sodium (both in pulp and shell, potassium and magnesium in the shell.

  3. Flow injection assessment of nitrate contents in fresh and cooked fruits and vegetables grown in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Surendra; Chetty, Adrian A

    2011-10-01

    Nitrates form part of the essential chemistry of soils and plants. Thus, plant roots are able to absorb nitrate directly from the soil. It has been discovered that human nitrate intake is mainly from vegetables. Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition since they are an outstanding source for vitamins, minerals, and biologically active compounds. In risk assessment of nitrate contents, this study reports the nitrate levels of 8 commonly consumed fruits and vegetables grown in Fiji, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), capsicum (Capsicum annuum var. grossum), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis), jackfruit (A. heterophyllus), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The effects of different types of cooking methods, baking, boiling, and frying, have also been studied. The validated flow injection analysis technique has been used to quantify the nitrate-N levels in the chosen products following nitrate extraction using the activated carbon technique. The mean values of nitrate levels in fresh products ranged from 25.83 to 281.02 mg NO(3) (-) kg(-1) . The study shows that boiling reduced nitrate contents by 65.37% to 25.25%. The frying in soy bean oil elevated nitrate contents from 354.79% to 86.69%, but after baking, nitrate contents remained almost constant with slight increasing trend in the case of tomato (19.97%). The nitrate levels published in the literature for the same types of fruits and vegetables studied have also been reviewed and compared. The average nitrate-N values were comparable or lower than overseas data, but did not present unpredictably high values, that is, they were below the risk level. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  5. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Transformer Gene From Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya; Zhao, Santao; Li, Jiahui; Li, Peizheng

    2017-01-01

    transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found. BcuTRA is highly conservative with its homologues in other tephritid fruit flies. Gene expression analysis of Bcutra at different developmental stages demonstrates that the female transcript of Bcutra appears earlier than the male counterparts, indicating that the maternal TRA is inherited in eggs and might play a role in the regulation of TRA expression. The conservation of protein sequence and sex-specific splicing of Bcutra and its expression patterns during development suggest that Bcutra is probably the master gene of sex determination of B. cucurbitae. Isolation of Bcutra will facilitate the development of a genetic sexing strain for its biological control.

  6. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo on Performance and Blood Fat of Broiler Chickens during Finisher Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control, 5.00 and 10.00 g kg−1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg−1 DM diet had not significant effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg−1 DM significantly decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird’s mortality. Adding pumpkin oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (PConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg−1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken’s mortality and it did not have any adverse effect on bird’s performance.

  7. Ameliorative effect of pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo L. against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howida Sayed Abou Seif

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The natural plant components found in pumpkin could improve the liver against alcohol-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and benefits of pumpkin oil in human beings.

  8. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  9. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated.

  10. Role of organic acids in enhancing the desorption and uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE by Cucurbita pepo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jason C.; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Lee, W.-Y.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Iannucci-Berger, William

    2003-07-01

    The addition of low molecular weight organic acids to soil may enhance phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants. - Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of seven organic acids [succinic, tartaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, citric, ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)] over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude (0.001-0.10 M) on the abiotic desorption of weathered p,p'-DDE and the extraction of polyvalent inorganic ions from soil. At 0.05 M all organic acids significantly increased contaminant desorption by 19-80%. Organic acids also increased the aqueous concentration of eight inorganic constituents extracted from soil, with at least a six-fold increase in the release of Al, Fe, Mn, and P at 0.001 M. Zucchini seedlings grown for 28 d in soil containing weathered p,p'-DDE (300 ng/g, dry weight) were periodically amended with distilled water, citric or oxalic acids (0.01 M). Plants receiving water removed 1.7% of the p,p'-DDE from the soil. Seedlings amended with citric or oxalic acids removed 2.1 and 1.9% of the contaminant, respectively, and contained up to 66% more contaminant in the shoot system than unamended vegetation. A second crop of untreated (distilled water) zucchini in the same soil removed more contaminant than the first crop (2.5%), although the addition of organic acids did not further enhance contaminant uptake. The data indicate that the addition of low molecular weight organic acids causes the partial dissolution of the soil structure through the chelation of inorganic structural ions, potentially enhancing bioavailability and having implications for the phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants in soil.

  11. MANFAAT BIJI LABU (Cucurbita sp. UNTUK KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hargono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daging buah C. moschata Duch. ex Poir yang telah masak dapat dimakan setelah dikukus, disayur atau dijadikan kolak. Daun tumbuhan yang muda dan kuncup bunganya dimakan sebagai sayuran. Bijinya setelah diasin dan dikeringkan di sinar matahari atau cara lain dikonsumsi sebagai kuaci. Daging buah dan biji C. pepo L dan C. maxima Duch dimakan setelah diolah seperti daging buah dan biji C. moschata Duch. ex Poir. Secara tradisional biji C. moschata Duch ex Poir digunakan sebagai obat kecacingan, terutama untuk cacing pita.

  12. 中国南瓜无蔓性状种间遗传研究%Genetic Study on the Vineless Characters of Cucurbita moschata among Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 岳青; 梁燕平; 苗如意

    2011-01-01

    In order to inquire the meaning and feasibling on transfer the vineless character from C. moschata into C. maxima and C. pepo, the interspecific crossing between C. moschata materials with vineless character and C. maxima materials or C. pepo materials was conducted, we studied the interspecific genetic development on vineless character by the RAPD molecular marker and field investigation. Genetic performance of the vineless character of Cucurbita moschata in three mainly cultivated species in Cucurbita was studied in this paper. The results showed that the segregation ratios of the vineless character in F1 group, F2 group and BC1F1 group of the interspecific hybrids fit the Mendelian law. It was different from intraspecific hybridization that the first filial generation between vineless C. moschata and the other vine pumpkin species showed that the internode elongated and the inheritance belonged to incomplete dominant inheritance. The unique vineless character of C. moschata was transferred to C. pepo and C. maxima by the means of interspecific hybridization and the brand-new germplasm resources were created.%为探讨向印度南瓜及美洲南瓜中转育中国南瓜无蔓性状的意义及可行性,进行了无蔓中国南瓜种间杂交试验,采用田间调查结合RAPD分子标记鉴定的方法研究中国南瓜无蔓性状种间遗传规律.通过比较中国南瓜无蔓性状在南瓜属3个种中的遗传表现发现:中国南瓜无蔓性状在种间杂种F1、F2及BC1F1中的分离比例符合孟德尔遗传规律;与种内杂交不同,无蔓中国南瓜与蔓生异种南瓜材料的种间杂交一代表现出节间变长的倾向,表现为不完全显性遗传;通过种间杂交,可将中国南瓜特有的无蔓性状转育到美洲南瓜及印度南瓜中,创造全新的种质资源.

  13. Uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Martin P N; White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2007-12-01

    Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 microg/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root more more than stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini.

  14. 南瓜果肉可溶性固形物含量与叶、花、果肉色泽的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between the soluble solids content of fruit sarcocarp and colour of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp on Cucurbita moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 鲁晓晓; 杨道印; 聂建满

    2016-01-01

    The colour values of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp by CR-3 colorimeter and the soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit sarcocarp by the PAL-1 digital display sugar meter were measured for 14 pumpkin cultivars respectively in this experiment. The correlation between colour values of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp and SSC of fruit sarcocarp were analyzed. The results showed that there were differences between the coefficient of variation of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp colour values, and fruit sarcocarp redness in the coefficient of variation was the largest (CV=27.43%). SSC of fruit sarcocarp was highly significantly positive correlated (P<0.01, r=0.632 ) with brightness of leaf, and it was significantly positive correlated (P<0.05, r=0.412 ) with its redness. This Results provided a convenient method to screen high SSC of fruit sarcocarp in the filed for pumpkin quality breeding.%以14种不同品种的南瓜为材料,在果实成熟期采用CR-3型色差仪测量其叶片、花朵、果肉的Lab值,同时采用PAL-1型测糖仪测量果肉中可溶性固形物含量,并对叶、花、果肉的Lab值与果肉中可溶性固形物含量进行了相关性分析。结果表明,南瓜叶、花、果肉色泽的Lab值的变异系数有差异,果肉中红色成分变异系数最大,达27.43%;果肉中可溶性固形物含量与叶片的亮度呈极显著正相关(r=0.632),与果肉中红色成分呈显著正相关(r=0.412)。这为南瓜品质育种田间筛选可溶性固形物含量高的试验材料提供了便捷的方法。

  15. Vision-mediated exploitation of a novel host plant by a tephritid fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Vargas, Roger I

    2017-01-01

    Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.

  16. ACCELERATED AGEING EFFECTS ON CURCUBITEA PEPO SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mampouya A. H. W. Nakavoua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated ageing of curcubitea pepo seed oil was followed by simulation of UV (light and ambiant oxygen actions held separately then simultaneously in order to know the effects of these parameters on this oil resistance to deterioraton. Nine withdrawals had undergone analyses by titrimetry supported by spectroscopic analyses notably MIR (Medium Infrared, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and also a gas chromatography for the composition in FA. This study has showed that pumpkin seed oil displays a weak resistance to UV which results among other in a decrease of unsaponifiable compounds. Its oxidization takes place very quickly in the presence of ambiant oxygen. However the accumulated action of the two factors weakens to the highest degree pumpkin seed oil and this results in polymerization. It has also enabled us to show the link between the formation of recticulations in the oil matrix and variations at the level of the molecular structure of pumpkin seed oil.

  17. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  18. Genetic Correlations and Path Analysis in Butternut Squash Cucurbita moschata Duch / Correlaciones Genéticas y Análisis de Sendero en Zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanín Ortiz Grisales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A genetic correlation and path analysis was carried out for yield and fruit quality components of diallel crosses of butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch, using openpollinated introductions, S0 and inbred lines S1 and S2 at two sites: Candelaria and Buga, located in the Department of Valle delCauca, Colombia. A split-plot experimental design with arranged, random blocks and four replicates was used. The average fruit weight presented positive genetic correlations with the total production per plant in all three generations and at both test sites. The total plant dry matter and total production per plant presented a high genetic correlation, and the fruit dry matter was inversely correlated with the total carotene. The total carotene and fruit color were independent. The path analysis confirmed high genetic correlations between the number of fruits per plant, average fruitweight, and total plant dry matter, with direct, positive effects, that were significantly greater than zero for the variables of number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight in regards to the total plant dry matter. The total production per plant expressed a direct, negative effect on the total plant dry matter. The fruit dry matter presented an indirect, negative effect on the total plant dry matter through the average fruit weight and an indirect, positive effect through the total production per plant. / Resumen. Se estudiaron las correlaciones genéticas y el análisis de sendero para los componentes del rendimiento y calidad del fruto de zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch, en cruzamientos dialélicos entre introducciones de libre polinización S0 y sus líneas S1 y S2 en dos localidades, Candelaria y Buga, ubicadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas, arregladas en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El peso promedio del fruto presentó correlación gen

  19. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  20. Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Stothert, Karen E

    2003-02-14

    Cucurbita (squash and gourd) phytoliths recovered from two early Holocene archaeological sites in southwestern Ecuador and directly dated to 10,130 to 9320 carbon-14 years before the present (about 12,000 to 10,000 calendar years ago) are identified as derived from domesticated plants because they are considerably larger than those from modern wild taxa. The beginnings of plant husbandry appear to have been preceded by the exploitation of a wild species of Cucurbita during the terminal Pleistocene. These data provide evidence for an independent emergence of plant food production in lowland South America that was contemporaneous with or slightly before that in highland Mesoamerica.

  1. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  2. An overview of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Balkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita L. species of the pumpkin and winter squash are grown all over the world. Winter squash and pumpkin are two of the most important Cucurbit vegetable crops in Turkey. Turkey is one of the important diversity areas, for the cultivated cucurbits because of their adaptation to diverse ecological conditions as a result of both natural selection and also the selection by farmers. Farmers have maintained the local population of winter squash and pumpkin, which are mainly sold in local markets. Only one improved cultivar of the winter squash is currently grown commercially in Turkey. It is a traditional vegetable often grown in small gardens. In this contribution, the last status of winter squash and pumpkin production in Turkey, the growing techniques and problems of these winter squash and pumpkin species, their genetic collection and characterization, and the utilization of the presented species in Turkey are examined.

  3. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-03-10

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita.

  4. Effect of disruption of a cutinase gene (cutA) on virulence and tissue specificity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 toward Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, R N; Binnie, S J; Bowen, J K; Hawthorne, B T; Plummer, K M; Rees-George, J; Rikkerink, E H; Templeton, M D

    1997-04-01

    A 3.9-kb genomic DNA fragment from the cucurbit pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 690 nucleotides interrupted by a single 51-bp intron. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed 92 and 98% identity, respectively, to those of the cutA gene of the pea pathogen F. solani f. sp. pisi. A gene replacement vector was constructed and used to generate cutA- mutants that were detected with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Seventy-one cutA- mutants were identified among the 416 transformants screened. Vector integration was assessed by Southern analysis in 23 of these mutants. PCR and Southern analysis data showed the level of homologous integration was 14%. Disruption of the cutA locus in mutants was confirmed by RNA gel blot hybridization. Neither virulence on Cucurbita maxima cv. Delica at any of six different inoculum concentrations, nor pathogenicity on intact fruit of four different species or cultivars of cucurbit or hypocotyl tissue of C. maxima cv. Crown, was found to be affected by disruption of the cutA gene.

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  6. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  7. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  8. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  9. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  10. [Entomophilic pollination of squash, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna D V; Campos, Lucio A de O

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata, B. morio, A. mellifera, T. hyalinata or T. spinipes. Flowers prevented from receiving visits or visited only once by T. spinipes did not produce fruits. The remaining pollination systems led to fruitification, with open pollination or a single visit from either M. quadrifasciata or B. morio leading to most fruit production.

  11. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  12. New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Dou, De-Qiang; Xu, Liang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2009-07-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Their structures were elucidated as (2-hydroxy)phenylcarbinyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-beta-D-(glucopyranosyl hydroxymethyl)phenyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  13. Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2007-09-01

    Mutualists and antagonists may place conflicting selection pressures on plant traits. For example, the evolution of floral traits is typically studied in the context of attracting pollinators, but traits may incur fitness costs if they are also attractive to antagonists. Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) feed on cucurbits and are attracted to several volatiles emitted by Cucurbita blossoms. However, the effect of these volatiles on pollinator attraction is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether pollinators were attracted to the same or different floral volatiles as herbivorous cucumber beetles. We tested three volatiles previously found to attract cucumber beetles in a factorial design to determine attraction of squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa), the specialist pollinators of cucurbita species, as well as the specialist herbivore A. vittatum. We found that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene was attractive to both the pollinator and the herbivore, indole was attractive only to the herbivore, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde was attractive only to the pollinator. There were no interactions among volatiles on attraction of squash bees or cucumber beetles. Our results suggest that reduced indole emission could benefit plants by reducing herbivore attraction without loss of pollination, and that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene might be under conflicting selection pressure from mutualists and antagonists. By examining the attraction of both mutualists and antagonists to Cucurbita floral volatiles, we have demonstrated the potential for some compounds to influence only one type of interaction, while others may affect both interactions and possibly result in tradeoffs. These results shed light on the potential evolution of fragrance in native Cucurbita, and may have consequences for yield in agricultural settings.

  14. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  15. The effect of stem pruning and nitrogen levels of on some physico-chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipouri, Abdolghayoum; Nazarnejad, H

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the effects of stem pruning (No heading, head pruning of stem after formation of 10 and 14 nodes) and nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha(-1)) on physical and chemical characteristic of pumpkin seed a Factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replication was carried out in Gorgan at 2003 and repeated in 2004 years. Results showed that the stem pruning has significant effect on traits such as seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. Nitrogen levels also have significant effect on seed dimension, seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. The largest amount of oil and linoleic acid content was obtained by stem pruning after forming 14 node and 100 kg ha(-1) nitrogen in separately, but the interaction of treatments were not significant difference for all of traits.

  16. Oligoglucans as Elicitors of an Enzymatic Antioxidant System in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seedlings at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Ceron-Garcia; Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar; Irasema Vargas-Arispuro; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.; Miguel A. Martinez-Tellez

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Non-controlled low temperatures affect physiological and biochemical processes leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation in plants, which normally are stabilized by the antioxidant system. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and Catalase (CAT) are the most important ROS-detoxification enzymes in stressed plants. Approach: The activity of these enzymes were examined in response to fungal Oligoglucans (OG) in cold-stressed...

  17. 辐照花粉诱导西葫芦单倍体%Studies on Squash(Cucurbita pepo L.)Haploid Plants Induced by Irradiated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许利彩; 李海真; 沈火林; 葛志东

    2009-01-01

    利用不同剂量的60Co γ射线辐照西葫芦花粉后授粉,剥取不同发育阶段的胚接种在E20A培养基上进行培养,研究不同基因型、辐照剂量、剂量率对西葫芦单倍体诱导的影响.结果发现:单倍体的产生和植株再生率受基因型、胚发育阶段和辐照剂量的影响明显.281基因型平均单倍体诱导率最高,为1.30 %;点状胚和箭形胚易发育成单倍体苗;辐照剂量80~100 Gy时获得点状胚和箭形胚及胚总数最多,杆状胚的植株再生率和植株成活率最高,分别是83.33 %和35.71 %;适宜的剂量率为45.19 Gy·min-1.

  18. Reproductive Characteristics of Embryo Sac Plants in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)%西葫芦胚囊植株生殖特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欢欢; 王晓云; 谢冰

    2013-01-01

    考察了经未受精胚珠离体诱导获得的西葫芦再生胚囊植株及其3个自交世代的生殖特性.单倍体胚囊植株高度不育,无法获得自交后代.绝大多数双单倍体(DH)胚囊植株及其3个自交世代的花器特征、开花进程等与二倍体供体一致.DH植株当代的花粉萌发率为15.52、~42.67%,花粉量偏少,自交单果结籽数明显少于二倍体供体.DH植株3个自交世代的花粉萌发率为17.62%~42.70%,均低于二倍体供体,各自交株系的花粉生活力在3个自交世代间保持稳定,但花粉量仍偏少.交叉授粉验证结果显示,DH植株当代及其3个自交世代的雌性生殖能力接近二倍体供体,雄性生殖能力明显低于二倍体供体,但未呈现持续下降趋势.DH植株3个自交世代的种子发芽率均在92%以上,自交种子具可稔性.

  19. Diversidad genética de germoplasma colombiano de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Dúchesne Exp. Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo C. F. A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron, caracterizaron morfológicamente y evaluaron agronómicamente 133 accesiones de Cucurbita moschata en Colombia (departamentos del Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Risaralda, Quindío, Caldas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Magdalena y Atlántico, las cuales presentaron alta diversidad en tamaño, forma y color de fruto. Los descriptores pubescencia de la hoja, color mancha de la hoja, días a floración masculina, días a floración femenina, espesor de pulpa, tamaño de semilla, forma de margen de semilla, ancho de fruto y peso promedio de fruto permitieron la diferenciación de grupos. Se encontró un índice de diversidad de 62% entre las accesiones colectadas en los departamentos de la región andina con las de la Costa Atlántica. Ninguno de los grupos presentó índices de similaridad del 100%. ABSTRACT This study was carried at Candelaria (Colombia, from August 2001 to July 2003. This study aimed at evaluating, by multivariate analyses techniques, the genetic diversity of 133 accesions, collected from distinct areas of regions of Colombia. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replications. The data (average were collected from three plants per plot. Thirteen nine traits were evaluated, 9 vegetatives, 24 reproductives and 1 related to susceptibility to stress. The data were analysed using the herarquical method of WARD and were transformed into a complete disjunctive table, where the modalities of each character is a new variable. The analysis revealed five cluster, with to R2 = 97% and diversity index 62%. The most important characteristics to explain the variability were: days to first female and male flower, fruit width, fruit weight, flesh thickness, leaf pubescence dorsal and ventral surface, colour of leaf spots and seed size. The 5, 7, 47 , 109 and 28 accesion might be recommended for breeding programs. Keywords: Cucurbita moschata, Germplasm, Genetic resources, plant breeding, Morphology

  20. Study Progress on the Formation Mechanism of Hull-less Seed in Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita pepo%南瓜、西葫芦薄种皮形成机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申琼; 武峻新

    2014-01-01

    南瓜、西葫芦薄种皮由于其特性成为优良的资源材料,近几十年来针对其成因学者们进行了大量研究,主要集中在对薄种皮突变体形成的遗传学机理研究、采用RAPD,AFLP,ISSR,SRAP等标记进行遗传多样性分析、对有皮和薄皮种的种皮组成成分进行分析、对薄皮种进行基因定位等方面.针对目前的研究进行了综述,并对今后有待解决的问题及研究方向进行了展望.

  1. Compared Ageing of Oil from Curcubitea Pepo in Two Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.W. Nakavoua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the oil pumkin seeds of Curcubitea pepo from Congo- Brazzaville. The ageing of oil extracted from the seeds of the pumpkin Curcubitea pepo stored at two temperatures (6 and 30ºC was monitored during storage for 11 months by comparison of physical and chemical characteristics correlated with spectroscopic data. Medium infrared spectroscopy confirmed saponification index data. Ultraviolet absorption confirmed peroxide index data. Antioxidant behaviour was monitored by fluorescence and the effect of ageing on the two major fatty acid families was analysed by a study of chemical composition correlated with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. This study showed an overall lengthening of the fatty acid carbon chains and allowed preferential storage conditions to be specified for this oil.

  2. Diversity of bacterial communities in the midgut of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and their potential use as attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadapad, Ashok B; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Chandekar, Snehal C; Tripathi, Jyoti; Hire, Ramesh S

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota plays an important role in insect development and fitness. Understanding the gut microbiota composition is essential for the development of pest management strategies. Midgut bacteria were isolated from nine wild B. cucurbitae populations collected from different agroecological zones of India. These isolates were further studied for attractant potential of fruit fly adults, and the chemical constituents in the supernatants of gut bacteria were analysed. Twenty-six bacterial isolates belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae were isolated and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The dominant species in the midgut of melon fly were from the genera Enterobacter (34.6%), Klebsiella (19.2%), Citrobacter (7.7%), Bacillus (15.4%) and Providencia (7.7%), and 3.8% each of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Leclercia and Exiguobacterium. Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. dorsalis adults were significantly attracted to bacterial whole cell cultures and their supernatants in the fruit fly attraction bioassays. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted both male and females of Bactrocera species. The supernatants of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted a significantly greater number of females than males. The most abundant chemical constituents in supernatants of K. oxytoca and C. freundii were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, butyl isocyanatoacetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial endosymbionts associated with melon fly exhibited attractant potential which could facilitate eco-friendly insect control strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    varieties sown directly by seeds. The success of the graft system in the described patterns was 90%. The Lagenaria and Cucurbita graftholders produced greater amount of foliate area than Luffa which reduced it greatly. Graftholders did not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the fruits from the two varieties. - Pests infection in fruits of plants over Cucurbita and Luffa graftholders were reduced.

  4. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  5. In vitro plant regeneration system for tropical butternut squash genotypes (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez-Melara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of commercial and pure lines of tropical butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata plants via somatic embryogenesis was developed. The influence of genotype, explant source, N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T concentration on somatic embryogenesis induction was investigated. Friable embryogenic calli was produced from zigotic embryos (53-56% and cotyledons from seedlings (70% of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on CIM supplemented with different concentrations of BAP and 2,4-D and cotyledons from seedlings of C. moschata cv. PVG 04 cultured on CIM with BAP and 2,4,5-T. Embryogenic calli induction was achieved in 75% C. moschata pure lines evaluated and calli percentage frequency range from 5% to 34%. Successful acclimatization of squash in vitro plants was achieved in the greenhouse and in the field. Regenerated plants appeared morphologically normal and set flowers and fruits with seeds that could germinate normally. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 119-127. Epub 2009 November 30.

  6. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  7. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  8. A major latex-like protein is a key factor in crop contamination by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sawada, Mami; Goto, Junya; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Noriko; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-04-01

    This is the first report, to our knowledge, to reveal important factors by which members of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), squash (C. pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo), are selectively polluted with highly toxic hydrophobic contaminants, including organochlorine insecticides and dioxins. Xylem sap of C. pepo ssp. pepo, which is a high accumulator of hydrophobic compounds, solubilized the hydrophobic compound pyrene into the aqueous phase via some protein(s). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of xylem sap of two C. pepo subspecies revealed that the amount of 17-kD proteins in C. pepo ssp. pepo was larger than that in C. pepo ssp. ovifera, a low accumulator, suggesting that these proteins may be related to the translocation of hydrophobic compounds. The protein bands at 17 kD contained major latex-like proteins (MLPs), and the corresponding genes MLP-PG1, MLP-GR1, and MLP-GR3 were cloned from the C. pepo cultivars Patty Green and Gold Rush. Expression of the MLP-GR3 gene in C. pepo cultivars was positively correlated with the band intensity of 17-kD proteins and bioconcentration factors toward dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Recombinant MLP-GR3 bound polychlorinated biphenyls immobilized on magnetic beads, whereas recombinant MLP-PG1 and MLP-GR1 did not. These results indicate that the high expression of MLP-GR3 in C. pepo ssp. pepo plants and the existence of MLP-GR3 in their xylem sap are related to the efficient translocation of hydrophobic contaminants. These findings should be useful for decreasing the contamination of fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family as well as the phytoremediation of hydrophobic contaminants.

  9. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  10. Eficiência de acessos de Cucurbita maxima como polinizadores de abóbora híbrida do tipo "Tetsukabuto" Efficiency of Cucurbita maxima accessions as pollinators in the commercial production of pumpkin ("Tetsukabuto" type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto” é um híbrido interespecífico, macho estéril, resultante do cruzamento entre Cucurbita maxima e C. moschata. Uma das estratégias utilizadas para produção comercial de frutos de “Tetsukabuto” tem sido o plantio adjacente e concomitante de acessos de C. maxima ou C. moschata como polinizadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes acessos de C. maxima como fontes de pólen para produção comercial de abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto”. A cultivar de moranga "Exposição" e o acesso "Nirvana" foram utilizados como polinizadores para produção de frutos de dois híbridos do tipo varietal “Tetsukabuto” ("Jabras" e "Kyoto". Foram avaliados os tratamentos (cruzamentos Jabras x Exposição, Jabras x Nirvana, Tetsukabuto x Exposição, Tetsukabuto x Nirvana, em quatro repetições. Foram determinados os parâmetros massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, espessura da polpa, número e massa de sementes. O acesso "Nirvana" (cultivar em fase de validação pode ser utilizado na produção comercial como polinizador de abóboras deste grupo varietal sem nenhum prejuízo quando comparado com a moranga "Exposição"."Tetsukabuto" pumpkins are interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata accessions. Such hybrids, however, are often male-sterile due to the impaired ability of the staminate flowers to produce functional pollen. The use of intervening rows of staminate (pollen-donor plants is one strategy employed in order to have commercial fruit production. In the present work, two C. maxima accessions ["Exposição" (E and "Nirvana" (N] were employed as pollen-donors (staminate parents and their efficiency was compared considering fruit and seed yield parameters. Two pistillate Tetsukabuto hybrids ["Jabras" (J and "Kyoto Tetsukabuto" (KT] were employed in four possible unidirectional crosses (J x E, J x N, KT x E and KT x N. Fruits were produced using standard manual

  11. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) to complement component C1q modulates the complement attack and promotes host cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Sroka, Magdalena; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, Simone; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2014-05-30

    The Gram-positive species Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases associated with high mortality rates and death. We demonstrated recently that pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional plasminogen and fibronectin-binding protein facilitating host cell invasion and evasion of innate immunity. In this study, we found that PepO interacts directly with the complement C1q protein, thereby attenuating the classical complement pathway and facilitating pneumococcal complement escape. PepO binds both free C1q and C1 complex in a dose-dependent manner based on ionic interactions. Our results indicate that recombinant PepO specifically inhibits the classical pathway of complement activation in both hemolytic and complement deposition assays. This inhibition is due to direct interaction of PepO with C1q, leading to a strong activation of the classical complement pathway, and results in consumption of complement components. In addition, PepO binds the classical complement pathway inhibitor C4BP, thereby regulating downstream complement activation. Importantly, pneumococcal surface-exposed PepO-C1q interaction mediates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. Taken together, PepO facilitates C1q-mediated bacterial adherence, whereas its localized release consumes complement as a result of its activation following binding of C1q, thus representing an additional mechanism of human complement escape by this versatile pathogen.

  12. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  13. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of PEPO grafted carboxymethyl guar and carboxymethyl tamarind as new thermo-associating polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nivika R; Torris A T, Arun; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P; Rajamohanan, P R; Ducouret, Guylaine; Hourdet, Dominique; Creton, Costantino; Badiger, Manohar V

    2015-03-06

    New thermo associating polymers were designed and synthesized by grafting amino terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (PEPO) onto carboxymethyl guar (CMG) and carboxymethyl tamarind (CMT). The grafting was performed by coupling reaction between NH2 groups of PEPO and COOH groups of CMG and CMT using water-soluble EDC/NHS as coupling agents. The grafting efficiency and the temperature of thermo-association, T(assoc) in the copolymer were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The graft copolymers, CMG-g-PEPO and CMT-g-PEPO exhibited interesting thermo-associating behavior which was evidenced by the detailed rheological and fluorescence measurements. The visco-elastic properties (storage modulus, G'; loss modulus, G") of the copolymer solutions were investigated using oscillatory shear experiments. The influence of salt and surfactant on the T(assoc) was also studied by rheology, where the phenomenon of "Salting out" and "Salting in" was observed for salt and surfactant, respectively, which can give an easy access to tunable properties of these copolymers. These thermo-associating polymers with biodegradable nature of CMG and CMT can have potential applications as smart injectables in controlled release technology and as thickeners in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  16. The sterols of Cucurbita moschata ("calabacita") seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J B; Gros, E G; Bertoni, M H; Cattaneo, P

    1996-11-01

    From the sterol fraction of seed oil from commercial Cucurbita moschata Dutch ("calabacita") delta 5 and delta 7 sterols having saturated and unsaturated side chain were isolated by chromatographic procedures and characterized by spectroscopic (1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) methods. The main components were identified as 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3 beta-ol (alpha-spinasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E,25-trien-3 beta-ol (25-dehydrochondrillasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,25-dien-3 beta-ol; 24R-ethyl-cholesta-7-en-3 beta-ol (delta 7-stigmastenol) and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7, 24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol (delta 7,24(28)-stigmastadienol).

  17. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  18. Electrochemical and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Cucurbita Maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anbarasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the acid extract of peel of Cucurbita maxima (PCM on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss, polarization and impedance methods and SEM analysis. The inhibition efficiency increases with extract concentration and immersion period. Weight loss and corrosion rates of mild steel decreased as the concentration of inhibitor increased. The results showed that PCM was potential corrosion inhibitor and maximum inhibition efficiency (IE % obtained was 98% for 3%PCM at 1h. Impedance measurement results an increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct, which also confirms the corrosion inhibitive nature of the plant extract. Potentiodynamic study showed that PCM acts as a mixed type of inhibitor, which controls both the anodic and cathodic reactions. Scanning electron microscopic studies provided the evidence of improved surface condition for the corrosion protection, due to the adsorption.

  19. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  20. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE Rosellinia pepo Pat. EN PLANTAS DE MACADAMIA ISOLATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Rosellinia pepo Pat. IN MACADAMIA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Eliana Realpe Ortiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Rosellinia pepo Pat., causante de la llaga estrellada, se considera uno de los principales problemas fitosanitarios de la macadamia por ocasionar la muerte de la planta en su etapa productiva. Debido a que no existe una metodología de aislamiento confiable que asegure la recuperación del hongo con un porcentaje mínimo de contaminación y los estudios relacionados con este patógeno son escasos se planteó una investigación con el fin de perfeccionar una metodología de aislamiento y realizar algunas caracterizaciones morfológicas de este patógeno. La nueva metodología permitió obtener aislamientos con un 91,26% de pureza del hongo. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 4,68 mm día-1. Las colonias son de color blanco y apariencia algodonosa en su inicio, pero a medida que envejece el micelio toma un color café o negro y su apariencia se torna quebradiza. La observación de micelio blanco en forma de estrella en el lado interior del medio sintético permite diferenciarlo de otras especies como R. bunodes. Las mediciones microscópicas de los hinchamientos piriformes presentaron en promedio 106,4mm de largo y 75,3mm de ancho. Este trabajo también permitió determinar el nivel de inóculo infectivo.The fungus Rosellinia pepo Pat, the causal agent of star gall, is considered to be a main phytosanitary problem to the Macademia tree by causing the death of the tree while in its productive stage. Because no reliable isolation method exists that assures recovery of the mushroom with a minimum percentage of contamination and studies of this pathogen are scarce. This study was conducted to perfect an isolation methodology and permit some morphological characterizations of this pathogen. The new methodology allowed isolations with 91,26% purity of mushroom to be obtained. The rate of growth was 4,68 mm day-1. The colonies were of white color and cottony appearance in the beginning, but as the micelio aged it assumed a brown or black color and a

  1. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the fertility and fecundity of two species of fruit flies and horizontal transmission of mycotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookar, P; Bhagwant, S; Allymamod, M N

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius.

  2. Correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales en Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio estimó las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales entre doce caracteres agronómicos en dos dialélicos de zapallo (uno entre cinco variedades y otro entre cinco líneas S1, originadas de las anteriores. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con 15 tratamientos (5 progenitores + 10 cruzamientos F1 para cada dialélico y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados señalaron mayor estimación de las correlaciones (en magnitud y significancia estadística a favor del dialélico de líneas S1. Las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y las ambientales. La producción por planta (PFP presentó las correlaciones parciales fenotípicas y genéticas más altas con el peso por fruto (PPF y el número de frutos por planta (NFP (rPF y rPG > 0.80. El PPF y NFP pueden usarse como criterios de selección para la obtención de cultivares de altos rendimientos en C. moschata. ABSTRACT Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. The study evaluated phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations among 12 agronomy characters, in two set diallelic from five parents each one. The first set from five open pollinated varieties and the second one from five self-pollinated lines S1, obtained from the previous varieties. The two experiments were in completely randomized blocks with five replications. A higher estimation of correlation (in magnitude and statistical significance was observed in favor of the S1 lines diallelic. The genetic correlations were higher than the phenotypic and environmental correlations. The plant yield (PFP showed the highest partial phenotypic and genetic correlations with the fruit weight (PPF and fruits per plant (NFP (rPF and rPG > 0.80. It is suggested to use the PPF and NFP as selection criteria for breeding of C. moschata for development of high yield cultivars. Key words: Calabaza (cucurbita, genetic correlation, agronomic

  3. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  4. Dynamics of Selected Bioactive Substances Changes in Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Ex Poir. After Storage and Different Methods of Technological Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejiová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter squash is an important source of antioxidants, especially carotenoids. The aim of submitted research work was to determine the effect of genotype, storage and different methods of technological processing (baking, boiling and sterilization on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in fruits of winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.. The small-plot field experiment was established at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2013. Five cultivars of winter squash (‘Liscia’, ‘Orange’, ‘Hannah’, ‘UG 205 F1’ and ‘Waltham’ were examined in experiment. The total carotenoids content in the pulp of fresh fruits was ranged from 9.33 to 15.10 mg.100 g−1. Its highest value was determined in case of ‘Orange’ variety. The storage and the thermal treatment of fruit pulp in case of baking had positive impact from the total carotenoid content point of view. The baking resulted in the increase of its value in winter squash. On the contrary, sterilization tended to the decrease of total carotenoid content in edible part of squash. The total carotenoids content in the baking pulp was ranged from 14.27 to 31.87 mg.100 g−1. The vitamin C content before storage and technological processing ranged in interval from 13.88 to 18.69 mg.100 g−1. Particular thermal methods of processing and storage resulted in decrease of vitamin C content in the pulp of all winter squash varieties.

  5. 黑籽南瓜种间杂交研究%Research of Distant Hybridization Between Fig-leaf Gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia)and Three Mainly Cultivated Species in Cucurbita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 岳青

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous flowering period in different species of Cucurbits was overcome by the means of adjusting sowing time. The experiment of interspecific hybridization was done between 12 materials of three mainly cultivated species (C. Pepo, C. Moschata and C. Maxima) and fig-leaf gourd (C. Ficifolia.). It was no fruit when the fig-leaf gourd act as female parent, and it was fruiting when the other three mainly cultivated species did. There were no seeds in the fruits when C. pepoxC. Gcifolia and C. maximaxC. Gcifolia. 18 Fi plants of C. moschataxC. Gcifolia were obtained. The stamens were degenerate in the plants of the interspecific hybrids Fi. It was fruiting but no seeds when the interspecific hybrids Fi as female parent and backcrossing using C. Moschata or the C. Gcifolia as male parent. The plant morphology of Fi of C. Moschata X C. Gcifolia was intermediate type of parents and had a tendency to the male parent. Disease resistance and insect resistance of the Fi were worse than C. Gcifolia of male parent and approached C. Moschata of female parent.%通过调整播期克服了南瓜属种间花期不遇的问题,以美洲南瓜、中国南瓜、印度南瓜3个种共12个材料与黑籽南瓜进行了种间杂交试验.黑籽南瓜为母本不结实,以其他3个种为母本则均可结实.美洲南瓜×黑籽南瓜及印度南瓜×黑籽南瓜杂交获得的果实内均无种子.获得了18株中国南瓜×黑籽南瓜F1植株.种间杂种F1植株雄蕊退化,以其作为母本以中国南瓜或黑籽南瓜为父本进行回交,可结实但无种子.中国南瓜×黑籽南瓜F1形态为双亲中间型偏父本,其抗病性、抗虫性不及父本黑籽南瓜而倾向于母本中国南瓜.

  6. In vitro plant regeneration system for tropical butternut squash genotypes (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez-Melara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of commercial and pure lines of tropical butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata plants via somatic embryogenesis was developed. The influence of genotype, explant source, N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T concentration on somatic embryogenesis induction was investigated. Friable embryogenic calli was produced from zigotic embryos (53-56% and cotyledons from seedlings (70% of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on CIM supplemented with different concentrations of BAP and 2,4-D and cotyledons from seedlings of C. moschata cv. PVG 04 cultured on CIM with BAP and 2,4,5-T. Embryogenic calli induction was achieved in 75% C. moschata pure lines evaluated and calli percentage frequency range from 5% to 34%. Successful acclimatization of squash in vitro plants was achieved in the greenhouse and in the field. Regenerated plants appeared morphologically normal and set flowers and fruits with seeds that could germinate normally. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 119-127. Epub 2009 November 30.En este estudio se desarrolló un método eficiente y reproducible para la regeneración de líneas puras de la planta tropical Cucurbita moschata mediante la vía de embriogénesis somática. Además se investigó acerca de la influencia del genotipo, transplante, y la concentración de N6-benzylaminopurina (BAP, 2,4-diclorofenoxyacetico ácido (2,4-D y 2,4,5-triclorofenoxyacetico ácido (2,4,5-T en la inducción de embriogénesis somática. Los callos embriogenéticos viables fueron producidos de embriones zigóticos (53-56% y cotiledones de semillas (70% de C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultivados en un medio de inducción de callos (CIM suplementado con 0.5 mg/l o 3.5 mg

  7. Calcium Distribution in Globoid Crystals of Cucurbita Cotyledon Protein Bodies 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, John N. A.; Spitzer, Ernest; Vollmer, Catherine M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was used to investigate the location of globoid crystals with relatively high Ca levels within cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, and Cucurbita andreana. The small globoid crystals in both upper and lower epidermal cells commonly contained Ca. Ca was present in globoid crystals of all provascular regions with the exception of the very small provascular regions of C. maxima. In C. maxima and C. mixta cotyledons, some cases were observed where Ca was found in the globoid crystals of the first layer of mesophyll cells surrounding the provascular region, but in general Ca was absent from globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. In C. andreana, globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells commonly contained at least some Ca. Cell position and cell type are factors affecting the Ca content of globoid crystals in protein bodies. PMID:16660825

  8. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  9. [Allelopathic effects of cultured Cucurbita moschata root exudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Ma, Yongqin; Shui, Junfeng

    2005-04-01

    By using the techniques of tissue culture, bio-assay and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the effects of the allelopathic chemicals from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) roots on the seed germination and seedling growth of pumpkin, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and radish (Raphanus sativus). The pumpkin root was cultured on a sterile B5 media, and the concentrations of macro- and microelements, organic supplements and hormones in the media were adjusted by using an orthogonal design. After culturing, the culture media was filtered and used in a bioassay to test the autotoxicity and allelopathic effects. The results showed that the pumpkin had both autotoxic and allelopathic effects, and the media having been used to culture the pumpkin roots contained the chemicals that significantly inhibited the seedling growth of wheat and radish. The allelopathic effect decreased when the culture media was diluted. The production of allelochemicals seemed to be related to the growth rate of the pumpkin roots. When the root growth was rapid, the concentration of allelochemicals was high. The allelopathic effect was stronger on radish than on wheat. The optimum concentrations of macro- and microelements, vitamins and hormones for culturing pumpkin root were determined, and the effect of pumpkin root nutrition on the production of allelochemicals was tested. The results indicated that pumpkin root nutrition had a significant effect on the production of allelochemicals.

  10. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (tropical pumpkin) (C. moschata) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods:In the present study, dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MEOH) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus (21 mm) whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (8 mm). MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa (19 mm). Broth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6.25 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3.12 mg/mL to 100.00 mg/mL. The screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: Peel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  11. Glucose-lowering activity of novel tetrasaccharide glyceroglycolipids from the fruits of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhiguo; Du, Qizhen

    2011-02-01

    Two new tetrasaccharide glyceroglycolipids were obtained from pumpkin. The structures of the two compounds were determined using chemical methods and spectroscopic analysis. Both compounds demonstrated significant glucose-lowering effects in streptozotocin- and high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice.

  12. Processing and Utilization of Cucurbita moschata Fruit%南瓜的加工利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭安

    2005-01-01

    以南瓜肉为原料,采用不同处理方法,进行3种制品加工工艺的探索研制.结果表明:通过对南瓜的适当处理,将其制成南瓜果脯、南瓜粉、南瓜脆片系列食品是可行的.

  13. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  14. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  15. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

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    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  16. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Reid V; Chang, Jennifer C; Federle, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg(2+) and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles.

  17. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  18. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

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    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  20. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  1. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  2. Genetic structure and indirect estimates of gene flow in three taxa of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2002-07-01

    Cultivated squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma and C. moschata) are important in the Mexican traditional agroecosystem. They are typically cultivated within maize fields where adjacent populations of a wild, close relative, C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia, occur. Consequently, there are ample opportunities for gene flow between domesticated and free-living Cucurbita populations. We used allozymes to examine genetic variation and gene flow among these three Cucurbita taxa in the state of Jalisco in Western Mexico. Twelve polymorphic allozyme loci were used to calculate genetic diversity for 16 populations of Cucurbita. We found high levels of genetic variation: polymorphism of 0.96, mean allelic diversity of 2.08, average expected heterozygosity 0.407, and little differentiation among conspecific populations (D = 0.081; F(ST) = 0.087; N(e)m = 5.22). These findings indicate that Cucurbita possess a high pollen dispersal potential, a somewhat surprising result considering they have specialist pollinators. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) analysis of allozymes suggests the existence of at least two distinct groups of populations, one consisting of both subspecies of C. argyrosperma and another consisting of C. moschata.

  3. Darkness affects differentially the expression of plastid-encoded genes and delays the senescence-induced down-regulation of chloroplast transcription in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishev, Kiril; Dimitrova, Anna; Ananiev, Evguéni D

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to differentiated leaves, the regulatory mechanisms of chloroplast gene expression in darkened cotyledons have not been elucidated. Although some results have been reported indicating accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis upon reillumination, the capacity of cotyledons to recover after dark stress remains unclear. We analysed the effect of two-days dark stress, applied locally or at the whole-plant level, on plastid gene expression in zucchini cotyledons. Our results showed that in the dark the overall chloroplast transcription rate was much more inhibited than the nuclear run-on transcription. While the activities of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase II were strongly reduced, the activities of the nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase I were less affected. During recovery upon reillumination, chloroplast transcription in the cotyledons was strongly stimulated (3-fold) compared with the naturally senescing controls, suggesting delayed senescence. Northern blot and dot blot analyses of the expression of key chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes showed that in contrast to psbA, which remained almost unaffected, both the transcription rate and mRNA content of psaB and rbcL were substantially decreased.

  4. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter; Morse, Joseph G; Stark, John D

    2012-10-01

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were measured in traps as potential detection and male annihilation technique (MAT) devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure and insecticide formulations, 2) solid cones and plugs with an insecticidal strip, and 3) solid single and double lure wafers with DDVP for captures of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel; and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett. Bucket and Jackson traps were tested in a coffee plantation near Eleele, Kauai Island, HI (trials at high populations) and avocado orchards near Kona, HI Island, HI (trials at low populations). Captures of all three species with Mallet TMR were not different from Mallet CMR; therefore, subsequent experiments did not include Mallet CMR because of higher production costs. In MAT trials near Eleele, HI captures in AWPM traps with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to any other solid lure (single or double) except the Mallet ME wafer. In survey trials near Kona, captures of C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. dorsalis with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to those for the standard TML, ME, and C-L traps used in FL and CA. A solid Mallet TMR wafer is safer, more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, potentially reducing costs of large survey and detection programs in Florida and California, and MAT programs in Hawaii.

  5. Structures of new phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Dou, De-Qiang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai Xue

    2009-04-01

    A new phenolic glycoside and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. The structures of the new compound was elucidated as phenylcarbinyl 5-O-(4-hydroxy)benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Three known compounds were identified as 1-O-benzyl[5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside 2, cucurbitosides C 3 and A 4, by comparison of the spectral data with reported data. Compound 2 was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjaree Watcharawongpaiboon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of microsatellite markers in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L. was performed using the biotin-streptavidin enrichment procedure. One hundred and thirty three clones were randomly selected. After sequence analysis of 31 randomly picked positive colonies, 100% of the colonies were found to contain microsatellite sequences, and 9 primer pairs were designed. Five of the primers tested could amplify pumpkins DNA and can be used for genetic purity testing of the commercial hybrids. This paper reports the first isolation and utilization of microsatellite markers in pumpkin.

  7. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a hypoglycemic fraction from Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Ramos, R; Almanza-Perez, J C; Fortis-Barrera, A; Angeles-Mejia, S; Banderas-Dorantes, T R; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Diaz-Flores, M; Jasso, I; Blancas-Flores, G; Gomez, J; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by oxidative stress and a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, which also play roles in the pathogenesis of this disease and the accompanying vascular complications by increasing the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (C. ficifolia) is an edible Mexican plant whose hypoglycemic activity has been demonstrated in several experimental and clinical conditions. Recently, D-chiro-inositol has been proposed as the compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effects; however, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of this plant has not yet been explored. The aim of this research is to study the influence of a hypoglycemic, D-chiro-inositol-containing fraction from the C. ficifolia fruit (AP-Fraction) on biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as on the inflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The AP-Fraction obtained from the mature fruit of C. ficifolia contained 3.31 mg of D-chiro-inositol/g of AP-Fraction. The AP-Fraction was administrated daily by gavage to normal mice for 15 days as a preventive treatment. Then these animals were given streptozotocin, and the treatments were continued for an additional 33 days. Pioglitazone was used as a hypoglycemic drug for comparison. Administration of the AP-Fraction significantly increased glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver without significantly affecting the levels in other tissues. The AP-Fraction reduced TNF-α and increased IL-6 and IFN-γ in serum. Interestingly, the AP-Fraction also increased IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. These results suggest that C. ficifolia might be used as an alternative medication for the control of diabetes mellitus and that it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its hypoglycemic activity.

  9. Effects of NaCl stress, Ca2+ and GA3 on seed germination of three vegetables in Cucurbita L.%NaCl胁迫及Ca2+和GA3对南瓜属3种蔬菜种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广印; 韩世栋; 赵一鹏; 周秀梅; 李新峥

    2005-01-01

    研究了NaCl胁迫对南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)、笋瓜(C. maxima Duch.)和西葫芦(C.pepo L.)种子萌发的影响及不同浓度外源Ca2+和GA3对NaCl胁迫下南瓜种子发芽的效应.结果表明,用30 mmol·L-1NaCl处理,南瓜种子的发芽率高于对照(蒸馏水),而用100和170 mmol·L-1NaCl处理,西葫芦和笋瓜种子的发芽率下降率为负值,表明较低浓度NaCl胁迫可一定程度提高西葫芦、笋瓜和南瓜种子的发芽率;高浓度NaCl胁迫对种子发芽有明显的抑制作用.种子萌发期耐盐能力从大至小依次为西葫芦、南瓜、笋瓜.在170 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,施加5~30 mmol·L-1外源Ca2+或浸种处理,对南瓜种子发芽有促进作用,但高浓度外源Ca2+(≥50 mmol·L-1CaCl2)则具有抑制作用.在170 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,用不同浓度GA3浸种处理,对南瓜种子发芽有抑制作用.

  10. Per se performance of genotypes and correlation analysis in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Tamil selvi, P.Jansirani, L.Pugalendhi, A.Nirmalakumari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of 15 pumpkin genotypes collected from various sources was carried out. Observations were recorded on thefollowing traits viz. vine length, days to first female flower appearance, node number for first female flower appearance, sexratio, days to first harvest, fruit number per vine, fruit weight, fruit equatorial diameter, fruit polar diameter, flesh thickness,seed number per fruit, seed weight per fruit and fruit yield per vine along with quality traits such as total carbohydratescontent, total carotenoids content and crude fibre content of the fruit and analysed statistically. Among the genotypes, CM6followed by CM10 and CM9 recorded the highest mean value of fruit yield. Correlation analysis revealed that fruit yield per vinewas significantly and positively correlated with fruit number per vine, flesh thickness and total carotenoids content.However negative association was observed with days to first female flower appearance, node number for first femaleflower appearance, sex ratio, days to first harvest, fruit weight, fruit equatorial diameter, fruit polar diameter and crude fibrecontent. Hence selecting pumpkin genotypes with narrow sex ratio, more number of fruits per vine, fruits with high flesh thicknessand total carotenoids content will help to improve yield per vine and quality of pumpkin fruits.

  11. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  12. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  13. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  14. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  16. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future.

  17. IMMUNOCYTOLOGICAL LOCALIZATION OF IAA IN THE PARENCHYMA CELL AND VASCULAR ELEMENTS IN THE GRAFT UNION OF CUCURBITA PEPO/CUCURBITA MOSCHATA AT THE EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE%嫁接早期IAA在西葫芦/南瓜嫁接面处薄壁细胞和维管分子中的免疫细胞学定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼群; 韩静; 贾文锁; 杜中

    2000-01-01

    采用免疫胶体金法对IAA在西葫芦/南瓜离体茎段嫁接早期发育时期在嫁接面处的分布进行了超微结构水平的定位.电镜观察表明:在嫁接面处的薄壁细胞中IAA主要定位于细胞核、质体、内质网等细胞器上.在高尔基体、线粒体、细胞壁和液泡中,未发现胶体金颗粒的标记.在分化中的管状分子中,胶体金颗粒位于次生壁上和细胞质中.在筛分子分化过程中,IAA主要定位于筛板、筛孔和细胞质中.在伴胞中有较高的金颗粒密度.对于IAA在嫁接体维管分子分化过程中的作用进行了讨论.

  18. Polinização entomófila em abóbora caipira, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae = Entomophilus pollination in pumpkins, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lattaro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os insetos visitantes nas flores masculinas e femininas da abóbora caipira (Cucurbita mixta, em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, foram realizadas contagens dos insetos presentes nas flores das 7h00 às 18h00, durante 10 minutos em cada horário, com três repetições (três dias distintos, em agosto de 2004. Observou-se que abelha africanizada (Apis mellifera foi o inseto visitante mais freqüente nas flores. Essa abelha visitou as flores até 13h00 e preferiu coletar néctar nasflores masculinas (68,4%, em comparação ao pólen nas flores masculinas (18,6% e ao néctar nas flores femininas (13,0%. A freqüência dessas abelhas nas flores diminuiu no decorrer do dia. A relação de flor masculina para feminina foi 3,2:1.This study aimed to evaluate the insect visitors in the male and female flowers of the pumpkin, Cucurbita mixta, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in August, 2004. The insects in the flowers were counted from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00p.m., for 10 minutes, every hour, with three replications and in three different days. It was observed that the insect which most frequently visited the flowers was the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera. That bee visited flowers until 1:00 p.m. and preferred to collect nectar from the male flowers (68.4%, when compared to pollen from the male flowers (18.6% and nectar from the female flowers (13.0%. The frequency of those bees in the flowers decreased in elapsing of the day. The relationship between male and female flowers was 3.2:1.

  19. Cultivar Groups of Cultivated Squash%栽培种南瓜的品种群研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德佩; 刘小俊

    2011-01-01

    作者建议在葫芦科专家Whitaker划分的品种群(cultivar groups)分类基础上,按照果实形状及果形指数为主要指标,结合其他亲缘关系,将3个栽培种南瓜Cuc urb ita moc hata,Cpepo,Cmaxima划分成18个品种群,其中2个(C.pepo的观赏瓜品种群,C.maxima的板栗瓜品种群)是作者新划分的.%Based on Dr. Whitaker's taxonomy for 3 cultivated squash, 18 cultivar groups were suggested for Cucurbita moschata,C. Pepo and C. Maxima using mature fruit shape and fruit shape index as major traits for grouping. Two cultivar groups (the ornamental group for C. Pepo and the panli group for C. Maxima) are newly proposed groups.

  20. Molecular Replacement Studies of Cucurmosin from Cucurbita Moschata: Structure Homology with Trichosanthin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Li(石小莉); Edward X. Zhou; YE Xiao-Ming(叶晓明); Edward J. Meehan; CHEN Ming-Huang(陈明晃); Liqing Chen(陈荔清)

    2003-01-01

    High diffraction quality crystals of cucurmosin, a type Ⅰ ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin), have been grown under newly optimised conditions. With in-house rotating anode X-ray source, these crystals diffract to 1.65 A resolution which is much higher than that of the previously reported crystals that diffracted only to 3 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 58.4 and c = 99.3 A. Molecular replacement studies indicate that the cucurmosin structure is homologous to trichosanthin. The initial structural model has been obtained and the model fitting/refinement is in progress.

  1. Agrobiodiversity in Cucurbita spp. landraces collected in Rio de Janeiro assessed by molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Hilma dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and genetic relationship in forty landraces of Cucurbita spp. collected at small farms in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers, using 20 and 15 primers, respectively. Both markers were efficient to cluster the accessions separating among species, but not so much to the detection of intra-specific variability, considering the event of different pairs of accessions comprising null genetic distances observed for both markers in C. moschata. Low values observed for genetic distance among the C. moschata landraces showed that most likely genetic losses is in progress in that region of cultivation due to anthropic and market pressure, which are stimulating the small farmers to abandon their local varieties in order to use commercial seeds, including hybrids, which is causing risk of genetic erosion.

  2. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  3. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  4. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cucurbita moschata and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-30

    In this study, cellulase-assisted extraction of water soluble polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and their antibacterial activity were investigated. The polysaccharides yield was monitored during the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 40 min; temperature, 55°C; pH, 4.5; and cellulase amount, 4,000 U/g. The extracts were centrifuged, filtered, proteins removed by Sevag method, concentrated to approximately 15% (w/v), precipitated with 5 volumes of absolute ethanol, freeze-dried, and pulverized to yield a water soluble powder of pumpkin polysaccharides (PP). The sugar content of the product was 68.3%, and the yield was 17.34% (w/w), respectively. The PP had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 mg/mL.

  5. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  6. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  7. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  8. Sources of resistance in accessions of Cucurbita spp. to virus species from the genus Potyvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela da Silva Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The identification of source of resistance in cultivated cucurbits species is very important for the development of resistant cultivars to control diseases caused by virus from the genus Potyvirus. The present research had the objective to evaluate the phenotypic reactions and the behavior of pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. accessions to the virus species from the genus Potyvirus: Papaya ringspot virus type Watermelon (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Twenty-eight accessions of pumpkin from the Cucurbit Germplasm Bank from Embrapa Semiárido, Petrolina, PE, Brazil were evaluated. Twelve young plants from each pumpkin accession were inoculated with each one of the virus species and were maintained at greenhouse for their symptom reaction evaluations. All possible virus infections or absence of infection were confirmed by plate-trapped antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV-W, ZYMV and WMV at the Plant Virus Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Ceará. Three pumpkin accessions showed extreme resistant to WMV and eight accessions presented mild mosaic when inoculated with PRSV-W. The most severe symptoms were observed on those accessions inoculated with ZYMV and 50% of the accessions showed to be highly susceptible. On the other hand, the pumpkin accessions inoculated with WMV presented the mildest symptoms, indicating that 39% of them were resistant, and 39% were tolerant. The Cucurbita spp. accessions BGC 518, BGC 530, BGC 567, and BGC 683 that showed resistance to one or more than one virus species constitute promising sources of resistance for developing virus resistant pumpkin cultivars or hybrids.

  9. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  10. Efecto de la endocría en caracteres relacionados con la calidad del fruto de zapallo Effect of inbreeding on the quality traits of squash fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanín Ortiz Grisales

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el rendimiento y características relacionados con la calidad del fruto de seis introducciones de zapallo, Cucurbita moschata Duch., a libre polinización (S0 y en las líneas endocriadas S1 y S2. La endocría acompañada de selección no causó efectos negativos en las variables producción por planta, espesor de la pulpa del fruto, color de la pulpa del fruto y materia seca en el fruto.Yield and related traits with fruit quality for six squash introductions Cucurbita moschata Duch. from open pollination (S0 and their respective inbreeding lines (S>1 and S2 was measured. It was determined that inbreed accompanied by selection didn't cause negative effects of depression in yield and agribusiness characteristic: plant production, wall fruit thickness , color of the fruit flesh and dry matter in fruit.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of cucurmosin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Ye, X; Cai, J; Lin, Y

    2000-05-01

    Cucurmosin, a ribosome-inactivating protein purified from pumpkin, the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata, has been crystallized using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and have unit-cell parameters a = 41.91, b = 59. 48, c = 98.78 A. There is one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction data to 3.0 A resolution were collected on a MAR Research image-plate detector.

  12. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiya M Khamis

    Full Text Available In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2 = 122.9 was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1 and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4. Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s., branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  13. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Diao, Wenchao; Wang, Chengrong

    2014-11-26

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) of Cucurbita moschata polysaccharides (CMCP) was established and the CMCP antioxidant activities were studied. The UAEE operating parameters (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, pH, and liquid-to-material ratio) were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) and the mass transfer kinetic study in UAEE procedure was used to select the optimal extraction time. Enzymolysis and ultrasonication that were simultaneously conducted was selected as the UAEE synergistic model and the optimum extraction conditions with a maximum polysaccharide yield of 4.33 ± 0.15% were as follows: extraction temperature, 51.5 °C; ultrasonic power, 440 W; pH, 5.0; liquid-to-material ratio, 5.70:1 mL/g; and extraction time, 20 min. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CMCP has good potential as a natural antioxidant used in the food or medicine industry because of their high reducing power and positive radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical.

  16. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  17. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  18. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  20. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  2. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  3. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  4. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  5. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  6. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  7. 13-Hydroxy-9Z,11E,15E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Myun-Ho; Han, Jae-Taek; Kim, Hae Yeong; Park, Young-Doo; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Kang-Ro; Baek, Nam-In

    2002-08-01

    A new unsaturated hydroxy fatty acid was isolated from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata through repeated silica gel column chromatography and chemical methods. The structure of the new fatty acid was determined as 13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid on the basis of several spectral data including 2D-NMR. The stererostructures of double bonds were determined to be 9Z, 11E and 15E by coupling patterns of related proton signals in the 1H-NMR and NOESY experiments.

  8. Identification of the Ubiquitous Antioxidant Tripeptide Glutathione as a Fruit Fly Semiochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndung'u, Mary; Teal, Peter E A; Beck, John J; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-10-04

    Many insects mark their oviposition sites with a host marking pheromone (HMP) to deter other females from overexploiting these sites. Previous studies have identified and used HMPs to manage certain fruit fly species; however, few are known for African indigenous fruit flies. The HMP of the African fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra, was identified as the ubiquitous plant and animal antioxidant tripeptide, glutathione (GSH). GSH was isolated from the aqueous extract of adult female fecal matter and characterized by LC-QTOF-MS. GSH level increased with increasing age of female fecal matter, with highest concentration detected from 2-week-old adult females. Additionally, GSH levels were 5-10-times higher in fecal matter than in the ovipositor or hemolymph extracts of females. In bioassays, synthetic GSH reduced oviposition responses in conspecifics of C. cosyra and the heterospecific species C. rosa, C. fasciventris, C. capitata, and Zeugodacus cucurbitae. These results represent the first report of a ubiquitous antioxidant as a semiochemical in insects and its potential use in fruit fly management.

  9. Caracterização molecular de variedades crioulas de abóboras com marcadores microssatélites Molecular characterization of pumpkin landraces by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Priori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as cinco espécies de abóboras domesticadas, Cucurbita pepo apresenta a maior variabilidade para características de fruto, como cor, formato e tamanho. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cucurbitáceas da Embrapa Clima Temperado conta com 61 acessos desta espécie, todos estes, variedades crioulas cultivadas no sul do Brasil. Estas variedades crioulas fazem parte da cultura regional, na gastronomia, no artesanato e na ornamentação de ambientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética entre e dentro de variedades crioulas de C. pepo cultivadas no Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando marcadores microssatélites. Foram avaliados 10 acessos de variedades crioulas de C. pepo. que apresentavam diferentes formatos e tamanhos de fruto, cores e texturas da casca. O DNA genômico foi extraído individualmente de cinco plantas de cada acesso. Foram analisados 40 locos de microssatélites. Destes, 34 amplificaram, identificando 100 alelos (variação de um a cinco alelos por loco. Dos locos analisados 85,3% foram polimórficos, evidenciando a variabilidade genética entre os acessos. A análise molecular da variância mostrou que 45,39% da variabilidade genética é atribuída à variação dentro dos acessos e 54,60% a diferenças entre acessos. Assim, apesar de haver variabilidade genética dentro dos acessos, a maior proporção da variabilidade em C. pepo encontra-se distribuída entre as diferentes variedades crioulas. A variação dentro dos acessos é explicada pela alogamia da espécie, pelo intercâmbio de sementes das variedades crioulas entre os agricultores e também pelos mesmos cultivarem mais de uma variedade de Cucurbita na mesma área.Among the five cultivated species of pumpkins, Cucurbita pepo has the highest variability for fruit characteristics, such as color, shape and size. The Active Germplasm Bank of Cucurbitaceae from Embrapa Clima Temperado (Brazil has 61 accessions of this species, all of them landraces

  10. Secagem de fatias de abóboras (Cucurbita moschata, L. por convecção natural e forçada Drying of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. slices by natural and forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata, L. é uma importante fonte de provitamina A, de baixo custo, e sob a forma desidratada oferece diferentes opções de utilização e consumo. Secagens por convecção natural e forçada foram comparadas quanto ao grau de secagem atingido e encolhimento, em função da temperatura, velocidade de ar e dimensões do produto. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso de fatias com volume de 6,25 cm³ em secador por convecção forçada a 50 °C e à velocidade de 5,5 x 10-4 ms-1 resultaram em produtos de menor encolhimento, sendo recomendadas estas condições.Besides its low price, Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. is an important source of provitamin-A, and when dehydrated it offers different options of utilizations and consumption. Natural and forced convection drying were compared according to the drying degree shrinkage as a function of temperature, and air velocity and product dimensions. The obtained results showed that slices with the volume of 6.25 cm³ in forced convection oven at 50 °C and at the velocity of 5.5 x 10-4 ms-1 resulted in a lower shrinkage products, so these conditions were recommended.

  11. Community Structure and Population Dynamics of the Fruit Fly in Kejie Region%柯街地区实蝇群落结构及其动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2012-01-01

    2007~2008年对云南柯街地区实蝇(Bactrocera spp.)群落调查研究的结果表明,柯街地区实蝇类害虫共有11种,其中橘小实蝇(B.dorsalis)属于绝对优势种,瓜实蝇(B.cucurbitae)次之.物种丰富度动态和数量动态基本一致,6~8月为发生高峰期;群落Shannon多样性指教、Simpson指数和均匀度具有同增同减性,且6~8月为最低.分析表明,温度和寄主是影响当地实蝇类害虫个体数量变动的关键因子.另外,柯街实蝇优势种的优势地位明显,群落生态优势度高,是造成6~8月多样性和均匀度低的主要原因.%According to the study and investigation on the fruit fly in Kejie during 2007-2008, there are eleven species of Bactrocera. The local dominant species of fruit flies is B. Dorsalis; and the second was B. Cucurbitae. The dynamics of fruit fly abundance and fruit fly individuals wre all the same, which reached the peak from June to August. The community diversity, simpson and eveniness were similar in increasion and reduction which were the lowest from June to August. The correlation analysis indicated that temperature and host plant species were the main factors influencing the population fluctuations. In addition, the main reason causing diversity and eviness lower was the obvious position of the dominant species of fruit flies from June to August.

  12. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  13. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  14. Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of tradi- tional healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal pain followed by Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Cucurbita pepo L. This study suggested that traditional healers in eastern Hararghie zone have ..... Yigezu et al., 2014) and in Karak district, Pakistan, (Murad et al., 2013). The.

  15. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that the specified combination is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “contributes to reduce......, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair....

  17. Inbreeding and Gene Action in Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata Seed Starch Content / Endocría y Acción Génica para el Contenido Almidón en Semilla de Zapallo (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanin Ortiz Grisales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The effect of inbreeding and gene action on butternutsquash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seed production and seedstarch content was evaluated at two locations in the departmentof Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using six accessions (S0 and their inbred lines S1 and S2. Significant differences were found between the accessions and inbred lines, but not between localities. The seed production and seed starch content showed no significant effects of inbreeding depression. An additive-type gene action predominated, suggesting that recurrent selection could be the best strategy to increase the frequencies of genes promoting seed production and seed starch content. / Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de la endocría y la acción génica en la producción de semilla y en el contenido de almidón en la semilla de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. en dos localidades del departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia, utilizando seis accesiones (S0 y sus respectivas líneas endocriadas S1 y S2. Se detectaron diferencias significativas entre accesiones y líneas endocriadas pero no entre localidades. La producción de semilla y el contenido de almidón no presentaron efectos significativos de depresión endogámica. Predominó la acción génica de tipo aditivo, sugiriendo que la selección recurrente podría ser la mejor estrategia para incrementar las frecuencias de los genes que favorecen la producción de semilla y contenido de almidón en la semilla.

  18. 中国南瓜主要性状配合力与遗传力分析%Combining Ability and Heritability of 12 Quantitative Traits in Cucurbita moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 刘童光; 戴祖云; 施文政; 谈敏; 许晓婷

    2012-01-01

    以12个中国南瓜高世代自交系为试验材料,采用NCⅡ设计配制36个杂交组合,分析了12个数量性状的遗传力、配合力.结果表明:在一般配合力上,6个母本的优劣顺序为Q1>Q3>Q4>Q6>Q2>Q5,6个父本的优劣顺序为B1>B3>B5>B4>B2>B6;亲本的一般配合力与其在杂交组合中的特殊配合力之间无必然联系;主蔓长度、可溶性固形物含量、干物质含量的狭义遗传力较高,早代选择效果较好;节间长度、单果质量、多糖含量、β-胡萝卜素含量、维生素C含量、果实纵径、果实横径的狭义遗传力较低,适合在中高代进行选择.%Thirty six hybrids derived from 12 inbred lines using NC II design were used to study combining ability and heritability of 12 quantitative traits in Cucurbita moschata squash. The results indicated that the general combining ability order of female parent was Q1>Q3> Q4>Q6>Q2>Q5 ,and that of male parents was B1>B3>B5>B4>B2>B6. There was no inevitable corresponding relation between general combining ability of the parent and special combining ability of its hybrid. The main vine length .soluble solid content,dry matter content had higher narrow sense heritability,and they should be selected in early generation. The inter-node length,single fruit weight,polysaccharide content,($-carotene content,Vitamin C content,fruit length,fruit diameter had lower narrow sense heritability,and they should be selected in later generations.

  19. Kinetic mechanism and order of substrate binding for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew W; Fawcett, Tony; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-03-13

    sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT, EC 2.3.1.15), a component of glycerolipid biosynthesis, is an important enzyme in chilling sensitivity in plants. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from squash (Cucurbita moschata), without bound substrate, has been determined [Turnbull et al. (2001) Acta Crystallogr. D 57, 451-453; Turnbull et al. (2001) Structure 9, 347-353]. Here we report the kinetic mechanism of plastidial G3PAT from squash and the order of substrate binding using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates. The reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary complex with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol-3-phosphate. We have also determined that the reaction will proceed with C(4:0)-CoA, C(6:0)-CoA and C(12:0)-ACP substrates, allowing a wider choice of acyl groups for future co-crystallisation studies.

  20. Mutagenesis of squash (Cucurbita moschata) glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) to produce an enzyme with altered substrate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, M W; Fawcett, T; Schierer, T F; Simon, J W; Kroon, J T; Gilroy, J S; Rice, D W; Rafferty, J; Turnbull, A P; Sedelnikova, S E; Slabas, A R

    2000-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize the relationship between structure and substrate selectivity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, 1AT, EC 2.3.1.15) we have cloned a number of cDNAs into the pET overexpression system using a PCR-based approach. Following assay of the recombinant enzyme we noted that the substrate selectivity of the squash (Cucurbita moschata) enzyme had altered dramatically. This form of GPAT has now been crystallized and its full three-dimensional structure elucidated. Since we now have two forms of the enzyme that display different substrate selectivities this should provide a powerful tool to determine the basis of the selectivity changes. Kinetic and structural analyses are currently being performed to rationalize the changes which have taken place.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch) induced by wounding with aluminum borate whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Tsuda, Mai; Tabei, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    An efficient genetic transformation method for kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch cv. Heiankogiku) was established by wounding cotyledonary node explants with aluminum borate whiskers prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium. Adventitious shoots were induced from only the proximal regions of the cotyledonary nodes and were most efficiently induced on Murashige-Skoog agar medium with 1 mg/L benzyladenine. Vortexing with 1% (w/v) aluminum borate whiskers significantly increased Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal region of the explants. Transgenic plants were screened at the T(0) generation by sGFP fluorescence, genomic PCR, and Southern blot analyses. These transgenic plants grew normally and T(1) seeds were obtained. We confirmed stable integration of the transgene and its inheritance in T(1) generation plants by sGFP fluorescence and genomic PCR analyses. The average transgenic efficiency for producing kabocha squashes with our method was about 2.7%, a value sufficient for practical use.

  2. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  3. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  4. Screening of Furanone in Cucurbita melo and Evaluation of its Bioactive Potential Using In Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Sudandiradoss, C; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2016-12-01

    The work presented here attempts to screen for the presence of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone in fruits and also any bioactive potential present in the fruit extracts. Curcurbita melo was selected for the study, and the fruit was crushed, filtered and extracted with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The resulting extract was subjected to disk diffusion test using Kirby Bauer method for checking its antimicrobial potential. Melon extract showed promising results against different clinical pathogens, 19-mm zone being the largest against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 17 mm against Shigella dysenteriae. GC-MS data of the melon extract confirmed the existence of furanone derivative in the extract. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in silico studies were performed using AutoDock 4.0 software, and topoisomerase was used as the target protein molecule for the isolated compound and 3-methyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)furan as the ligand. Further, the results were interpreted using PyMol and Ligplot plus softwares. The results confirmed the presence of molecular interactions between the protein molecule and the ligand. It can be envisaged that these interactions are responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extract .

  5. VARIASI KOMBINASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata D.) DAN TEPUNG AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata R.br.) PADA KECERAHAN WARNA IKAN KOI (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Diah Ayu Tri

    2014-01-01

    Warna memegang peranan penting dalam menentukan kualitas ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), bahkan dipandang sebagai komponen penting dalam proses seleksi ikan hias. Permasalahan yang sering timbul adalah memudarnya warna ikan bila dipelihara dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Penelitian ini menambahkan tepung labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata D.) dan tepung Azolla (Azolla pinnata R.Br.) ke dalam pakan buatan. Dengan penambahan tepung labu kuning dan tepung Azolla ini memungkinkan ikan memperoleh lebih ...

  6. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  7. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n = 42

  8. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHIMKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups

  9. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  10. EFEITOS DE PODA DE RAMA NA PRODUÇÃO DE ABOBRINHA (Curcubita moschata CV. “MENINA BRASILEIRA” INFLUENCE OF VINE PRUMING ON THE YIELD OF SQUASH (Cucurbita moschata CV. ‘MENINA BRASILEIRA’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Alguns produtores hortícolas goianos cortam a ponta da rama principal da aboboreira para estimular a ramificação lateral e aumentar e/ou antecipar a produção. Em experimento, realizado na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, avaliaram-se os efeitos deste tipo de poda na produção de abobrinha da cultivar ‘Menina Brasileira' . Em doze colheitas, feitas entre 17/11 e 23/12/93, determinou-se o número e o peso de frutos. O tratamento não influenciou significativamente a produção de frutos nem sua distribuição ao longo das colheitas. A produção das plantas podadas, porém, foi ligeiramente mais precoce, fato que exige maior investigação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abobrinha; Cucurbita moschata; poda de rama.

    Some squash producers in the region of Goiânia (Brazil prune the top of the main vine in order to increase and/or anticipate production by stimulating lateral branching. In this trial, carried out at the Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, vine pruning was tested on the cv. ‘Menina Brasileira’. Fruits were harvested twice a week, from November 17 to December 23 (1993. Significant differences between treatment and control were found neither in number and weight of fruits nor in distribution of the yield over the harvest period. The pruned plants however were slightly earlier in production. This should be investigated with more accuracy.

    KEY-WORDS: Squash; vine pruning.

  11. Consumer acceptance of novel fruits and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Benninga, J.; Rakowska, J.; Bartels, J.

    2010-01-01

    The task of the Deliverable 1.3.7 Report on case studies of fruit innovations is to provide information on consumers' acceptance of innovative fruit and fruit products selected for case studies in Deliverable 1.3.2 List of selected fruit innovations, and to validate findings from previous stages of

  12. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  13. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  14. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  15. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  16. Location of Caspase 3-like Protease in the Development of Sieve Element and Tracheary Element of Stem in Cucurbita moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hao; Jie Qian; Shan Xu; Xin Song; Jian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, extemal phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.

  17. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing

    2008-10-01

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04A, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven alpha-helices and eight beta-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three alpha-helices and two beta-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc(2)Man(3)Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  18. Location of caspase 3-like protease in the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xia; Qian, Jie; Xu, Shan; Song, Xin; Zhu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, external phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.

  19. [Effects of Celosia argentea and Cucurbita moschata extracts on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, K; Ushijima, H; Inouye, S; Takahashi, T; Kojima, Y

    1994-05-01

    We have already reported that the Perilla frutescens extract (PFE) suppressed anti-DNA IgE antibody production in mice. In this study, we prepared extracts of Celosia argentea L. (CAE) and Cucurbita moschata Duch (CME), which are Chinese herbal medicines like Perilla frutescens, and examined the effects on anti-DNP antibody responses in mice. To examine the effects of CAE & CME on primary antibody responses, CAE & CME were intraperitoneally injected the day before primary immunization of DNP-ovalbumin. Anti-DNP antibody production was markedly suppressed. Then, we examined the effects on secondary antibody responses. CEA & CME were injected only the day before secondary immunization. Anti-DNP IgE production was markedly suppressed, but IgG responses were not affected. It was also found that mitogenic activity occurred in CAE & CME dose dependently in vitro. These effects of CAE & CME were superior to that of PFE. These results suggest that CAE & CME may be more useful than PFE for the suppression of IgE antibody in certain allergic disorders.

  20. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  1. Physiological effects of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Kou, Xiaoming; Pei, Zhiguo; Xiao, John Q; Shan, Xiaoquan; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-01

    To date, knowledge gaps and associated uncertainties remain unaddressed on the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants. This study was focused on revealing some of the physiological effects of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta cv. white cushaw) plants under hydroponic conditions. This study for the first time reports that Fe(3)O(4) NPs often induced more oxidative stress than Fe(3)O(4) bulk particles in the ryegrass and pumpkin roots and shoots as indicated by significantly increased: (i) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, and (ii) lipid peroxidation. However, tested Fe(3)O(4) NPs appear unable to be translocated in the ryegrass and pumpkin plants. This was supported by the following data: (i) No magnetization was detected in the shoots of either plant treated with 30, 100 and 500 mg l(-1) Fe(3)O(4) NPs; (ii) Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study confirmed that the coordination environment of Fe in these plant shoots was similar to that of Fe-citrate complexes, but not to that of Fe(3)O(4) NPs; and (iii) total Fe content in the ryegrass and pumpkin shoots treated with Fe(3)O(4) NPs was not significantly increased compared to that in the control shoots.

  2. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-06

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  3. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  5. 南瓜和苦瓜的生药鉴定%Pharmacognostic identification of fruit of Cucurbita moschata and Momordica charantia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金荣; 成玉怀; 王航宇; 唐辉

    2001-01-01

    目的为南瓜和苦瓜的鉴定和开发利用提供科学依据.方法显微鉴定和理化鉴定.结果南瓜和苦瓜均有明显的显微和理化鉴别特征.结论这些特征可作为南瓜和苦瓜鉴别的根据.

  6. 西葫芦子叶花芽分化时内源激素、多胺含量的变化%The Changes of Endogenous Hormones and Polyamines of the Cotyledons of Cucurbita Pepo L. in Vitro During Floral Bud Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄作喜; 沈惠娟; 谢寅峰

    2002-01-01

    西葫芦子叶于附加1.0mg/L KT(激动素)MS(Murashige, Skoog)培养基中培养,明显提高了子叶的花芽分化率,分析其内源激素、多胺含量的动态变化,发现经KT处理组的子叶在花芽分化时,其内源GA1/3(赤霉素)含量降低,而ZRs(玉米素核苷)含量显著增加,表现出高的ZRs/GA1/3比值.花芽分化时,子叶内源Spm(精胺)、Spd(亚精胺)含量剧增,其中经KT处理组的子叶,其内源Spd含量较对照组增加2倍多,而Put(腐胺)含量在萌生不定根和营养芽时急剧增加,但到花芽分化时又突然下降.表明内源ZRs、Spd含量高与ZRs/GA1/3比值高有利于西葫芦子叶花芽分化.

  7. Effect of planting density on canopy sink-source feature and yield of different dwarf varieties of summer squashes (Cucurbita pepo L.)%种植密度对不同矮生型西葫芦品种冠层源库特征及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷逢进; 温祥珍; 李亚灵; 王晓民; 李灵芝; 刘秀丽; 刘庆华; 韩丽丽

    2013-01-01

    国内西葫芦品种有矮生和半矮生两类,半矮生品种是目前保护地主要栽培类型.试验分别以2个半矮生“东葫4号”和“冬玉”及2个矮生品种“长青王3号”和“早青”为研究对象,研究了种植密度对大棚西葫芦群体冠层、源-库特征的影响,以揭示大棚西葫芦高产的关键因素.结果表明:从低密度到高密度,半矮生西葫芦品种冠层指标的变化高于矮生品种,叶面积指数(LAI)、源供应能力、库容量的变化呈二次曲线,透光率的变化与LAI趋势相反,源库比随密度由低到高呈线性变化,最适源库比下产量最高.低密度下,LAI较低,漏光损失大,源供应能力、库容量、源库比都较低,库容量小是其产量较低的主要原因;中密度下,不同生育期LAI较高,半矮生品种最大为4.4,矮生品种最大为3.3,冠层底部的透光率较小,半矮生品种平均为12.4%,矮生品种为13.2%,源足、库大且接近最大值,半矮生品种与矮生品种最大源供应能力分别为1169.8 g·m-2、736.9g·m-2,最大库容量分别为422.4 g·m-2、333.0 g·m-2,源库比接近最适值(半矮生与矮生品种分别为2.62、1.96)是其产量高的主要原因;高密度下,结果前期LAI上升最快,达到峰值后群体底部透光率更低,结果后期下部叶片早衰,LAI下降较快,漏光损失大,源的供应能力成为高密度下限制产量的主导因素.半矮生品种较矮生品种产量高,其冠层有较高较稳的源供应能力是主要因素(半矮生品种的最大源供应能力是矮生品种的1.6倍),保护地生产应选用半矮生品种.%Dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties of summer squashes are two domestic types in China and semi-dwarf varieties are mainly cultivated under greenhouse conditions.To study the effect of density on canopy and source-sink relationship in summer squash,key high-yield factors of summer squash were tested in large plastic houses by using two semi-dwarf varieties (“Donghu No.4” and “Dongyu”) and two dwarf varieties (“Changqingwang No.3” and “Zaoqing”).The results showed that as planting densities increased from low to high,the changes in canopy indicators of semi-dwarf varieties were far greater than those in dwarf varieties.The trends of change in LAI (leaf area index),source capacity and sink capacity tracked quadratic-type curves.Transmittance had an inverse trend of change with LAI.The trend of change in source-sink ratio was linear and the highest yield was at optimum source-sink ratio.Lower LAI and higher light transmittance,and lower source supply,sink capacity and source-sink ratio were noted under lower density.Lower summer squash yield was associated with lower sink capacity under lower density.Light transmittance for all tested varieties was lower under medium density treatment with mean values of 12.4% for semi-dwarf and 13.2% for dwarf varieties.However,LAI was higher under medium density treatment with maximum LAI of 4.4 for semi-dwarf and 3.3 for dwarf varieties.The higher yield under medium density was associated with higher capacities of source and sink and source-sink ratio.The maximum source supply was 1169.8 g·m-2 for semi-dwarf varieties and 736.9 g·m-2 for dwarf varieties.Also the maximum sink capacity was 422.4 g·m-2 for semi-dwarf and 333.0 g·m-2 for dwarf vine.Then the almost optimal source-sink ratio was 2.62 for semi-dwarf and 1.96 for dwarf varieties.Summer squash LAI under high density treatment increased rapidly at early growth stage with lower light transmittance especially at maximum LAI.However,LAI decreased rapidly due to rapid senescence of lower position leaves at late stage,resulting in larger light transmittance.Under high density,source supply was the dominant limiting factor of yield.Semi-dwarf varieties yield was higher than dwarf yield varieties because of higher and more stable source supply.The largest source supply capacity of semi-dwarf variety was 1.6 times that of dwarf variety.It was concluded that semi-dwarf variety of summer squash was a better choice for protected fields.

  8. 西葫芦胚囊植株及其自交后代主要农艺性状的初步观察%Primary Observation on the Main Agronomic Characters of the Embryo Plants and Seifed Progeny in Summer Squash(Cucurbita pepo L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 王晓云; 王秀峰; 王丽娜; 樊治成

    2009-01-01

    以西葫芦离体雌核发育胚囊植株当代(R0)及其自交一代(R1)、自交二代(R2)的部分植株为试材,对其主要农艺性状进行初步观察.结果显示,各世代胚囊植株的第一雌花节位、雌花节率以及果实性状等有良好的整齐度,并与供体及杂交组合亲本的相关性状存在不同程度的差异,胚囊植株的育性有一定程度的分离.

  9. 西葫芦未受精胚珠离体培养条件的优化及胚囊植株的产生%Improved Conditions of in vitro Culture of Unpollinated Ovules and Production of Embryonary Sac Plants in Summer Squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 王秀峰; 樊治成

    2006-01-01

    [目的]建立西葫芦离体雌核发育高频植株再生体系,以加速自交系选育,有效缩短西葫芦杂种一代育种周期.[方法]将西葫芦未受精胚珠接种至附加2,4-D、NAA、BA的N6培养基上可形成胚状体,该胚状体转接至无激素的N6培养基上可形成再生植株.[结果]试验共获得120棵再生植株(R0),其中41株因生活力低下死亡,8株用于摸索移栽方法死亡,71株移栽成活且生长正常,其中42株性状表现符合二倍体特征且育性正常,已有1 0株获得自交果实及种子,其余29株育性异常.试验结果表明,胚珠发育时期、培养基、供体基因型及供体栽培季节等均显著影响胚状体诱导频率.[结论]胚状体起源于胚囊成员细胞,再生植株为胚囊植株.试验筛选出3种诱导频率较高的培养基;以开花前1日及当日的胚珠诱导频率较高;秋播材料诱导效果最好.

  10. 随机扩增多态性DNA技术研究发现二氧化钛纳米颗粒对西葫芦具有基因毒性%Random amplified polymorphic DNA reveals that TiO2 nanoparticles are genotoxic to Cucurbita pepo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiola MORENO-OLIVAS; Vincent U.GANT Jr; Kyle L.JOHNSON; Jose R.PERALTA-VIDEA; Jorge L.GARDEA-TORRESDEY

    2014-01-01

      重要结论:采用随机扩增多态性DNA技术,发现TiO2纳米颗粒污染处理的西葫芦样品与未处理样品的基因组DNA图谱相比,不仅在谱带强度有明显差异,而且存在谱带消失和新谱带产生现象,表明TiO2纳米颗粒对西葫芦具有基因毒性。

  11. Nutrientes e propriedades funcionais em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Nutrients and functional properties in pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos processamentos térmicos sobre os nutrientes e propriedades funcionais das sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima. As sementes foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes processamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises de composição centesimal, minerais e propriedades funcionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os processamentos para os níveis de proteína bruta, fibra alimentar, extrato etéreo, cinzas, S, P, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, solubilidade do nitrogênio (nos pH 4, 5 e 6, absorção de água e óleo, volume de espuma e estabilidade de emulsão. O cozimento em água em ebulição reduziu o teor de K. Todos os processamentos térmicos diminuíram os níveis de Mn e Fe. As sementes cruas apresentaram a maior solubilidade do nitrogênio nos pH 2, 3, 7, 8 e 9. Conclui-se que os processamentos acarretaram diferença significativa apenas nos teores de K, Mn, Fe e solubilidade do nitrogênio; e que as sementes apresentam potencial para serem incorporadas, provavelmente, em alimentos que requeiram elevada taxa de absorção de óleo.The objective of this paper was to verify the influence of the thermal processings on the nutrients and functional properties of the pumpkin seeds Cucurbita maxima. Seeds were, in four repetitions, submitted to the following processings: used in the raw form; cooked in boiling water for three times: 5, 10 and 15 minutes; and cooked in steam for 10 minutes. Thereafter were freeze-dried, grinded and stored at room temperature up to accomplishment of the analyses of centesimal composition, minerals and functional properties. There wasn't significant difference among the processings to the levels of crude protein, dietary fiber, ether

  12. Fruits and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth and fruit development are conditioned by environmental factors such as solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, affecting phenology and metabolic processes, which are reflected in its quality and  size. Besides the variety, the age of the plant species, cultural practices, the amount of CO2, plant growth regulators and nutrition also influence this process of maturation. Moreover, the photosynthetic process occurs in immature fruits same manner as in the leaves, however, when the ripening process starts it changes because chlorophyll is degraded and other pigments intervene such as carotenoids, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain antioxidants good for human health.

  13. Modelling fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses how fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning can be simulated by models where sink strength (assimilate demand) and source strength (assimilate supply) are the key variables. Although examples are derived from experiments on fruit vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepp

  14. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  15. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  16. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier.

  17. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  18. Chilling injury in mangosteen fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  20. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple an

  1. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  2. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  3. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  4. Putin's Visit Bears Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Russian President's trip to China marks progress in overall cooperation between the two countries If one word could be used to describe Russian President Vladimir Putin's recent visit to China, it would be "fruitful." During his brief two-day stay, which began March 21, Putin had a compact agenda-he met with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and China's top legis-

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  6. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  7. Effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in Pummelo cultivar Thong Dee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit retention, which were significantly higher than no thinning (36.60%, whereas, 50% fruit thinning gave 40% of fruit retention at 6 month after fruit set, which significantly higher than no thinning (20.2%. A significant difference in leaf carbohydrate concentration was found in 3-6 month after fruit set. At 3 months after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (81.80 mg.g-1 than no thinning (73.56 mg.g-1, whereas, at 6 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (128.92 mg.g-1 than no thinning (102.90 mg.g-1. Although, 50% fruit thinning gave no effect on peel and pulp dry weight including peel and pulp carbohydrates concentration during fruit development. For plant nutrient analysis, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K concentration than no thinning during 3-6 month after fruit set. However, 50% fruit thinning had no effect on fruit weight, fruit circumstance, fruit diameter, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solid (TSS. It was concluded that 50% fruit thinning increased percent of fruit retention and may have an effect on the accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, leaf N, leaf P and leaf K concentrations in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  9. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  10. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  11. Fruit protected cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huajun; Wang Saoming; Wang Jiaxi

    2003-01-01

    Protected fruit cultivation in China has developed very quickly from the early 1990s, and now it is animportant branch in fruit cultivation. A brief review including fruit species, developing history, growing area, output, anddistribution in the whole country is made in the paper. Characteristics of the dominant kinds of greenhouse,environmental control methods, and standards of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 for different fruit species arepresented. Information on varieties, growing benefits, special management practices and other aspects of the main fruitspecies used for protected cultivation are also presented.

  12. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  13. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin C, and folate. Focus on whole fruits—fresh, canned, frozen, or dried—instead of juice. The sugar naturally found in fruit does not count as ... fruits to sweeten a recipe instead of adding sugar. 3 Think about ... (in water or 100% juice) as well as fresh, so that you always have a supply on ...

  14. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.

  15. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai camargoi n. subsp., a trypanosomatid isolated from the flower of the squash Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, J E; Takata, C S; Teofilo, V M; Nascimento, L C; Faria-e-Silva, P M; Soares, M J; Teixeira, M M; De Souza, W

    2001-01-01

    We report the morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of a trypanosomatid isolated from the flower of Cucurbita moschata. Although the trypanosomatid was isolated from a plant, the lack of recognition of Phytomonas-specific molecular markers based on spliced-leader and ribosomal genes as well as by monoclonal antibodies specific for Phytomonas argues against assigning it to this genus. Because the isolate displayed typical opisthomastigote forms in culture, it is assigned to the genus Herpetomonas. Analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns and characterization of ribosomal SSU and ITS markers suggest that it is more closely related to H. samuelpessoai than to any other species. However, the presence of spined flagellates in culture (displaying lateral expansions of the plasma membrane originating near the flagellar pocket) and isolate-specific RAPD fingerprints argue strongly that the trypanosomatid belongs to a new subspecies, for which the name Herpetomonas samuelpessoai camargoi n. subsp. is proposed.

  16. 中国南瓜幼苗植物学数量性状的评价%Evaluation on Botanical Quantitative Characters of Cucurbita moschata Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 扈惠灵; 李新峥; 李海真

    2010-01-01

    以135份中国南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)农家品种资源的自交系为试验材料,调查分析了中国南瓜自交系幼苗的下胚轴粗度、下胚轴高度、子叶长度、子叶宽度和予叶形状等5个数量性状,并对这些数量性状进行了统计分析,提出了描述评价标准,为研制中国南瓜特异性一一致性-稳定性(Distinetness-Uniformity-Stability,DUS)测试标准中幼苗性状的测试内容奠定了基础.

  17. 南瓜主要病毒病的细胞病理观察%Cytopathologic observation on main viruses causing disease of pumpkin(Cucurbita moschata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方琦; 杨国慧; 丁铭; 李婷婷; 张丽珍; 彭潞波; 苏晓霞; 张仲凯

    2004-01-01

    南瓜属葫芦科南瓜属(Cucurbita moschata),一年生草本植物,是常见的蔬菜品种。由于南瓜的经济价值和药用价值高,近年来南瓜产业得到了迅速发展,随着南瓜种植面积不断扩大,随之而来的南瓜病毒病也日益加剧,致使南瓜的产量和品质受到严重影响。为了解决南瓜病毒病给生产带来的危害,在

  18. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim.

  19. Evaluation of Ten Physical Attractant Adhesives for Tapping Three Fruit Flies%10种物理诱黏剂对3种实蝇的诱集效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 马华博; 牛黎明; 张方平; 韩冬银; 符悦冠

    2016-01-01

    瓜实蝇、南瓜实蝇以及桔小实蝇是为害果蔬的重要检疫性害虫。物理诱黏剂可用于多种实蝇的监测和防治,但缺乏对3种实蝇的诱集效果评价。田间开展了10种物理诱黏剂对3种实蝇的诱集效果评价。结果表明,10种诱黏剂对桔小实蝇的诱集作用最强,其中佳果多诱集的桔小实蝇数量最多,其次为黏王和神捕。研究还发现,诱集的实蝇大多为雄虫。佳果多、黏王以及神捕可用于桔小实蝇的监测和防治。%The melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae, oriental fruit fly B. dorsalis and pumpkin fruit fly B. tau are important quarantine pests which can damage fruits and vegetables. The physical attractant adhesives can be used in monitoring and controlling many fruit flies. However, the evaluation of physical attractant adhesives for trapping the three fruit flies has not been examined yet. The effect evaluation of ten physical attractant adhesives for tapping the three fruit flies in field was made. The results showed that the ten adhesives have strong trapping effects on B. Dorsalis, ‘JiaGuoDuo’ attractes the most B. Dorsalis, ‘Nian Wang’ and ‘Shen Bu’ then followed. The results also indicated that male fruit flies were trapped by the ten physical attractant adhesives easily. Physical attractant adhesive (Jia Guo Duo, Nian Wang and Shen Bu) can be used in monitoring and controlling B. dorsalis.

  20. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (Ppineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (Pfiber with approximately 35% less sugar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, D R; Flannery, K V

    2001-02-13

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize.

  2. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here ... for Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits It is possible ...

  3. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  4. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  5. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  6. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  7. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  8. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  9. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  10. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  11. DEPRESIÓN EN VIGOR POR ENDOGAMIA Y HETEROSIS PARA EL RENDIMIENTO Y SUS COMPONENTES EN ZAPALLO Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir INBREEDING DEPRESSION AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN PUMPKIN Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivos estimar la depresión por endogamia (DE y cuatro tipos de heterosis: promedio general (HP, promedio de progenitores (HM, heterobeltiosis (HB y útil (HU, en dos dialélos [uno entre cinco variedades (V y el otro entre cinco líneas endogamicas S1 (LS1, derivadas de éstas], para el rendimiento por planta (PFP, número de frutos por planta (NFP y peso promedio de fruto (PPF. Los 30 genotipos se evaluaron en el municipio de Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se presentaron diferencias significativas (p 40 % y HU (>60 % en PFP.With the goal of estimating inbreeding depression (DE and the four types of heterosis: general average (HP, mean (HM, heterobeltiosis (HB and standard (HU, in two diallelic [one among five cross pollinated varieties (VAR and the other among five self-pollinated lines S1(LS1, derived from these], for yield/plant (PFP, number of fruits/plant (NFP and weight/fruit (PPF. The 30 genotypes were evaluated using a complete randomized design with five replicates in Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia . Significant differences (p 40 % and HU (>60 % in PFP.

  12. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia.

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  14. Glucides of Cnidium monnieri fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, J; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, Y

    2001-10-01

    From the fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), two glucides were isolated together with other known glucides. Their structures were clarified as glycerol 2-O-alpha-L-fucopyranoside and D-quinovitol (6-deoxy-D-glucitol), respectively.

  15. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  16. Contribution of fruit research in the developments in Dutch fresh fruit chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Peppelman, G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing.

  17. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  18. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  19. Identification of suitable media based on hydroponic culture for production Zucchini squash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Suvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to identify the hydroponic culture based suitable media for the production of Zucchini Squash in the Biochemistry Laboratory, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh during 2014. Zucchini plant (Cucurbita pepo L. were grown in closed soilless systems to determine the effect of four different hydroponics media on plant growth, yield and nutrient contents (fruit moisture content, ascorbic acid content on fruit, fruit protein content, protein content in leaves. Three types of substrates (coconut husk, jute, cotton along with Hoagland solution were used in this experiment. Result revealed that media using Jute fiber showed significant effect on plant growth and nutritional values than the other media (media of cotton with Hoagland solution, coconut husk with Hoagland solution and only Hoagland solution. The plant grown using jute media showed the highest plant height (60.33 cm, number of leaves (17.33, yield (1.5 kg plant-1, fruit moisture content (97.33%, Ascorbic acid content in fruit (28.73 mg 100g-1, protein percentage in fruit (1.406% and percentage (1.326% in leaves than the other media. Therefore, with the controlled nutrient supply, less expense, less labor, no use of pesticides or fertilizer with controlled environment the use of jute fiber as a substrate with Hoagland solution can be an effective one.

  20. Performance of Apis mellifera, Bombus impatiens, and Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Nault, Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Pollination services of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L., provided by the European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., were compared with two native bee species, the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson), and Peponapis pruinosa Say, in New York from 2008 to 2010. Performance of each species was determined by comparing single-visit pollen deposition, percentage of visits that contacted the stigma, flower-handling time, fruit and seed set, and fruit weight per number of visits. Fruit yield from small fields (0.6 ha) supplemented with commercial B. impatiens colonies was compared with yield from those not supplemented. A. mellifera spent nearly 2 and 3 times longer foraging on each pistillate flower compared with B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. A. mellifera also visited pistillate flowers 10-20 times more frequently than B. impatiens and P. pruinosa, respectively. Yet, B. impatiens deposited 3 times more pollen grains per stigma and contacted stigmas significantly more often than either A. mellifera or P. pruinosa. Fruit set and weight from flowers visited four to eight times by B. impatiens were similar to those from open-pollinated flowers, whereas flowers pollinated by A. mellifera and P. pruinosa produced fewer fruit and smaller fruit compared with those from open-pollinated flowers. Fields supplemented with B. impatiens produced significantly more pumpkins per plant than nonsupplemented fields. B. impatiens was a better pollinator of pumpkin than P. pruinosa and should be considered as a promising alternative to A. mellifera for pollinating this crop.

  1. Seleção recorrente para produtividade e qualidade de frutos em abobrinha braquítica Recurrent selection for fruit yield and quality in braquitic squash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se que abobrinha (Cucurbita moschata geralmente não apresenta perda de vigor pela endogamia, a seleção recorrente pode ser um método adequado para o melhoramento desta espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente em abobrinha, cultivar Piramoita, visando aumento de produtividade e melhoria da qualidade de frutos. Foram realizados três ciclos de seleção recorrente a partir da cultivar Piramoita (população P0, com avaliação e seleção de progênies S1. Em todos os ciclos de seleção, os experimentos foram conduzidos em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas de cinco plantas, tendo a cultivar Piramoita como testemunha. O espaçamento foi de 2,0 x 1,0 m. Após cada ciclo de seleção, as sementes remanescentes das progênies selecionadas foram empregadas no ciclo seguinte de recombinação, cada progênie contribuindo em média com dez plantas tomadas ao acaso. As quatro populações (P0, PI, PII e PIII foram avaliadas em blocos ao acaso, com oito repetições de cinco plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados número e massa total e comercial (retos, com pescoço comprido e sem defeitos aparentes de frutos imaturos por planta e a proporção de frutos comerciais. Foram realizadas as análises de variância e regressão. Foram observados aumentos de produção lineares significativos ao longo dos ciclos de seleção. Na população PIII, os números de frutos total (17 e comercial (11 por planta, assim como a massa total (3,7 e comercial (2,6 kg planta-1, superaram a população inicial em 32, 63, 24 e 57%, respectivamente. Essas diferenças correspondem a um aumento superior a 11 t ha-1 ou mais de 36.000 frutos ha-1 em apenas três ciclos de seleção recorrente.Since squash (Cucurbita moschata usually does not have inbreeding depression, recurrent selection may be an adequate method for squash breeding. In this study the recurrent selection efficiency was evaluated in squash, cultivar Piramoita

  2. Efeito do tratamento térmico em sementes de abóboras (Cucurbita spp.) sobre os níveis de fatores antinutricionais e/ou tóxicos Effect of the thermal processing on pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp.) on the levels of antinutritionales factors and/or toxics

    OpenAIRE

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu; Custódio Donizete dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Os teores de alguns antinutrientes de sementes cruas, cozidas e tostadas de três espécies de abóboras, Cucurbita maxima (CMA), C. moschata (CMO) e o híbrido F1 (CMA X CMO), foram investigados, a fim de assegurar o seu uso em preparações dietéticas, produtos industrializados e formulações de novos produtos. Não foram detectados em nenhuma das espécies estudadas teores de ácido oxálico e nitrato. A espécie C. maxima apresentou os níveis mais baixos de cianeto e de polifenóis e maior digestibili...

  3. Frutificação e crescimento de frutos em abóbora híbrida 'Tetsukabuto' tratada com alfa-naftalenoacetato de sódio Fruit set and fruit growth of 'Tetsukabuto' squash treated with the sodium salt of alfa-naphthaleneacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro V.T. do Amarante

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available A abertura de flores femininas na abóbora híbrida 'Tetsukabuto' concentra-se num período de três a quatro semanas. Este curto período de florescimento indica que uma polinização deficiente pode ocasionar grande comprometimento da produção de frutos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações do fitorregulador alfa-naftalenoacetato de sódio (ANA-Na, pulverizado em flores abertas femininas, na frutificação e crescimento de frutos da abóbora 'Tetsukabuto'. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, na safra 1992/1993, seguindo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de cinco covas de 'Tetsukabuto' e uma da polinizadora Cucurbita maxima, em espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, com duas plantas/cova. Os tratamentos utilizados foram testemunha (polinização natural e 150, 300, 450, 600 e 750 mg·L-1 de ANA-Na. Nos tratamentos com ANA-Na, evitou-se a polinização natural isolando-se as flores com sacos de papel. Avaliou-se percentagem de frutificação, peso, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e peso, espessura, rendimento e sólidos totais da polpa. Apenas a dose de 750 mg·L-1 do hormônio reduziu a percentagem de frutificação. Os frutos obtidos por tratamento com ANA-Na apresentaram crescimento similar ao dos frutos obtidos por polinização.Anthesis of female flowers of 'Tetsukabuto' squash occurs within three to four weeks. A deficient pollination during this short flowering period may reduce the yield. The sodium salt of alfa-naphthaleneacetic acid (Na-NAA can be used to improve fruit set when pollination is deficient. This work was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Na-NAA, sprayed in open female flowers on fruit set and fruit growth of 'Tetsukabuto' squash. The experiment was carried out in 1992-93, in South Brazil, in a randomized block design with three replicates. The plots had a proportion of five plants of

  4. Efeito do tratamento térmico em sementes de abóboras (Cucurbita spp. sobre os níveis de fatores antinutricionais e/ou tóxicos Effect of the thermal processing on pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp. on the levels of antinutritionales factors and/or toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de alguns antinutrientes de sementes cruas, cozidas e tostadas de três espécies de abóboras, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO e o híbrido F1 (CMA X CMO, foram investigados, a fim de assegurar o seu uso em preparações dietéticas, produtos industrializados e formulações de novos produtos. Não foram detectados em nenhuma das espécies estudadas teores de ácido oxálico e nitrato. A espécie C. maxima apresentou os níveis mais baixos de cianeto e de polifenóis e maior digestibilidade protéica in vitro. O cozimento acarretou redução nos níveis de cianeto, inibidor de tripsina, da atividade de hemaglutinina e de polifenóis e aumento da digestibilidade protéica in vitro. Dos tratamentos térmicos utilizados, o cozimento foi o mais eficiente na redução desses constituintes.The contents of some antinutrients of raw, boiled and toasted seeds of three pumpkin species, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO and the F1 hybrid (CMA x CMO, were investigated in order to assure the use in dietary preparations industrialized products and formulations of new products. Levels of oxalic acid and nitrate were not detected in any of the species studied. CMA presented the lowest levels of cyanide, polyphenols and highest in vitro protein digestibility. Cooking brought about reduction in the levels of cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity and polyphenols and increased of in vitro protein digestibility. Of the thermal processing employed, cooking was the most efficient in reducing of that constituints.

  5. Role of Zucchini and Its Distinctive Components in the Modulation of Degenerative Processes: Genotoxicity, Anti-Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Merinas-Amo, Tania; Gómez, Pedro; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2017-07-14

    Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits ("Yellow" and "Light Green" varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid) were selected. Firstly, the lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid contents were determined in these fruits. Then, in order to evaluate the safety and suitability of their use, different assays were carried out: (i) genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity; and (iii) DNA fragmentation and Annexin V/PI (Propidium Iodide) assays to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic; (ii) all the substances were anti-genotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein; (iii) "Yellow" zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively); and (iv) "Light Green" zucchini skin induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, β-carotene being the possible molecule responsible for its pro-apoptotic activity. To sum up, zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H₂O₂-induced damage and exhibit anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities toward HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) tumor cells. The information generated from this research should be considered when selecting potential accessions for breeding program purposes.

  6. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-01

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  7. Establishment of Cucurbita moschata Genetic Transformation System by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Transfection%农杆菌介导南瓜遗传转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付洪冰; 崔崇士; 赵曦; 刘琦

    2010-01-01

    以南瓜金辉一号(Cucurbita moschata 'Jinhui 1')为实验材料,利用根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导转化南瓜子叶节,研究了预培养时间、侵染时间、乙酰丁香酮(AS)浓度和共培养时间,抗生素羧苄青霉素(Carb)、头孢霉素(Cef)以及筛选剂卡那霉素(Kan)等因素对离体不定芽的影响,建立了南瓜最适遗传转化体系.结果表明:外植体预培养0天,侵染时间30分钟,AS浓度为100 mg·L-1,共培养5天可获得最高遗传转化效率;最适除菌剂为Cef,其最适浓度为500mg·L-1;最适Kan筛选浓度为100 mg·L-1:在MS培养基上培养抗性芽生根,经PCR和Southern blot检测,证明为转基因植株.

  8. Ribosome-inactivating proteins in edible plants and purification and characterization of a new ribosome-inactivating protein from Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Luigi; Polito, Letizia; Bolognesi, Andrea; Ciani, Marialibera; Pelosi, Emanuele; Farini, Valentina; Jha, Ajay K; Sharma, Neelam; Vivanco, Jorge M; Chambery, Angela; Parente, Augusto; Stirpe, Fiorenzo

    2006-05-01

    The basic protein fraction of tissue extracts from 40 edible plants inhibited cell-free protein synthesis and released adenine from herring sperm DNA, thus having adenine glycosylase activity. This suggested the presence of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) in the plant extracts. This indication was further strengthened by the presence of the two activities after a partial chromatographic purification of three extracts, including that from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), which had very low activity. From the extract of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin), the most active one, a glycoprotein of 30,665 Da was purified which had the properties of a RIP, in that (i) it inhibited protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with IC50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) 0.035 nM (1.08 ng ml(-1)) and by HeLa, HT29 and JM cells with IC50 in the 100 nM range, (ii) deadenylated hsDNA and other polynucleotidic substrates, and (iii) depurinated yeast rRNA at a concentration of 0.1 ng ml(-1), all values being comparable to those of other RIPs. The C. moschata RIP gave a weak cross-reaction only with an antiserum against dianthin 32, but not with antisera against other RIPs, and had superoxide dismutase, antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  9. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  10. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation.

  12. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling.

  13. Natural abundance 15N NMR assignments delineate structural differences between intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Nemmers, S; Tobias, B

    1992-06-15

    15N NMR assignments were made to the backbone amide nitrogen atoms at natural isotopic abundance of intact and reactive-site (Arg5-Ile6) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III and CMTI-III*, respectively) by means of 2D proton-detected heteronuclear single bond chemical shift correlation (HSBC) spectroscopy, utilizing the previously made sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments (Krishnamoorthi et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904). Comparison of the 15N chemical shifts of the two forms of the inhibitor molecule revealed significant changes not only for residues located near the reactive-site region, but also for those distantly located. Residues Cys3, Arg5, Leu7, Met8, Cys10, Cys16, Glu19, His25, Tyr27, Cys28 and Gly29 showed significant chemical shift changes ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 ppm, thus indicating structural perturbations that were transmitted throughout the molecule. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions based on 1H NMR investigations.

  14. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  15. 南瓜矮生基因Bu的比较定位%Comparative Mapping of the Dwarf Gene Bu from Tropical Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王深浩; 李海真; 张忠华; 贺俊; 贾长才; 张帆; 黄三文

    2011-01-01

    A segregating BC6F2 population was developed using a dwarf mutant of Cucurbita moschata Duch. as donor and the vine C. maxima Duch. ‘Mengri’ as recurrent parent. Using the segregating population, the gene Bu was comparatively mapped on chromosome 5 of cucumber. An intron-flanking marker IF3629 was found to be tightly linked to the Bu gene, with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM. The marker IF3629 will not only be useful in markers-assisted selection for dwarf plant, but also provide a starting point toward positional isolation of the dwarf Bu gene in squash.%以中国南瓜矮生突变体为供体亲本,以印度蔓生南瓜为轮回亲本,构建了BC6F2分离群体.利用黄瓜基因组序列,将南瓜矮生基因Bu比较定位至黄瓜5号染色体,并开发了一个新的PCR标记IF3629,该标记与矮生基因Bu连锁遗传距离为1.0 cM.该标记不仅可以用于分子标记辅助选择育种,而且为Bu基因的克隆奠定了基础.

  16. Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-03-08

    The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  18. Attraction of Bactrocera cucurbitae and B.dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae) to beer waste and other protein sources laced with ammonium acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that adult tephritid fruit fly females require protein sources for adequate egg production and that ammonia and its derivatives serve as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food. The attractiveness of beer waste and the commercially available baits Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit...

  19. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  20. Recent advances in fruit crop genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang XU,Chaoyang LIU,Manosh Kumar BISWAS,Zhiyong PAN,Xiuxin DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in the genomics of fruit crops. The publication of a dozen fruit crop genomes represents a milestone for both functional genomics and breeding programs in fruit crops. Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have revolutionized the manner and scale of genomics in fruit crops. Research on fruit crops is encompassing a wide range of biological questions which are unique and cannot be addressed in a model plant such as Arabidopsis. This review summarizes recent achievements of research on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, miRNAs and epigenome of fruit crops.

  1. Molecular Regulation of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.

  2. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  3. Effects of temperature and light on take-off activity of Bactrocera cucurbitae%温度、光照强度对瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志富; 曹凤勤; 程立生; 符悦冠; 万方浩; 张桂芬

    2016-01-01

    [Background] Bactrocera cucurbitae is the important pest of Amphisarca in Sourthern China. The objective of this study was to examine the fly movement of B. cucurbitae to between control this fly. [Method] Based on the known biological characteris-tics, artificial climate chamber and some other equipment were used to study the effects of temperature and light changes on fly be-havior activity of B. cucurbitae. [Result] The results showed that the fly activities increased with temperature starting at 15℃ with an optimum temperature between 20 and 30 ℃. Flying activities were obviously the greatest at temperatures above 35 ℃ and the least when temperatures dropped under 10℃. The activity percent of B. cucurbitae is more than 50% at 25~40℃, but it is 0% at 10、15 and 45 ℃ respectively. Light intensity also affected fly behavior with fly activities increasing over 2400 lx and reaching a peak at 9600 lx. Extreme light intensity (12000 lx) inhibited flight behavior. The number of take-off activity of B. cucurbitae increased with the increase of light intensity.[Conclusion and significance] Extremes in temperature and light intensity may limit flight activity of B. cucurbitae. Moderate high temperature can encourage fly behavior.%【背景】瓜实蝇是我国南方瓜果的主要害虫。本试验分析了影响瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为及活跃度的原因,以便能更有效地控制瓜实蝇危害。【方法】在已知瓜实蝇的生物学特性及部分活动规律的基础上利用智能人工气候箱等设施,分别测定温度、光照对瓜实蝇的飞行行为的影响。【结果】瓜实蝇成虫在15℃下开始飞行,飞行活动的群体数量随着温度的升高而增加,最适飞行活动温度范围为20~30℃,低温10℃明显对其飞行行为有抑制作用,高温(35℃以上)明显对其有刺激作用,促进其飞行行为的发生。瓜实蝇成虫的活跃度在25~40℃下较高,均大于50%,在10、15和45℃下则为0

  4. Relations between zero-inflated variables in trials with horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lúcio, A.D.; Nunes, L.F.; Rego, F.; Pasini, M.P.B.

    2016-11-01

    Certain characteristics of some vegetable crops allow multiple harvests during the production cycle; however, to our knowledge, no study has described the behavior of fruit production with progression of the production cycle in vegetable crops with multiple harvests that present data overdispersion. We aimed to characterize the data overdispersion of zero-inflated variables and identify the behavior of these variables during the production cycle of several vegetable crops with multiple harvests. Data from 11 uniformity trials were used without applying treatments; these comprise the database from the Experimental Plants Group at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The trials were conducted using four horticultural species grown during different cultivation seasons, cultivation environments, and experimental structures. Although at each harvest, a larger number of basic units with harvest fruit was observed than units without harvest fruit, the basic unit percentage without fruit was high, generating an overdispersion within each individual harvest. The variability within each harvest was high and increased with the evolution of the production cycle of Capsicum annuum, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cucurbita pepo species. However, the correlation coefficient between the mean weight and number of harvest fruits tended to remain constant during the crop production cycle. These behaviors show that harvest management should be done individually, at each harvest, such that data overdispersion is reduced. (Author)

  5. Relations between zero-inflated variables in trials with horticultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D. Lúcio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain characteristics of some vegetable crops allow multiple harvests during the production cycle; however, to our knowledge, no study has described the behavior of fruit production with progression of the production cycle in vegetable crops with multiple harvests that present data overdispersion. We aimed to characterize the data overdispersion of zero-inflated variables and identify the behavior of these variables during the production cycle of several vegetable crops with multiple harvests. Data from 11 uniformity trials were used without applying treatments; these comprise the database from the Experimental Plants Group at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The trials were conducted using four horticultural species grown during different cultivation seasons, cultivation environments, and experimental structures. Although at each harvest, a larger number of basic units with harvest fruit was observed than units without harvest fruit, the basic unit percentage without fruit was high, generating an overdispersion within each individual harvest. The variability within each harvest was high and increased with the evolution of the production cycle of Capsicum annuum, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cucurbita pepo species. However, the correlation coefficient between the mean weight and number of harvest fruits tended to remain constant during the crop production cycle. These behaviors show that harvest management should be done individually, at each harvest, such that data overdispersion is reduced.

  6. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  7. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Peace, Cameron P; Gradziel, Thomas M; Parfitt, Dan E; Bliss, Fredrick A; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2009-01-01

    ... to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance...

  8. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selladurai Pirasath; Kulasingam Thayananthan; Sandrasekarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

    2012-01-01

    .... This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI) values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain), ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain), and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain) varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya...

  9. The Whole Truth about Whole Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HealthDay News) -- Fresh fruits are loaded with fiber, antioxidants and other great nutrients. And studies show that ... t forget to eat a fruit's peel or skin when edible -- it's a powerhouse of nutrients. None ...

  10. Gezond fruit ook goed voor economie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Als mensen meer fruit gaan eten, gaat naast hun gezondheid ook de sector erop vooruit. Dus moet er meer aanbod komen van gezond, duurzaam, kwalitatief hoogstaand en betaalbaar fruit in Europa. Dat kan onder meer door betere rassen te veredelen.

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Li; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Dong-Ping Xu; Tong Zhou; Yue. Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we rev...

  12. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  13. The Evaluation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP)-IV, α-Glucosidase and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activities of Whey Proteins Hydrolyzed with Serine Protease Isolated from Asian Pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Babij; Anna, Dąbrowska; Marek, Szołtysik; Marta, Pokora; Aleksandra, Zambrowicz; Józefa, Chrzanowska

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) and β-lactoglobulin were hydrolyzed with a noncommercial serine protease isolated from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia). Hydrolysates were further fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut-offs equal 3 and 10 kDa. Peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 and 3–10 kDa were further subjected to the RP-HPLC. Separated preparations were investigated for their potential as the natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepti...

  14. Residuen op groenten en fruit ter discussie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering

  15. Residuen op groenten en fruit ter discussie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering

  16. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  17. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  18. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  19. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anastasiadou, D.T.; Anschutz, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of

  20. 瓜实蝇DNA甲基化的MSAP体系建立与优化%Establishment and optimization of MSAP Analysis System for DNA Methylation in Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚治; 周世豪; 马华博; 张亚楠; 符悦冠

    2016-01-01

    The melon fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is one of the most important vegetables insect pest in China. However, the DNA methylation in melon fly has not been reported yet. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) is an important research tecnnique to analysis the DNA methylation. The MSAP can be established through the enzyme digestion reaction, ligation, PCR amplification system, and primer screening, such as 10 U restriction endonuclease is put in the 20 μL enzyme digestion system, and then react with 600 ng of genome DNA at 37℃ overnight; 1U of T4 ligase is put in the 20 μL ligation system, 50 pmol of HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter and 5 pmol of EcoR I-adapter which react at 16℃ for 12 hours. Diluent ligation products were used in PCR to pre-amplification and selected amplification, the result is tested by silver staining and 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Six pairs of primers which suited for DNA methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism were selected out by this system. The MSAP system provides the technical support for the study of the epigenetics research of melon fly.%瓜实蝇[Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)]是中国重要的蔬菜害虫,但其DNA甲基化研究尚未见报道。甲基化敏感扩增多态性是研究DNA甲基化的重要技术之一。通过对酶切反应、连接、 PCR扩增和引物筛选等条件优化,建立瓜实蝇MSAP反应体系,即:①20μL酶切体系中加入10 U的限制性内切酶与600 ng基因组DNA,于37℃酶切反应过夜;②20μL连接体系中加入T4连接酶1 U, HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter接头50 pmol, EcoR I-adapter接头5 pmol,并于16℃反应12 h;③连接产物稀释后进行PCR预扩增和选择性扩增,再经6%变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和银染检测结果。通过该体系筛选出适用于瓜实蝇基因组DNA甲基化多态性研究的6对引物;瓜实蝇MSAP体系为瓜实蝇的表观遗传学研究提供了技术支持。

  1. Assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit to optimize crop load of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To optimize crop load of mangosteen, fruit density and leaf number: fruit were assessed using a framework of quadrat cube (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in 2 consecutive years (2004-2005. Twenty-four 14-year-old uniform trees, field grown at Songkhla province, were selected to arrange 4 levels of crop loads: 1 Extremely low crop load (T1 = 264±5 fruit pt-1, 2 Low crop load (T2 = 826±36 fruit pt-1, 3 Medium crop load (T3 = 1190±27 fruit pt-1 and 4 High crop load (T4 = 1719±36 fruit pt-1. By placing the quadrat cube on the tree canopy, leaves quadrat-1 and fruits quadrat-1 were counted. Relationship between fruits quadrat-1 and fruit number pt-1 was found, and leaf number: fruit was also related to fruit yield pt-1. These results indicate that the assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit is of benefit for crop load management. Thus, 9 fruits quadrat-1 and 18 leaves: fruit are recommended to optimize crop load of mangosteen.

  2. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  3. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation...... characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.......Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  4. EFECTOS HETERÓTICOS Y HABILIDAD COMBINATORIA PARA EL RENDIMIENTO POR PLANTA EN Cucurbita moschata DUCH. Ex Poir HETEROTIC EFFECTS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD PER PLANT IN Cucurbita moschata DUCH. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivos estimar los efectos heteróticos y de habilidad combinatoria (HCG y específica (HCE, para el rendimiento/planta (RFP, en dos dialelos [uno entre cinco variedades (VAR y el otro entre cinco líneas endogámicas S1 (LS1, derivadas de éstas], mediante las metodologías propuestas por Gardner y Eberhart (GyE: 1966: Análisis II y Hallauer y Miranda (HyM:1981. Los genotipos se evaluaron en Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones. Las diferencias entre genotipos en el dialelo de LS1 por GyE, fueron explicadas por los efectos de variedades (v j: p jj’: p : p The purpose of this study was to estimate the heterotic effects, general combining ability (GCA, and specific (SCA for fruit yield per plant (RFP in two diallelic [one among five cross pollinated varieties (VAR and the other among five self-pollinated lines S1 (LS1, derived from these], according to the methodologies designed by Gardner y Eberhart (GyE: 1966: Analysis II and Hallauer and Miranda (HyM: 1981 using a complete randomized design with five replicates in Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The differences between genotypes observed in the diallelic of LS1 by GyE, were explained by the effects of varieties (v j: p (h jj’: p : p < 0,01 and specific heterosis (Sjj’: p < 0,05 explained the differences for h jj in the diallelic of LS1. According to the methodology of HyM, the additive (GCA: p < 0,01 and non additive genic action (SCA: p < 0,05 controlled the expression of RFP in the diallele of LS1 with greater importance of the GCA. In the diallele of VAR, only the GCA (p < 0,01 explained such control. The genotypes Bolo Verde (RFP = 17,8 kg/plant; v j = 3,34**; g i = 1,73* and Soler (PFP = 17 kg/plant; v j = 2,89*; g i = 175* are the recommended genotypes to exploit the additives effects and the hybrid LA34 x LSO (RFP = 26 kg/plant; Sjj’= 3,55** to exploit the additive and non

  5. Characterization of acid-extracted pectin-enriched products obtained from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) and butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Eliana N; Ponce, Nora M A; de Escalada Pla, Marina; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2010-03-24

    Chemical and rheological characteristics of fractions enriched in soluble dietary fiber are reported. These fractions were obtained through acid hydrolysis of butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret) and red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) cell wall enriched powders. Hydrolysis was performed using citric acid at different pH values and reaction times (2 and 3 h). Yields obtained for butternut fractions were between 21 and 28 g/100 g; for red beet, yields were 24 and 31 g/100 g for pH 1.5 and 11 and 17 g/100 g for pH 2.0 for previously mentioned times; in general, the increase of the yield was directly correlated with the decrease of pH and the increase of reaction time. Products enriched in low methoxyl pectins were obtained in all cases. At the lowest pH assayed, pectins were essentially constituted by homogalacturonan; a significant content of neutral sugars was determined at the higher extraction pH. Neutral sugars were constituted mainly by arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucose in different proportions for each fraction; in general, butternut fractions showed high glucose contents. Flow behavior for 2.00% (w/v) aqueous systems of the different products was evaluated. Data obtained for fractions isolated at pH 1.5 fit to Herschel-Bulkley and Cross models while those isolated at pH 2.0 fit to Ostwald and Cross models. All samples showed low viscosity and, hence, poor thickening properties.

  6. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

  7. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  8. Direct and individual analysis of stress-related phytohormone dispersion in the vascular system of Cucurbita maxima after flagellin 22 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-03-01

    • The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. • Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. • We show direct evidence for all three jasmonates, ABA, and SA in both phloem and xylem exudates of C. maxima. JA and JA-Ile concentrations are higher in xylem (JA: c(xylem) ≈ 199.5 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 43.9 nM; JA-Ile: c(xylem) ≈ 7.9 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1.6 nM), whereas ABA and SA concentrations are higher in phloem exudates (ABA: c(xylem) ≈ 37.1 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 142.6 nM; SA: c(xylem) ≈ 61.6 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1319 nM). During bacteria-derived flagellin 22 (flg22)-triggered remote root-to-shoot signalling, phytohormone concentration changed rapidly both in phloem and xylem. • The unequal distribution of phytohormones suggests that phloem and xylem have distinct roles in defence responses. Our data shed light on systemic phytohormone signalling and help explain how plants cope with environmental challenges by lateral exchange between phloem and xylem. Our analysis is a starting point for further investigations of how phytohormones contribute to phloem- and xylem-based defence signalling. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  10. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  11. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  12. On Modern Fruit Production in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanhua; ZHAO; Yilong; PIAO

    2015-01-01

    Japan’s fruit tree production technology is in the world leading level. In order to understand Japan’s fruit tree production,by through visits to Japan and data collection,this paper analyzes the changes in Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area,regional distribution of fruit tree cultivation,main cultivars and market circulation in recent years. The results show that Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area underwent great volatility in the 1980 s and 1990 s and it has been stabilized in recent years; the cultivation area of principal fruit tree is reduced,while the cultivation area of new fruit trees and characteristic fruit tree varieties is increased; the regionalization of fruit tree is obvious and the main cultivars are clear. Japan’s principal fruit price goes through slight fluctuations during the year while the price of cherries and peaches goes through great fluctuations. It is concluded that Japan’s fruit tree industry is stably developed.

  13. Responses of melon fly to different host fruits and different colors%瓜实蝇对不同寄主果实和不同颜色的趋向性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞萍; 马锞; 罗诗

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, respond of male and female adults melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in immature and mature stages to different host fruits and different colors were conducted respectively by laboratory olfactometer. The results demonstrated that both immature and mature male and female adult flies were more attracted by bitter guard than the other fruits. Yellow was the best in terms of both immature and mature male and female adult flies when comparing the color preference of melon flies among red, yellow, blue, purple, green, black, white color.%研究瓜实蝇对不同寄主果实和不同颜色的趋向性,结果表明瓜实蝇性成熟和性未成熟的雌、雄虫对苦瓜的趋向性最强,其次是黄瓜,对南瓜、丝瓜、番茄的趋向性较弱。瓜实蝇对黄色的趋向性最强,其次是绿色,对黑色的趋向性最差。

  14. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  15. Dicty_cDB: VFL323 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AB036420 |pid:none) Citrullus lanatus mRNA for DIP-1, ... 355 2e-96 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whitef...ly... 342 2e-92 AF360346_1( AF360346 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana putative N-ac.

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFL869 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AL021889 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosom... 201 1e-50 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whitef...ly... 195 8e-49 FJ899850_1( FJ899850 |pid:none) Populus

  17. Dicty_cDB: VFJ118 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tefly... 242 7e-63 FJ899850_1( FJ899850 |pid:none) Populus maximowiczii x Populus n...bidopsis thaliana DNA chromosom... 247 3e-64 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whi

  18. Dicty_cDB: VFE778 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 172 1e-41 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whit...efly... 172 2e-41 CP000582_97( CP000582 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08330-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51455 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo patellin 1 (PATL1) ... 71 7e-11 BC162038_1( BC162038 |pid:none) Rattus norve...clone 280990 hypothetical... 65 4e-09 EU962184_1( EU962184 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 240809 patellin-5 m...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12006-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Aspergillus niger contig An06c009... 63 2e-08 DQ251455_1( DQ251455 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo patel...uyveromyces thermotolerans str... 60 2e-07 EU962184_1( EU962184 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 240809 patellin-5

  1. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  2. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...... intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...

  3. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  4. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  5. Potassium fertilizer applied by different methods in the zucchini crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N. V. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aiming to evaluate the effect of potassium (K doses applied by the conventional method and fertigation in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., a field experiment was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. The statistical design was a randomized block, with four replicates, in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, which corresponded to four doses of K (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg K2O ha-1 and two fertilization methods (conventional and fertigation. The analyzed variables were: fruit mass (FM, number of fruits (NF, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD, pulp thickness (PT, soluble solids (SS, yield (Y, water use efficiency (WUE and potassium use efficiency (KUE, besides an economic analysis using the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and payback period (PP. K doses influenced FM, FD, PT and Y, which increased linearly, with the highest value estimated at 36,828 kg ha-1 for the highest K dose (300 kg K2O ha-1. This dose was also responsible for the largest WUE, 92 kg ha-1 mm-1. KUE showed quadratic behavior and the dose of 174 kg K2O ha-1 led to its maximum value (87.41 kg ha-1 (kg K2O ha-1-1. All treatments were economically viable, and the most profitable months were May, April, December and November.

  6. EST-SSR Markers Development from Cucurbita and Their Use in Purity Testing of F1 Hybrid Seed%南瓜属EST-SSR标记的开发及在杂种纯度鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国裕; 张帆; 姜立纲; 翟伟卜; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags(ESTs) are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The object of the present study is to develop EST-SSR markers from Cucurbita and uses these markers in quickly purity testing of F1 hybrid seed. The availability of 1457 ESTs for cucurbita,which documented in GenBank, provided a unique opportunity to develop EST-SSR markers, and 215 SSRs were identified among these non-redundant EST sequences. These SSRs contained 2 - 6 bp nucleotide motifs including 111 different motif types. The trinucleotide repeat is the dominant type,accounting for 40% with 86 motifs, and the frequency of occurrence of dinucleotide repeat is 28. 84% with 62 motifs. Among these motifs,CT motif (21 ,9. 77% ) was the most common type,and then were TC and AAG motifs,accounting for 6. 05% and 5. 58% , respectively. A total of 215 primer pairs were designed and 43 of them were synthesized and used to determine their usability by amplification in 4 Cucurbita inbred lines. The results show that 28 of them could successfully amplify, accounting for 65. 12% of testing primer pairs. Then these primer pairs were used to test the F, hybrid seed purity in Cucurbita. Seed genetic purity from 13 combinations ranged from 79. 2% to 100. 0% .which were in high accordance with those from field grow-out trials. Taken together, this study reported an effective and feasible approach to develop SSR markers for cucurbita,and demonstrated their usefulness in purity testing of hybrid squash seed.%为利用SSR标记进行快速、准确的南瓜杂交种纯度分析,进行了南瓜EST-SSR标记的开发.从NCBI数据库下载1 457条南瓜属作物EST序列,去除冗余序列后进行SSR位点搜索,共得到215条含有SSR位点的EST序列.这些SSR位点包含111种重复基元,其中二核苷酸(62个,占28.84%)和三核苷酸(86个,占40.0%)重复类型占主导地位;重复基元中出现最多的是CT(21个,占9.77

  7. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas

    2006-01-01

    To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.

  8. Why fruits go to the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  9. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    Full Text Available Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags, methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C. A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  10. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  12. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  13. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  14. Combined production of broilers and fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhard Pedersen, H.; Olsen, A.; Pedersen, B; Korsgaard, M.; Horsted, K

    2004-01-01

    Combined production of broilers and fruit trees is a subject often discussed in organic fruit production in Denmark. Very little research has been carried out on this type of production system. In organic production in Denmark, nearly no pesticides are allowed, so the need for alternative pest control is large. Apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) and pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora) cause big crop losses in apples and pears respectively, in unsprayed organic fruit production. ...

  15. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  16. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  17. PRODUCTIVITY, FRUIT PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY AND DISTINCTIVENESS OF PASSION FRUIT POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATAN RAMOS CAVALCANTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The productivity and physicochemical quality evaluation is important, as it identifies superior populations. However, launching products requires following the descriptors according to DHE test instructions. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate three passion fruit populations with high productivity and physicochemical quality characteristics for commercial launch. The experiment was conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso experimental area, located in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, MT. The experimental design was complete randomized block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The physicochemical characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test. For the distinctiveness test, 25 descriptors were evaluated, where quantitative data have been converted into multicategoric data to obtain the dissimilarity matrix. From the dissimilarity matrix, groups were formed using the Tocher and UPGMA methods, Livestock and Supply Department. The highest productivity and number of fruits were verified for BRS Rubi Cerrado cultivar and UNEMAT S10 population. Populations and cultivars presented physicochemical characteristics that meet the required quality for both fresh consumption and industry use. Based on the distinction test among genotype, it was observed that the descriptors were effective for population differentiation. UNEMAT S10 population has characteristics that distinguish it from other cultivars and populations evaluated, and presents high agronomic performance; therefore, it can be launched as a commercial cultivar.

  18. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  19. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  20. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity, Extension Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The emphasis of this performance evaluation is primarily on the economic and financial assessment of one specific activity of the Fruit Tree Productivity Project,...

  1. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  2. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  3. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  4. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  5. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Monoterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.

  7. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  8. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  9. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total solub

  10. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  11. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  12. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  13. Description and management of fruit characters of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata D.)germplasm resources%南瓜资源果实性状描述和管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 李新峥; 李桂荣; 陈志恒

    2006-01-01

    通过对具有不同果实性状特征的637个南瓜果实进行系统的观察比较,详细描述了18个非数值性状的分类特征,并以此为基础建立了种质资源的计算机管理方案,为南瓜种质资源的筛选和育种提供了一定依据,也为南瓜种质资源的管理提供了有效手段.

  14. 采后南瓜果实中几种营养成分的变化%Changes in Several Nutrient Components in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) Fruit After Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新峥; 范文秀; 刘振威; 沈军

    2005-01-01

    "蜜本"南瓜采后0~150 d期间,其果实中多糖和抗坏血酸含量下降,β-胡萝卜素含量增加;总糖、还原糖和蛋白质含量增加,后期下降;氨基酸含量下降,后期增加.

  15. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  16. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  17. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  18. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  19. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  20. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  1. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads, fruit soft drinks and ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of fruits and vegetables to the local market and 0.13 million tonnes to export market.

  2. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  3. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agents. (4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural... agents except those derived from animal fats. (8) Mint flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case..., and artificial red coloring in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit...

  4. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  5. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  6. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  7. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P. Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  8. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  9. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  10. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  11. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P; Chung, Hea J; Kim, Hyeon J; Hong, Seong T

    2016-10-14

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  12. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  13. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reduce the density to 22 degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration is found to be... degrees Brix. After addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may be ameliorated with... Brix. (26 U.S.C. 5387)...

  14. Efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos The pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Machado de Cerqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados, distribuídos em quatro grupos, receberam por 10 dias, rações controle e experimental com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral, peneirada ou residual substituindo 30% do valor total de amido e dextrina da dieta controle. As dietas foram isocalóricas. Foram determinados os macronutrientes e a fibra insolúvel nas farinhas. As dietas tiveram a composição química calculada a partir dos dados dos rótulos dos produtos, da tabela de composição de alimentos e da análise química das farinhas de semente de abóbora. O peso corporal e a ingestão dos animais foram tomados a cada 48 horas. O sangue, coletado por punção cardíaca, teve os níveis de triacilgliceróis, colesterol e glicose analisados por métodos enzimáticos. RESULTADOS: As farinhas de semente de abóbora foram boas fontes de proteínas, lipídeos e, especialmente, fibras alimentares. Os animais tiveram ganho ponderal e ingestão semelhante (p>0,05. Os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis foram reduzidos significantemente para os grupos que receberam dietas com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral e peneirada. CONCLUSÃO: Frente às suas propriedades química e funcional, concluiu-se que a farinha de semente de abóbora interferiu no metabolismo do rato diminuindo significantemente os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis séricos.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present research was to evaluate the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Twenty recent weaned male Wistar rats, divided in four groups, received for 10 days control and experimental diets containing whole, sifted and residual pumpkin seed flour on the rate of 30% of the total starch and dextrin in the control diet. All diets were

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  17. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  18. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  19. Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

    2015-01-01

    Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed.

  20. Biodiversity of wild fruit species of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjaković Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several field collecting trips in the 2009-2011 period confirmed that forest fruit species are an inexhaustible genofond of extremely important varieties that yield fruit of excellent quality and high nutritive value, with wide range of applications, including nutritional, medicinal and food production. The aim of this work was to develop long term interactive and integrated strategy for selection of wild fruit species through different breeding methods, as well as popularization of selected products and their integration into intensive fruit growing. The most important morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics were studied and presented for Cornus mas, Sambucus nigra, Morus sp. and Rosa sp. For each studied fruit species, advanced selections for cultivar release has been reported.