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Sample records for cucurbita pepo electronic

  1. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  2. Genetics of oil pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Berenji Janoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. belongs to alternative crops grown for seeds and high quality seed oil. One of the basic prerequisites of successful production of oil pumpkin is the proper choice of cultivar. The genetics of different traits of oil pumpkin represents the basis for breeding of new cultivars of oil pumpkin. Of special interest for oil pumpkin breeding are the genetics of seed- coat, plant growth type, resistance to diseases and genetic basis of male sterility. For practical breeding of oil pumpkin the theory of monogenic inheritance of seed coat is quite satisfactory. In light of the theory of developmental reversal of dominance, it may be concluded for C. pepo that the bush type of growth is almost completely dominant over the vine habit at the beginning of plant growth, be- coming incompletely dominant in the second part of the season. In C. moshata several resistance genes of interest in oil pumpkin breeding for virus resistance were discovered. Male sterility, which was transferred to different genotypes of naked seeded oil pumpkin has potential for production of F1 hybrid seed. In addition to traits mention above, other genes of interest for genetics and breeding of oil pumpkin are also mentioned in this paper.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  4. Effect of roasting on tocopherols of gourd seeds (Cucurbita pepo

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    Didier, Montet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roasting at high temperatures on the Vitamin E in hulled gourd seeds of Cucurbita pepo was studied. Roasting at 140°C for 5 min induced a swelling of the seed with an increase in volume of 43 %, and a weight loss of 6.5 %.The seed acquired the desired puffed-up appearance. The water activity of raw seeds was 0.544 and decreased during roasting to 0.105. Cucurbita pepo seeds contained 51.0 % fat. Tocopherol content of roasted seeds was 68mg/100g oil and of non roasted seeds was 107mg/100g oil. γ-tocopherol represented 96% of the total tocopherols. Total tocopherol loss during roasting was 36%. β-tocopherol loss was the highest at 50%; for α-tocopherol it was 41% and for γ-tocopherol it was 36%.Se ha estudiado el efecto del tostado a alta temperatura sobre la vitamina E en semillas de calabaza Cucurbita pepo. El tostado a 140°C durante 5 min indujo una hinchazón de la semilla con un aumento en el volumen del 43 %, y una pérdida de peso del 6,5 %. La semilla adquirió la apariencia deseada después del tostado. La actividad del agua en la semilla cruda fue de 0,544 y disminuyó durante el tostado a 0,105. Las semillas de Cucurbita pepo contenían un 51,0 % de grasa. El contenido de tocoferol de las semillas tostadas fue de 68mg/100g y el de las semillas no tostadas de 107mg/100g de aceite. El γ-tocoferol representó el 96% de los tocoferoles totales. La pérdida de tocoferoles totales durante el tostado fue del 36% siendo la má alta la del β-tocoferol con un 50%; la del α-tocoferol fue del 41% y la del γ-tocoferol del 36%.

  5. SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata and its synteny with Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Pachner, M; Kalai, K; Lelley, T

    2008-11-01

    The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two F2 populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers and two morphological traits (Gr and n). The map is composed of 27 linkage groups with a marker density of 7 cM. Comparing the C. moschata map with the published Cucurbita pepo map, we found a high level of macrosynteny. Seventy-two of 76 common SSR markers between C. moschata and C. pepo were located in homologous linkage groups. These markers in general have conserved orders and similar genetic distances; they represent orthologous loci. A reference map based on these SSRs was obtained. No major chromosomal rearrangement between the two species could be detected at present, although four SSR markers were mapped in nonhomologous linkage groups. The comparative alignment of SSR markers did not provide any indication of a possible ancient polyploid origin of the species. The comparative mapping of C. moschata and C. pepo reported here will be useful for further studies on Cucurbit evolution, gene isolation, and breeding work.

  6. Genes for "Reverse" fruit striping in squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal striping is a common fruit color pattern in Cucurbita pepo and is conferred by any of several alleles at the light coloration-1 locus. Normally, dark stripes appear over the fruit surface areas between the 10 main subepidermal vein tracts with the lighter background color over and adjacent to these vein tracts. Less commonly, the striping is "reversed," that is, lighter than the background color. The present work was conducted to elucidate the mode of inheritance of reverse striping. The results indicated that reverse striping is conferred by the complementary interaction of an allele for striping with a heretofore unidentified allele at the light coloration-2 locus which is hereby designated l-2(R). Fruits of plants carrying an allele for striping and that are homozygous for l-2(R) have completely reversed striping, whereas those heterozygous for l-2(R) have striping that is completely normal or that is partially normal and partially reversed.

  7. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  8. Shoot production in squash (Cucurbita pepo) by in vitro organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Xia, X; Elman, C; Singer, S; Paris, H S; Gal-On, A; Gaba, V

    2003-04-01

    Seedling-derived cotyledon explants of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) of commercial cultivars True French, Ma'yan and Goldy were regenerated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium augmented with 1 mg/l benzyladenine. After 4 weeks in culture small shoots and buds regenerated only on the most proximal cotyledon edge. Culture on an elongation medium with a reduced cytokinin concentration (0.1 mg/l) with or without 1 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA(3)) facilitated the recovery of shoots. Fresh shoots could be recovered at each subculture of the regenerating mass. Peak productivity was during the third cycle of subculture, and shoot production ceased after the fifth subculture. Culture on elongation medium supplemented with GA(3) was 55% more effective with respect to overall shoot production than that on medium without GA(3), with 22 shoots recovered in total per explant from the former. Regeneration occurred under both light and dark conditions. All of the shoots tested were diploid. The shoots were rooted and transferred to the greenhouse where they grew and flowered normally.

  9. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cícero B de; Maluf, Wilson R; Azevedo, Sebastião M de; Faria, Marcos V; Nascimento, Ildon R; Nogueira, Douglas W; Gomes, Luiz A A; Bearzoti, Eduardo

    2005-03-31

    The inheritance of the tendency to set parthenocarpic fruit in the summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) line Whitaker was studied. Two parental lines, Whitaker (parthenocarpic) and Caserta (non-parthenocarpic), and the F1 and F2 generations and backcrosses to both parents were tested. The parthenocarpic tendency of individual plants was scored on a scale from 1 (non-parthenocarpic fruit) to 5 (parthenocarpic fruit). The Whitaker line produced parthenocarpic fruit and had a mean score of 4.2, whereas Caserta did not set parthenocarpic fruit and had a score of 1.55. The heritability estimates indicated that genetic gains from selection were feasible. The additive-dominant model showed a good fit, with epistasis being negligible or nonexistent. The hypothesis of monogenic inheritance with incomplete dominance was not rejected within the degree of dominance range from 0.2 to 0.5. These results indicate that parthenocarpy is controlled by a single locus, with incomplete dominance in the direction of parthenocarpic expression.

  10. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cucurbita pepo is amember of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second-most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The ¿summer squash¿ types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set o...

  11. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae

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    Nuez Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. Results We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. Conclusion We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic

  12. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  13. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

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    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  14. [Immunocytological localization of IAA in the parenchyma cell and vascular elements in the graft union of Cucurbita pepo/Cucurbita moschata at the early developmental stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Q; Han, J; Jia, W S; Du, Z

    2000-06-01

    Immuno-gold localization of IAA in cells of the graft union in the explant internode graft of Cucurbita pepo/Cucurbita moschata were investigated with electron microscopy. In parenchyma cells near the graft union, the gold particles were mainly accumulated in nucleus, plastid and endoplasmic reticulum, while no gold particles was detected in Golgi body, mitochondrion, cell wall and vacuoles. In the differentiating xylem element, the gold particles were labeled in secondary wall and cytoplasm. In the sieve element gold particles were found in the sieve plate, sieve pore and cytoplasm. There was a dense label of the gold particles in the companion cell. The role of IAA in the differentiation of the vascular elements was discussed.

  15. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Stift, G; Kofler, R; Pachner, M; Lelley, T

    2008-06-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Olkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety "Lady Godiva" (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety "Bianco Friulano" (CN), which are the parents of our previous F(2) mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%.

  16. Nectar defense and hydrogen peroxide in floral nectar of Cucurbita pepo

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    Daniele Nocentini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate some similarities between the nectaries of Nicotiana sp. and Cucurbita pepo, such as starch accumulation in the nectary parenchyma, changes in nectary color during maturation, and the production of a large quantity of sucrose-dominant nectar. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in C. pepo floral nectar was determined in order to verify the presence of a defense mechanism similar to that found in Nicotiana sp. which protects nectar from yeast and bacteria proliferation. We also tested the eventual accumulation of antioxidants in the nectary of C. pepo as a protection against oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. The level of hydrogen peroxide found in the floral nectar of C. pepo was much lower than that found in Nicotiana sp. and the male flowers of Cucurbita had a higher concentration than the female flowers. The low oxidative stress induced by this level of hydrogen peroxide caused the accumulation of a low amount of lutein inside the plastoglobules which were contained in amyloplasts. Plastids of the C. pepo nectary are specialized in the accumulation of starch rather than antioxidants.

  17. Flowering biology, nectar production and insect visits in Cucurbita pepo L. flowers

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.

  18. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Mladenović Emina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is collecting and preserving of unique Cucurbita pepo germplasm in Serbia. This study also describes the intraspecific variation of C. pepo within twenty germplasm accessions. Conservation work aimed to develop a representative core collection of C. pepo germplasm, to guide future studies and breeding of its ornamental use. A wide range of C. pepo germplasm was collected from diferent parts of the world. Nineteen variables were recorded in 20 varieties to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among them. Qualitative traits of fruit such is shape, color and texture, showed immense variation. Coefficient of variation were highest for fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (CV=56.69161.32%, while they were the lowest for leaf length (CV=20.65%. Morphological characterization is need to facilitate the use of C. pepo varieties in breeding work. Based on the PCA results, 20 accessions of squash are separate in five groups. Those groups are unique in qualitative and quantitative traits. Knowledge of genetic divergence among varieties is essential for breeding.

  19. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

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    Esteras Cristina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL. Results We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo × Scallop (subsp. ovifera. The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Conclusion Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research

  20. Estudio de un producto de V gama a partir de calabacín (Cucurbita pepo)

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Uréndez, Víctor

    2007-01-01

    Actualmente se está estudiando y trabajando con los llamados alimentos de V gama: cuya característica es estar el alimento envasado al vacío y tratado térmicamente. La vida útil suele tener una durada de unas cuatro semanas. Este proyecto consiste en estudiar un producto de la V gama de alimentos, para ello se ha utilizado una hortaliza como es el calabacín (Cucurbita pepo). El objetivo del trabajo es determinar que tratamiento térmico es más idóneo para el calabacín. Para realizar el estudio...

  1. Mathematical modelling of light-induced electric reaction of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves

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    Jan Stolarek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioelectRIc reactions of 14-16 day old plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and internodal cells of Nitellopsis obtusa to the action of visible and ultraviolet light (UV-C were studied. The possibility of analyzing the bioelectric reaction of pumpkin plants induced by visible light by means of mathematical modelling using a linear differential equation of the second order was considered. The solution of this equation (positive and negative functions can, in a sufficient way, reflect the participation of H+ and CI- ions in the generation of the photoelectric response in green plant cells.

  2. [Influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, V S; Shesterneva, O N; Surova, L M; Rumiantsev, E A; Vodeneev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.) was investigated in our work. It was shown that the variation potential induced by cotyledon burning propagates into a leaf. It decreases CO2 assimilation and transpiration as well as increases nonphotochemical quenching. Investigation of isolated chloroplasts showed that lowering of the pH in incubation medium from 6.9-7.2 to 6.5 increases nonphotochemical quenching. It was proposed that lowering of the cytoplasmic pH induced by the variation potential takes place in the photosynthetic response development.

  3. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production.

  4. Inheritance profile of weathered chlordane and p,p'-DDTs accumulation by Cucurbita pepo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; Hawthorne, Joseph; Berger, William; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) accumulates significant levels of persistent organic pollutants in its roots, followed by unexpectedly high contaminant translocation to the stems. Most other plant species, including the closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash), do not have this ability. To investigate the mechanism of contaminant accumulation, two cultivars each of parental zucchini and squash, as well as previously created first filial (F1) hybrids and F1 backcrosses (BC) of those parental cultivars, were grown under field conditions in a soil contaminated with weathered chlordane (2.29 microg/g) and DDX residues (0.30 microg/g; sum of DDT, DDE, DDD). The parental zucchini had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) for chlordane and DDX of 6.23 and 3.10; these values were 2.2 and 3.7 times greater than the squash, respectively. Chlordane and DDX translocation factors, the ratio of contaminant content in the stems to that in the root, were 2.1 and 3.2 times greater for zucchini than for squash. The parental zucchini and squash also differed significantly in chlordane component ratios (relative amounts of trans-nonachlor [TN], cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC]) and enantiomer fractions for the chiral CC and TC. Hybridization of the parental squash and zucchini resulted in significant differences in contaminant uptake. For both the three separate component ratios (CR) and two sets of enantiomer fraction (EF) values, subspecies specific differences in the parental generation became statistically equivalent in the F1 hybrid zucchini and squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parental plants, the zucchini and squash F1 BC cultivars reverted to the statistically distinct CR and EF patterns. This pattern of trait segregation upon hybridization suggests either single gene or single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability by C. pepo ssp pepo.

  5. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  6. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  7. Identification of viruses infecting pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L in Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Branka B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to identify the major viruses infecting pumpkins (Cucurbita pepogrown in Serbia. Leaf samples from virus-infected pumpkin plants were collected in mid-July 2001. Naked-seeded and hulled oil pumpkins, patty pan, zucchini and summer squash from three different locations were included (Table 1. Virus-infected plants showed different symptoms (Table 2 and Figures 1-4. Due to the great variability of the symptoms, the causal viruses could not be fully and precisely determined by visual examination only. The infected samples were tested by the biotest, as well as by two serological methods, ELISA and EBIA. Polyclonal antibodies raised against cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV, zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 1 (WMV-1, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2 and squash mosaic comovirus (SqMV were used. In each of the 50 collected samples one or two viruses were detected (Tables 3 and 4. The most prevalent viruses infecting pumpkins were ZYMV (62% and CMV (58%. WMV-2 was extremely rare.

  8. Genetic diversity of a germplasm collection of Cucurbita pepo using SRAP and AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriol, M; Picó, B; Nuez, F

    2003-07-01

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly polymorphic species. The cultivars can be grouped into eight morphotypes in two subspecies, ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera. A collection of 69 accessions representative of the morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analysing the morphological and molecular diversity of this species. This collection includes commercial cultivars and Spanish landraces, which represent the great diversification of types that have arisen in Europe after this species arrived from America. For the molecular variability studies, two PCR-based systems were employed, AFLP and SRAP, which preferentially amplify ORFs. Principal coordinates analysis and cluster analysis using the UPGMA method clearly separate the accessions into the two subspecies through the use of both markers. However, the gene diversity and the genetic identity values among morphotypes and subspecies varied between the two marker systems. The information given by SRAP markers was more concordant to the morphological variability and to the evolutionary history of the morphotypes than that of AFLP markers. In ssp. ovifera, the accessions of the different morphotypes were basically grouped according to the fruit colour. This may indicate different times of development and also the extent of breeding in the accessions used. This study has allowed identification of new types that can be employed for the development of new cultivars. The landraces of the spp. ovifera, used as ornamental in Europe, have proved to be of great interest for preserving the diversity of C. pepo.

  9. Dieldrin-dissolving abilities of the xylem saps of several plant families, particularly Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu

    2010-10-01

    The uptake ability of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plants and the nature of xylem sap of the plants were studied. The plants were grown in soil contaminated with dieldrin. High amounts of dieldrin were detected in the shoots of Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus, but little was seen in the shoots of Brassica oleracea var. italica, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Helianthus annuus. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus leached dieldrin adsorbed on C8 granules, but those of the other plants did not. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus eluted high amounts of dieldrin from the size-exclusion chromatography column near the fractions of RNase A (13.7 kDa) after Aprotinin (6.5 kDa), which has a larger molecular weight than dieldrin (381). The enhancement of dieldrin solubility by xylem sap was reduced by proteinase and heating. It was suspected that the protein-like materials in the xylem sap delivered dieldrin from the roots to the shoots. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2269-2277. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDTs in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; White, Jason C

    2012-08-01

    Cucurbita pepo spp pepo (zucchini) is known as an exceptional weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) accumulator, whereas Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera (squash) is termed a nonaccumulator. Experiments were conducted with hybridized zucchini and squash to assess the inheritance pattern of DDX (the sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE]) accumulation potential in xylem sap and tissues of parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 backcross (BC) generations of plants. Plants were grown in pots containing soil with weathered DDX at 732 to 1,130 ng/g soil or under field conditions in soil with 322 to 2,700 ng/g. The DDX stem bioconcentration factors and xylem sap values showed differences between parental and hybridized plants of squash and zucchini. For squash grown in greenhouse conditions, the DDX flow rate in the xylem sap was 17.3, 121, and 40.8 ng/h in parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 BC plants, respectively. Similarly, the stem DDX content of parental, F1, and F1 BC squash was 11, 253, and 96 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. A similar inheritance pattern for squash was observed when the plants were grown under field conditions. The DDX flow rates in the xylem sap of pot-grown parental, F1, and F1 BC zucchini cultivars were 100, 8.5, and 26 ng/hr, respectively, and the stem DDX content was 191, 102, and 142 ng/g, respectively. Again, similar trends in accumulation potential were observed for hybridized zucchini grown under field conditions. The DDX concentrations in parental plants matched the expected pattern, with hybrids midway between the two species, and the backcross being more like the parent again for both species. This inheritance pattern of contaminant accumulation and translocation ability follows classical Mendelian segregation and suggests single-gene or single-locus control.

  11. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH

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    Zdenko Besek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003 was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in control of annual grass- and broad-leaved weeds. The efficacy of all herbicide treatments in 2003 was lower. The best results of herbicide effectiveness were achieved with combination of linuron + dimethenamid (91.3%, trifluralin (90.1% + napropamide and clomazone + linuron (89%.

  13. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  14. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  15. Morphological and Nutritive Variation in a Collection of Cucurbita pepo L. Growing in Kosova

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    Sali ALIU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is the one of the important diversity centers for Cucurbita pepo because of their adaptation to diverse agro ecological conditions as a result of natural and also farmer�s selection. In Kosovo, in most cases C. pepo is grown both in maize fields and vegetable gardens as well as in other more intensive systems. Our expedition have identified different location in the part of Kosovo where were collected a samples at altitudes from 545 till 748 MASL. Kjeldahl method we have used to determine Protein content (PC. Lipids were determined by extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and diethyl ether was used as extraction solvent. The aim of the present investigation was carried out to study morphological diversity, protein and lipids content. Pumpkin populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit weight (FW, fruit shape (FSH. All populations for FW were on higher genetic variability + 2556.9 g or 97.71%. The collection showed appreciable phenotypic variation in fruit shape (FSH. The greater part of variance was accounted for protein content (PC and lipids content (LC. The estimation overall value ? in seed for PC and LC were 14.59%, and 32.99% respectively. This evaluation of traits variability can assist breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding programs.

  16. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology).

  17. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  18. Effects of pollen selection on progeny vigor in a Cucurbita pepo x C. texana hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, M; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    1996-05-01

    We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Black Beauty') to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (>10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12-15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed 'the selected line' because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor.

  19. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-05-14

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Eevers et al.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

    OpenAIRE

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, J.D.; Bottos, E.M.; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Enterobacter aerogenes, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue. This bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacity. An analysis of its 4.5-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils.

  1. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  2. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  3. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  4. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS.

  5. Developmental instability: measures of resistance and resilience using pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Dobson, Melissa; Jordan, Yolanda; Kizy, Anne; Micallef, Chris; Hancock, Leandria C.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry measures random deviations from bilateral symmetry, and thus estimates developmental instability, the loss of ability by an organism to regulate its development. There have been few rigorous tests of this proposition. Regulation of bilateral symmetry must involve either feedback between the sides or independent regulation toward a symmetric set point. Either kind of regulation should decrease asymmetry over time, but only right–left feedback produces compensatory growth across sides, seen as antipersistent growth following perturbation. Here, we describe the developmental trajectories of perturbed and unperturbed leaves of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepoL., grown at three densities. Covering one side of a leaf with aluminium foil for 24 h perturbed leaf growth. Reduced growth on the perturbed side caused leaves to become more asymmetrical than unperturbed controls. After the treatment the size-corrected asymmetry decreased over time. In addition, rescaled range analysis showed that asymmetry was antipersistent rather than random, i.e. fluctuation in one direction was likely to be followed by fluctuations in the opposite direction. Development involves right–left feedback. This feedback reduced size-corrected asymmetry over time most strongly in the lowest density treatment suggesting that developmental instability results from a lack of resilience rather than resistance. 

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen.

  7. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata") when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  8. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) using qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Angeles; Die, Jose V; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro; Nadal, Salvador; González-Verdejo, Clara I

    2011-05-25

    The zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is an important food crop, the transcriptomics of which are a fundamental tool to accelerate the development of new varieties by breeders. However, the suitability of reference genes for data normalization in zucchini has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of 13 genes for their potential use as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR. Assays were performed on 34 cDNA samples representing plants under different stresses and at different developmental stages. The application of geNorm and NormFinder software revealed that the use of a combination of UFP, EF-1A, RPL36aA, PP2A, and CAC genes for the different experimental sets was the best strategy for reliable normalization. In contrast, 18S rRNA and TUA were less stable and unsuitable for use as internal controls. These results provide the possibility to allow more accurate use of qPCR in this horticultural crop.

  9. Nano-silicon dioxide mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Faisal, Mohammad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz A

    2014-11-01

    Research into nanotechnology, an emerging science, has advanced in almost all fields of technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 ) in plant resistance to salt stress through improvement of the antioxidant system of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. white bush marrow). Seeds treated with NaCl showed reduced germination percentage, vigor, length, and fresh and dry weights of the roots and shoots. However, nano-SiO2 improved seed germination and growth characteristics by reducing malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as electrolyte leakage. In addition, application of nano-SiO2 reduced chlorophyll degradation and enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate, and water use efficiency. The increase in plant germination and growth characteristics through application of nano-SiO2 might reflect a reduction in oxidative damage as a result of the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase. These results indicate that nano-SiO2 may improve defense mechanisms of plants against salt stress toxicity by augmenting the Pn , gs , transpiration rate, water use efficiency, total chlorophyll, proline, and carbonic anhydrase activity in the leaves of plants.

  10. Expression Profile of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Genes in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, Clara I; Obrero, Ángeles; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary components that can be found in vegetable crops. The accumulation of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is altered by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) enzymes that produce their degradation. The aim of this work was to study the possible implication of CCD genes in preventing carotenoid storage in the horticultural crop summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). The relationship between the presence of these compounds and gene expression for CCDs was studied in three varieties showing different peel and flesh colour. Expression analysis for the CCD genes CpNCED1, CpNCED2, CpNCED3, CpNCED9, CpCCD1, CpCCD4a, CpCCD4b and CpCCD8 was carried out on different organs and at several fruit developmental stages. The results showed that the CpCCD4a and CpCCD4b genes were highly expressed in the variety with lowest carotenoid content suggesting a putative role in carotenoid accumulation pattern in summer squash fruit.

  11. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo.

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    Kimberly A Stoner

    Full Text Available There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata" when applied to soil by two methods: (1 sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2 applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  12. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  13. Risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Karen D; Power, Alison G; Snow, Allison A; Spencer, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    The development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. Investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. Viruses in natural plant populations can play important roles in plant fecundity and competitive interactions. Here, we show that virus-resistance transgenes and conventional crop genes can increase fecundity of wild plants under virus pressure. We asked how gene flow from a cultivated squash (Cucurbita pepo) engineered for virus resistance would affect the fecundity of wild squash (C. pepo) in the presence and absence of virus pressure. A transgenic squash cultivar was crossed and backcrossed with wild C. pepo from Arkansas. Wild C. pepo, transgenic backcross plants, and non-transgenic backcross plants were compared in field plots in Ithaca, New York, USA. The second and third generations of backcrosses (BC2 and BC3) were used in 2002 and 2003, respectively. One-half of the plants were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and one-half of the plants were maintained as healthy controls. Virus pressure dramatically decreased the fecundity of wild C. pepo plants and non-transgenic backcross plants relative to transgenic backcross plants, which showed continued functioning of the virus-resistance transgene. In 2002, non-transgenic backcross fecundity was slightly higher than wild C. pepo fecundity under virus pressure, indicating a possible benefit of conventional crop alleles, but they did not differ in 2003 when fecundity was lower in both groups. We detected no fitness costs of the transgene in the absence of the virus. If viruses play a role in the population dynamics of wild C. pepo, we predict that gene flow from transgenic, virus-resistant squash and, to a much lesser

  14. Kinetics of the extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L by supercritical CO2

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    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been used to obtain total lipid extracts from other oilseeds, and it has also proved successful in the isolation and enrichment of sterols from oilseeds. The SFE of pumpkin seed oil on a laboratory scale was investigated in thus paper, with special interest in the influence of the extraction pressure on the overall yield of pumpkin seed oil. Extractions were carried out at the pressures of 15, 25 and 30 MPa and at 313 K, and at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperatures 313, 323, and 333 K. The yield of the extractions conducted at 15 MPa was rather low, 0.1814 g oil per 1g of seed feed (18.4% for an extraction time of 14 h. However, extractions at higher pressures yielded greater quantities of the oil; at 22.5 MPa for 9 h, 36.3% of the oil and at 30 MPa for 6 h, 41.0% of the oil. For comparison, hexane extraction of the seed material yielded less than 40% of the oil. Temperature did not influence the extraction yield. At a pressure of 30 MPa, the color of the fractions yielded during successive extraction time intervals varied greatly, from pail yellow (the first 2 h, through orange-yellow (from 2-4 h to red (after 4 h. The experimental results of the oil yields were compared with the data obtained by the mathematical model of Hong et al., presented in the literature.

  15. EFFECT OF SPACING SIZE AND SHAPE ON OIL PUMPKIN YIELD (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera

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    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spacing size and shape on oil pumpkin yield (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera was investigated in two – year field experiments during 2004 and 2005 on The College of Agriculture at Križevci experimental fields. The investigated planting distances were: 100x100, 140x70, 140 x 50, 80 x 80 and 140x30 cm. The experiment was set out by to the Latin square method with five replications, and data was analyzed using analysis of variance. Austrian cultivar Gleissdorf was tested. Number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, number of fruits per hectare, yield of fruits per hectare, average seed weight per fruit and seed yield per hectare were established. Highly significant large number of fruits per plant in both years was established at greater spacing size (100x100 cm – 1.43 fruit/plant in 2004; 140x70 cm – 1.1 fruit/plant in 2005. Average fruit weight regularly was higher at greater spacing size (140x70 cm – 4239 g in 2004; and 100x100 cm – 4183 g in 2005 but not significant. Even though the differences were not significant between treatmants in both years the greatest number of fruits per hectare (16 167- 2004; 13 917 – 2005 and fruit yield per hectare (60.1 t/ha – 2004; 54.2 t/ha – 2005 was obtained at spacing 140x30 cm. The highest seed yield per hectare in both years (1397.2 kg/ha – 2004; 1167.6 kg/ha – 2005 was obtained at the same spacing (140x30 cm but high significant only in 2004 year.

  16. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

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    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  17. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  18. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

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    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  19. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  20. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  1. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system.

  2. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (ppumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  3. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  4. Gama-Tocopherol Accumulation and Floral Differentiation of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. in Response to Plant Growth Regulators

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    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in biochemical and agronomical characteristics were studied in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. plants under different treatments with plant growth regulators (PGRs. The seeds were subjected to priming with PGRs before planting and plants unerwent foliar sprays with different solutions of PGRs at 10 day-intervals after flowering. y-tocopherol (y-toc content of grains was found to be increased under gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment. The accumulation of y-tocopherol in the grains of GA3 treated plants was approximately 19.5 % higher than the control and reached 220.2 mg kg-1 dry pumpkin grains. The number of female flowers per plant was positively affected by PGRs and was 10.1 and 1.89 respectively, in the naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and GA3 treated plants. A significant efficiency of treatments was observed upon fresh fruit yield. The yield increased from 4831 t ha-1 in the control to 6820 t ha-1 with NAA treatment. Priming treatments increased seedling emergence rate and percent. The highest seedling emergence rate was found in GA3 treated seeds.

  5. Changes in the ascorbate system in the response of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) roots to aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierro, Nunzio; Mondelli, Donato; Paciolla, Costantino; Brunetti, Gennaro; Dipierro, Silvio

    2005-05-01

    The involvement of the ascorbate (AsA) system in the response of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) roots to aluminium stress was studied. The treatment of 5-day-old pumpkin seedlings with 50 microM aluminium sulphate resulted in approximately 60% inhibition of root growth within 48-60 h of treatment, while aluminium accumulated in the roots reaching a maximum within 48h. During the same period, the hydrogen peroxide content of the roots was strongly enhanced. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide was matched by both increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) activity and ascorbate free radical reductase (AFRR) (EC 1.1.5.4) activity, while dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) (EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) did not change. The levels of AsA in the roots were also increased by the Al treatment. It was concluded that an oxidative burst is probably involved in the toxicity of Al in pumpkin roots and that plants react to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species by expressing higher levels of scavenging systems such as the AsA-APX system.

  6. A biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) homogenate as a biorecognition layer for ascorbic acid determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Koca, Halit Buğra; Ozben, Yavuz Selim; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2010-08-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) tissue homogenate is presented. The zucchini tissue homogenate was crosslinked with gelatine using glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. The zucchini tissue contained the enzyme ascorbate oxidase and this enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The principle of the measurements was based on the determination of the decrease in the dissolved oxygen level. Determinations were carried out by standard curves, which were obtained by the measurement of the decrease in the oxygen level related to ascorbic acid concentration. Optimization and characterization studies of the biosensor were carried out in detail. First of all, the amounts of zucchini tissue homogenate, gelatin, and glutaraldehyde percentage were optimized. Experimental parameters such as buffer system, pH, buffer concentration, and temperature were also optimized carefully. Thermal stability, storage stability, and repeatability of the biosensor were investigated. A linear response was observed from 5x10(-6) M to 1.2x10(-3) M ascorbic acid. Finally, the results of some plant and drug samples analyzed with the presented biosensor compared with the spectrophotometric method (Tillman reagent) used as a reference.

  7. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  8. Effect of pistil age on pollen tube growth, fruit development and seed set in Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Pacini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pistil age on pollen tube growth, fruit development and seed set were studied in Cucurbita pepo L., the flower of which opens for only six hours. Stigma receptivity lasts four days, from one day before until two days after anthesis. Style receptivity lasts three days, from the day before to the day after anthesis. Ovule receptivity lasts two days: the day of anthesis and the day before. The rate of pollen tube growth varies in different parts of the pistil and in relation to pistil age. In the stigmatic and stylar region, the tubes grow faster if pollination occurs the day before anthesis; in the ovary they grow faster when pollination occurs at anthesis. In the receptacle region, where the transmitting tissue is reduced, the growth rate decreases independently of the time of pollination. The fruits are larger and heavier with more seeds when pollination occurs at anthesis. There is a positive correlation between seed number and fruit weight when pollination occurred at anthesis and the day before.

  9. Activity of β-Galactosidase and Polygalacturonase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Stored at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Renato Balandrán-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When fruits are exposed to chilling temperatures, enzymatic systems are affected and normal cell metabolism is altered; cell wall enzymes are the least studied in this respect. Our objective is to determine the effect of storage temperature and/or kind of tissue on the activity of the enzymes polygalacturonase (PG and β-galactosidase (β-gal in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. subjected to 2.5 and/or 12 °C for 16 days. Exocarp and endocarp samples were analyzed every 4 days for PG and β-gal activities. The highest β-gal activity was found in the exocarp at 12 °C; in both tissues β-gal decreased with time at 2.5 °C, but increased at 12 °C. PG activity was higher in the endocarp (highest activity at 2.5 °C than in the exocarp (highest activity at 12 °C. It was concluded that PG activity in the exocarp constitutes an adequate system for studying the relationship between chilling injury and cell wall biological activity.

  10. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo.

  11. Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Bonilha; Ricardo Gioria; Rômulo Fujito Kobori; Paulo Tarcísio Della Vecchia; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown...

  12. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  13. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  14. Oligoglucans as Elicitors of an Enzymatic Antioxidant System in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Seedlings at Low Temperature

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    Abel Ceron-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Non-controlled low temperatures affect physiological and biochemical processes leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS accumulation in plants, which normally are stabilized by the antioxidant system. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Catalase (CAT are the most important ROS-detoxification enzymes in stressed plants. Approach: The activity of these enzymes were examined in response to fungal Oligoglucans (OG in cold-stressed cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. Cold stress condition was settled in zucchini cotyledons using relative Ion Leakage (IL and H2O2 accumulation. Then, OG were obtained from Trichoderma harzianum cellwall by enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis. These elicitors were purified by size-exclusion and anionexchange chromatography and tested in cold-stressed cotyledons. Results: No significant changes on H2O2 content and IL were observed between treated and control cold-stressed cotyledons, during the first 7 days of storage at 5°C. Afterwards H2O2 values increased greatly after cold-stressed. Then, cold stress conditions were established (7 d, 5°C. The APX and CAT activities remained stable, but not SOD activity, which decreased about 42% in control cotyledons. When a chemical OG mixture (CM was applied to cold-stressed cotyledons, APX and CAT activity levels increased. The SOD activity was only increased by an enzymatic OG mixture (EM. The APX activity level was increased in coldstressed cotyledons using OG size-exclusion chromatography fractions from both CM and EM; however, changes in CAT activity were only possible using EM fractions and no changes were detected in SOD activity. The highest CAT activity levels were triggered using OG anion-exchange chromatography sub-fractions from both CM and EM fractions (120 and 119 % of enzymatic activity, respectively. Conclusion: The oxidative stress can be counteracted by the triggering of APX and CAT activity in cold

  15. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  17. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

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    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  18. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  19. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  20. Effects of Zeolite and Selenium Application on Some Physiological Traits and Oil Yield of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under Drought Stress

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    Kourosh Eskandari Zanjani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that certain plants offer valuable medicinal properties. But there are many challenges that local communities face in the harvesting and cultivation of these plants. Medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca is an economically important medicinal plant cultivated for oil production. Water source limitation is one of the important problems in agriculture worldwide. Natural zeolits have some properties such as water absorption and emission and nitrate leaching inhibition, which is useful for soil amendment. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite and selenium application on some physiological traits and oil yield of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. under drought stress. A field experiment was carried out in a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors included: Irrigation (control, drought stress imposed during at flowering phase and drought stress imposed during fruit formation, Zeolite (non-application and application of 10 ton/ha and Selenium (nonapplication and 30 g/Lit from sodium selenate. All physiological parameters were affected by drought stress and zeolite application. Drought stress decreased total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, RWC, leaf soluble protein, oil content and oil yield and zeolite application in drought stress increased mentioned traits except oil content. Proline accumulation, WSD and CAT antioxidant enzyme activity were reduced in presence of zeolite in drought stress conditions than under control. Selenium spraying with zeolite application in drought conditions increased RWC, CAT antioxidant enzyme activity and oil yield. Drought stress at fruit formation phase reduced oil content and oil yield more severe than that on flowering stage. Finally, it seems that zeolite and selenium application in dry lands are exposed to drought stress be helpful for physiological traits and oil yield improvement and

  1. Determinação de paracetamol em produtos farmacêuticos usando um biossensor de pasta de carbono modificado com extrato bruto de abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Iolanda Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of several vegetables such as peach (Prunus persica, yam (Alocasia macrorhiza, manioc (Manihot utilissima, artichoke (Cynara scolymus L, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., turnip (Brassica campestre ssp. rapifera, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo were investigated as the source of peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7. Among those, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo crude extract was found to be the best one. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of paracetamol to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which the electrochemical reduction back to paracetamol was obtained at a peak potential of fraction three-quarters0.10V. A cyclic voltammetric study was performed by scanning the potential from + 0.5 to fraction three-quarters 0.5 V. The recovery of paracetamol from two samples ranged from 97.3 to 106% and a rectilinear calibration curve for paracetamol concentration from 1.2x10-4 to 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9965 were obtained. The detection limit was 6.9x10-5 mol L-1 and the relative standard deviation was less than 1.1% for a solution containing 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 paracetamol and 2.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide (n=12. The results obtained for paracetamol in pharmaceutical products using the proposed biosensor and Pharmacopoeial procedures are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  2. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants.

  3. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  4. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhu-Gang; Wang, Xun; Han, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Chun-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68μg/mL and 45.46μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials.

  5. Effects of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on seed yield and oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

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    Zarei Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on yield and seed oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L., an experiment was conducted in Kermanshah/Iran during the 2013 growing season. The experimental treatments consisted of two levels - no head pruning, control (Co and head pruning (C1 allocated to the main plots. Four levels of different fertilizing systems - control (without fertilizer (T0, chemical (T1, biological (a combination of nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus mosseae (T2, and integrated fertilizing system (biological fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizer (T3 were assigned to the sub-plots. The experimental treatments were arranged as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the highest percentage of seed oil was obtained (37% in the integrated nutritional system along with the head pruning treatment. The highest grain yields of 53 and 50 g per square meter were obtained in integrated and chemical fertilizing systems, respectively while no pruning was applied. The highest fruit yields of 3,710 and 3,668 kg per hectare were produced by chemical and integrated fertilizing systems, respectively. The biological nutrition system required more time to demonstrate its positive effect on the growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  6. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality.

  7. Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of certain plasma enzymes in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2005-04-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed rats were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl4 intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate. All three subgroups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all four enzymes were significantly higher than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. CCl4 intoxication resulted in significant increases in the activity levels of all four enzymes investigated. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl4 intoxication resulted in significantly reduced activity levels of all four enzymes. It is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein malnutrition.

  8. Methyl jasmonate is a more effective senescence-promoting factor in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) cotyledons when compared with darkness at the early stage of senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Kalina; Ananiev, Evgueni D; Mishev, Kiril; Georgieva, Katya; Malbeck, Jiri; Kamínek, Miroslav; Van Staden, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    The effects of short-term darkening and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on cotyledon senescence were studied 24h after transfer of intact 7-day-old Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings to darkness or spraying with 100 microM MeJA. The jasmonate inhibitory effect on chlorophyll content and chloroplast transcriptional activity was stronger compared with darkness. Further, MeJA reduced the photosynthetic rate whereas darkness did not affect photosynthesis. Neither stress factor affected the photochemical quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) estimated by the variable fluorescence (F(v))/maximal fluorescence (F(m)) ratio, suggesting the existence of mechanisms protecting the functional activity of PSII at earlier stages of senescence, thus making this parameter more stable compared to others used to quantify senescence. Both stress factors caused a decrease in the content of physiologically active cytokinins, especially trans-zeatin (Z), with the jasmonate effect being much more pronounced when compared to darkness. Our results indicate that MeJA is a more potent inducer of senescence in zucchini cotyledons, at least within the relatively short period of the 24h treatment. This is likely due to its stronger down-regulatory effect on the levels of physiologically active cytokinins.

  9. L-ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical formulations using a biosensor based on carbon paste modified with crude extract of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo

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    Fatibello-Filho Orlando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor based on carbon paste modified with crude extract of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo as a source of peroxidase is proposed for determining L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone to p-quinone whose electrochemical reduction back to hydroquinone was obtained at peak potential of -0.14V. Thus, when L-ascorbic acid is added to the solution, this acid can reduce chemically p-quinone to hydroquinone and/or reduce hydrogen peroxide, decreasing the peak current obtained proportionally to the increase of its concentration. The recovery of L-ascorbic acid from five samples ranged from 98.1 to 102.1% and a rectilinear calibration curve for L-ascorbic acid concentration from 2.0x10-4 to 5.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9992 was obtained. The detection limit was 2.2x10-5 mol L-1 and relative standard deviation was < 1.3% for a solution containing 4.0x10-3 mol L-1 L-ascorbic acid, 7.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydroquinone and 2.0x10-4 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained for L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations using the proposed biosensor and those obtained using the Pharmacopeia method are in agreement at the 95 % confidence level.

  10. Effects of different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residue silage replacement with forage part of ration on male buffalo calves fattening performance

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    A. Hashemi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing forage part of ration with different levels of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo residual silage (PRS on fattening performance of male buffalo calves. Twenty Four calves with 203 + 27.9 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 4 groups and 6 replicates. The four groups (1, 2, 3 and 4 included 0 (control, 20, 40 and 60 percent replacement of forage part of ration with PRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 4, respectively. Daily weight gain (DWG was not significantly different between the groups. The highest and the lowest DWG were shown at the groups 3 and 2, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was not significantly different between the groups. But the best FCR was obtained at group 1. It may conclude that forage part of ration can be substituted with PRS at 60 % level with no negative effects on male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  11. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Grzybek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo L. hot water extract (HWE, cold water extract (CWE or ethanol extract (ETE on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri. Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94. A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I. nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative

  12. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Phillips

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600–1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600–0800 h of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600–1200 h. Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  13. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin W; Gardiner, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600-1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600-0800 h) of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600-1200 h). Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  14. Study on characteristics of polyphenol oxidase of Cucurbita pepo L.%西葫芦多酚氧化酶酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 董海洲; 王兆升; 刘传富

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO)of Cucurbita pepo L.and effect of various inhibitors to PPO were studied by spectrophotometer.The results showed that the optimum pH and temperature were 6.6 and 35℃. However,the PPQ was inactivated in 90℃ water for 5min.The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reaction of PPO was in accord with Michaelis-Menten equation,the Km, Vmax of kinetic equation were 0.0417mol/L,208.33U using catechol as substrate,respectively.Four kinds of inhibitors had different effects on PPO, and the order of PPO as NaHSO3〉 L-Cysteine 〉 ascorbic acid 〉 citric acid.%以邻苯二酚为底物,采用分光光度法对西葫芦多酚氧化酶(PPO)的酶学特性及不同抑制剂对多酚氧化酶活性的影响进行研究。结果表明,西葫芦多酚氧化酶最适pH为6.6,最适温度为35℃,90℃处理5rain可使该酶失活。多酚氧化酶催化的酶促褐变反应动力学符合米氏方程,动力学参数为Km=0.0417mol/L,Vmax=208.33U。四种抑制剂对PPO的抑制效果由强到弱依次为:亚硫酸氢钠〉L-半胱氨酸〉抗坏血酸〉柠檬酸。

  15. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  16. Yield of varieties of Cucurbita pepo preimmunized with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Bonilha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown in a plastic greenhouse did not exhibit typical leaf symptoms or significant alterations in quantitative and qualitative fruit yield. However, when infected with PRSV-W-1, or PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, the plants exhibited severe leaf mosaic symptoms and reduced fruit quality, although there were no changes in the number and mean fruit weight harvested from these plants. When these plants were infected with PRSV-W-1 and studied simultaneously in the field and plastic greenhouse, intensification of symptoms in the fruits and leaves was more pronounced under the greenhouse conditions. Quantitative yield did not change. Environmental factors seem to influence symptoms induced by PRSV-W-1.O Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W e o Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV são os vírus predominantes em culturas de cucurbitáceas no Brasil, onde geralmente causam danos significativos na produção. As doenças causadas por ambos os vírus são de difícil controle. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin em condições de estufa plástica e de campo. Plantas infectadas com a estirpe ZYMV-M sob condições de estufa plástica não exibiram sintomas foliares típicos da doença e alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos produzidos. No entanto, quando infectadas com a estirpe PRSV-W-1, ou PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, as plantas

  17. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  18. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PAL Gene in Seed Coat of Cucurbita pepo%美洲南瓜(Cucurbitapepo)种皮苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 徐秉良; 薛应钰; 张树武; 陈荣贤

    2014-01-01

    Objective]The aim of this study was to clone full-length cDNA of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene (CP-PAL) in seed coat of the hulled Cucurbita pepo, analyze its expressions in seed coat development of the hulled and hull-less C. pepo, thus providing a theoretical support for revealing the mechanism of seed development and function of accumulation of lignin in seed coat development.[Method]The full sequence of CP-PAL was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The bioinformatics method was used to analyze cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence, and the real-time PCR and 2-△△Ct method were used to analyze the expression profile of PAL gene in the whole period of seed coat development. [Result] The full-length sequence of CP-PAL consists of 1 720 bp with an intact open reading frame of 1 359 bp, 5′UTR of 114 bp, 3′UTR of 236 bp, polyA of 11 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids. The molecular weight of CP-PAL was 48.86 kD, pI was 6.5, total number of atoms was 6 885 and the formula was C2158H3449N607O657S14. Homology analysis showed that the CP-PAL nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acids were highly homologous to that of PAL gene in Cucumis sativus. CP-PAL contained three functional domains of PAL-HAL, PLN02457, phe_am_lyase and the typical PAL enzyme active site sequence (GTITASGDLVPLSYIA), and it was one member of Lyase_I_Like superfamily. CP-PAL was most likely to be located in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum, without signal peptide and leader peptide. And it was non-transmembrane and soluble protein. Besides, CP-PAL included casein kinase II phosphorylation site for four, protein kinase C phosphorylation site for six, N-myristoylation site for twelve and N-glycosylation site for two. In addition, CP-PAL had eighteen serine phosphorylation sites, six threonine phosphorylation sites and five tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Random coil was the maximum structural part in the protein secondary structure of CP-PAL, alpha helix

  19. 镧对西葫芦幼苗模拟酸雨胁迫的缓解效应%Alleviative effects of LaCl_3 on simulated acid rain stresses for Cucurbita pepo seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Using Cucurbita pepo as the experimental material,the alleviative effects of foliar surface spraying for LaCl3(12 mg/L) on seedling growth and three physiological indexes of C.pepo were investigated under some simulated acid rain(SAR) stresses.Results show that the damage effects of SAR on C.pepo seedlings are alleviated by the LaCl3 treatment.The fresh weights of the seedlings treated with LaCl3 solutions of pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 are significantly higher than those of the treatments only with SAR,and are equivalent to 94.7% and 78.6% of the control level(pH 6.5).However,no significant differences are observed between the treatment with other SAR+LaCl3 solution and the treatment only with SAR.The chlorophyll and dissolved protein contents follow the trend of the seedling fresh weight,and the indexes treated with pH 3.0 and pH 3.5 SAR+LaCl3 solutions are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR,but the differences of pH 3.0 are slightly greater than those of pH 3.5.Compared with the control,the dissolved protein content treated with pH 3.5+LaCl3 solution is the highest.The proline content increase consistently with the pH value,and improved by the LaCl3 treatment.The proline contents treated with pH 3.5 and pH 3.0 SAR+LaCl3 solution are higher significantly than that treated only with SAR.Therefore,the alleviative effects of LaCl3 on middle SAR stresses for C.pepo seedling are significant.%以西葫芦为材料,研究模拟酸雨胁迫下适量镧(La)对幼苗生长及叶绿素、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量的影响。结果显示,镧处理对酸雨胁迫有一定的缓解作用。在pH 3.5和3.0时,幼苗鲜重均显著高于模拟酸雨组,并恢复到对照的94.7%和78.6%;但在其他胁迫强度下,镧处理的缓解效应不显著。叶绿素和可溶性蛋白的含量变化与幼苗鲜重类似,在pH 3.0时镧处理的缓解效应最显著;pH 3.5时镧处理的可溶性蛋白含量超过对照。脯氨酸含量呈现持

  20. 2D NMR对苦味西葫芦果实中的一个三萜皂苷进行结构解析%Structure Determination of A Cucurbitacin Glycoside Extracted from Cucurbita pepo cv Dayangua by 2D NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大成; 葛杉; 高慧媛; 蔡辉; 吴斌; 吴立军; 邓旭明

    2005-01-01

    通过核磁共振谱并结合文献对一个三萜皂苷葫芦素E 2-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷进行结构解析.通过2D NMR(1H-1H COSY、HMQC和HMBC)进行了NMR全归属.%A triterpene saponin was extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Cucurbita pepo cv Dayangua. Its structure was determined by 2D NMR. Complete assignment of the 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the compound was obtained. The structure was elucidated to be cucurbitacin E 2-O-b-D-glucoside.

  1. Antalya İli ve İlçelerindeki Örtüaltı Hıyar (Cucumis sativus L. ve Kabak (Cucurbita pepo L. Üretim Alanlarında Viral Etmenlerin Saptanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÇAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, 2014-2015 yılları arasında Antalya ili ve ilçelerinde örtüaltı hıyar (Cucumis sativus L. ve kabak  (Cucurbita pepo L. üretim alanlarında ZYMV (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, PRSV (Papaya ring spot virus, SqMV (Squash mosaic virus ve CMV (Cucumber mosaic virus’nün varlığının, serolojik, ve biyolojik yöntemlerle saptanması ve toplanan örneklerdeki yaygınlığının ortaya konulması amacıyla 2014-2015 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Örtüaltı hıyar ve kabak üretim alanlarından alınan ve virüs şüphesi duyulan 455 yaprak ve meyve örneğinin hepsi DAS-ELISA ile testlenmiştir. Teslenen 455 örneğin 346 adedininde (%76 bir ve daha fazla virüs ile enfekteli olduğu belirlenmiştir. ELISA testleri sonucunda pozitif reaksiyon veren bitkilerden alınan dokular mekanik inokulasyon çalışmalarında kullanılmıştır.  İndikatör bitkiler üzerinde 15-30 gün gibi bir sürede belirti gözlenmiştir.

  2. 不同温度对西葫芦果实冷害及生理变化的影响%Effects of Different Temperature on Chilling Injury and Physiological Changes during Storage of Cucurbita pepo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清; 杨娜; 刘凤娟; 高丽朴

    2012-01-01

    通过试验确定西葫芦果实在不同温度下贮藏的安全期,并分析不同冷藏温度下其营养品质和生理生化指标的变化.结果表明,在单纯5、8、10℃低温处理下冷害出现的时间分别为处理后的7、5、6d.但5、8、10℃处理分别冷藏3、4、5d后,再在20℃环境的货架上1d就会表现出冷害;冷害对西葫芦果实可溶性蛋白含量影响不大,但会降低可溶性固形物的含量与过氧化氢酶活性,影响细胞膜透性、丙二醛和过氧化氢含量.%To ensure the safety period of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) at different temperature, the changes of nutrition quality and physiological and biochemical indexes of summer squash at different cold storage temperature were studied. The results showed that the chilling injury of summer squash occurred 7, 5, 6d after being stored at 5, 8, 10 ℃, respectively. But chilling injury would occur on shelf just in 1 d at 20 ℃ after being stored at 5, 8, 10 ℃ for 3, 4, 5d, respectively. The effect of chilling injury on the soluble protein content of summer squash was limited. However, the soluble solid content and catalase activity were reduced; and the cell membrane permeability, content of Malondialdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide were influenced.

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  4. 西葫芦单倍体诱导及分子检测鉴定%In vitro Induction of Haploid Plants in Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)and Selection by Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敏; 张国裕; 赵尊练; 张帆; 姜立纲; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    以3种基因型西葫芦为试材,探讨不同基因型与花粉辐照剂量(25~400 Gy)对西葫芦单倍体植株诱导的影响.结果表明,基因型与辐照剂量对植株坐果率和单倍体诱导率均有显著影响.辐照剂量率2 Gy/min,剂量125~250 Gy比较适宜西葫芦单倍体的诱导,获得的再生植株较多,有利于单倍体植株的产生.单倍体植株主要由点状胚与箭形胚发育而来.基因型330的单倍体诱导率为5.08%,基因型331的为7.40%,而基因型332未能获得单倍体植株.利用特异的EST-SSR标记快速对再生植株中的单倍体或自然加倍单倍体植株进行鉴定,并通过保卫细胞叶绿体计数法及流式细胞仪验证SSR标记分析结果的可靠性,确定植株染色体倍性水平.西葫芦单倍体植株生长势弱,叶片较小,花粉败育.%The influence of pollen irradiation and plant genotype on the production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos was investigated in squash (Cucurbita pepo L. ). Pollen was irradiated at different gamma-ray doses (25 - 400 Gray). Production of in vitro haploid plantlets was influenced by irradiation dose, genotype, embryo type and embryo stage. Embryos were obtained from irradiation doses within the range of 125 to 250 Gray. Necrotic embryos were higher than normal embryos when the irradiation doses higher than 250 Gray. The haploid plants were produced mostly from point and arrow-tip embryos. The frequencies of haploid plantlets were 5. 08% and 7. 40% for genotype 330 and 331, respectively. EST-SSR, chloroplast number per guard cell counting and flow cytometry were used to determine the haploid plants in this study. The haploid plants achieved low growth ability and small leaves with sterile stamen.

  5. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico.

  7. Chemotaxonomical study of vegetables X. The carotenoids of some vegetables from Cucurbita genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrila NEAMTU

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen unserer chemotaxonomischen Untersuchungen uber die Carotinoide hoherer Pflanzen (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 befassen wir uns in vorliegender Arbeit mit den Carotinoiden einiger Pflanzen der Gattung Cucurbita. Wir berichten von C. maxima Duch. var. bananina Greb., C. maxima Duch. var. maxima cv. Marica, C. pepo var. oblonga Greb. und C. pepo var. pyriformis Alef., unter Hinweis auf carotenotaxonomisch interessante Befunde.

  8. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  9. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  10. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  11. Chloroplast phylogeny of Cucurbita: Evolution of the domesticated and wild species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hong ZHENG; Andrew J.ALVERSON; Qing-Feng WANG; Jeffrey D.PALMER

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) includes five species that were domesticated independently in the Americas,giving rise to an immense diversity of squashes,pumpkins,and gourds.To gain an improved understanding of the evolution of Cucurbita and its domesticated taxa,we used four chloroplast loci to estimate the phylogeny of 23 taxa that represent the broad-level diversity within Cucurbita.Our results provide a strongly supported framework hypothesis for the phylogeny of the genus,robustly confirming the basal position of the C.digitata group of xerophytic perennials and the monophyly of a large group of mesophytic annuals that represent most of the known diversity in the genus,both wild and domesticated.The chloroplast evidence provides strong support for a novel grouping of the mesophytic annual C ficifolia (known only from cultivation) with the xerophytic perennials C.foetidissima and C.pedatifolia.This study also provides the first DNA-based evidence in support of the isozymebased hypothesis that C.pepo subsp.ovifera var.ovifera (represented by most ornamental gourds and several squashes) was domesticated from the wild taxon C.pepo subsp.ovifera var.ozarkana.This lends support to the hypothesis that var.ovifera was domesticated in the eastern United States and that this region served as one of about 10 independent centers of origin of human agriculture.Although the level of bootstrap support for this and certain other peripheral relationships in Cucurbita is low,definitive resolution of these issues is within reach,as nextgeneration sequencing should soon deliver entire organelle genome sequences from a comprehensive sampling of the genus.

  12. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  13. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations.

  14. Estudio Farmacognóstico de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza (Cucurbita SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos parámetros farmacognósticos de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza, con vistas a su posterior uso en formulaciones antiparasitarias. Se comparan semillas de 3 variedades: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 y C. maxima var INIVIT C88, en cuanto a masa, humedad residual, cenizas, sustancias solubles y tamizaje fitoquímico, a fin de proponer la mejor para su empleo como antiparasitario, y se trata de forma breve la propuesta de una técnica sencilla para la extracción del principio activo de la semilla (cucurbitina.Some pharmacognostic parameters of the raw drug from the pumpkin seed are presented in order to use it later in antiparasitic formulations. The seeds of 3 varieties are compared: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 and C. maxima var INIVIT C88. Mass, residual humidity, ashes, soluble substances and phytochemical screening were analyzed aimed at proposing the best for its use as antiparasitic. The proposal of a simple technique for the extraction of the active principle of the seed (cucurbitina is briefly explained.

  15. 5个南瓜自交系光合特性的比较%Comparison of Photosynthetic Characteristics in Five Pumpkin(Cucurbita moschata Duch) Inbred Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振威; 李新峥; 孙丽; 李贞霞

    2007-01-01

    南瓜为一年生葫芦科南瓜属植物,是一种古老而又普通的蔬菜种类,在世界范围内广泛栽培。主要栽培种有3个:南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch),又叫中国南瓜;笋瓜(Cucurbita maxima Duch),又叫印度南瓜;西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo L.),又叫美洲南瓜。随着科技的进步和对南瓜研究的深入,南瓜在中国人民的膳食结构中被赋予了新的功能,它不仅是人们喜食的菜肴,而且是重要的营养保健食品。

  16. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  17. Influence of different fertilizer types of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) on the structure of nematode communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytova, D; Bileva, T

    2011-01-01

    Increasing efficiency of production of vegetable crops is directly related to search for appropriate solution to increase their productivity. Organic amendments have been used for centuries to improve soil fertility and crop yield. Our study suggests that organic amendments can also be used as nematicidal agents. The survey was conducted on Experimental field of Department Horticulture at Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2009 on nematode infested sites. Combination with two types of fertilizers was used to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Characterization and comparative analysis among treatments of soil nematode community structure based on different ecological measures such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity and etc., was made. Changes in the composition and structure of nematode community as result of different fertilizer types were assessed.

  18. Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Snježana; Radić, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Garić, Rade; Mihaljević, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2011-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin.

  19. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  20. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  1. Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťálová, Zuzana; Hromádková, Zdenka; Ebringerová, Anna

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the seeded fruit biomass of the Styrian oil-pumpkin in view of its pectin component, a series of acidic polysaccharides were isolated by a six-step sequential extraction using hot water, EDTA, dilute HCl (twice) and dilute and stronger NaOH solutions. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses revealed that the first four fractions comprised partially methyl-esterified and acetylated pectins with varying proportions of rhamnogalacturonan regions ramified with galactose- and arabinose-containing side chains and showed considerable polymolecularity. The alkali-extracted polysaccharides contained lower amounts of pectins with homogalacturonan and arabinose-rich rhamnogalacturonan regions next to hemicelluloses prevailing in the last polysaccharide. Using (1)H-(13)C HSQC and HMBC spectroscopy, the resonances of free and methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in the purified acid-extracted pectin were unambiguously established and various diads formed by both residues identified. The results might serve as a basis for searching technological conditions to produce pectin from the oil-pumpkin fruit biomass.

  2. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  3. Functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed protein isolate and hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučko Sandra Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI was enzymatically hydrolysed by pepsin to obtain pumpkin seed protein hydrolysate, PSPH. Investigation on solubility, interfacial and emulsifying properties of both PSPI and PSPH was conducted under different conditions of pH (3-8 and ionic strength (0-1 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPI had the lowest solubility, i.e. isoelectric point (pI, at pH 5. PSPH had higher solubility than PSPI over whole range of pH and ionic strengths tested. Decrease in surface and interfacial tension evidenced that both PSPI and PSPH adsorb at air/protein solution and oil/protein solution interface. Emulsions (20 % oil in water stabilized by 1 g/100cm3 PSPI or PSPH solution were prepared at pH 3, 5 and 8 and ionic strength of 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPH stabilized emulsions from coalescence at all pH and ionic strengths tested. PSPI was able to stabilize emulsions at pH 3 and 0 mol/dm3 NaCl, and at pH 8 regardless of ionic strength, while emulsions at pH 5 and both 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl and at pH 3 when ionic strength was increased separated to oil and serum layer immediately after preparation. All emulsions were susceptible to creaming instability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  4. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  6. Host plant oviposition preference of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera : Tephritidae)%瓜实蝇对寄主植物的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帅; 郑丽霞; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) has been reported to damage more than 100 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to help assess host plant specificity of the fruit fly. Six host species: Momordica charantiap, Luffa cylindrical, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata, Carica papaya and Cucurbita pepo were tested. Oviposition rates were highest on M. charantiap (56. 18% of eggs) and C. sativus (29. 00% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (1. 85% ) and C. moschata (0. 00% ) . In contrast, Oviposition rates were highest on C. sativus ( 34. 64% ) , C. pepo ( 30. 37% ) and C. moschata (18. 05% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (0. 60% ) when the fruit peel were pared. Oviposition rates of B. cucurbitae females on fruits with peel had a significant negative correlation with the hardness of peel, and the correlation coefficient was - 0. 8772. The results imply that in addition to the in - built chemical compounds, plants have physical barrier like hard fruit peel, which impact melon fruit fly oviposition.%瓜实蝇Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)可危害100多种寄主植物,是葫芦科蔬菜的重要害虫.为了探明瓜实蝇的寄主特异性,在实验室条件下研究了瓜实蝇对黄瓜Cucumis sativus、苦瓜Momordica charantiap、丝瓜Luffa cylindrica、南瓜Cucurbita moschata、番木瓜Carica papaya和西葫芦Cucurbita pepo的产卵选择性.瓜实蝇在苦瓜和黄瓜上的产卵比率较高,分别为56.18%和29.00%,在番木瓜和南瓜上产卵比率较低,分别为1.85%和0.00%,但是在去掉果皮后,黄瓜、西葫芦和南瓜的产卵比率较高,分别达到34.64%、30.37%和18.05%,在番木瓜上的产卵率较低仅为0.60%.瓜实蝇雌虫在带皮果实上的产卵比率与果皮硬度呈显著的负相关关系,相关系数为-0.8772结果表明除了自身的化合物之外,植物具有的物理屏障如坚硬的

  7. Electron microscopic diagnosis of multiple pathogen of Watermelon mosaic virus and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in infected Cucurbita moschata%西瓜花叶病毒和小西葫芦黄花叶病毒复合侵染南瓜的透射电镜诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西娇; 陈浙; 何步远; 李艳敏; 王荣洲; 吴建祥; 洪健

    2015-01-01

    The multiple infecting pathogens were detected in a sample of yellow mosaic Cucurbita moschata from Longyou, Zhejiang province, by electron microscopy and RT⁃PCR. Filamentous virus particles of 600 ~800 nm in length were observed in Cucurbita moschata by negative staining. The pathological study revealed that III⁃type andⅣ⁃type cylindrical inclusions appeared in cytoplasm of the infected cells. Chloroplast vacuolization and membranous proliferation were also found in the infected cells. There were 622bp and 696bp special productions in gel electrophoresis after RT⁃PCR using universal primers of WMV and ZYMV,respectively. Sequencing after RT⁃PCR revealed that the 622bp and 696bp special productions had homology of 88% ~95% with the WMV sequence and 93%~99% with the ZYMV sequence, respectively. The results above suggested that Cucurbita moschata were multiple⁃infected by WMV and ZYMV.%应用透射电镜和RT⁃PCR技术对浙江龙游的南瓜黄化花叶病株进行病原诊断,电镜负染色观察到病株汁液中存在大量线状病毒粒子,超薄切片观察到病叶细胞质中存在III型、Ⅳ型两种类型的风轮状内含体,细胞质中膜结构增生形成许多小泡结构,叶绿体产生周边空泡。用西瓜花叶病毒( WMV)和小西葫芦黄花叶病毒( ZYMV)特异性引物扩增到622 bp和696 bp目的片段,序列测定发现与WMV和ZYMV 同源性分别为88%~95%、93%~99%。根据以上结果诊断南瓜病株为WMV和ZYMV复合侵染。

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo on Performance and Blood Fat of Broiler Chickens during Finisher Period

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    H. Hajati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control, 5.00 and 10.00 g kg−1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg−1 DM diet had not significant effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg−1 DM significantly decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird’s mortality. Adding pumpkin oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (PConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg−1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken’s mortality and it did not have any adverse effect on bird’s performance.

  9. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

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    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  10. Ameliorative effect of pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo L. against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats

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    Howida Sayed Abou Seif

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The natural plant components found in pumpkin could improve the liver against alcohol-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and benefits of pumpkin oil in human beings.

  11. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  12. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied.

  13. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  14. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated.

  15. Role of organic acids in enhancing the desorption and uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE by Cucurbita pepo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jason C.; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Lee, W.-Y.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Iannucci-Berger, William

    2003-07-01

    The addition of low molecular weight organic acids to soil may enhance phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants. - Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of seven organic acids [succinic, tartaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, citric, ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)] over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude (0.001-0.10 M) on the abiotic desorption of weathered p,p'-DDE and the extraction of polyvalent inorganic ions from soil. At 0.05 M all organic acids significantly increased contaminant desorption by 19-80%. Organic acids also increased the aqueous concentration of eight inorganic constituents extracted from soil, with at least a six-fold increase in the release of Al, Fe, Mn, and P at 0.001 M. Zucchini seedlings grown for 28 d in soil containing weathered p,p'-DDE (300 ng/g, dry weight) were periodically amended with distilled water, citric or oxalic acids (0.01 M). Plants receiving water removed 1.7% of the p,p'-DDE from the soil. Seedlings amended with citric or oxalic acids removed 2.1 and 1.9% of the contaminant, respectively, and contained up to 66% more contaminant in the shoot system than unamended vegetation. A second crop of untreated (distilled water) zucchini in the same soil removed more contaminant than the first crop (2.5%), although the addition of organic acids did not further enhance contaminant uptake. The data indicate that the addition of low molecular weight organic acids causes the partial dissolution of the soil structure through the chelation of inorganic structural ions, potentially enhancing bioavailability and having implications for the phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants in soil.

  16. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species, also inhibit ethylene production and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes. A model is presented that discusses the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the control of fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash.

  17. The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

    2009-03-15

    This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control.

  18. Electrochemical and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Cucurbita Maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anbarasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the acid extract of peel of Cucurbita maxima (PCM on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss, polarization and impedance methods and SEM analysis. The inhibition efficiency increases with extract concentration and immersion period. Weight loss and corrosion rates of mild steel decreased as the concentration of inhibitor increased. The results showed that PCM was potential corrosion inhibitor and maximum inhibition efficiency (IE % obtained was 98% for 3%PCM at 1h. Impedance measurement results an increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct, which also confirms the corrosion inhibitive nature of the plant extract. Potentiodynamic study showed that PCM acts as a mixed type of inhibitor, which controls both the anodic and cathodic reactions. Scanning electron microscopic studies provided the evidence of improved surface condition for the corrosion protection, due to the adsorption.

  19. MANFAAT BIJI LABU (Cucurbita sp. UNTUK KESEHATAN

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    Djoko Hargono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daging buah C. moschata Duch. ex Poir yang telah masak dapat dimakan setelah dikukus, disayur atau dijadikan kolak. Daun tumbuhan yang muda dan kuncup bunganya dimakan sebagai sayuran. Bijinya setelah diasin dan dikeringkan di sinar matahari atau cara lain dikonsumsi sebagai kuaci. Daging buah dan biji C. pepo L dan C. maxima Duch dimakan setelah diolah seperti daging buah dan biji C. moschata Duch. ex Poir. Secara tradisional biji C. moschata Duch ex Poir digunakan sebagai obat kecacingan, terutama untuk cacing pita.

  20. 中国南瓜无蔓性状种间遗传研究%Genetic Study on the Vineless Characters of Cucurbita moschata among Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 岳青; 梁燕平; 苗如意

    2011-01-01

    In order to inquire the meaning and feasibling on transfer the vineless character from C. moschata into C. maxima and C. pepo, the interspecific crossing between C. moschata materials with vineless character and C. maxima materials or C. pepo materials was conducted, we studied the interspecific genetic development on vineless character by the RAPD molecular marker and field investigation. Genetic performance of the vineless character of Cucurbita moschata in three mainly cultivated species in Cucurbita was studied in this paper. The results showed that the segregation ratios of the vineless character in F1 group, F2 group and BC1F1 group of the interspecific hybrids fit the Mendelian law. It was different from intraspecific hybridization that the first filial generation between vineless C. moschata and the other vine pumpkin species showed that the internode elongated and the inheritance belonged to incomplete dominant inheritance. The unique vineless character of C. moschata was transferred to C. pepo and C. maxima by the means of interspecific hybridization and the brand-new germplasm resources were created.%为探讨向印度南瓜及美洲南瓜中转育中国南瓜无蔓性状的意义及可行性,进行了无蔓中国南瓜种间杂交试验,采用田间调查结合RAPD分子标记鉴定的方法研究中国南瓜无蔓性状种间遗传规律.通过比较中国南瓜无蔓性状在南瓜属3个种中的遗传表现发现:中国南瓜无蔓性状在种间杂种F1、F2及BC1F1中的分离比例符合孟德尔遗传规律;与种内杂交不同,无蔓中国南瓜与蔓生异种南瓜材料的种间杂交一代表现出节间变长的倾向,表现为不完全显性遗传;通过种间杂交,可将中国南瓜特有的无蔓性状转育到美洲南瓜及印度南瓜中,创造全新的种质资源.

  1. Uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Martin P N; White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2007-12-01

    Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 microg/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root more more than stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini.

  2. ACCELERATED AGEING EFFECTS ON CURCUBITEA PEPO SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mampouya A. H. W. Nakavoua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated ageing of curcubitea pepo seed oil was followed by simulation of UV (light and ambiant oxygen actions held separately then simultaneously in order to know the effects of these parameters on this oil resistance to deterioraton. Nine withdrawals had undergone analyses by titrimetry supported by spectroscopic analyses notably MIR (Medium Infrared, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and also a gas chromatography for the composition in FA. This study has showed that pumpkin seed oil displays a weak resistance to UV which results among other in a decrease of unsaponifiable compounds. Its oxidization takes place very quickly in the presence of ambiant oxygen. However the accumulated action of the two factors weakens to the highest degree pumpkin seed oil and this results in polymerization. It has also enabled us to show the link between the formation of recticulations in the oil matrix and variations at the level of the molecular structure of pumpkin seed oil.

  3. Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Stothert, Karen E

    2003-02-14

    Cucurbita (squash and gourd) phytoliths recovered from two early Holocene archaeological sites in southwestern Ecuador and directly dated to 10,130 to 9320 carbon-14 years before the present (about 12,000 to 10,000 calendar years ago) are identified as derived from domesticated plants because they are considerably larger than those from modern wild taxa. The beginnings of plant husbandry appear to have been preceded by the exploitation of a wild species of Cucurbita during the terminal Pleistocene. These data provide evidence for an independent emergence of plant food production in lowland South America that was contemporaneous with or slightly before that in highland Mesoamerica.

  4. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  5. An overview of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Balkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita L. species of the pumpkin and winter squash are grown all over the world. Winter squash and pumpkin are two of the most important Cucurbit vegetable crops in Turkey. Turkey is one of the important diversity areas, for the cultivated cucurbits because of their adaptation to diverse ecological conditions as a result of both natural selection and also the selection by farmers. Farmers have maintained the local population of winter squash and pumpkin, which are mainly sold in local markets. Only one improved cultivar of the winter squash is currently grown commercially in Turkey. It is a traditional vegetable often grown in small gardens. In this contribution, the last status of winter squash and pumpkin production in Turkey, the growing techniques and problems of these winter squash and pumpkin species, their genetic collection and characterization, and the utilization of the presented species in Turkey are examined.

  6. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-03-10

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita.

  7. New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Dou, De-Qiang; Xu, Liang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2009-07-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Their structures were elucidated as (2-hydroxy)phenylcarbinyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-beta-D-(glucopyranosyl hydroxymethyl)phenyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  8. Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2007-09-01

    Mutualists and antagonists may place conflicting selection pressures on plant traits. For example, the evolution of floral traits is typically studied in the context of attracting pollinators, but traits may incur fitness costs if they are also attractive to antagonists. Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) feed on cucurbits and are attracted to several volatiles emitted by Cucurbita blossoms. However, the effect of these volatiles on pollinator attraction is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether pollinators were attracted to the same or different floral volatiles as herbivorous cucumber beetles. We tested three volatiles previously found to attract cucumber beetles in a factorial design to determine attraction of squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa), the specialist pollinators of cucurbita species, as well as the specialist herbivore A. vittatum. We found that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene was attractive to both the pollinator and the herbivore, indole was attractive only to the herbivore, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde was attractive only to the pollinator. There were no interactions among volatiles on attraction of squash bees or cucumber beetles. Our results suggest that reduced indole emission could benefit plants by reducing herbivore attraction without loss of pollination, and that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene might be under conflicting selection pressure from mutualists and antagonists. By examining the attraction of both mutualists and antagonists to Cucurbita floral volatiles, we have demonstrated the potential for some compounds to influence only one type of interaction, while others may affect both interactions and possibly result in tradeoffs. These results shed light on the potential evolution of fragrance in native Cucurbita, and may have consequences for yield in agricultural settings.

  9. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  10. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  11. The effect of stem pruning and nitrogen levels of on some physico-chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipouri, Abdolghayoum; Nazarnejad, H

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the effects of stem pruning (No heading, head pruning of stem after formation of 10 and 14 nodes) and nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha(-1)) on physical and chemical characteristic of pumpkin seed a Factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replication was carried out in Gorgan at 2003 and repeated in 2004 years. Results showed that the stem pruning has significant effect on traits such as seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. Nitrogen levels also have significant effect on seed dimension, seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. The largest amount of oil and linoleic acid content was obtained by stem pruning after forming 14 node and 100 kg ha(-1) nitrogen in separately, but the interaction of treatments were not significant difference for all of traits.

  12. Oligoglucans as Elicitors of an Enzymatic Antioxidant System in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seedlings at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Ceron-Garcia; Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar; Irasema Vargas-Arispuro; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.; Miguel A. Martinez-Tellez

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Non-controlled low temperatures affect physiological and biochemical processes leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation in plants, which normally are stabilized by the antioxidant system. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and Catalase (CAT) are the most important ROS-detoxification enzymes in stressed plants. Approach: The activity of these enzymes were examined in response to fungal Oligoglucans (OG) in cold-stressed...

  13. 辐照花粉诱导西葫芦单倍体%Studies on Squash(Cucurbita pepo L.)Haploid Plants Induced by Irradiated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许利彩; 李海真; 沈火林; 葛志东

    2009-01-01

    利用不同剂量的60Co γ射线辐照西葫芦花粉后授粉,剥取不同发育阶段的胚接种在E20A培养基上进行培养,研究不同基因型、辐照剂量、剂量率对西葫芦单倍体诱导的影响.结果发现:单倍体的产生和植株再生率受基因型、胚发育阶段和辐照剂量的影响明显.281基因型平均单倍体诱导率最高,为1.30 %;点状胚和箭形胚易发育成单倍体苗;辐照剂量80~100 Gy时获得点状胚和箭形胚及胚总数最多,杆状胚的植株再生率和植株成活率最高,分别是83.33 %和35.71 %;适宜的剂量率为45.19 Gy·min-1.

  14. Reproductive Characteristics of Embryo Sac Plants in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)%西葫芦胚囊植株生殖特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欢欢; 王晓云; 谢冰

    2013-01-01

    考察了经未受精胚珠离体诱导获得的西葫芦再生胚囊植株及其3个自交世代的生殖特性.单倍体胚囊植株高度不育,无法获得自交后代.绝大多数双单倍体(DH)胚囊植株及其3个自交世代的花器特征、开花进程等与二倍体供体一致.DH植株当代的花粉萌发率为15.52、~42.67%,花粉量偏少,自交单果结籽数明显少于二倍体供体.DH植株3个自交世代的花粉萌发率为17.62%~42.70%,均低于二倍体供体,各自交株系的花粉生活力在3个自交世代间保持稳定,但花粉量仍偏少.交叉授粉验证结果显示,DH植株当代及其3个自交世代的雌性生殖能力接近二倍体供体,雄性生殖能力明显低于二倍体供体,但未呈现持续下降趋势.DH植株3个自交世代的种子发芽率均在92%以上,自交种子具可稔性.

  15. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  16. Study Progress on the Formation Mechanism of Hull-less Seed in Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita pepo%南瓜、西葫芦薄种皮形成机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申琼; 武峻新

    2014-01-01

    南瓜、西葫芦薄种皮由于其特性成为优良的资源材料,近几十年来针对其成因学者们进行了大量研究,主要集中在对薄种皮突变体形成的遗传学机理研究、采用RAPD,AFLP,ISSR,SRAP等标记进行遗传多样性分析、对有皮和薄皮种的种皮组成成分进行分析、对薄皮种进行基因定位等方面.针对目前的研究进行了综述,并对今后有待解决的问题及研究方向进行了展望.

  17. Compared Ageing of Oil from Curcubitea Pepo in Two Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.W. Nakavoua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the oil pumkin seeds of Curcubitea pepo from Congo- Brazzaville. The ageing of oil extracted from the seeds of the pumpkin Curcubitea pepo stored at two temperatures (6 and 30ºC was monitored during storage for 11 months by comparison of physical and chemical characteristics correlated with spectroscopic data. Medium infrared spectroscopy confirmed saponification index data. Ultraviolet absorption confirmed peroxide index data. Antioxidant behaviour was monitored by fluorescence and the effect of ageing on the two major fatty acid families was analysed by a study of chemical composition correlated with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. This study showed an overall lengthening of the fatty acid carbon chains and allowed preferential storage conditions to be specified for this oil.

  18. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) to complement component C1q modulates the complement attack and promotes host cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Sroka, Magdalena; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, Simone; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2014-05-30

    The Gram-positive species Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases associated with high mortality rates and death. We demonstrated recently that pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional plasminogen and fibronectin-binding protein facilitating host cell invasion and evasion of innate immunity. In this study, we found that PepO interacts directly with the complement C1q protein, thereby attenuating the classical complement pathway and facilitating pneumococcal complement escape. PepO binds both free C1q and C1 complex in a dose-dependent manner based on ionic interactions. Our results indicate that recombinant PepO specifically inhibits the classical pathway of complement activation in both hemolytic and complement deposition assays. This inhibition is due to direct interaction of PepO with C1q, leading to a strong activation of the classical complement pathway, and results in consumption of complement components. In addition, PepO binds the classical complement pathway inhibitor C4BP, thereby regulating downstream complement activation. Importantly, pneumococcal surface-exposed PepO-C1q interaction mediates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. Taken together, PepO facilitates C1q-mediated bacterial adherence, whereas its localized release consumes complement as a result of its activation following binding of C1q, thus representing an additional mechanism of human complement escape by this versatile pathogen.

  19. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of PEPO grafted carboxymethyl guar and carboxymethyl tamarind as new thermo-associating polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nivika R; Torris A T, Arun; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P; Rajamohanan, P R; Ducouret, Guylaine; Hourdet, Dominique; Creton, Costantino; Badiger, Manohar V

    2015-03-06

    New thermo associating polymers were designed and synthesized by grafting amino terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (PEPO) onto carboxymethyl guar (CMG) and carboxymethyl tamarind (CMT). The grafting was performed by coupling reaction between NH2 groups of PEPO and COOH groups of CMG and CMT using water-soluble EDC/NHS as coupling agents. The grafting efficiency and the temperature of thermo-association, T(assoc) in the copolymer were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The graft copolymers, CMG-g-PEPO and CMT-g-PEPO exhibited interesting thermo-associating behavior which was evidenced by the detailed rheological and fluorescence measurements. The visco-elastic properties (storage modulus, G'; loss modulus, G") of the copolymer solutions were investigated using oscillatory shear experiments. The influence of salt and surfactant on the T(assoc) was also studied by rheology, where the phenomenon of "Salting out" and "Salting in" was observed for salt and surfactant, respectively, which can give an easy access to tunable properties of these copolymers. These thermo-associating polymers with biodegradable nature of CMG and CMT can have potential applications as smart injectables in controlled release technology and as thickeners in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations.

  1. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  2. Chemical and Physicochemical Characterization of Winter Squash (Cucurbita moschata D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia JACOBO-VALENZUELA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash cv ‘Cehualca’ (Cucurbita moschata Duchense is a seasonal crop that has been used as food and animal feed. The objective of the present study was to characterize physical, chemical and physicochemical properties of the winter squash cv ‘Cehualca’. Morphological, chemical and physicochemical analyses were performed, including fiber, carotenoids, phenolic and mineral contents in the winter squash. The morphological analysis showed that the squash ‘Cehualca’ did not have a homogeneous morphology. Data about their physical and physicochemical characteristics showed large variability. Also, high content of carotenoids and dietary fiber was observed in squash. The oil and total phenolic content was low in comparison with other fruits. The mineral content exceeded the values recommended to meet the nutritional needs of consumers, except for sodium (both in pulp and shell, potassium and magnesium in the shell.

  3. The sterols of Cucurbita moschata ("calabacita") seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J B; Gros, E G; Bertoni, M H; Cattaneo, P

    1996-11-01

    From the sterol fraction of seed oil from commercial Cucurbita moschata Dutch ("calabacita") delta 5 and delta 7 sterols having saturated and unsaturated side chain were isolated by chromatographic procedures and characterized by spectroscopic (1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) methods. The main components were identified as 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3 beta-ol (alpha-spinasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E,25-trien-3 beta-ol (25-dehydrochondrillasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,25-dien-3 beta-ol; 24R-ethyl-cholesta-7-en-3 beta-ol (delta 7-stigmastenol) and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7, 24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol (delta 7,24(28)-stigmastadienol).

  4. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  5. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE Rosellinia pepo Pat. EN PLANTAS DE MACADAMIA ISOLATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Rosellinia pepo Pat. IN MACADAMIA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Eliana Realpe Ortiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Rosellinia pepo Pat., causante de la llaga estrellada, se considera uno de los principales problemas fitosanitarios de la macadamia por ocasionar la muerte de la planta en su etapa productiva. Debido a que no existe una metodología de aislamiento confiable que asegure la recuperación del hongo con un porcentaje mínimo de contaminación y los estudios relacionados con este patógeno son escasos se planteó una investigación con el fin de perfeccionar una metodología de aislamiento y realizar algunas caracterizaciones morfológicas de este patógeno. La nueva metodología permitió obtener aislamientos con un 91,26% de pureza del hongo. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 4,68 mm día-1. Las colonias son de color blanco y apariencia algodonosa en su inicio, pero a medida que envejece el micelio toma un color café o negro y su apariencia se torna quebradiza. La observación de micelio blanco en forma de estrella en el lado interior del medio sintético permite diferenciarlo de otras especies como R. bunodes. Las mediciones microscópicas de los hinchamientos piriformes presentaron en promedio 106,4mm de largo y 75,3mm de ancho. Este trabajo también permitió determinar el nivel de inóculo infectivo.The fungus Rosellinia pepo Pat, the causal agent of star gall, is considered to be a main phytosanitary problem to the Macademia tree by causing the death of the tree while in its productive stage. Because no reliable isolation method exists that assures recovery of the mushroom with a minimum percentage of contamination and studies of this pathogen are scarce. This study was conducted to perfect an isolation methodology and permit some morphological characterizations of this pathogen. The new methodology allowed isolations with 91,26% purity of mushroom to be obtained. The rate of growth was 4,68 mm day-1. The colonies were of white color and cottony appearance in the beginning, but as the micelio aged it assumed a brown or black color and a

  6. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  7. Calcium Distribution in Globoid Crystals of Cucurbita Cotyledon Protein Bodies 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, John N. A.; Spitzer, Ernest; Vollmer, Catherine M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was used to investigate the location of globoid crystals with relatively high Ca levels within cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, and Cucurbita andreana. The small globoid crystals in both upper and lower epidermal cells commonly contained Ca. Ca was present in globoid crystals of all provascular regions with the exception of the very small provascular regions of C. maxima. In C. maxima and C. mixta cotyledons, some cases were observed where Ca was found in the globoid crystals of the first layer of mesophyll cells surrounding the provascular region, but in general Ca was absent from globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. In C. andreana, globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells commonly contained at least some Ca. Cell position and cell type are factors affecting the Ca content of globoid crystals in protein bodies. PMID:16660825

  8. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  9. [Allelopathic effects of cultured Cucurbita moschata root exudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Ma, Yongqin; Shui, Junfeng

    2005-04-01

    By using the techniques of tissue culture, bio-assay and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the effects of the allelopathic chemicals from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) roots on the seed germination and seedling growth of pumpkin, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and radish (Raphanus sativus). The pumpkin root was cultured on a sterile B5 media, and the concentrations of macro- and microelements, organic supplements and hormones in the media were adjusted by using an orthogonal design. After culturing, the culture media was filtered and used in a bioassay to test the autotoxicity and allelopathic effects. The results showed that the pumpkin had both autotoxic and allelopathic effects, and the media having been used to culture the pumpkin roots contained the chemicals that significantly inhibited the seedling growth of wheat and radish. The allelopathic effect decreased when the culture media was diluted. The production of allelochemicals seemed to be related to the growth rate of the pumpkin roots. When the root growth was rapid, the concentration of allelochemicals was high. The allelopathic effect was stronger on radish than on wheat. The optimum concentrations of macro- and microelements, vitamins and hormones for culturing pumpkin root were determined, and the effect of pumpkin root nutrition on the production of allelochemicals was tested. The results indicated that pumpkin root nutrition had a significant effect on the production of allelochemicals.

  10. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (tropical pumpkin) (C. moschata) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods:In the present study, dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MEOH) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus (21 mm) whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (8 mm). MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa (19 mm). Broth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6.25 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3.12 mg/mL to 100.00 mg/mL. The screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: Peel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  11. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial Evaluation of squash (Cucurbita moschata populations for significant agribusiness traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P The agribusiness potential of seven squash (Cucurbita moschata populations derived of the recombination of genotypes of high performing in characters associated with yield and quality of the fruit was evaluated. The Anova analyses for semesters 2008-A and 2008-B allowed to detect highly significant differences (P < 0.01 among populations, for all the variables, except for color flesh fruit in 2008-A. The populations 1 and 5 showed a relative permanence in dry matter content in two cycles of genetic recombination.

  12. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

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    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  13. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  15. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

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    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  16. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

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    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  17. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Reid V; Chang, Jennifer C; Federle, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg(2+) and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles.

  18. Location of Caspase 3-like Protease in the Development of Sieve Element and Tracheary Element of Stem in Cucurbita moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hao; Jie Qian; Shan Xu; Xin Song; Jian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, extemal phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.

  19. Location of caspase 3-like protease in the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xia; Qian, Jie; Xu, Shan; Song, Xin; Zhu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, external phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.

  20. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Transformer Gene From Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya; Zhao, Santao; Li, Jiahui; Li, Peizheng

    2017-01-01

    transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found. BcuTRA is highly conservative with its homologues in other tephritid fruit flies. Gene expression analysis of Bcutra at different developmental stages demonstrates that the female transcript of Bcutra appears earlier than the male counterparts, indicating that the maternal TRA is inherited in eggs and might play a role in the regulation of TRA expression. The conservation of protein sequence and sex-specific splicing of Bcutra and its expression patterns during development suggest that Bcutra is probably the master gene of sex determination of B. cucurbitae. Isolation of Bcutra will facilitate the development of a genetic sexing strain for its biological control.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

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    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  2. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  3. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  4. Genetic structure and indirect estimates of gene flow in three taxa of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2002-07-01

    Cultivated squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma and C. moschata) are important in the Mexican traditional agroecosystem. They are typically cultivated within maize fields where adjacent populations of a wild, close relative, C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia, occur. Consequently, there are ample opportunities for gene flow between domesticated and free-living Cucurbita populations. We used allozymes to examine genetic variation and gene flow among these three Cucurbita taxa in the state of Jalisco in Western Mexico. Twelve polymorphic allozyme loci were used to calculate genetic diversity for 16 populations of Cucurbita. We found high levels of genetic variation: polymorphism of 0.96, mean allelic diversity of 2.08, average expected heterozygosity 0.407, and little differentiation among conspecific populations (D = 0.081; F(ST) = 0.087; N(e)m = 5.22). These findings indicate that Cucurbita possess a high pollen dispersal potential, a somewhat surprising result considering they have specialist pollinators. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) analysis of allozymes suggests the existence of at least two distinct groups of populations, one consisting of both subspecies of C. argyrosperma and another consisting of C. moschata.

  5. Darkness affects differentially the expression of plastid-encoded genes and delays the senescence-induced down-regulation of chloroplast transcription in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishev, Kiril; Dimitrova, Anna; Ananiev, Evguéni D

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to differentiated leaves, the regulatory mechanisms of chloroplast gene expression in darkened cotyledons have not been elucidated. Although some results have been reported indicating accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis upon reillumination, the capacity of cotyledons to recover after dark stress remains unclear. We analysed the effect of two-days dark stress, applied locally or at the whole-plant level, on plastid gene expression in zucchini cotyledons. Our results showed that in the dark the overall chloroplast transcription rate was much more inhibited than the nuclear run-on transcription. While the activities of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase II were strongly reduced, the activities of the nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) and nuclear RNA polymerase I were less affected. During recovery upon reillumination, chloroplast transcription in the cotyledons was strongly stimulated (3-fold) compared with the naturally senescing controls, suggesting delayed senescence. Northern blot and dot blot analyses of the expression of key chloroplast-encoded photosynthetic genes showed that in contrast to psbA, which remained almost unaffected, both the transcription rate and mRNA content of psaB and rbcL were substantially decreased.

  6. Structures of new phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Dou, De-Qiang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai Xue

    2009-04-01

    A new phenolic glycoside and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. The structures of the new compound was elucidated as phenylcarbinyl 5-O-(4-hydroxy)benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Three known compounds were identified as 1-O-benzyl[5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside 2, cucurbitosides C 3 and A 4, by comparison of the spectral data with reported data. Compound 2 was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  7. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjaree Watcharawongpaiboon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of microsatellite markers in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L. was performed using the biotin-streptavidin enrichment procedure. One hundred and thirty three clones were randomly selected. After sequence analysis of 31 randomly picked positive colonies, 100% of the colonies were found to contain microsatellite sequences, and 9 primer pairs were designed. Five of the primers tested could amplify pumpkins DNA and can be used for genetic purity testing of the commercial hybrids. This paper reports the first isolation and utilization of microsatellite markers in pumpkin.

  8. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  9. Effects of NaCl stress, Ca2+ and GA3 on seed germination of three vegetables in Cucurbita L.%NaCl胁迫及Ca2+和GA3对南瓜属3种蔬菜种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广印; 韩世栋; 赵一鹏; 周秀梅; 李新峥

    2005-01-01

    研究了NaCl胁迫对南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)、笋瓜(C. maxima Duch.)和西葫芦(C.pepo L.)种子萌发的影响及不同浓度外源Ca2+和GA3对NaCl胁迫下南瓜种子发芽的效应.结果表明,用30 mmol·L-1NaCl处理,南瓜种子的发芽率高于对照(蒸馏水),而用100和170 mmol·L-1NaCl处理,西葫芦和笋瓜种子的发芽率下降率为负值,表明较低浓度NaCl胁迫可一定程度提高西葫芦、笋瓜和南瓜种子的发芽率;高浓度NaCl胁迫对种子发芽有明显的抑制作用.种子萌发期耐盐能力从大至小依次为西葫芦、南瓜、笋瓜.在170 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,施加5~30 mmol·L-1外源Ca2+或浸种处理,对南瓜种子发芽有促进作用,但高浓度外源Ca2+(≥50 mmol·L-1CaCl2)则具有抑制作用.在170 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,用不同浓度GA3浸种处理,对南瓜种子发芽有抑制作用.

  10. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  11. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  12. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  13. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  14. IMMUNOCYTOLOGICAL LOCALIZATION OF IAA IN THE PARENCHYMA CELL AND VASCULAR ELEMENTS IN THE GRAFT UNION OF CUCURBITA PEPO/CUCURBITA MOSCHATA AT THE EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE%嫁接早期IAA在西葫芦/南瓜嫁接面处薄壁细胞和维管分子中的免疫细胞学定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼群; 韩静; 贾文锁; 杜中

    2000-01-01

    采用免疫胶体金法对IAA在西葫芦/南瓜离体茎段嫁接早期发育时期在嫁接面处的分布进行了超微结构水平的定位.电镜观察表明:在嫁接面处的薄壁细胞中IAA主要定位于细胞核、质体、内质网等细胞器上.在高尔基体、线粒体、细胞壁和液泡中,未发现胶体金颗粒的标记.在分化中的管状分子中,胶体金颗粒位于次生壁上和细胞质中.在筛分子分化过程中,IAA主要定位于筛板、筛孔和细胞质中.在伴胞中有较高的金颗粒密度.对于IAA在嫁接体维管分子分化过程中的作用进行了讨论.

  15. Polinização entomófila em abóbora caipira, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae = Entomophilus pollination in pumpkins, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lattaro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os insetos visitantes nas flores masculinas e femininas da abóbora caipira (Cucurbita mixta, em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, foram realizadas contagens dos insetos presentes nas flores das 7h00 às 18h00, durante 10 minutos em cada horário, com três repetições (três dias distintos, em agosto de 2004. Observou-se que abelha africanizada (Apis mellifera foi o inseto visitante mais freqüente nas flores. Essa abelha visitou as flores até 13h00 e preferiu coletar néctar nasflores masculinas (68,4%, em comparação ao pólen nas flores masculinas (18,6% e ao néctar nas flores femininas (13,0%. A freqüência dessas abelhas nas flores diminuiu no decorrer do dia. A relação de flor masculina para feminina foi 3,2:1.This study aimed to evaluate the insect visitors in the male and female flowers of the pumpkin, Cucurbita mixta, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in August, 2004. The insects in the flowers were counted from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00p.m., for 10 minutes, every hour, with three replications and in three different days. It was observed that the insect which most frequently visited the flowers was the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera. That bee visited flowers until 1:00 p.m. and preferred to collect nectar from the male flowers (68.4%, when compared to pollen from the male flowers (18.6% and nectar from the female flowers (13.0%. The frequency of those bees in the flowers decreased in elapsing of the day. The relationship between male and female flowers was 3.2:1.

  16. Molecular Replacement Studies of Cucurmosin from Cucurbita Moschata: Structure Homology with Trichosanthin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Li(石小莉); Edward X. Zhou; YE Xiao-Ming(叶晓明); Edward J. Meehan; CHEN Ming-Huang(陈明晃); Liqing Chen(陈荔清)

    2003-01-01

    High diffraction quality crystals of cucurmosin, a type Ⅰ ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin), have been grown under newly optimised conditions. With in-house rotating anode X-ray source, these crystals diffract to 1.65 A resolution which is much higher than that of the previously reported crystals that diffracted only to 3 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 58.4 and c = 99.3 A. Molecular replacement studies indicate that the cucurmosin structure is homologous to trichosanthin. The initial structural model has been obtained and the model fitting/refinement is in progress.

  17. Agrobiodiversity in Cucurbita spp. landraces collected in Rio de Janeiro assessed by molecular markers

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    Marilene Hilma dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and genetic relationship in forty landraces of Cucurbita spp. collected at small farms in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by RAPD and ISSR markers, using 20 and 15 primers, respectively. Both markers were efficient to cluster the accessions separating among species, but not so much to the detection of intra-specific variability, considering the event of different pairs of accessions comprising null genetic distances observed for both markers in C. moschata. Low values observed for genetic distance among the C. moschata landraces showed that most likely genetic losses is in progress in that region of cultivation due to anthropic and market pressure, which are stimulating the small farmers to abandon their local varieties in order to use commercial seeds, including hybrids, which is causing risk of genetic erosion.

  18. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  19. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

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    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  20. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cucurbita moschata and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-30

    In this study, cellulase-assisted extraction of water soluble polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and their antibacterial activity were investigated. The polysaccharides yield was monitored during the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 40 min; temperature, 55°C; pH, 4.5; and cellulase amount, 4,000 U/g. The extracts were centrifuged, filtered, proteins removed by Sevag method, concentrated to approximately 15% (w/v), precipitated with 5 volumes of absolute ethanol, freeze-dried, and pulverized to yield a water soluble powder of pumpkin polysaccharides (PP). The sugar content of the product was 68.3%, and the yield was 17.34% (w/w), respectively. The PP had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 mg/mL.

  1. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  2. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

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    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  3. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  4. Variabilidad en frutos y semillas de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L.H. Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates: Fruit and seeds variability in butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch. and Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L. H.Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates

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    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En las cucurbitáceas (zapallo se presenta una gama amplia de variantes para el color de la semilla, desde blanco a café, que pueden tener significado evolutivo y de distribución geográfica. Se evaluó la variabilidad en semillas de 295 introducciones de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y 99 de Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, todas procedentes de libre polinización. El análisis de conglomerados evidenció 11 grupos para cada una de las especies, las cuales expresaron alta variabilidad entre y dentro de las introducciones para los caracteres porcentaje de extracto etéreo en semilla (EE, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y número de frutos por planta (NFP. En C. moschata se destacaron dos grupos (5 y 9 por presentar altos promedios para producción por planta (PPL, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y extracto etéreo por planta (EEPP, con coeficientes de variación (CV entre 52% y 93%. En C. argyrosperma subsp. sororia se destacaron para los mismos caracteres los grupos 5 y 11, con un CV entre 53% y 79%. Los elevados coeficientes de variación evidenciaron amplia variabilidad entre y dentro de introducciones para los caracteres de importancia agronómica y agroindustrial. Teniendo en cuenta el análisis de agrupamiento y el índice de selección ponderado (ISP se seleccionaron las seis mejores introducciones en cada especie.

  5. Sources of resistance in accessions of Cucurbita spp. to virus species from the genus Potyvirus

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    Graziela da Silva Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The identification of source of resistance in cultivated cucurbits species is very important for the development of resistant cultivars to control diseases caused by virus from the genus Potyvirus. The present research had the objective to evaluate the phenotypic reactions and the behavior of pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. accessions to the virus species from the genus Potyvirus: Papaya ringspot virus type Watermelon (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Twenty-eight accessions of pumpkin from the Cucurbit Germplasm Bank from Embrapa Semiárido, Petrolina, PE, Brazil were evaluated. Twelve young plants from each pumpkin accession were inoculated with each one of the virus species and were maintained at greenhouse for their symptom reaction evaluations. All possible virus infections or absence of infection were confirmed by plate-trapped antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV-W, ZYMV and WMV at the Plant Virus Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Ceará. Three pumpkin accessions showed extreme resistant to WMV and eight accessions presented mild mosaic when inoculated with PRSV-W. The most severe symptoms were observed on those accessions inoculated with ZYMV and 50% of the accessions showed to be highly susceptible. On the other hand, the pumpkin accessions inoculated with WMV presented the mildest symptoms, indicating that 39% of them were resistant, and 39% were tolerant. The Cucurbita spp. accessions BGC 518, BGC 530, BGC 567, and BGC 683 that showed resistance to one or more than one virus species constitute promising sources of resistance for developing virus resistant pumpkin cultivars or hybrids.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of cucurmosin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Ye, X; Cai, J; Lin, Y

    2000-05-01

    Cucurmosin, a ribosome-inactivating protein purified from pumpkin, the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata, has been crystallized using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and have unit-cell parameters a = 41.91, b = 59. 48, c = 98.78 A. There is one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction data to 3.0 A resolution were collected on a MAR Research image-plate detector.

  7. Genetic Correlations and Path Analysis in Butternut Squash Cucurbita moschata Duch / Correlaciones Genéticas y Análisis de Sendero en Zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch

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    Sanín Ortiz Grisales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A genetic correlation and path analysis was carried out for yield and fruit quality components of diallel crosses of butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch, using openpollinated introductions, S0 and inbred lines S1 and S2 at two sites: Candelaria and Buga, located in the Department of Valle delCauca, Colombia. A split-plot experimental design with arranged, random blocks and four replicates was used. The average fruit weight presented positive genetic correlations with the total production per plant in all three generations and at both test sites. The total plant dry matter and total production per plant presented a high genetic correlation, and the fruit dry matter was inversely correlated with the total carotene. The total carotene and fruit color were independent. The path analysis confirmed high genetic correlations between the number of fruits per plant, average fruitweight, and total plant dry matter, with direct, positive effects, that were significantly greater than zero for the variables of number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight in regards to the total plant dry matter. The total production per plant expressed a direct, negative effect on the total plant dry matter. The fruit dry matter presented an indirect, negative effect on the total plant dry matter through the average fruit weight and an indirect, positive effect through the total production per plant. / Resumen. Se estudiaron las correlaciones genéticas y el análisis de sendero para los componentes del rendimiento y calidad del fruto de zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch, en cruzamientos dialélicos entre introducciones de libre polinización S0 y sus líneas S1 y S2 en dos localidades, Candelaria y Buga, ubicadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas, arregladas en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El peso promedio del fruto presentó correlación gen

  8. Diversidad genética de germoplasma colombiano de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Dúchesne Exp. Prior

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    Vallejo C. F. A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron, caracterizaron morfológicamente y evaluaron agronómicamente 133 accesiones de Cucurbita moschata en Colombia (departamentos del Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Risaralda, Quindío, Caldas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Magdalena y Atlántico, las cuales presentaron alta diversidad en tamaño, forma y color de fruto. Los descriptores pubescencia de la hoja, color mancha de la hoja, días a floración masculina, días a floración femenina, espesor de pulpa, tamaño de semilla, forma de margen de semilla, ancho de fruto y peso promedio de fruto permitieron la diferenciación de grupos. Se encontró un índice de diversidad de 62% entre las accesiones colectadas en los departamentos de la región andina con las de la Costa Atlántica. Ninguno de los grupos presentó índices de similaridad del 100%. ABSTRACT This study was carried at Candelaria (Colombia, from August 2001 to July 2003. This study aimed at evaluating, by multivariate analyses techniques, the genetic diversity of 133 accesions, collected from distinct areas of regions of Colombia. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replications. The data (average were collected from three plants per plot. Thirteen nine traits were evaluated, 9 vegetatives, 24 reproductives and 1 related to susceptibility to stress. The data were analysed using the herarquical method of WARD and were transformed into a complete disjunctive table, where the modalities of each character is a new variable. The analysis revealed five cluster, with to R2 = 97% and diversity index 62%. The most important characteristics to explain the variability were: days to first female and male flower, fruit width, fruit weight, flesh thickness, leaf pubescence dorsal and ventral surface, colour of leaf spots and seed size. The 5, 7, 47 , 109 and 28 accesion might be recommended for breeding programs. Keywords: Cucurbita moschata, Germplasm, Genetic resources, plant breeding, Morphology

  9. In vitro plant regeneration system for tropical butternut squash genotypes (Cucurbita moschata

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    Marta Valdez-Melara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of commercial and pure lines of tropical butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata plants via somatic embryogenesis was developed. The influence of genotype, explant source, N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T concentration on somatic embryogenesis induction was investigated. Friable embryogenic calli was produced from zigotic embryos (53-56% and cotyledons from seedlings (70% of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on CIM supplemented with different concentrations of BAP and 2,4-D and cotyledons from seedlings of C. moschata cv. PVG 04 cultured on CIM with BAP and 2,4,5-T. Embryogenic calli induction was achieved in 75% C. moschata pure lines evaluated and calli percentage frequency range from 5% to 34%. Successful acclimatization of squash in vitro plants was achieved in the greenhouse and in the field. Regenerated plants appeared morphologically normal and set flowers and fruits with seeds that could germinate normally. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 119-127. Epub 2009 November 30.

  10. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  11. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Diao, Wenchao; Wang, Chengrong

    2014-11-26

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) of Cucurbita moschata polysaccharides (CMCP) was established and the CMCP antioxidant activities were studied. The UAEE operating parameters (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, pH, and liquid-to-material ratio) were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) and the mass transfer kinetic study in UAEE procedure was used to select the optimal extraction time. Enzymolysis and ultrasonication that were simultaneously conducted was selected as the UAEE synergistic model and the optimum extraction conditions with a maximum polysaccharide yield of 4.33 ± 0.15% were as follows: extraction temperature, 51.5 °C; ultrasonic power, 440 W; pH, 5.0; liquid-to-material ratio, 5.70:1 mL/g; and extraction time, 20 min. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CMCP has good potential as a natural antioxidant used in the food or medicine industry because of their high reducing power and positive radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical.

  14. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  15. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  16. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  17. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  18. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

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    Roodabeh Bahramsoltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE. Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

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    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  20. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Fruit Extract Improves Physical Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice

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    Chia-Chung Hou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen and release (as blood glucose, and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  1. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

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    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  3. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  4. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  5. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  6. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  7. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  8. 13-Hydroxy-9Z,11E,15E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Myun-Ho; Han, Jae-Taek; Kim, Hae Yeong; Park, Young-Doo; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Kang-Ro; Baek, Nam-In

    2002-08-01

    A new unsaturated hydroxy fatty acid was isolated from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata through repeated silica gel column chromatography and chemical methods. The structure of the new fatty acid was determined as 13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid on the basis of several spectral data including 2D-NMR. The stererostructures of double bonds were determined to be 9Z, 11E and 15E by coupling patterns of related proton signals in the 1H-NMR and NOESY experiments.

  9. In vitro plant regeneration system for tropical butternut squash genotypes (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez-Melara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of commercial and pure lines of tropical butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata plants via somatic embryogenesis was developed. The influence of genotype, explant source, N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T concentration on somatic embryogenesis induction was investigated. Friable embryogenic calli was produced from zigotic embryos (53-56% and cotyledons from seedlings (70% of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on callus induction medium (CIM supplemented with 0.5 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No embryogenic calli was obtained from leaf segments of C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultured on CIM supplemented with different concentrations of BAP and 2,4-D and cotyledons from seedlings of C. moschata cv. PVG 04 cultured on CIM with BAP and 2,4,5-T. Embryogenic calli induction was achieved in 75% C. moschata pure lines evaluated and calli percentage frequency range from 5% to 34%. Successful acclimatization of squash in vitro plants was achieved in the greenhouse and in the field. Regenerated plants appeared morphologically normal and set flowers and fruits with seeds that could germinate normally. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 119-127. Epub 2009 November 30.En este estudio se desarrolló un método eficiente y reproducible para la regeneración de líneas puras de la planta tropical Cucurbita moschata mediante la vía de embriogénesis somática. Además se investigó acerca de la influencia del genotipo, transplante, y la concentración de N6-benzylaminopurina (BAP, 2,4-diclorofenoxyacetico ácido (2,4-D y 2,4,5-triclorofenoxyacetico ácido (2,4,5-T en la inducción de embriogénesis somática. Los callos embriogenéticos viables fueron producidos de embriones zigóticos (53-56% y cotiledones de semillas (70% de C. moschata cv. Sello de Oro cultivados en un medio de inducción de callos (CIM suplementado con 0.5 mg/l o 3.5 mg

  10. Effect of disruption of a cutinase gene (cutA) on virulence and tissue specificity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 toward Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, R N; Binnie, S J; Bowen, J K; Hawthorne, B T; Plummer, K M; Rees-George, J; Rikkerink, E H; Templeton, M D

    1997-04-01

    A 3.9-kb genomic DNA fragment from the cucurbit pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 690 nucleotides interrupted by a single 51-bp intron. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed 92 and 98% identity, respectively, to those of the cutA gene of the pea pathogen F. solani f. sp. pisi. A gene replacement vector was constructed and used to generate cutA- mutants that were detected with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Seventy-one cutA- mutants were identified among the 416 transformants screened. Vector integration was assessed by Southern analysis in 23 of these mutants. PCR and Southern analysis data showed the level of homologous integration was 14%. Disruption of the cutA locus in mutants was confirmed by RNA gel blot hybridization. Neither virulence on Cucurbita maxima cv. Delica at any of six different inoculum concentrations, nor pathogenicity on intact fruit of four different species or cultivars of cucurbit or hypocotyl tissue of C. maxima cv. Crown, was found to be affected by disruption of the cutA gene.

  11. Secagem de fatias de abóboras (Cucurbita moschata, L. por convecção natural e forçada Drying of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. slices by natural and forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata, L. é uma importante fonte de provitamina A, de baixo custo, e sob a forma desidratada oferece diferentes opções de utilização e consumo. Secagens por convecção natural e forçada foram comparadas quanto ao grau de secagem atingido e encolhimento, em função da temperatura, velocidade de ar e dimensões do produto. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso de fatias com volume de 6,25 cm³ em secador por convecção forçada a 50 °C e à velocidade de 5,5 x 10-4 ms-1 resultaram em produtos de menor encolhimento, sendo recomendadas estas condições.Besides its low price, Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. is an important source of provitamin-A, and when dehydrated it offers different options of utilizations and consumption. Natural and forced convection drying were compared according to the drying degree shrinkage as a function of temperature, and air velocity and product dimensions. The obtained results showed that slices with the volume of 6.25 cm³ in forced convection oven at 50 °C and at the velocity of 5.5 x 10-4 ms-1 resulted in a lower shrinkage products, so these conditions were recommended.

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  13. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  14. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  15. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  16. Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of tradi- tional healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal pain followed by Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Cucurbita pepo L. This study suggested that traditional healers in eastern Hararghie zone have ..... Yigezu et al., 2014) and in Karak district, Pakistan, (Murad et al., 2013). The.

  17. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants.

  18. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that the specified combination is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “contributes to reduce......, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair....

  20. Inbreeding and Gene Action in Butternut Squash (Cucurbita moschata Seed Starch Content / Endocría y Acción Génica para el Contenido Almidón en Semilla de Zapallo (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanin Ortiz Grisales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The effect of inbreeding and gene action on butternutsquash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seed production and seedstarch content was evaluated at two locations in the departmentof Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using six accessions (S0 and their inbred lines S1 and S2. Significant differences were found between the accessions and inbred lines, but not between localities. The seed production and seed starch content showed no significant effects of inbreeding depression. An additive-type gene action predominated, suggesting that recurrent selection could be the best strategy to increase the frequencies of genes promoting seed production and seed starch content. / Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de la endocría y la acción génica en la producción de semilla y en el contenido de almidón en la semilla de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. en dos localidades del departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia, utilizando seis accesiones (S0 y sus respectivas líneas endocriadas S1 y S2. Se detectaron diferencias significativas entre accesiones y líneas endocriadas pero no entre localidades. La producción de semilla y el contenido de almidón no presentaron efectos significativos de depresión endogámica. Predominó la acción génica de tipo aditivo, sugiriendo que la selección recurrente podría ser la mejor estrategia para incrementar las frecuencias de los genes que favorecen la producción de semilla y contenido de almidón en la semilla.

  1. Kinetic mechanism and order of substrate binding for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew W; Fawcett, Tony; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-03-13

    sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT, EC 2.3.1.15), a component of glycerolipid biosynthesis, is an important enzyme in chilling sensitivity in plants. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from squash (Cucurbita moschata), without bound substrate, has been determined [Turnbull et al. (2001) Acta Crystallogr. D 57, 451-453; Turnbull et al. (2001) Structure 9, 347-353]. Here we report the kinetic mechanism of plastidial G3PAT from squash and the order of substrate binding using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates. The reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary complex with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol-3-phosphate. We have also determined that the reaction will proceed with C(4:0)-CoA, C(6:0)-CoA and C(12:0)-ACP substrates, allowing a wider choice of acyl groups for future co-crystallisation studies.

  2. Mutagenesis of squash (Cucurbita moschata) glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) to produce an enzyme with altered substrate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, M W; Fawcett, T; Schierer, T F; Simon, J W; Kroon, J T; Gilroy, J S; Rice, D W; Rafferty, J; Turnbull, A P; Sedelnikova, S E; Slabas, A R

    2000-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize the relationship between structure and substrate selectivity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, 1AT, EC 2.3.1.15) we have cloned a number of cDNAs into the pET overexpression system using a PCR-based approach. Following assay of the recombinant enzyme we noted that the substrate selectivity of the squash (Cucurbita moschata) enzyme had altered dramatically. This form of GPAT has now been crystallized and its full three-dimensional structure elucidated. Since we now have two forms of the enzyme that display different substrate selectivities this should provide a powerful tool to determine the basis of the selectivity changes. Kinetic and structural analyses are currently being performed to rationalize the changes which have taken place.

  3. Effects of different pruning ways on the sugar-decreasing matters of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits during the ripeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Shujun; JIANG Xinmei; LIU Shouwei; YU Xihong

    2007-01-01

    This experiment used pumpkin Longyuanlixiang as material to research the effect of different pruning ways with one branch, two branches, and three branches on the sugar-decreasing matters during the ripeness of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits. The results showed that pectin contents of pumpkin fruits during the ripeness all increased at first and then dropped in every treatment. The pectin contents under the treatments of one branch and two branches reached the high apex after pollinated for 30 d as well as for 35 d under the treatment of three branches. Pentose and chromium contents of fruits had the same trend under different pruning ways and increased during the ripenes. Three kinds of sugar-decreasing matters contents under treatment of two branches were bigger than treatment of one branch, while treatment of three branches was the lowest.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch) induced by wounding with aluminum borate whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Tsuda, Mai; Tabei, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    An efficient genetic transformation method for kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch cv. Heiankogiku) was established by wounding cotyledonary node explants with aluminum borate whiskers prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium. Adventitious shoots were induced from only the proximal regions of the cotyledonary nodes and were most efficiently induced on Murashige-Skoog agar medium with 1 mg/L benzyladenine. Vortexing with 1% (w/v) aluminum borate whiskers significantly increased Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal region of the explants. Transgenic plants were screened at the T(0) generation by sGFP fluorescence, genomic PCR, and Southern blot analyses. These transgenic plants grew normally and T(1) seeds were obtained. We confirmed stable integration of the transgene and its inheritance in T(1) generation plants by sGFP fluorescence and genomic PCR analyses. The average transgenic efficiency for producing kabocha squashes with our method was about 2.7%, a value sufficient for practical use.

  5. Diversity of bacterial communities in the midgut of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and their potential use as attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadapad, Ashok B; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Chandekar, Snehal C; Tripathi, Jyoti; Hire, Ramesh S

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota plays an important role in insect development and fitness. Understanding the gut microbiota composition is essential for the development of pest management strategies. Midgut bacteria were isolated from nine wild B. cucurbitae populations collected from different agroecological zones of India. These isolates were further studied for attractant potential of fruit fly adults, and the chemical constituents in the supernatants of gut bacteria were analysed. Twenty-six bacterial isolates belonging to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae were isolated and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The dominant species in the midgut of melon fly were from the genera Enterobacter (34.6%), Klebsiella (19.2%), Citrobacter (7.7%), Bacillus (15.4%) and Providencia (7.7%), and 3.8% each of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Leclercia and Exiguobacterium. Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. dorsalis adults were significantly attracted to bacterial whole cell cultures and their supernatants in the fruit fly attraction bioassays. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted both male and females of Bactrocera species. The supernatants of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Providencia species attracted a significantly greater number of females than males. The most abundant chemical constituents in supernatants of K. oxytoca and C. freundii were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, butyl isocyanatoacetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial endosymbionts associated with melon fly exhibited attractant potential which could facilitate eco-friendly insect control strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. VARIASI KOMBINASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata D.) DAN TEPUNG AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata R.br.) PADA KECERAHAN WARNA IKAN KOI (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Diah Ayu Tri

    2014-01-01

    Warna memegang peranan penting dalam menentukan kualitas ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), bahkan dipandang sebagai komponen penting dalam proses seleksi ikan hias. Permasalahan yang sering timbul adalah memudarnya warna ikan bila dipelihara dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Penelitian ini menambahkan tepung labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata D.) dan tepung Azolla (Azolla pinnata R.Br.) ke dalam pakan buatan. Dengan penambahan tepung labu kuning dan tepung Azolla ini memungkinkan ikan memperoleh lebih ...

  7. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C

    2002-08-06

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F(1) and F(2) progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus.

  8. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  9. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  10. Correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales en Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio estimó las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales entre doce caracteres agronómicos en dos dialélicos de zapallo (uno entre cinco variedades y otro entre cinco líneas S1, originadas de las anteriores. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con 15 tratamientos (5 progenitores + 10 cruzamientos F1 para cada dialélico y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados señalaron mayor estimación de las correlaciones (en magnitud y significancia estadística a favor del dialélico de líneas S1. Las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y las ambientales. La producción por planta (PFP presentó las correlaciones parciales fenotípicas y genéticas más altas con el peso por fruto (PPF y el número de frutos por planta (NFP (rPF y rPG > 0.80. El PPF y NFP pueden usarse como criterios de selección para la obtención de cultivares de altos rendimientos en C. moschata. ABSTRACT Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. The study evaluated phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations among 12 agronomy characters, in two set diallelic from five parents each one. The first set from five open pollinated varieties and the second one from five self-pollinated lines S1, obtained from the previous varieties. The two experiments were in completely randomized blocks with five replications. A higher estimation of correlation (in magnitude and statistical significance was observed in favor of the S1 lines diallelic. The genetic correlations were higher than the phenotypic and environmental correlations. The plant yield (PFP showed the highest partial phenotypic and genetic correlations with the fruit weight (PPF and fruits per plant (NFP (rPF and rPG > 0.80. It is suggested to use the PPF and NFP as selection criteria for breeding of C. moschata for development of high yield cultivars. Key words: Calabaza (cucurbita, genetic correlation, agronomic

  11. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  12. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  13. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing

    2008-10-01

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04A, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven alpha-helices and eight beta-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three alpha-helices and two beta-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc(2)Man(3)Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  14. [Effects of Celosia argentea and Cucurbita moschata extracts on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, K; Ushijima, H; Inouye, S; Takahashi, T; Kojima, Y

    1994-05-01

    We have already reported that the Perilla frutescens extract (PFE) suppressed anti-DNA IgE antibody production in mice. In this study, we prepared extracts of Celosia argentea L. (CAE) and Cucurbita moschata Duch (CME), which are Chinese herbal medicines like Perilla frutescens, and examined the effects on anti-DNP antibody responses in mice. To examine the effects of CAE & CME on primary antibody responses, CAE & CME were intraperitoneally injected the day before primary immunization of DNP-ovalbumin. Anti-DNP antibody production was markedly suppressed. Then, we examined the effects on secondary antibody responses. CEA & CME were injected only the day before secondary immunization. Anti-DNP IgE production was markedly suppressed, but IgG responses were not affected. It was also found that mitogenic activity occurred in CAE & CME dose dependently in vitro. These effects of CAE & CME were superior to that of PFE. These results suggest that CAE & CME may be more useful than PFE for the suppression of IgE antibody in certain allergic disorders.

  15. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  16. Physiological effects of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Kou, Xiaoming; Pei, Zhiguo; Xiao, John Q; Shan, Xiaoquan; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-01

    To date, knowledge gaps and associated uncertainties remain unaddressed on the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants. This study was focused on revealing some of the physiological effects of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta cv. white cushaw) plants under hydroponic conditions. This study for the first time reports that Fe(3)O(4) NPs often induced more oxidative stress than Fe(3)O(4) bulk particles in the ryegrass and pumpkin roots and shoots as indicated by significantly increased: (i) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, and (ii) lipid peroxidation. However, tested Fe(3)O(4) NPs appear unable to be translocated in the ryegrass and pumpkin plants. This was supported by the following data: (i) No magnetization was detected in the shoots of either plant treated with 30, 100 and 500 mg l(-1) Fe(3)O(4) NPs; (ii) Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study confirmed that the coordination environment of Fe in these plant shoots was similar to that of Fe-citrate complexes, but not to that of Fe(3)O(4) NPs; and (iii) total Fe content in the ryegrass and pumpkin shoots treated with Fe(3)O(4) NPs was not significantly increased compared to that in the control shoots.

  17. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-06

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  18. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  20. 西葫芦子叶花芽分化时内源激素、多胺含量的变化%The Changes of Endogenous Hormones and Polyamines of the Cotyledons of Cucurbita Pepo L. in Vitro During Floral Bud Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄作喜; 沈惠娟; 谢寅峰

    2002-01-01

    西葫芦子叶于附加1.0mg/L KT(激动素)MS(Murashige, Skoog)培养基中培养,明显提高了子叶的花芽分化率,分析其内源激素、多胺含量的动态变化,发现经KT处理组的子叶在花芽分化时,其内源GA1/3(赤霉素)含量降低,而ZRs(玉米素核苷)含量显著增加,表现出高的ZRs/GA1/3比值.花芽分化时,子叶内源Spm(精胺)、Spd(亚精胺)含量剧增,其中经KT处理组的子叶,其内源Spd含量较对照组增加2倍多,而Put(腐胺)含量在萌生不定根和营养芽时急剧增加,但到花芽分化时又突然下降.表明内源ZRs、Spd含量高与ZRs/GA1/3比值高有利于西葫芦子叶花芽分化.

  1. Effect of planting density on canopy sink-source feature and yield of different dwarf varieties of summer squashes (Cucurbita pepo L.)%种植密度对不同矮生型西葫芦品种冠层源库特征及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷逢进; 温祥珍; 李亚灵; 王晓民; 李灵芝; 刘秀丽; 刘庆华; 韩丽丽

    2013-01-01

    国内西葫芦品种有矮生和半矮生两类,半矮生品种是目前保护地主要栽培类型.试验分别以2个半矮生“东葫4号”和“冬玉”及2个矮生品种“长青王3号”和“早青”为研究对象,研究了种植密度对大棚西葫芦群体冠层、源-库特征的影响,以揭示大棚西葫芦高产的关键因素.结果表明:从低密度到高密度,半矮生西葫芦品种冠层指标的变化高于矮生品种,叶面积指数(LAI)、源供应能力、库容量的变化呈二次曲线,透光率的变化与LAI趋势相反,源库比随密度由低到高呈线性变化,最适源库比下产量最高.低密度下,LAI较低,漏光损失大,源供应能力、库容量、源库比都较低,库容量小是其产量较低的主要原因;中密度下,不同生育期LAI较高,半矮生品种最大为4.4,矮生品种最大为3.3,冠层底部的透光率较小,半矮生品种平均为12.4%,矮生品种为13.2%,源足、库大且接近最大值,半矮生品种与矮生品种最大源供应能力分别为1169.8 g·m-2、736.9g·m-2,最大库容量分别为422.4 g·m-2、333.0 g·m-2,源库比接近最适值(半矮生与矮生品种分别为2.62、1.96)是其产量高的主要原因;高密度下,结果前期LAI上升最快,达到峰值后群体底部透光率更低,结果后期下部叶片早衰,LAI下降较快,漏光损失大,源的供应能力成为高密度下限制产量的主导因素.半矮生品种较矮生品种产量高,其冠层有较高较稳的源供应能力是主要因素(半矮生品种的最大源供应能力是矮生品种的1.6倍),保护地生产应选用半矮生品种.%Dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties of summer squashes are two domestic types in China and semi-dwarf varieties are mainly cultivated under greenhouse conditions.To study the effect of density on canopy and source-sink relationship in summer squash,key high-yield factors of summer squash were tested in large plastic houses by using two semi-dwarf varieties (“Donghu No.4” and “Dongyu”) and two dwarf varieties (“Changqingwang No.3” and “Zaoqing”).The results showed that as planting densities increased from low to high,the changes in canopy indicators of semi-dwarf varieties were far greater than those in dwarf varieties.The trends of change in LAI (leaf area index),source capacity and sink capacity tracked quadratic-type curves.Transmittance had an inverse trend of change with LAI.The trend of change in source-sink ratio was linear and the highest yield was at optimum source-sink ratio.Lower LAI and higher light transmittance,and lower source supply,sink capacity and source-sink ratio were noted under lower density.Lower summer squash yield was associated with lower sink capacity under lower density.Light transmittance for all tested varieties was lower under medium density treatment with mean values of 12.4% for semi-dwarf and 13.2% for dwarf varieties.However,LAI was higher under medium density treatment with maximum LAI of 4.4 for semi-dwarf and 3.3 for dwarf varieties.The higher yield under medium density was associated with higher capacities of source and sink and source-sink ratio.The maximum source supply was 1169.8 g·m-2 for semi-dwarf varieties and 736.9 g·m-2 for dwarf varieties.Also the maximum sink capacity was 422.4 g·m-2 for semi-dwarf and 333.0 g·m-2 for dwarf vine.Then the almost optimal source-sink ratio was 2.62 for semi-dwarf and 1.96 for dwarf varieties.Summer squash LAI under high density treatment increased rapidly at early growth stage with lower light transmittance especially at maximum LAI.However,LAI decreased rapidly due to rapid senescence of lower position leaves at late stage,resulting in larger light transmittance.Under high density,source supply was the dominant limiting factor of yield.Semi-dwarf varieties yield was higher than dwarf yield varieties because of higher and more stable source supply.The largest source supply capacity of semi-dwarf variety was 1.6 times that of dwarf variety.It was concluded that semi-dwarf variety of summer squash was a better choice for protected fields.

  2. 西葫芦胚囊植株及其自交后代主要农艺性状的初步观察%Primary Observation on the Main Agronomic Characters of the Embryo Plants and Seifed Progeny in Summer Squash(Cucurbita pepo L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 王晓云; 王秀峰; 王丽娜; 樊治成

    2009-01-01

    以西葫芦离体雌核发育胚囊植株当代(R0)及其自交一代(R1)、自交二代(R2)的部分植株为试材,对其主要农艺性状进行初步观察.结果显示,各世代胚囊植株的第一雌花节位、雌花节率以及果实性状等有良好的整齐度,并与供体及杂交组合亲本的相关性状存在不同程度的差异,胚囊植株的育性有一定程度的分离.

  3. 西葫芦未受精胚珠离体培养条件的优化及胚囊植株的产生%Improved Conditions of in vitro Culture of Unpollinated Ovules and Production of Embryonary Sac Plants in Summer Squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 王秀峰; 樊治成

    2006-01-01

    [目的]建立西葫芦离体雌核发育高频植株再生体系,以加速自交系选育,有效缩短西葫芦杂种一代育种周期.[方法]将西葫芦未受精胚珠接种至附加2,4-D、NAA、BA的N6培养基上可形成胚状体,该胚状体转接至无激素的N6培养基上可形成再生植株.[结果]试验共获得120棵再生植株(R0),其中41株因生活力低下死亡,8株用于摸索移栽方法死亡,71株移栽成活且生长正常,其中42株性状表现符合二倍体特征且育性正常,已有1 0株获得自交果实及种子,其余29株育性异常.试验结果表明,胚珠发育时期、培养基、供体基因型及供体栽培季节等均显著影响胚状体诱导频率.[结论]胚状体起源于胚囊成员细胞,再生植株为胚囊植株.试验筛选出3种诱导频率较高的培养基;以开花前1日及当日的胚珠诱导频率较高;秋播材料诱导效果最好.

  4. 随机扩增多态性DNA技术研究发现二氧化钛纳米颗粒对西葫芦具有基因毒性%Random amplified polymorphic DNA reveals that TiO2 nanoparticles are genotoxic to Cucurbita pepo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiola MORENO-OLIVAS; Vincent U.GANT Jr; Kyle L.JOHNSON; Jose R.PERALTA-VIDEA; Jorge L.GARDEA-TORRESDEY

    2014-01-01

      重要结论:采用随机扩增多态性DNA技术,发现TiO2纳米颗粒污染处理的西葫芦样品与未处理样品的基因组DNA图谱相比,不仅在谱带强度有明显差异,而且存在谱带消失和新谱带产生现象,表明TiO2纳米颗粒对西葫芦具有基因毒性。

  5. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  6. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  7. Nutrientes e propriedades funcionais em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Nutrients and functional properties in pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos processamentos térmicos sobre os nutrientes e propriedades funcionais das sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima. As sementes foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes processamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises de composição centesimal, minerais e propriedades funcionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os processamentos para os níveis de proteína bruta, fibra alimentar, extrato etéreo, cinzas, S, P, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, solubilidade do nitrogênio (nos pH 4, 5 e 6, absorção de água e óleo, volume de espuma e estabilidade de emulsão. O cozimento em água em ebulição reduziu o teor de K. Todos os processamentos térmicos diminuíram os níveis de Mn e Fe. As sementes cruas apresentaram a maior solubilidade do nitrogênio nos pH 2, 3, 7, 8 e 9. Conclui-se que os processamentos acarretaram diferença significativa apenas nos teores de K, Mn, Fe e solubilidade do nitrogênio; e que as sementes apresentam potencial para serem incorporadas, provavelmente, em alimentos que requeiram elevada taxa de absorção de óleo.The objective of this paper was to verify the influence of the thermal processings on the nutrients and functional properties of the pumpkin seeds Cucurbita maxima. Seeds were, in four repetitions, submitted to the following processings: used in the raw form; cooked in boiling water for three times: 5, 10 and 15 minutes; and cooked in steam for 10 minutes. Thereafter were freeze-dried, grinded and stored at room temperature up to accomplishment of the analyses of centesimal composition, minerals and functional properties. There wasn't significant difference among the processings to the levels of crude protein, dietary fiber, ether

  8. Eficiência de acessos de Cucurbita maxima como polinizadores de abóbora híbrida do tipo "Tetsukabuto" Efficiency of Cucurbita maxima accessions as pollinators in the commercial production of pumpkin ("Tetsukabuto" type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto” é um híbrido interespecífico, macho estéril, resultante do cruzamento entre Cucurbita maxima e C. moschata. Uma das estratégias utilizadas para produção comercial de frutos de “Tetsukabuto” tem sido o plantio adjacente e concomitante de acessos de C. maxima ou C. moschata como polinizadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes acessos de C. maxima como fontes de pólen para produção comercial de abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto”. A cultivar de moranga "Exposição" e o acesso "Nirvana" foram utilizados como polinizadores para produção de frutos de dois híbridos do tipo varietal “Tetsukabuto” ("Jabras" e "Kyoto". Foram avaliados os tratamentos (cruzamentos Jabras x Exposição, Jabras x Nirvana, Tetsukabuto x Exposição, Tetsukabuto x Nirvana, em quatro repetições. Foram determinados os parâmetros massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, espessura da polpa, número e massa de sementes. O acesso "Nirvana" (cultivar em fase de validação pode ser utilizado na produção comercial como polinizador de abóboras deste grupo varietal sem nenhum prejuízo quando comparado com a moranga "Exposição"."Tetsukabuto" pumpkins are interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata accessions. Such hybrids, however, are often male-sterile due to the impaired ability of the staminate flowers to produce functional pollen. The use of intervening rows of staminate (pollen-donor plants is one strategy employed in order to have commercial fruit production. In the present work, two C. maxima accessions ["Exposição" (E and "Nirvana" (N] were employed as pollen-donors (staminate parents and their efficiency was compared considering fruit and seed yield parameters. Two pistillate Tetsukabuto hybrids ["Jabras" (J and "Kyoto Tetsukabuto" (KT] were employed in four possible unidirectional crosses (J x E, J x N, KT x E and KT x N. Fruits were produced using standard manual

  9. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  10. 黑籽南瓜种间杂交研究%Research of Distant Hybridization Between Fig-leaf Gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia)and Three Mainly Cultivated Species in Cucurbita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 岳青

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous flowering period in different species of Cucurbits was overcome by the means of adjusting sowing time. The experiment of interspecific hybridization was done between 12 materials of three mainly cultivated species (C. Pepo, C. Moschata and C. Maxima) and fig-leaf gourd (C. Ficifolia.). It was no fruit when the fig-leaf gourd act as female parent, and it was fruiting when the other three mainly cultivated species did. There were no seeds in the fruits when C. pepoxC. Gcifolia and C. maximaxC. Gcifolia. 18 Fi plants of C. moschataxC. Gcifolia were obtained. The stamens were degenerate in the plants of the interspecific hybrids Fi. It was fruiting but no seeds when the interspecific hybrids Fi as female parent and backcrossing using C. Moschata or the C. Gcifolia as male parent. The plant morphology of Fi of C. Moschata X C. Gcifolia was intermediate type of parents and had a tendency to the male parent. Disease resistance and insect resistance of the Fi were worse than C. Gcifolia of male parent and approached C. Moschata of female parent.%通过调整播期克服了南瓜属种间花期不遇的问题,以美洲南瓜、中国南瓜、印度南瓜3个种共12个材料与黑籽南瓜进行了种间杂交试验.黑籽南瓜为母本不结实,以其他3个种为母本则均可结实.美洲南瓜×黑籽南瓜及印度南瓜×黑籽南瓜杂交获得的果实内均无种子.获得了18株中国南瓜×黑籽南瓜F1植株.种间杂种F1植株雄蕊退化,以其作为母本以中国南瓜或黑籽南瓜为父本进行回交,可结实但无种子.中国南瓜×黑籽南瓜F1形态为双亲中间型偏父本,其抗病性、抗虫性不及父本黑籽南瓜而倾向于母本中国南瓜.

  11. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  12. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier.

  13. Dynamics of Selected Bioactive Substances Changes in Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Ex Poir. After Storage and Different Methods of Technological Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejiová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter squash is an important source of antioxidants, especially carotenoids. The aim of submitted research work was to determine the effect of genotype, storage and different methods of technological processing (baking, boiling and sterilization on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in fruits of winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.. The small-plot field experiment was established at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2013. Five cultivars of winter squash (‘Liscia’, ‘Orange’, ‘Hannah’, ‘UG 205 F1’ and ‘Waltham’ were examined in experiment. The total carotenoids content in the pulp of fresh fruits was ranged from 9.33 to 15.10 mg.100 g−1. Its highest value was determined in case of ‘Orange’ variety. The storage and the thermal treatment of fruit pulp in case of baking had positive impact from the total carotenoid content point of view. The baking resulted in the increase of its value in winter squash. On the contrary, sterilization tended to the decrease of total carotenoid content in edible part of squash. The total carotenoids content in the baking pulp was ranged from 14.27 to 31.87 mg.100 g−1. The vitamin C content before storage and technological processing ranged in interval from 13.88 to 18.69 mg.100 g−1. Particular thermal methods of processing and storage resulted in decrease of vitamin C content in the pulp of all winter squash varieties.

  14. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  15. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai camargoi n. subsp., a trypanosomatid isolated from the flower of the squash Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, J E; Takata, C S; Teofilo, V M; Nascimento, L C; Faria-e-Silva, P M; Soares, M J; Teixeira, M M; De Souza, W

    2001-01-01

    We report the morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of a trypanosomatid isolated from the flower of Cucurbita moschata. Although the trypanosomatid was isolated from a plant, the lack of recognition of Phytomonas-specific molecular markers based on spliced-leader and ribosomal genes as well as by monoclonal antibodies specific for Phytomonas argues against assigning it to this genus. Because the isolate displayed typical opisthomastigote forms in culture, it is assigned to the genus Herpetomonas. Analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns and characterization of ribosomal SSU and ITS markers suggest that it is more closely related to H. samuelpessoai than to any other species. However, the presence of spined flagellates in culture (displaying lateral expansions of the plasma membrane originating near the flagellar pocket) and isolate-specific RAPD fingerprints argue strongly that the trypanosomatid belongs to a new subspecies, for which the name Herpetomonas samuelpessoai camargoi n. subsp. is proposed.

  16. 中国南瓜幼苗植物学数量性状的评价%Evaluation on Botanical Quantitative Characters of Cucurbita moschata Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 扈惠灵; 李新峥; 李海真

    2010-01-01

    以135份中国南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)农家品种资源的自交系为试验材料,调查分析了中国南瓜自交系幼苗的下胚轴粗度、下胚轴高度、子叶长度、子叶宽度和予叶形状等5个数量性状,并对这些数量性状进行了统计分析,提出了描述评价标准,为研制中国南瓜特异性一一致性-稳定性(Distinetness-Uniformity-Stability,DUS)测试标准中幼苗性状的测试内容奠定了基础.

  17. 南瓜主要病毒病的细胞病理观察%Cytopathologic observation on main viruses causing disease of pumpkin(Cucurbita moschata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方琦; 杨国慧; 丁铭; 李婷婷; 张丽珍; 彭潞波; 苏晓霞; 张仲凯

    2004-01-01

    南瓜属葫芦科南瓜属(Cucurbita moschata),一年生草本植物,是常见的蔬菜品种。由于南瓜的经济价值和药用价值高,近年来南瓜产业得到了迅速发展,随着南瓜种植面积不断扩大,随之而来的南瓜病毒病也日益加剧,致使南瓜的产量和品质受到严重影响。为了解决南瓜病毒病给生产带来的危害,在

  18. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim.

  19. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  20. Efeito do tratamento térmico em sementes de abóboras (Cucurbita spp.) sobre os níveis de fatores antinutricionais e/ou tóxicos Effect of the thermal processing on pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp.) on the levels of antinutritionales factors and/or toxics

    OpenAIRE

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu; Custódio Donizete dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Os teores de alguns antinutrientes de sementes cruas, cozidas e tostadas de três espécies de abóboras, Cucurbita maxima (CMA), C. moschata (CMO) e o híbrido F1 (CMA X CMO), foram investigados, a fim de assegurar o seu uso em preparações dietéticas, produtos industrializados e formulações de novos produtos. Não foram detectados em nenhuma das espécies estudadas teores de ácido oxálico e nitrato. A espécie C. maxima apresentou os níveis mais baixos de cianeto e de polifenóis e maior digestibili...

  1. A major latex-like protein is a key factor in crop contamination by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sawada, Mami; Goto, Junya; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Noriko; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-04-01

    This is the first report, to our knowledge, to reveal important factors by which members of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), squash (C. pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo), are selectively polluted with highly toxic hydrophobic contaminants, including organochlorine insecticides and dioxins. Xylem sap of C. pepo ssp. pepo, which is a high accumulator of hydrophobic compounds, solubilized the hydrophobic compound pyrene into the aqueous phase via some protein(s). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of xylem sap of two C. pepo subspecies revealed that the amount of 17-kD proteins in C. pepo ssp. pepo was larger than that in C. pepo ssp. ovifera, a low accumulator, suggesting that these proteins may be related to the translocation of hydrophobic compounds. The protein bands at 17 kD contained major latex-like proteins (MLPs), and the corresponding genes MLP-PG1, MLP-GR1, and MLP-GR3 were cloned from the C. pepo cultivars Patty Green and Gold Rush. Expression of the MLP-GR3 gene in C. pepo cultivars was positively correlated with the band intensity of 17-kD proteins and bioconcentration factors toward dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Recombinant MLP-GR3 bound polychlorinated biphenyls immobilized on magnetic beads, whereas recombinant MLP-PG1 and MLP-GR1 did not. These results indicate that the high expression of MLP-GR3 in C. pepo ssp. pepo plants and the existence of MLP-GR3 in their xylem sap are related to the efficient translocation of hydrophobic contaminants. These findings should be useful for decreasing the contamination of fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family as well as the phytoremediation of hydrophobic contaminants.

  2. Efeito do tratamento térmico em sementes de abóboras (Cucurbita spp. sobre os níveis de fatores antinutricionais e/ou tóxicos Effect of the thermal processing on pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp. on the levels of antinutritionales factors and/or toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de alguns antinutrientes de sementes cruas, cozidas e tostadas de três espécies de abóboras, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO e o híbrido F1 (CMA X CMO, foram investigados, a fim de assegurar o seu uso em preparações dietéticas, produtos industrializados e formulações de novos produtos. Não foram detectados em nenhuma das espécies estudadas teores de ácido oxálico e nitrato. A espécie C. maxima apresentou os níveis mais baixos de cianeto e de polifenóis e maior digestibilidade protéica in vitro. O cozimento acarretou redução nos níveis de cianeto, inibidor de tripsina, da atividade de hemaglutinina e de polifenóis e aumento da digestibilidade protéica in vitro. Dos tratamentos térmicos utilizados, o cozimento foi o mais eficiente na redução desses constituintes.The contents of some antinutrients of raw, boiled and toasted seeds of three pumpkin species, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO and the F1 hybrid (CMA x CMO, were investigated in order to assure the use in dietary preparations industrialized products and formulations of new products. Levels of oxalic acid and nitrate were not detected in any of the species studied. CMA presented the lowest levels of cyanide, polyphenols and highest in vitro protein digestibility. Cooking brought about reduction in the levels of cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity and polyphenols and increased of in vitro protein digestibility. Of the thermal processing employed, cooking was the most efficient in reducing of that constituints.

  3. Evaluación de familias de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Duch. seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca en el fruto y otras características agronómicas Evaluation of squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. families selected for higher content of dry matter in the fruit and other agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Enith Tobar Tosse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cuatro familias de hermanos completos de zapallo, Cucurbita moschata Duch, provenientes de dos ciclos de estabilización genética mediante cruzamientos fraternales y seleccionadas por mayor contenido de materia seca (MS en el fruto y buenas características para consumo en fresco. La familia F7a sobresalió por su mayor contenido de materia MS en el fruto (15.86% ± 2.17 en comparación con el testigo comercial Unapal-Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, forma esférica levemente achatada, color externo amarillo claro, color de pulpa amarilla a salmón, espesor de pulpa de 3.71 ± 0.58 cm y peso promedio del fruto de 3.10 ± 0.73 kg, que la convierte en una alternativa para consumo en fresco.Four full-sib families of squash, Cucurbita moschata Duch, from two cycles of genetic stability through crosses fraternal and selected by a higher content of dry matter in fruit and good characteristics for fresh consumption was evaluated. The F7a family had at increased dry matter content in fruit (15.86% ± 2.17 compared with the control-commercial Unapal Bolo Verde (10.68% ± 2.08, slightly flattened spherical form, external color yellow, light yellow flesh color to salmon, flesh thickness of 3.71 cm ± 0.58 and average fruit weight of 3.10 kg ± 0.73, which makes it an alternative for fresh consumption.

  4. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-01

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  5. Establishment of Cucurbita moschata Genetic Transformation System by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Transfection%农杆菌介导南瓜遗传转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付洪冰; 崔崇士; 赵曦; 刘琦

    2010-01-01

    以南瓜金辉一号(Cucurbita moschata 'Jinhui 1')为实验材料,利用根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导转化南瓜子叶节,研究了预培养时间、侵染时间、乙酰丁香酮(AS)浓度和共培养时间,抗生素羧苄青霉素(Carb)、头孢霉素(Cef)以及筛选剂卡那霉素(Kan)等因素对离体不定芽的影响,建立了南瓜最适遗传转化体系.结果表明:外植体预培养0天,侵染时间30分钟,AS浓度为100 mg·L-1,共培养5天可获得最高遗传转化效率;最适除菌剂为Cef,其最适浓度为500mg·L-1;最适Kan筛选浓度为100 mg·L-1:在MS培养基上培养抗性芽生根,经PCR和Southern blot检测,证明为转基因植株.

  6. Ribosome-inactivating proteins in edible plants and purification and characterization of a new ribosome-inactivating protein from Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Luigi; Polito, Letizia; Bolognesi, Andrea; Ciani, Marialibera; Pelosi, Emanuele; Farini, Valentina; Jha, Ajay K; Sharma, Neelam; Vivanco, Jorge M; Chambery, Angela; Parente, Augusto; Stirpe, Fiorenzo

    2006-05-01

    The basic protein fraction of tissue extracts from 40 edible plants inhibited cell-free protein synthesis and released adenine from herring sperm DNA, thus having adenine glycosylase activity. This suggested the presence of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) in the plant extracts. This indication was further strengthened by the presence of the two activities after a partial chromatographic purification of three extracts, including that from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), which had very low activity. From the extract of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin), the most active one, a glycoprotein of 30,665 Da was purified which had the properties of a RIP, in that (i) it inhibited protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with IC50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) 0.035 nM (1.08 ng ml(-1)) and by HeLa, HT29 and JM cells with IC50 in the 100 nM range, (ii) deadenylated hsDNA and other polynucleotidic substrates, and (iii) depurinated yeast rRNA at a concentration of 0.1 ng ml(-1), all values being comparable to those of other RIPs. The C. moschata RIP gave a weak cross-reaction only with an antiserum against dianthin 32, but not with antisera against other RIPs, and had superoxide dismutase, antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  7. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  8. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation.

  10. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling.

  11. Natural abundance 15N NMR assignments delineate structural differences between intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Nemmers, S; Tobias, B

    1992-06-15

    15N NMR assignments were made to the backbone amide nitrogen atoms at natural isotopic abundance of intact and reactive-site (Arg5-Ile6) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III and CMTI-III*, respectively) by means of 2D proton-detected heteronuclear single bond chemical shift correlation (HSBC) spectroscopy, utilizing the previously made sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments (Krishnamoorthi et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904). Comparison of the 15N chemical shifts of the two forms of the inhibitor molecule revealed significant changes not only for residues located near the reactive-site region, but also for those distantly located. Residues Cys3, Arg5, Leu7, Met8, Cys10, Cys16, Glu19, His25, Tyr27, Cys28 and Gly29 showed significant chemical shift changes ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 ppm, thus indicating structural perturbations that were transmitted throughout the molecule. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions based on 1H NMR investigations.

  12. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  13. 南瓜矮生基因Bu的比较定位%Comparative Mapping of the Dwarf Gene Bu from Tropical Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王深浩; 李海真; 张忠华; 贺俊; 贾长才; 张帆; 黄三文

    2011-01-01

    A segregating BC6F2 population was developed using a dwarf mutant of Cucurbita moschata Duch. as donor and the vine C. maxima Duch. ‘Mengri’ as recurrent parent. Using the segregating population, the gene Bu was comparatively mapped on chromosome 5 of cucumber. An intron-flanking marker IF3629 was found to be tightly linked to the Bu gene, with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM. The marker IF3629 will not only be useful in markers-assisted selection for dwarf plant, but also provide a starting point toward positional isolation of the dwarf Bu gene in squash.%以中国南瓜矮生突变体为供体亲本,以印度蔓生南瓜为轮回亲本,构建了BC6F2分离群体.利用黄瓜基因组序列,将南瓜矮生基因Bu比较定位至黄瓜5号染色体,并开发了一个新的PCR标记IF3629,该标记与矮生基因Bu连锁遗传距离为1.0 cM.该标记不仅可以用于分子标记辅助选择育种,而且为Bu基因的克隆奠定了基础.

  14. Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-03-08

    The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of temperature and light on take-off activity of Bactrocera cucurbitae%温度、光照强度对瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志富; 曹凤勤; 程立生; 符悦冠; 万方浩; 张桂芬

    2016-01-01

    [Background] Bactrocera cucurbitae is the important pest of Amphisarca in Sourthern China. The objective of this study was to examine the fly movement of B. cucurbitae to between control this fly. [Method] Based on the known biological characteris-tics, artificial climate chamber and some other equipment were used to study the effects of temperature and light changes on fly be-havior activity of B. cucurbitae. [Result] The results showed that the fly activities increased with temperature starting at 15℃ with an optimum temperature between 20 and 30 ℃. Flying activities were obviously the greatest at temperatures above 35 ℃ and the least when temperatures dropped under 10℃. The activity percent of B. cucurbitae is more than 50% at 25~40℃, but it is 0% at 10、15 and 45 ℃ respectively. Light intensity also affected fly behavior with fly activities increasing over 2400 lx and reaching a peak at 9600 lx. Extreme light intensity (12000 lx) inhibited flight behavior. The number of take-off activity of B. cucurbitae increased with the increase of light intensity.[Conclusion and significance] Extremes in temperature and light intensity may limit flight activity of B. cucurbitae. Moderate high temperature can encourage fly behavior.%【背景】瓜实蝇是我国南方瓜果的主要害虫。本试验分析了影响瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为及活跃度的原因,以便能更有效地控制瓜实蝇危害。【方法】在已知瓜实蝇的生物学特性及部分活动规律的基础上利用智能人工气候箱等设施,分别测定温度、光照对瓜实蝇的飞行行为的影响。【结果】瓜实蝇成虫在15℃下开始飞行,飞行活动的群体数量随着温度的升高而增加,最适飞行活动温度范围为20~30℃,低温10℃明显对其飞行行为有抑制作用,高温(35℃以上)明显对其有刺激作用,促进其飞行行为的发生。瓜实蝇成虫的活跃度在25~40℃下较高,均大于50%,在10、15和45℃下则为0

  16. The Evaluation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP)-IV, α-Glucosidase and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activities of Whey Proteins Hydrolyzed with Serine Protease Isolated from Asian Pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Babij; Anna, Dąbrowska; Marek, Szołtysik; Marta, Pokora; Aleksandra, Zambrowicz; Józefa, Chrzanowska

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) and β-lactoglobulin were hydrolyzed with a noncommercial serine protease isolated from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia). Hydrolysates were further fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut-offs equal 3 and 10 kDa. Peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 and 3–10 kDa were further subjected to the RP-HPLC. Separated preparations were investigated for their potential as the natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepti...

  17. 瓜实蝇DNA甲基化的MSAP体系建立与优化%Establishment and optimization of MSAP Analysis System for DNA Methylation in Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚治; 周世豪; 马华博; 张亚楠; 符悦冠

    2016-01-01

    The melon fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is one of the most important vegetables insect pest in China. However, the DNA methylation in melon fly has not been reported yet. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) is an important research tecnnique to analysis the DNA methylation. The MSAP can be established through the enzyme digestion reaction, ligation, PCR amplification system, and primer screening, such as 10 U restriction endonuclease is put in the 20 μL enzyme digestion system, and then react with 600 ng of genome DNA at 37℃ overnight; 1U of T4 ligase is put in the 20 μL ligation system, 50 pmol of HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter and 5 pmol of EcoR I-adapter which react at 16℃ for 12 hours. Diluent ligation products were used in PCR to pre-amplification and selected amplification, the result is tested by silver staining and 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Six pairs of primers which suited for DNA methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism were selected out by this system. The MSAP system provides the technical support for the study of the epigenetics research of melon fly.%瓜实蝇[Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)]是中国重要的蔬菜害虫,但其DNA甲基化研究尚未见报道。甲基化敏感扩增多态性是研究DNA甲基化的重要技术之一。通过对酶切反应、连接、 PCR扩增和引物筛选等条件优化,建立瓜实蝇MSAP反应体系,即:①20μL酶切体系中加入10 U的限制性内切酶与600 ng基因组DNA,于37℃酶切反应过夜;②20μL连接体系中加入T4连接酶1 U, HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter接头50 pmol, EcoR I-adapter接头5 pmol,并于16℃反应12 h;③连接产物稀释后进行PCR预扩增和选择性扩增,再经6%变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和银染检测结果。通过该体系筛选出适用于瓜实蝇基因组DNA甲基化多态性研究的6对引物;瓜实蝇MSAP体系为瓜实蝇的表观遗传学研究提供了技术支持。

  18. Characterization of acid-extracted pectin-enriched products obtained from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) and butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Eliana N; Ponce, Nora M A; de Escalada Pla, Marina; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2010-03-24

    Chemical and rheological characteristics of fractions enriched in soluble dietary fiber are reported. These fractions were obtained through acid hydrolysis of butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret) and red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) cell wall enriched powders. Hydrolysis was performed using citric acid at different pH values and reaction times (2 and 3 h). Yields obtained for butternut fractions were between 21 and 28 g/100 g; for red beet, yields were 24 and 31 g/100 g for pH 1.5 and 11 and 17 g/100 g for pH 2.0 for previously mentioned times; in general, the increase of the yield was directly correlated with the decrease of pH and the increase of reaction time. Products enriched in low methoxyl pectins were obtained in all cases. At the lowest pH assayed, pectins were essentially constituted by homogalacturonan; a significant content of neutral sugars was determined at the higher extraction pH. Neutral sugars were constituted mainly by arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucose in different proportions for each fraction; in general, butternut fractions showed high glucose contents. Flow behavior for 2.00% (w/v) aqueous systems of the different products was evaluated. Data obtained for fractions isolated at pH 1.5 fit to Herschel-Bulkley and Cross models while those isolated at pH 2.0 fit to Ostwald and Cross models. All samples showed low viscosity and, hence, poor thickening properties.

  19. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

  20. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a hypoglycemic fraction from Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Ramos, R; Almanza-Perez, J C; Fortis-Barrera, A; Angeles-Mejia, S; Banderas-Dorantes, T R; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Diaz-Flores, M; Jasso, I; Blancas-Flores, G; Gomez, J; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by oxidative stress and a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, which also play roles in the pathogenesis of this disease and the accompanying vascular complications by increasing the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (C. ficifolia) is an edible Mexican plant whose hypoglycemic activity has been demonstrated in several experimental and clinical conditions. Recently, D-chiro-inositol has been proposed as the compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effects; however, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of this plant has not yet been explored. The aim of this research is to study the influence of a hypoglycemic, D-chiro-inositol-containing fraction from the C. ficifolia fruit (AP-Fraction) on biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as on the inflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The AP-Fraction obtained from the mature fruit of C. ficifolia contained 3.31 mg of D-chiro-inositol/g of AP-Fraction. The AP-Fraction was administrated daily by gavage to normal mice for 15 days as a preventive treatment. Then these animals were given streptozotocin, and the treatments were continued for an additional 33 days. Pioglitazone was used as a hypoglycemic drug for comparison. Administration of the AP-Fraction significantly increased glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver without significantly affecting the levels in other tissues. The AP-Fraction reduced TNF-α and increased IL-6 and IFN-γ in serum. Interestingly, the AP-Fraction also increased IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. These results suggest that C. ficifolia might be used as an alternative medication for the control of diabetes mellitus and that it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its hypoglycemic activity.

  2. Direct and individual analysis of stress-related phytohormone dispersion in the vascular system of Cucurbita maxima after flagellin 22 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-03-01

    • The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. • Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. • We show direct evidence for all three jasmonates, ABA, and SA in both phloem and xylem exudates of C. maxima. JA and JA-Ile concentrations are higher in xylem (JA: c(xylem) ≈ 199.5 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 43.9 nM; JA-Ile: c(xylem) ≈ 7.9 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1.6 nM), whereas ABA and SA concentrations are higher in phloem exudates (ABA: c(xylem) ≈ 37.1 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 142.6 nM; SA: c(xylem) ≈ 61.6 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1319 nM). During bacteria-derived flagellin 22 (flg22)-triggered remote root-to-shoot signalling, phytohormone concentration changed rapidly both in phloem and xylem. • The unequal distribution of phytohormones suggests that phloem and xylem have distinct roles in defence responses. Our data shed light on systemic phytohormone signalling and help explain how plants cope with environmental challenges by lateral exchange between phloem and xylem. Our analysis is a starting point for further investigations of how phytohormones contribute to phloem- and xylem-based defence signalling. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  4. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  5. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFL323 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AB036420 |pid:none) Citrullus lanatus mRNA for DIP-1, ... 355 2e-96 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whitef...ly... 342 2e-92 AF360346_1( AF360346 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana putative N-ac.

  7. Dicty_cDB: VFL869 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AL021889 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosom... 201 1e-50 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whitef...ly... 195 8e-49 FJ899850_1( FJ899850 |pid:none) Populus

  8. Dicty_cDB: VFJ118 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tefly... 242 7e-63 FJ899850_1( FJ899850 |pid:none) Populus maximowiczii x Populus n...bidopsis thaliana DNA chromosom... 247 3e-64 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whi

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFE778 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 172 1e-41 AF170086_1( AF170086 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo silverleaf whit...efly... 172 2e-41 CP000582_97( CP000582 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08330-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51455 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo patellin 1 (PATL1) ... 71 7e-11 BC162038_1( BC162038 |pid:none) Rattus norve...clone 280990 hypothetical... 65 4e-09 EU962184_1( EU962184 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 240809 patellin-5 m...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12006-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Aspergillus niger contig An06c009... 63 2e-08 DQ251455_1( DQ251455 |pid:none) Cucurbita pepo patel...uyveromyces thermotolerans str... 60 2e-07 EU962184_1( EU962184 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 240809 patellin-5

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. EST-SSR Markers Development from Cucurbita and Their Use in Purity Testing of F1 Hybrid Seed%南瓜属EST-SSR标记的开发及在杂种纯度鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国裕; 张帆; 姜立纲; 翟伟卜; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags(ESTs) are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The object of the present study is to develop EST-SSR markers from Cucurbita and uses these markers in quickly purity testing of F1 hybrid seed. The availability of 1457 ESTs for cucurbita,which documented in GenBank, provided a unique opportunity to develop EST-SSR markers, and 215 SSRs were identified among these non-redundant EST sequences. These SSRs contained 2 - 6 bp nucleotide motifs including 111 different motif types. The trinucleotide repeat is the dominant type,accounting for 40% with 86 motifs, and the frequency of occurrence of dinucleotide repeat is 28. 84% with 62 motifs. Among these motifs,CT motif (21 ,9. 77% ) was the most common type,and then were TC and AAG motifs,accounting for 6. 05% and 5. 58% , respectively. A total of 215 primer pairs were designed and 43 of them were synthesized and used to determine their usability by amplification in 4 Cucurbita inbred lines. The results show that 28 of them could successfully amplify, accounting for 65. 12% of testing primer pairs. Then these primer pairs were used to test the F, hybrid seed purity in Cucurbita. Seed genetic purity from 13 combinations ranged from 79. 2% to 100. 0% .which were in high accordance with those from field grow-out trials. Taken together, this study reported an effective and feasible approach to develop SSR markers for cucurbita,and demonstrated their usefulness in purity testing of hybrid squash seed.%为利用SSR标记进行快速、准确的南瓜杂交种纯度分析,进行了南瓜EST-SSR标记的开发.从NCBI数据库下载1 457条南瓜属作物EST序列,去除冗余序列后进行SSR位点搜索,共得到215条含有SSR位点的EST序列.这些SSR位点包含111种重复基元,其中二核苷酸(62个,占28.84%)和三核苷酸(86个,占40.0%)重复类型占主导地位;重复基元中出现最多的是CT(21个,占9.77

  14. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  15. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  16. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  17. Efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos The pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Machado de Cerqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados, distribuídos em quatro grupos, receberam por 10 dias, rações controle e experimental com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral, peneirada ou residual substituindo 30% do valor total de amido e dextrina da dieta controle. As dietas foram isocalóricas. Foram determinados os macronutrientes e a fibra insolúvel nas farinhas. As dietas tiveram a composição química calculada a partir dos dados dos rótulos dos produtos, da tabela de composição de alimentos e da análise química das farinhas de semente de abóbora. O peso corporal e a ingestão dos animais foram tomados a cada 48 horas. O sangue, coletado por punção cardíaca, teve os níveis de triacilgliceróis, colesterol e glicose analisados por métodos enzimáticos. RESULTADOS: As farinhas de semente de abóbora foram boas fontes de proteínas, lipídeos e, especialmente, fibras alimentares. Os animais tiveram ganho ponderal e ingestão semelhante (p>0,05. Os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis foram reduzidos significantemente para os grupos que receberam dietas com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral e peneirada. CONCLUSÃO: Frente às suas propriedades química e funcional, concluiu-se que a farinha de semente de abóbora interferiu no metabolismo do rato diminuindo significantemente os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis séricos.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present research was to evaluate the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Twenty recent weaned male Wistar rats, divided in four groups, received for 10 days control and experimental diets containing whole, sifted and residual pumpkin seed flour on the rate of 30% of the total starch and dextrin in the control diet. All diets were

  18. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter; Morse, Joseph G; Stark, John D

    2012-10-01

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were measured in traps as potential detection and male annihilation technique (MAT) devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure and insecticide formulations, 2) solid cones and plugs with an insecticidal strip, and 3) solid single and double lure wafers with DDVP for captures of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel; and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett. Bucket and Jackson traps were tested in a coffee plantation near Eleele, Kauai Island, HI (trials at high populations) and avocado orchards near Kona, HI Island, HI (trials at low populations). Captures of all three species with Mallet TMR were not different from Mallet CMR; therefore, subsequent experiments did not include Mallet CMR because of higher production costs. In MAT trials near Eleele, HI captures in AWPM traps with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to any other solid lure (single or double) except the Mallet ME wafer. In survey trials near Kona, captures of C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. dorsalis with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to those for the standard TML, ME, and C-L traps used in FL and CA. A solid Mallet TMR wafer is safer, more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, potentially reducing costs of large survey and detection programs in Florida and California, and MAT programs in Hawaii.

  19. CRITERIOS DE SELECCIÓN EN LOS PROCESOS DE MANIPULACIÓN VEGETAL: EL APORTE DE LA ETNOBOTÁNICA A LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE RESTOS ARQUEOBOTÁNICOS DE CUCURBITA SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S. Lema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza el estudio etnobotánico-etnoarqueológico de diversos cultivos locales de Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima, Cucurbitaceae. El objetivo es comprobar si los caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos de las semillas procedentes de los mencionados cultivos, así como también de plantas resultantes de prácticas de cultivo o cuidado, se agrupan o no en morfotipos diferenciales que reflejen materialmente la diversidad localmente reconocida y los distintos comportamientos involucrados. La generación de dichos morfotipos se propone como una vía para explorar si es factible reconocer cultivares locales y distintas formas de relación hombre - planta en muestras arqueobotánicas. Las plantas domesticadas son el producto de la puesta en práctica de criterios de selección socialmente construidos y por lo tanto susceptibles de constituir morfotipos diferenciales que operen como portadores de significados sociales. De allí que podamos hablar de una etnobotánica etnoarqueológica generadora de modelos a contrastar en el trabajo paleoetnobotánico. Se aplicaron los descriptores morfológicos macroscópicos comúnmente empleados en paleoetnobotánica y arqueobotánica para el estudio de semillas de Cucurbita sp., así como también un conjunto nuevo de descriptores micro morfológicos. Se constató que los caracteres cuantitativos micro morfológicos son los que mejor sirven para crear morfotipos que se corresponden con los cultivares localmente reconocidos y con las prácticas de cultivo o cuidado ejercidas sobre las poblaciones vegetales.

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  2. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  3. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of CmNA C Gene Fragments in Cucurbita moschata%南瓜CmNAC基因片段的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝芮; 赵福宽; 孙清鹏; 杨爱珍

    2011-01-01

    NAC转录因子是特异存在于植物中具有多种生物功能的新型转录因子,其家族成员N端含有保守氨基酸序列,C端为高度变异的转录激活区.本研究以南瓜叶片为材料,根据甘蓝型油菜NAC1、番茄NAC、辣椒NAC保守结构域设计1对简并引物,采用RT-PCR方法扩增得出长度约为440 bp大小的DNA片段,将其克隆至pMDl9-T载体上,而后对重组克隆进行测序,用BLAST和DNAMAN软件对核酸及氨基酸序列进行分析,结果表明所获得的南瓜NAC基因片段由442个碱基组成,编码147个氨基酸,命名为CmNAG.该基因片段具有其他植物NAC基因中存在的保守区,并且属于NAC家族中ATAF1/2亚家族.%NAG transcription factors that are unique to plants are the new type transcription regulatory factors with multiple biological functions. Their family proteins contain a conserved amino acid sequence in N-terminal ends and highly different transcription regulatory domain in C terminal ends. In this experiment, a pair of degenerate primers was designed based on the conserved sequences of NAC gene from Brassica napus,tomato and Chili. NAC transcription factor gene fragment about 440 bp was amplified by RT-PCR from Cucurbita moschata leaves and cloned into pMD-19T vector, and then the recombinant clones were sequenced.The sequences of nucleic acid and amino acid were analyzed using BLAST and DNAMAN software. The results showed that NAC transcription factor gene gained from Cucurbita moschata included 442 bp, encoding 147 amino acids, which named CmNAC. The NAC gene fragments contained a conserved region like other plant NAC genes and belonged to the NAC family A TAF1/2 subfamily.

  5. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of CmNAC Gene from Cucurbita moschata%南瓜基因CmNAC的克隆与序列分析(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝芮; 赵福宽; 孙清鹏; 杨爱珍

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to clone the CmNAC gene from Cucurbita moschata and analyze the sequence characteristics. [Method] A pair of degenerate primers was designed based on the conserved sequences of NAC gene from Brassica napus, Lycopersicon esculentum and Capsicum annuum. NAC transcription factor gene was amplified by RT-PCR from Cucurbita moschata leaves and cloned into pMD-19T vector; then the recombinant clones were sequenced. Finally, the sequences of nucleic acid and amino acid were analyzed using BLAST and DNAMAN software. [Result] The NAC transcription factor gene cloned from C. moschata included 442 bp encoding 147 amino acids, named CmNAC. The NAC gene fragment contained a conserved region like other plant NAC genes and belonged to the NAC family ATAF1/2 subfamily. [Conclusion] The stress resistance related gene NAC cloned from C. moschata is a foundation for further study on the biological function of the gene and plant genetic engineering.%[目的]克隆南瓜基因CmNAC并进行序列分析。[方法]以南瓜叶片为材料,根据甘蓝型油菜NAC1、番茄NAC和辣椒NAC保守结构域设计一对简并引物,采用RT-PCR方法扩增得出长度约为440bp大小的DNA片段,将其克隆至pMDl9-T载体上,对重组克隆进行测序,用BLAST和DNAMAN软件对核酸及氨基酸序列进行分析。[结果]所获得的南瓜NAC基因片段由442个碱基组成,编码147个氨基酸,命名为CmNAC;该基因片段具有其它植物NAC基因中存在的保守区,并且属于NAC家族中ATAF1/2亚家族。[结论]实验拟在南瓜中获得和抗逆性相关的NAC基因,为进一步研究该基因的生物学功能和植物基因工程奠定理论基础。

  6. Determinación de la variabilidad genética entre aislamientos de Rosellinia sp. Rosellinia bunodes y Rosellinia pepo mediante la técnica de amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de DNA (RAPD y análisis de los espaciadores de transcritos internos (ITSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Díaz Jorge Evelio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta que las medidas preventivas son las más eficientes para reducir la incidencia de muchas enfermedades, la implementación de estrategias que permitan el diagnóstico temprano y oportuno de fitopatógenos de cultivos, en especial aquellos de tardío rendimiento, es el objetivo principal de este trabajo. Los hongos fitopatógenos del género Rosellinia se consideran habitantes naturales del suelo. Sin embargo, su fase parasítica se asocia a la aparición de enfermedades radiculares principalmente en cultivos de café, papa y cacao, que generalmente se
    relaciona con el aumento en la oferta de materia orgánica, lo cual beneficia el crecimiento sus poblaciones y las de otros microorganismos que pueden ser patógenos. Con el fin de avanzar en el conocimiento de las especies Rosellinia sp., Rosellinia bunodes y Rosellinia pepo y de desarrollar estrategias de diagnóstico para evitar las pudriciones radiculares que estas ocasionan en cultivos de importancia agroeconómica y forestal, se utilizaron dos metodologías moleculares que permiten
    realizar un primer acercamiento a la variabilidad genética que presentan diferentes aislamientos de estas especies. Mediante el análisis de RAPD (Amplificación Aleatoria de Polimorfismos de ADN y la secuenciación de las regiones de rDNA-ITS (Espaciadores de Transcritos Internos fue posible establecer un alto grado de variabilidad entre las cepas, aún dentro de una misma especie. Dichas metodologías están basadas en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR que ha sido extensamente utilizada tanto en la identificación de un organismo por medio de la amplificación selectiva de su ADN, como al ser aplicada para explorar la variabilidad que posee un genoma. Las cepas de Rosellinia sp. presentaron gran variación en los perfiles electroforéticos de RAPD constituyendo dos ramas aisladas en el dendrograma de similaridad construido a partir de matrices binarias. De la misma manera

  7. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  8. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  9. Purification and characterization of Moschatin, a novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and preparation of its immunotoxin against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Heng Chuan; Li, Feng; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Zu Chuan

    2003-10-01

    A novel ribosome-inactivating protein designated Moschatin from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) has been successively purified to homogeneity, using ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-cellulose 52 column chromatography, Blue Sepharose CL-6B Affinity column chromatography and FPLC size-exclusion column chromatography. Moschatin is a type 1 RIP with a pI of 9.4 and molecular weight of approximately 29 kD. It is a rRNA N-glycosidase and potently blocked the protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate with a IC50 of 0.26 nM. Using the anti-human melanoma McAb Ng76, a novel immunotoxin Moschatin-Ng76 was prepared successfully and it efficiently inhibited the growth of targeted melanoma cells M21 with a IC50 of 0.04 nM, 1500 times lower than that of free Moschatin. The results implied that Moschatin could be used as a new potential anticancer agent.

  10. Purification and characterization of Moschatin, a novel type Ⅰ ribosome-inactivating protein from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata),and preparation of its immunotoxin against human melanoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO TONG; HENG YU FAN; DA YUAN CHEN; XIANG FEN SONG; HEIDE SCHATTEN; QING YUAN SUN

    2003-01-01

    A novel ribosome-inactivating protein designated Moschatin from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) has been successively purified to homogeneity, using ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-cellulose 52 column chromatography, Blue Sepharose CL-6B Affinity column chromatography and FPLC size-exclusion column chromatography. Moschatin is a type 1 RIP with a pI of 9.4 and molecular weight of~29 kD. It is a rRNA Nglycosidase and potently blocked the protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate with a IC50 of 0.26 nM. Using the anti-human melanoma McAb Ng76, a novel immunotoxin Moschatin-Ng76 was prepared successfully and it efficiently inhibited the growth of targeted melanoma cells M21 with a IC50 of 0.04 nM, 1500 times lower than that of free Moschatin. The results implied that Moschatin could be used as a new potential anticancer agent.

  11. Volatiles in Male Flowers of Cucurbita moschata by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析金钩南瓜雄花挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 卢引; 李昌勤; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析金钩南瓜雄花挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)结合保留指数法,并用峰面积归一化法测定相对百分含量.结果:从金钩南瓜雄花中鉴定出59个化合物,占总峰面积的90.99%.结论:研究表明α-佛手柑油烯含量最高,占总挥发性成分的21.71%.该研究可为进一步开发利用南瓜资源提供科学依据.%Objective: To study the volatile constituents in male flower of Cucurbita moschata. Method; The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction, coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements. Result; Fifty-nine compounds were identified in Jingou accounting for 90.99% of the total volatiles. Conclusion; a-bergamotene (21.71% ) was the highest. The study can provide scientific basis for the further development of the seeds of C. moschata.

  12. Quantitative character analysis and cluster analysis of 37 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) inbred- lines%南瓜自交系数量性状分析与聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 李桂荣; 杨鹏鸣

    2006-01-01

    对南瓜[Cucurbita moschata(Duch.)Poiret]37个自交系的茎节间长、主蔓粗、叶片长、叶片宽、叶柄长、叶柄粗、主蔓第1朵雌花着生节位、主蔓20节内着生雌花数等8个数值数量性状的调查数据进行了统计分析.结果表明,所调查的数量性状变异系数有差异,主蔓20节内着生雌花数的变异系数达69.15%,最小的是叶柄长的变异系数,只有12.00%.主蔓第1雌花着生节位与主蔓20节内着生雌花数呈极显著的负相关,主蔓粗、叶柄粗均与主蔓第1雌花着生节位呈显著负相关,叶柄粗与主蔓20节内着生的雌花数呈显著正相关.37个南瓜自交系经聚类分析,可分为2个类群4个大类.

  13. Evaluating Criteria of Some Botanical Quantitative Characters of Vining Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) Germplasm Resources%蔓生型南瓜资源部分植物学数量性状的评价探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊国; 李新峥; 朱月林; 李海真

    2007-01-01

    对123份蔓生型南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)自交系的茎节间长度、主蔓粗、叶片长度、叶片宽度、叶柄长度、叶柄粗、第一朵雌花着生节位、主蔓20节内着生雌花数、花径9个数量性状进行了统计分析,提出节间长度、叶片长度、叶柄长度、第一雌花着生节位和主蔓20节内着生雌花数5个性状可以作为蔓生南瓜植物学性状评价的代表性状,并采用9级评价分级体系将这些代表性状进行评价分级,为建立规范化、标准化的南瓜种质资源评价系统奠定了基础.

  14. The Evaluation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP)-IV, α-Glucosidase and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activities of Whey Proteins Hydrolyzed with Serine Protease Isolated from Asian Pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Babij; Anna, Dąbrowska; Marek, Szołtysik; Marta, Pokora; Aleksandra, Zambrowicz; Józefa, Chrzanowska

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) and β-lactoglobulin were hydrolyzed with a noncommercial serine protease isolated from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia). Hydrolysates were further fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut-offs equal 3 and 10 kDa. Peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 and 3-10 kDa were further subjected to the RP-HPLC. Separated preparations were investigated for their potential as the natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-IV), α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). WPC-80 hydrolysate showed higher inhibitory activities against the three tested enzymes than β-lactoglobulin hydrolysate. Especially high biological activities were exhibited by peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 kDa, with ACE IC50 <0.64 mg/mL and DPP-IV IC50 <0.55 mg/mL. This study suggests that peptides generated from whey proteins may support postprandial glycemia regulation and blood pressure maintenance, and could be used as functional food ingredients in the diet of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF VARIOUS SEEDS EXTRACT OF CUCURBITACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Sood

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of seedsextract of five plants of Cucurbitaceae family- Momordica charantia(Karella, Cucumis sativa(Cucumber,Praecitrullus fistulosus(Tinda, Cucurbita pepo(Kaddu, Lagenaria siceraria (loki that are commonly availableand readily consumed in India. Results of antimicrobial activity revealed that all the seeds extracts were veryeffective against Serratia marcescens,E. coli, Streptococcus thermophilous,Fusarium oxysporium, Trichodermareesei while some extracts showed no inhibition againstAspergillus niger (Cucumis sativa, Candida albicans(Praecitrullus fistulosus, Cucurbita pepo, Lagenaria siceraria. Phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms thepresence of various phytochemicals like tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoides, carbohydrates, resins, saponinsand phytosterols. While other phtochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroidal terpenes andphylobatamins were found to be absent in all the extracts. These plants can be a source of useful drugs but furtherstudies are required to isolate the active component from the crude plant extract for proper drug development.

  16. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  17. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  18. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  19. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  20. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  3. Evaluating Pumpkin Properly and Furthering Pumpkin Industry Correctly%科学评价南瓜,促进南瓜产业健康发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜生; 王长林

    2005-01-01

    从园艺学的分类来看,南瓜包括南瓜(中国南瓜)(Cucurbita moschata D.)、笋瓜(印度南瓜)(C.maxima D.)、西葫芦(美洲南瓜)(C.pepo L.)、黑籽南瓜(C.ficifolia B.)和灰籽南瓜(C.mixta P.)等五个栽培种。

  4. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Zayame Vegette [UNESP; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Piedade,Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  5. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    OpenAIRE

    Zayame Vegette Pinto; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  6. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  7. Characterization symptomatology and molecular from papaya ringspot (PRSV) that infects Carica papaya L. in northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama, Shirley; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Cedano, Carolina; Tenorio, Jorge; Romero, Javier; Carbajal, Segundo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was symptomatic and molecular characterization of the virus that infects Carica papaya L. in areas of northern Peru. To do this, of different fields were collected leaves of C. papaya with mosaic symptoms, chlorosis and distortion the leaf. Sap of these leaves was inoculated mechanically onto virus-free plants of C. papaya, Chenopodium murale, Ch. amaranticolor, Ch. quinoa, Cucumis melo, C. sativus and Cucurbita pepo; which they were kept at room temperature for...

  8. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  9. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  10. Toxicity Determination of Several Insecticides and Their Mixtures to Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae ( Coquillett)%几种杀虫剂及其混配对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 付步礼; 邱海燕; 符悦冠

    2011-01-01

    采用微量点滴法,测定了毒死蜱、甲维盐、敌敌畏、顺式氯氰菊酯等4种杀虫剂对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力和二元混配的联合毒力.结果表明:80%敌敌畏乳油(EC)的LD50最小,为1.683 9μg·g-1;100g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC的LD50最大,为8.877 0μ g·g-1.供试杀虫剂毒性大小依次为:80%敌敌畏EC>5%甲维盐微乳剂(ME) >480g·L-1毒死蜱EC> 100 g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC.敌敌畏与甲维盐(1∶1)混配的增效作用最强,共毒系数为426.%Four insecticides toxicities to adult of Bactrocera (Zeugodacus ) cucurbitae ( Coquillett) and their co-efficient ratio were determined by micro drop method. The results showed that LD50 of 80 % dichlorvos EC was minimum for 1.683 9 μg ? G-1 and alpha-cypermethrin EC was the largest for 8.877 0 μg ? G-1. The toxicity order was 80 % dichlorvos EC>5 % emamectin-benzoate ME > 480 g ? L-1 chlorpyrifos EC> 100 g ? L-1 alpha-cypermethrin EC. The co-efficient ratio of the mixture of dichlorvos and emamectin-benzoate (1:1) was 426.

  11. 南瓜幼茎中螺纹导管次生壁的发育%Secondary Wall Formation of Helical Tracheary Elements in the Stem of Cucurbita Moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许珊; 祝建; 钱洁

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)茎螺纹导管发育过程中次生壁的形成过程.方法 利用透射电镜对同一植株的不同茎段的螺纹导管次生壁及原生质体进行超微结构观察.结果 螺纹导管次生壁发育早期,细胞具有较大的细胞核,细胞质浓稠,具有核糖体、线粒体和高尔基体等细胞器.初生壁与质膜之间有间隔较规律的次生壁突起;中期,线粒体和高尔基体的数量明显增加,细胞质中几乎充满高尔基体及其囊泡,次生壁中微纤丝已成有序排列;晚期,细胞核消失,导管中央形成空腔,细胞器迅速减少,仅观察到少量高尔基体和线粒体,有大量周质微管沿细胞长轴分布,且在次生壁的周围有大量小泡附着,次生壁的分层结构清晰可见.结论 高尔基体及其分泌小泡和内质网等细胞器参与了导管次生壁的形成,其中周质微管也起了一定的作用.导管次生壁的形成与程序性细胞死亡(programmed cell death,PCD)密切相关.

  12. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Quality of Fresh-cut Pumpkin(Cucurbita Moschata) during Storage%壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 杨绍兰; 吴昊; 张宏斌; 王成荣

    2012-01-01

    Fresh "MiBen" pumpkins were subjected to coating with chitosan at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%)and subsequent storage at 4 ℃ in order to examine the fresh-keeping effect of chitosan coating on fresh-cut pumpkin. During the storage, changes in polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, ethylene production, weight loss rate, firmness and the activity of PAL and POD of fresh-cut pumpkin were measured. Results showed that chitosan coating could delay the reductions of firmness, polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, and also could delay the increase of ethylene production, obviously enhance PAL and POD activities, reduce weight loss rate, and substantially extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pumpkin, especially at a concentration of 1.0%.%以新鲜的“蜜本”南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)为试验材料,探讨不同质量分数(0.5%、1.0%、1.5%)壳聚糖涂膜液处理对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响.结果表明:采用壳聚糖涂膜液处理,不同程度地延缓了鲜切南瓜乙烯释放量的增加和硬度的下降,阻止了多糖和类胡萝卜素的减少,抑制了POD、PAL酶活性的下降和总酚含量的降低.其中以质量分数为1.0%壳聚糖涂膜液处理的效果最好,有效地保持了鲜切南瓜贮藏期间的品质.

  13. Volatile constituents from flower of Tianmian Cucurbita moschata Duch. by head-space solid micro-extraction coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌勤; 卢引; 李新铮; 邢晗; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the volatile constituents in flowers of Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Methods The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction,coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements to search the volatile constituents from flowers of C. moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Results 37 compounds were identified from the male flowers and 16 from the female flowers,98.24% and 94.45% of the total essential constituents respectively,the male flowers and the female had 10 common components. Conclusion =The volatile constituents were different between the female flowers and the male of C. moschata.%目的:分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),结合保留指数法,首次采用峰面积归一化法计算各化合物的相对百分含量来分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。结果:从甜面大南瓜雄花和雌花中分别鉴定出37和16种化合物,分别占总峰面积的98.24%和94.45%。其中雄花和雌花有10种共有成分。结论:发现甜面大南瓜雌雄花的挥发性成分具有差别。

  14. 橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇人工饲料的优化%Optimization of artificial diets for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis,Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera tau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 汪兴鉴; 张艳; 孙蕊芬; 曾玲

    2013-01-01

    在温度25 ~28℃、相对湿度70%~75%和光照周期L:D=14∶10条件下进行了人工大量饲养橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)和瓜实蝇B.cucurbitae (Coquillett)成虫人工饲料配方的筛选试验.结果显示,1∶2重量比例混合的蔗糖和啤酒酵母是饲养这2种果实蝇的最佳成虫人工饲料,用其饲养的单雌产卵量、产卵期和孵化率分别为424.16 ~ 445.75粒,30.90 ~31.87 d,74.60% ~ 75.40%.同时,对18种由不同配方配制成的幼虫人工饲料饲养橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇B.tau (Walker)的效果进行了比较.结果表明,玉米和麦麸作为饲料的介质优于麦片和麦麸.橘小实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(125 g+25 g),蔗糖25 g,啤酒酵母25 g,对羟基苯甲酸甲酯0.9g,1 mol/L盐酸4 mL,纸巾4 g,自来水300 mL;用其幼虫人工饲料饲养该虫的生物学参数包括子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为81.17% ±0.05%,96.41% ±0.02%,94.85%±0.01%与(19.40±0.08) mg.而瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(100 g+50 g),蔗糖30 g,啤酒酵母25 g,以及一定量的其他组分(同上);用其饲料饲养这2种果实蝇的相关参数:子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为78.50%±0.04%与76.96%±0.12%,95.73% ±0.03%与94.69% ±0.02%,94.57%±0.02%与95.82%±0.03%,(18.62±0.23) mg与(22.83±1.38) mg.试验证实,优化后的成、幼虫人工饲料具有饲养效果好、方法简便,配方材料来源广泛和价格低廉等优点,可用于室内人工大量饲养上述3种果实蝇属害虫.%Artificial diets for adult Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B.cucurbitae (Coquillett) were evaluated in the laboratory at 25-28℃,70%-75% RH and a L∶ D ratio of 14∶ 10.A mixture of 1 part sucrose to 2 parts beer yeast by weight was the optimum artificial diet for adults of these two species.The egg quantity

  15. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  16. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  17. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use.

  18. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  19. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  20. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  1. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  2. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  3. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  4. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  5. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  6. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  7. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  8. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  9. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  10. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  11. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  12. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  13. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  14. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  15. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  16. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  17. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  18. 中国南瓜主要性状配合力与遗传力分析%Combining Ability and Heritability of 12 Quantitative Traits in Cucurbita moschata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 刘童光; 戴祖云; 施文政; 谈敏; 许晓婷

    2012-01-01

    以12个中国南瓜高世代自交系为试验材料,采用NCⅡ设计配制36个杂交组合,分析了12个数量性状的遗传力、配合力.结果表明:在一般配合力上,6个母本的优劣顺序为Q1>Q3>Q4>Q6>Q2>Q5,6个父本的优劣顺序为B1>B3>B5>B4>B2>B6;亲本的一般配合力与其在杂交组合中的特殊配合力之间无必然联系;主蔓长度、可溶性固形物含量、干物质含量的狭义遗传力较高,早代选择效果较好;节间长度、单果质量、多糖含量、β-胡萝卜素含量、维生素C含量、果实纵径、果实横径的狭义遗传力较低,适合在中高代进行选择.%Thirty six hybrids derived from 12 inbred lines using NC II design were used to study combining ability and heritability of 12 quantitative traits in Cucurbita moschata squash. The results indicated that the general combining ability order of female parent was Q1>Q3> Q4>Q6>Q2>Q5 ,and that of male parents was B1>B3>B5>B4>B2>B6. There was no inevitable corresponding relation between general combining ability of the parent and special combining ability of its hybrid. The main vine length .soluble solid content,dry matter content had higher narrow sense heritability,and they should be selected in early generation. The inter-node length,single fruit weight,polysaccharide content,($-carotene content,Vitamin C content,fruit length,fruit diameter had lower narrow sense heritability,and they should be selected in later generations.

  19. EFEITOS DE PODA DE RAMA NA PRODUÇÃO DE ABOBRINHA (Curcubita moschata CV. “MENINA BRASILEIRA” INFLUENCE OF VINE PRUMING ON THE YIELD OF SQUASH (Cucurbita moschata CV. ‘MENINA BRASILEIRA’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Alguns produtores hortícolas goianos cortam a ponta da rama principal da aboboreira para estimular a ramificação lateral e aumentar e/ou antecipar a produção. Em experimento, realizado na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, avaliaram-se os efeitos deste tipo de poda na produção de abobrinha da cultivar ‘Menina Brasileira' . Em doze colheitas, feitas entre 17/11 e 23/12/93, determinou-se o número e o peso de frutos. O tratamento não influenciou significativamente a produção de frutos nem sua distribuição ao longo das colheitas. A produção das plantas podadas, porém, foi ligeiramente mais precoce, fato que exige maior investigação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abobrinha; Cucurbita moschata; poda de rama.

    Some squash producers in the region of Goiânia (Brazil prune the top of the main vine in order to increase and/or anticipate production by stimulating lateral branching. In this trial, carried out at the Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, vine pruning was tested on the cv. ‘Menina Brasileira’. Fruits were harvested twice a week, from November 17 to December 23 (1993. Significant differences between treatment and control were found neither in number and weight of fruits nor in distribution of the yield over the harvest period. The pruned plants however were slightly earlier in production. This should be investigated with more accuracy.

    KEY-WORDS: Squash; vine pruning.

  20. 黄瓜、西瓜和南瓜EIN3基因片段的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence of EIN3 Gene from Cucumis sativus, Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠明; 卢向阳; 许亮; 许勇; 张海英; 刘晓虹

    2007-01-01

    EIN3(ethylene insensitive 3)位于细胞核的核蛋白,为乙烯信号转导的下游调控基因,根据GenBank植物EIN3基因家族的保守序列设计了1对引物,以黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)和南瓜(Cucurbita maxima)总DNA为模板PCR扩增到3个725 bp的基因片段CsEIN3、ClEIN3和CmEIN3,并提交GenBank,登录号分别为AY973275、DQ023225和DQ023224.将片段序列在NCBI数据库中Blastn同源搜寻,显示151条有同源性的序列全部是EIN3基因.NCBI网站的ORF(open reading frame)Finder找到正确的开放式阅读框,翻译成为氨基酸序列,对CsEIN3、ClEIN3及CmEIN3氨基酸序列在NCBI网站进行Blastp比对,在大分子结构数据库(molecular modelling database,MMDB)搜索,3个推测蛋白保守结构域三级结构与拟南芥EIN3的DNA结合域(MMDB:30598;PDB:1WIJ)完全相同,系统进化分析表明,黄瓜、西瓜和南瓜与双子叶植物甜瓜、绿豆、蒺藜状苜蓿、烟草、番茄、拟南芥及单子叶水稻、桃红蝴蝶兰等的EIN3家族成员都有较高的相似性.

  1. 印度南瓜梭形果突变体的发现及遗传分析%Discovery and Genetic Analysis of a Fusiform Fruit Mutant in Winter Squash (Cucurbita Maxima Duch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 智海英; 韩红艳; 岳青; 梁燕平

    2012-01-01

    A fusiform fruit mutant HL-fu was found from inbred line HL of Cucurbita maxima. There was obvious biological characteristic variation on a lot of organs of the mutant, such as flower, fruit, stem. The residual degree of the stamen from female flower and the pistil from male flower of the mutant were more than the wild type one. Its fruit was fusiform, it was five times on the fruit shape index of the mutant than the wild type one. The arrangement status of the mutant internode was long short alternative distribution, the phyllotaxis was similar to the opposite phyllotaxis. The reciprocal cross F, was constructed by crossing mutant HL-fu and wild type HL, the genetics of the groups of cross F2, BC1 ( P1 ) F1, and BC, ( P2) F1 were analyzed. We speculated that the variation type was recessive mult-effect single gene mutant, the mutant character was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear genera. We discussed the potential value of fusiform fruit mutant on the pumpkin breeding and the basic study.%从印度南瓜自交系HL中发现了一个梭形果突变体HL-fu.该突变体的花、果、茎等多器官的生物学特性同时发生了明显变异:雌花及雄花花器中异性花蕊的残存度较野生型高;果实为梭形,果形指数达野生型5倍;节间呈现长短交替分布的排列状态,叶序类似于对生.以突变体HL-fu与野生型HL杂交分别构建了正、反交F1,正交F2,BC1(P1)F1、BC1( P2)F1群体进行遗传分析,推测该变异类型为隐性多效单基因突变,突变性状受1对隐性核基因fu控制.探讨了梭形果突变体在南瓜育种及相关基础研究方面的潜在价值.

  2. Classification of pumpkin seed oils according to their species and genetic variety by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Jorge-Rodríguez, Elisa; Simí-Alfonso, Ernesto F

    2011-04-27

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), followed by multivariate treatment of the spectral data, was used to classify seed oils of the genus Cucurbita (pumpkins) according to their species as C. maxima, C. pepo, and C. moschata. Also, C. moschata seed oils were classified according to their genetic variety as RG, Inivit C-88, and Inivit C-2000. Up to 23 wavelength regions were selected on the spectra, each region corresponding to a peak or shoulder. The normalized absorbance peak areas within these regions were used as predictors. Using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), an excellent resolution among all categories concerning both Cucurbita species and C. moschata varieties was achieved. The proposed method was straightforward and quick and can be easily implemented. Quality control of pumpkin seed oils is important because Cucurbita species and genetic variety are both related to the pharmaceutical properties of the oils.

  3. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  4. Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2005-07-05

    Reanalysis and direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of the cucurbit assemblage from Coxcatlan Cave provide information on the timing and sequence of the initial appearance of three domesticated plants in the Tehuacán Valley (Puebla, Mexico) and allow reassessment of the overall temporal context of plant domestication in Mexico. Cucurbita pepo is the earliest documented domesticate in the cave, dating to 7,920 calibrated calendrical (cal) years B.P. The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is dated at 7,200 cal years B.P. Cucurbita argyrosperma does not appear until 2,065 cal years B.P. The earlier identification of Cucurbita moschata specimens is not confirmed. Seventy-one radiocarbon dates, including 23 accelerator mass spectrometry dates on cucurbits, provide ample evidence of postdepositional vertical displacement of organic materials in the western half of Coxcatlan Cave, but they also indicate that the eastern half of the cave was largely undisturbed.

  5. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  6. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  7. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  8. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  9. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  10. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  11. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under high temperature and strong light stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shu-hao; Li, Ling-ling; Chen, Na-na

    2010-11-01

    Taking squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) variety Alan as test object, this paper studied the effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under the cross-stress of high temperature and strong light. Under the stress, applying 5-20 mmol x L(-1) of Ca2+ increased the plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stoma conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximal PS II efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual PS II efficiency (phi(PS II)), and photochemical queching coefficient (q(P)), and decreased the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ), suggesting that this application of exogenous Ca2+ could effectively mitigate the damage of high temperature and strong light stress on the squash seedlings leaf, and make it keep more rapid photosynthetic electron transfer rate and higher PS II electron transfer activity. Among the treatments of applying Ca2+, 10 mmol Ca2+ x L(-1) had the best effect. When the Ca2+ application rate exceeded 40 mmol x L(1), no mitigation effect was observed on the high temperature and strong light stress.

  12. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  13. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  14. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  15. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  16. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  17. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  18. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  19. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  20. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  1. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  2. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  3. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  5. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  6. Nanoparticle penetration and transport in living pumpkin plants: in situ subcellular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra M Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the application of nanotechnology in several fields of bioscience and biomedicine has been studied. The use of nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of substances has been given special attention and is of particular interest in the treatment of plant diseases. In this work both the penetration and the movement of iron-carbon nanoparticles in plant cells have been analyzed in living plants of Cucurbita pepo. Results The nanoparticles were applied in planta using two different application methods, injection and spraying, and magnets were used to retain the particles in movement in specific areas of the plant. The main experimental approach, using correlative light and electron microscopy provided evidence of intracellular localization of nanoparticles and their displacement from the application point. Long range movement of the particles through the plant body was also detected, particles having been found near the magnets used to immobilize and concentrate them. Furthermore, cell response to the nanoparticle presence was detected. Conclusion Nanoparticles were capable of penetrating living plant tissues and migrating to different regions of the plant, although movements over short distances seemed to be favoured. These findings show that the use of carbon coated magnetic particles for directed delivery of substances into plant cells is a feasible application.

  7. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  8. [Entomophilic pollination of squash, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna D V; Campos, Lucio A de O

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata, B. morio, A. mellifera, T. hyalinata or T. spinipes. Flowers prevented from receiving visits or visited only once by T. spinipes did not produce fruits. The remaining pollination systems led to fruitification, with open pollination or a single visit from either M. quadrifasciata or B. morio leading to most fruit production.

  9. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  10. Multi-species interactions impact the accumulation of weathered 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2005-09-15

    The impact of interactions between the earthworms Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus terrestris and the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima on the uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil was determined. Although some combinations of earthworm and plant species caused significant changes in the p,p'-DDE burden in both organisms, the effects were species specific. Contaminant bioconcentration in C. pepo was increased slightly by E. foetida and by 3-fold when the plant was grown with L. terrestris. E. foetida had no effect on the contaminant BCF by C. maxima, but L. terrestris caused a 2-fold reduction in p,p'-DDE uptake by the plant. Contaminant levels in E. foetida and L. terrestris were unaffected by C. pepo. When grown with C. maxima, the concentration of p,p'-DDE decreased by approximately 4-fold and 7-fold in E. foetida and L. terrestris, respectively. The data suggest that the prediction of contaminant bioavailability should consider interactions among species. - Interactions between earthworms and plants affect both the phytoextraction and bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE in soil.

  11. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  12. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  13. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  14. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  15. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  17. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  18. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  19. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  20. Bioavailability assessments following biochar and activated carbon amendment in DDT-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of 2.8% w/w granulated activated carbon (GAC) and two types of biochar (Burt's and BlueLeaf) on DDT bioavailability in soil (39 μg/g) were investigated using invertebrates (Eisenia fetida), plants (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo) and a polyoxymethylene (POM) passive sampler method. Biochar significantly reduced DDT accumulation in E. fetida (49%) and showed no detrimental effects to invertebrate health. In contrast, addition of GAC caused significant toxic effects (invertebrate avoidance and decreased weight) and did not significantly reduce the accumulation of DDT into invertebrate tissue. None of the carbon amendments reduced plant uptake of DDT. Bioaccumulation of 4,4'DDT and 4,4'-DDE in plants (C. pepo spp. pepo) and invertebrates (E. fetida) was assessed using bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and compared to predicted bioavailability using the freely-dissolved porewater obtained from a polyoxymethylene (POM) equilibrium biomimetic method. The bioavailable fraction predicted by the POM samplers correlated well with measured invertebrate uptake (DDT soil contamination levels and the inclusion of field data from a 2.5 μg/g DDT-contaminated site found that these plants exhibit a concentration threshold effect at [DDT](soil) > 10 μg/g. The results of these studies illustrate the importance of including plants in bioavailability studies as the use of carbon materials for in situ contaminant sorption moves from predominantly sediment to soil remediation technologies.

  1. Differential uptake and translocation of β-HCH and dieldrin by several plant species from hydroponic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Sayuri; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Satoh, Shinobu

    2015-03-01

    To compare the uptake and translocation of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plant species, the authors performed uptake experiments with β-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and 1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-endo-1,4-exo-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene (dieldrin) using 5 species: Hordeum vulgare, Glycine max, Solanum lycopersicum, Brassica oleracea, and Cucurbita pepo. The present study evaluated uptake ability using root concentration factor (RCF) and translocation ability by transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF). The RCFs of β-HCH and dieldrin did not differ remarkably among species, except that the RCF of β-HCH in B. oleracea was high. The TSCFs of β-HCH and dieldrin were high in C. pepo, which was not superior in uptake as estimated by RCF. The TSCF of dieldrin in C. pepo was decreased in darkness and was markedly decreased by heating of roots. These results support the hypothesis that transport proteins produced in the root contribute to dieldrin translocation. In contrast, TSCF of β-HCH was not decreased by these treatments. Therefore, translocation of β-HCH might not need the contribution of transport proteins. It is possible that C. pepo has a certain function to transport hydrophobic organic chemicals smoothly in root tissues. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Cultivar Groups of Cultivated Squash%栽培种南瓜的品种群研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德佩; 刘小俊

    2011-01-01

    作者建议在葫芦科专家Whitaker划分的品种群(cultivar groups)分类基础上,按照果实形状及果形指数为主要指标,结合其他亲缘关系,将3个栽培种南瓜Cuc urb ita moc hata,Cpepo,Cmaxima划分成18个品种群,其中2个(C.pepo的观赏瓜品种群,C.maxima的板栗瓜品种群)是作者新划分的.%Based on Dr. Whitaker's taxonomy for 3 cultivated squash, 18 cultivar groups were suggested for Cucurbita moschata,C. Pepo and C. Maxima using mature fruit shape and fruit shape index as major traits for grouping. Two cultivar groups (the ornamental group for C. Pepo and the panli group for C. Maxima) are newly proposed groups.

  3. Caracterização molecular de variedades crioulas de abóboras com marcadores microssatélites Molecular characterization of pumpkin landraces by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Priori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as cinco espécies de abóboras domesticadas, Cucurbita pepo apresenta a maior variabilidade para características de fruto, como cor, formato e tamanho. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cucurbitáceas da Embrapa Clima Temperado conta com 61 acessos desta espécie, todos estes, variedades crioulas cultivadas no sul do Brasil. Estas variedades crioulas fazem parte da cultura regional, na gastronomia, no artesanato e na ornamentação de ambientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética entre e dentro de variedades crioulas de C. pepo cultivadas no Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando marcadores microssatélites. Foram avaliados 10 acessos de variedades crioulas de C. pepo. que apresentavam diferentes formatos e tamanhos de fruto, cores e texturas da casca. O DNA genômico foi extraído individualmente de cinco plantas de cada acesso. Foram analisados 40 locos de microssatélites. Destes, 34 amplificaram, identificando 100 alelos (variação de um a cinco alelos por loco. Dos locos analisados 85,3% foram polimórficos, evidenciando a variabilidade genética entre os acessos. A análise molecular da variância mostrou que 45,39% da variabilidade genética é atribuída à variação dentro dos acessos e 54,60% a diferenças entre acessos. Assim, apesar de haver variabilidade genética dentro dos acessos, a maior proporção da variabilidade em C. pepo encontra-se distribuída entre as diferentes variedades crioulas. A variação dentro dos acessos é explicada pela alogamia da espécie, pelo intercâmbio de sementes das variedades crioulas entre os agricultores e também pelos mesmos cultivarem mais de uma variedade de Cucurbita na mesma área.Among the five cultivated species of pumpkins, Cucurbita pepo has the highest variability for fruit characteristics, such as color, shape and size. The Active Germplasm Bank of Cucurbitaceae from Embrapa Clima Temperado (Brazil has 61 accessions of this species, all of them landraces

  4. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  5. Congener specificity in the accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in zucchini plants grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Wakai, Taketo; Gion, Keiko; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo

    2011-01-01

    Zucchini cultivars Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera cv. Patty Green and subsp. pepo cv. Gold Rush were cultivated hydroponically in a nutrient solution supplemented with a mixture of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Patty Green and Gold Rush showed low and high accumulation of these compounds in the aerial parts respectively. In both cultivars, the accumulation of each congener negatively depended on its hydrophobicity. This suggests that desorption and solubilization were partly responsible for congener specificity of accumulation, since this was not found in soil experiments. In contrast, no clear difference in accumulation in the roots was observed between the cultivars, whereas the translocation factors, which are indicators of efficient translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, differed among the congeners hydrophobicity-dependently. There were positive correlations between accumulation in the roots and the hydrophobicity of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in both cultivars. These results indicate that translocation was also partly responsible for the congener specificity and accumulation concentrations.

  6. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  7. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  8. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  9. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  10. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  11. KARAKTERISTIK SERBUK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata [Characteristic of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O G3

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant powder of pumpkins was made by mollen dryer in order to extend the product shelf life The aim of the research was to determine the characteristics of the pumpkin powder. The research had been designed using completely randomized block factorial pattern, two levels of drying-up temperature and three levels of mollen dryer speed rotation on two blocks of pumpkin (I and II groups. The parameters measured were percentage of yield, water content, ash, solubility, and sugar, pH, bulk density (g/ml, beta-carotene (µg/g, colors, and hedonic test (scale 1 = not accepted through 5 = really accepted. The research result showed that the drying temperature affected solubility, and the speed rotation affected sugar content of pumpkin powder. The best pumpkin powder was produced by mollen dryer at 60ºC degree and 6 rpm speed rotation which was characterized by high yield and solubility, also produced best hedonic value on taste, color and performance as compared to the other treatment.

  12. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  13. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  14. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  15. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  16. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  17. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  18. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  19. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  20. Colonic Perforation in a Young Tetraplegic Male Caused by Zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigac, Biserka; Masic, Silvija

    2016-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a clinical condition which occurs due to variety of reasons, such as intrinsic disorders of the intestine, extrinsic causes, but also due to presence of foreign bodies. Foreign objects enter gastrointestinal tract by oral or transanal introduction. we present an uncommon case of a 26- year-old tetraplegic male, whose death was a consequence of a widespread purulent peritonitis provoked by colonic perforation inflicted by an unusual foreign body, transanally introduced 28 centimeters long zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). we share our experience in order to emphasize the importance of consideration and early recognition of foreign body presence in the alimentary tract as possible diagnosis.

  1. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  2. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  3. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  4. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  5. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  6. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  7. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  8. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  9. HS-SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Volatiles Components in the Pulp and Flesh of Cucurbita moschata from Xinmin of Liaoning Province%辽宁新民金钩南瓜肉和瓤挥发性成分的HS-SPME-GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 卢引; 李昌勤; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the volatile components in pulp and flesh of Cucurbita moschata from Xinmin of Liaoning province. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS and Kovats indices, and relative percentage of each component was determined by peak area normalization measurements. RESULTS: 35 compounds were identified from the pulp and 33 from the flesh, accounting for 90.97% and 95.19% of total peak area, respectively. There were 19 same compounds. CONCLUSION: The volatile components are different between the pulp and flesh of C. Moschata. The study can provide reference for the further research of C. Moschata from Xinmin of Liaoning province.%目的:分析辽宁新民金钩南瓜肉和瓤的挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合保留指数法对样品进行分析,并用峰面积归一化法测定各成分的相对百分含量.结果:从辽宁新民金钩南瓜的果肉和瓤中分别鉴定出35和33个化合物,各占总峰面积的90.97%和95.19%;其中肉和瓤有19个共有成分.结论:辽宁新民金钧南瓜肉和瓤的挥发性成分具有差别.本试验结果可为辽宁新民金钩南瓜的进一步研究提供依据.

  10. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  11. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  12. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  13. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  14. Sequence variations in the FAD2 gene in seeded pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Chang, Y; Xu, W L; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-12-21

    Seeded pumpkins are important economic crops; the seeds contain various unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which are crucial for human and animal nutrition. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) gene encodes delta-12 desaturase, which converts oleic acid to linoleic acid. However, little is known about sequence variations in FAD2 in seeded pumpkins. Twenty-seven FAD2 clones from 27 accessions of Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita ficifolia were obtained (totally 1152 bp; a single gene without introns). More than 90% nucleotide identities were detected among the 27 FAD2 clones. Nucleotide substitution, rather than nucleotide insertion and deletion, led to sequence polymorphism in the 27 FAD2 clones. Furthermore, the 27 FAD2 selected clones all encoded the FAD2 enzyme (delta-12 desaturase) with amino acid sequence identities from 91.7 to 100% for 384 amino acids. The same main-function domain between 47 and 329 amino acids was identified. The four species clustered separately based on differences in the sequences that were identified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Geographic origin and species were found to be closely related to sequence variation in FAD2.

  15. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  16. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  17. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  18. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  19. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  20. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  1. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  2. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  3. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  4. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  5. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  6. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  7. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  8. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  9. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  10. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  11. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  12. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  13. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  14. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  15. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  16. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  17. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  18. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  19. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  20. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  1. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  2. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  3. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  4. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  5. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  6. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  7. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  8. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  9. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  10. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  11. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  12. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  13. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  14. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  15. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  16. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  17. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  18. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  19. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  20. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection