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Sample records for cucurbit yellow vine

  1. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  2. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  3. Photosynthesis and Yellow Vine Syndrome of American Cranberry

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    Harvey J. M. Hou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. contains rich antioxidants and has significant health benefits in fighting a variety of human diseases. In the past ten years, cranberry growers have reported yellow vine syndrome, which is associated with reduced photosynthetic performance, in the cranberry bogs. It has been found that the yellow vine syndrome of cranberry is associated with nutritional imbalance; it might be an issue for cranberry quality and food security as well as the crop production. This review evaluates the present state of knowledge of yellow vine syndrome, together with recent advances that are resulting from an improved mechanistic understanding and a possible solution that will be of considerable value to cranberry growers. This review also includes results from the author’s own laboratory. Water stress, nutritional imbalance, and photoinhibition are the likely reasons for producing yellow vine of cranberry. Future endeavors should be placed on the combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical techniques at the molecular level and plant physiology at the field and greenhouse level. This may provide specific information in order to understand the molecular details of yellow vine of cranberry as well as a tool for guiding future breeding efforts and management practices.

  4. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

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    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  5. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  6. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

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    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  7. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea.

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    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Gug-Seoun

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  8. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

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    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  9. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several common cucurbit weed reservoirs for Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) were compared with watermelons as sources of inoculum. Weed susceptibility to SqVYV was also analyzed. In addition, behavior of the whitefly vector of SqVYV was studied on infected and non-infected plants. This report...

  10. Assessing the movement of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in susceptible and tolerant cucumber germplasms using serological and nucleic acid based methods

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    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is an emerging virus causing significant yield losses in cucurbits. Simple but reliable detection and quantification methods constitute an important support to disease management. In a susceptible germplasm CYSDV was detected 5 days post-inoculation (D...

  11. Occurrence, Distribution and Biological variability of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in cucurbits of Khuzestan province, South west of Iran

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    Somayeh Safara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ZYMV is one of the most important plant viruses that cause economical damage in cucurbits. The symptoms of ZYMV in different cucurbits include stunting, yellowing, mottling, severe mosaic, leaf and fruit deformation, blistering and shoe string. Investigation on occurrence of this virus, in Khuzestan province was carried out in November 2009, April and May 2010 by collecting cucurbits samples from different cucurbits fields. After DAS-ELISA test, ZYMV was maintained in squash. Then total RNA were extracted and were tested by RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR, fragments belonging to N-terminal of coat protein and C-terminal of nuclear inclusion bodies were replicated. PCR product for investigation of replication was loaded in 1% agarose gel. From seven regions in Khuzestan, 175 leaf samples showing different symptoms (yellowing, mosaic, deformation and blistering were collected. Seventy one samples out of total samples (175 samples showed ZYMV infection. Occurrence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Khuzestan province was confirmed, using serological and RT-PCR tests. Infection of ZYMV in Khuzestan province (40.5% is higher than the average of Iran’s infection (38%. This article is first report of occurrence ZYMV in different regions of Khuzestan province except Dezful.

  12. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

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    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  13. Establishment of a Simple and Rapid Gene Delivery System for Cucurbits by Using Engineered of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

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    Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hoseong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    The infectious full-length cDNA clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) isolate PA (pZYMV-PA), which was isolated from pumpkin, was constructed by utilizing viral transcription and processing signals to produce infectious in vivo transcripts. Simple rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of pZYMV-PA was successful to cause infection of zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). We further engineered this infectious cDNA clone of ZYMV as a viral vector for systemic expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits. We successfully expressed two reporter genes including gfp and bar in zucchini plants by simple rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of the ZYMV-based expression constructs. Our method of the ZYMV-based viral vector in association with the simple rub-inoculation provides an easy and rapid approach for introduction and evaluation of heterologous genes in cucurbits.

  14. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

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    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  15. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  16. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  17. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host

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    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

  18. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

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    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

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    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  20. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

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    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem.

  1. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

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    Owen, Carolyn A.; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A.; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A.; Coutts, Robert H. A.; Livieratos, Ioannis C.

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants. PMID:27314380

  2. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

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    Carolyn A. Owen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants.

  3. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn A; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A; Coutts, Robert H A; Livieratos, Ioannis C

    2016-06-14

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5'- and 3'-UTRs plus the 3'-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants.

  4. Molecular identification of Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus in Hainan and Henan province%海南省和河南省发生甜瓜褪绿黄化病的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 彭斌; 吴会杰; 柳唐镜; 孔祥义; 施艳; 古勤生

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the pathogenic virus causing muskmelon yellowing in Hainan and Henan province, [Methods]the total RNA was extracted from samples collected from infected plants in Sanya, Hainan province and Zhengzhou, Henan province and the coat protein genes(cp) were amplified using Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus (CCYV) specific primers and cloned. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of those cp genes and all the sequences of cp genes within same species and same genus submitted in the GenBank. [Results]The results showed that the fragments of about 880 bp in size produced by RT-PCR were as expected. The phylogenetic tree showed that the samples belonged to the same branch with Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus whereas Cucuibit yellow stunting disorder virus(CYSDV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BPYV) were in other branches. [Conclusions] Our investigation suggested that the yellowing of muskmelon in Hainan and Henan province was caused by Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus.%[目的]为了探明引起海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化的病因,[方法]提取从海南三亚和河南郑州采集的甜瓜叶片的RNA,用CCYV特异性引物进行外壳蛋白基因的克隆、测序,并与GenBank中同属或同种病毒的cp基因核苷酸序列构建系统进化树.[结果]结果显示,RT-PCR产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳,所得条带在880 bp左右,与预期的一致;构建cp基因的系统进化树发现,样品与瓜类褪绿黄化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus,CCYV)的亲缘关系很近,属于同一个分枝,而与该病毒同属不同种的南瓜黄矮失调病毒(Cuc urb it yellow stunting disorder virus,CYSDV)和大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的亲缘关系较远,属于不同的分枝.[结论]证实海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化病是由瓜类褪绿黄化病毒引起.

  5. Exogenously applied dsRNA molecules deriving from the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) genome move systemically and protect cucurbits against ZYMV.

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    Kaldis, Athanasios; Berbati, Margarita; Melita, Ourania; Reppa, Chrysavgi; Holeva, Maria; Otten, Patricia; Voloudakis, Andreas

    2017-06-16

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes serious damage in a large number of cucurbits, and control measures are necessary. Transgenic cucurbits expressing parts of the ZYMV genome have been shown to be resistant to the cognate virus. A non-transgenic approach involving the exogenous application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has also been shown to induce resistance in tobacco against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In the present study, dsRNA molecules derived from the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and coat protein (CP) genes of the ZYMV_DE_2014 isolate were produced in vitro. On exogenous dsRNA application in cucumber, watermelon and squash plants, dsRNA HC-Pro conferred resistance of 82%, 50% and 18%, and dsRNA CP molecules of 70%, 43% and 16%, respectively. On deep sequencing analysis of ZYMV-infected watermelon, hot-spot regions for viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the genome of ZYMV were identified. Stem-loop reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of selected 21-nucleotide-long vsiRNAs in plants that received only dsRNA molecules suggested that the dsRNAs exogenously applied onto plants were successfully diced, thus initiating RNA silencing. dsRNA molecules were found to be progressively degraded in planta, and strongly detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for at least 9 days after exogenous application. Moreover, dsRNA molecules were detected in systemic tissue of watermelon and squash, showing that dsRNA is transported long distances in these plants. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

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    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  7. Squash vein yellowing virus

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    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  8. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

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    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    to the existing Integrated Disease Management strategy for ZYMV in vegetable cucurbits in WA, but necessitated modification of its recommendations over deployment of cultivars with resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  10. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

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    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  11. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  12. Identification, distribution and incidence of viruses in field-grown cucurbit crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bananej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of viruses in the major cucurbit-growing areas of 17 provinces in Iran was conducted in 2005 and 2006. A total of 1699 leaf samples were collected from melon, squash, cucumber and watermelon plants showing various virus-like symptoms. Screening for 11 cucurbit viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR, found that 71% of the samples were infected by at least one virus, of which Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV was the most common overall, occurring in 49, 47, 40, and 33% of cucumber, squash, melon, and watermelon samples respectively. The second most common virus on melon and watermelon was Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (incidence 30–33%; on cucumber, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV(33%; and on squash, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV(38%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and Zucchini yellow fl eck virus (ZYFV in Iran. Mixed infections occurred in 49% of symptomatic samples. Mixed infections were relatively frequent in squash (58% and melon (55%. The most frequent double infections were WMV+CABYV and ZYMV+CABYV in melon, squash and cucumber, followed by WMV+ZYMV. In watermelon, the most frequent double infection was WMV+ZYMV, followed by WMV+CABYV. The high frequency of CABYV, WMV and ZYMV in the samples assayed on all four cucurbit crops and in all areas surveyed, as well as the detection of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV in northern and southern Iran, suggest that these viruses represent a potential threat to cucurbit crops in Iran.

  13. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  14. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  15. Detection and quantitation of two cucurbit criniviruses in mixed infection by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Peter E; Seblani, Rewa; Sobh, Hana; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2013-11-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) are whitefly-transmitted criniviruses infecting cucurbit crops inducing similar symptoms. Single and multiplex RT-PCR protocols were developed and evaluated on cucurbit samples collected from commercial greenhouses. Primers and probes were designed from the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 homolog (Hsp70h) gene. Conventional RT-PCR and multiplex RT-PCR assays showed high specificity and suitability for routine screening. TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols were also developed for the detection and quantitation of both viruses occurring in single or mixed infection. The assays proved to be highly specific with no cross amplification. RT-qPCR assays showed a 100-1000 times improved sensitivity over conventional RT-PCR. Virus titers in mixed infections were compared to singly infected plants by RT-qPCR. CYSDV and CCYV titers decreased in double infected plants. This paper reports highly specific conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection, quantitation and differentiation between two closely related cucurbit-infecting criniviruses.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in Guilan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamalizadeh, R; Vahdat, A; Keshavarz, T; Elahinia, A; Bananej, K

    2008-01-01

    During the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus L.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of Guilan province in Iran. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR to detect Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W), Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), and Ourmia melon virus (OuMV). The majority of tested samples (73.7%) were infected by at least one of the viruses considered. OuMV, ZYMV, WMV, and WmCSV were the most prevalent viruses and were detected in tested cucurbit plants. The incidence of multiple infections with 2 or more viruses was also relatively high, 63.3, 48.6, 42.7, and 26.7% of the infected samples of melon, cucumber, squash, and watermelon, respectively. The high incidence of OuMV and WmCSV suggested that these viruses might turn out to be an important threat for the melon and cucumber crops in the province.

  17. Identification of viruses infecting cucurbits and determination of genetic diversity of Cucumber mosaic virus in Lorestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanvand Vahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viral pathogens infect Cucurbitaceae and cause economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect plant viral pathogens including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV in Lorestan province, in western Iran, and also to determine CMV genetic diversity in Iranian populations. A total of 569 symptomatic leaf samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 from cucurbits growing regions in Lorestan province. The collected samples were assessed for viral diseases by ELISA. The results showed virus incidences in most regions. Then, the infection of 40 samples to CMV was confirmed by RT-PCR. Moreover, to distinguish between the two groups (I and II of CMV, PCR products were digested by two restriction enzymes XhoI and EcoRI. Results of the digestion showed that the isolates of Lorestan belonged to group I. The CMV-coat protein gene of eight isolates from different regions and hosts was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Subsequent analyses showed even more genetic variation among Lorestan isolates. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Lorestan province isolates belonged to two IA and IB subgroups and could be classified together with East Azerbaijan province isolates. The results of the present study indicate a wide distribution of CMV, ZYMV, CGMMV, CYSDV and CCYV viruses in cucurbits fields of Lorestan province and for the first time subgroup IB of CMV was reported on melon from Iran.

  18. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  19. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  20. Switching of emission of a styryl dye in cucurbit[7]uril: A comprehensive experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anamika; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2015-04-01

    Intriguing colour change and change in fluorescence band of 2-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide from nonpolar to polar protic solvent, and also from molecular container cucurbit[7]uril environment to polar protic solvent has been reported here. This interesting colour change of this dye with respect to the medium makes this dye useful as a sensor. Change in spectral characteristics of DASPMI along with change of colour from orange to yellow with increasing polarity of medium is interpreted as due to negative solvatochromatism. Complexations of probe-cucurbit[7]uril (1:1 and 2:1) cause structural change of the probe molecule due to hydrogen bond interaction of cationic part of the dye with Cdbnd O group of cucurbit[7]uril and the colour change of the solution ensued. On addition of sodium chloride to the inclusion complex the dye is released from cucurbit[7]uril interior with colour of the solution reverted back. Theoretical results show that one carbon atom in the styryl part containing the positive charge gets too close to a carbon atom of cucurbit[7]uril to cause a phenomenal increase of dipole moment by 10X.

  1. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCURBIT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND DISEASE PREVALENCE IN MUNICIPALITIES IN PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERFFESON THIAGO MOTA DE ALMEIDA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits have great economic, nutritional and social importance in the Brazilian semiarid region. In this region, many factors can result in reduced productivity of these crops, especially fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, knowledge of cucurbits is crucial for proper disease management. The objective of this work was to identify the major diseases of cucurbits grown in some municipalities in the Hinterland of the state of Pernambuco. Thus, plant samples were collected with symptoms in crops in the municipalities of Salgueiro, Serra Talhada, Floresta, Petrolândia, Ibimirim, Custódia and Inajá. A questionnaire was also applied to gather information about the production profile of producers. Seven fungal pathogens infecting cucurbits were identified: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Colletotrichum sp., Podosphaera xanthii, Rhizoctonia solani, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium sp. e Alternaria sp., and three viruses as well: Papaya ringspot virus - watermelon strain (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. It was found that in small crops, there is limited search for technical information om cropping, and these crops originate mostly from native seeds, in contrast to medium and large producers, who use improved cultivars. The melon and watermelon crops are the most commercially exploited, while pumpkins are used in subsistence agriculture. As for plant health problems, most respondents reported knowing the main diseases that occur in crops and perform disease control based on personal experience and / or through the help of the technical assistance provided by agricultural stores. In a few cases, in large farms, there was an agronomist to assist in this type of control.

  3. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  4. NMR study on self-assembled cage complex of hexamethylenetetramine and cucurbit[n]urils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongqiang; XUE Saifeng; ZHAO Yunjie; ZHU Qianjiang; TAO Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled complexes between cage compounds cucurbit[n = 5-8]urils and hexamethylenetetramine were studied by using NMR techniques. Experimental results reveal that hexamethylenetetramine can lid cucurbit[5]uril to forming self-assembled capsules in which nothing is encapsulated yet; the cavity of the cucurbit[7]uril can accommodate a hexamethylenetetramine molecule to form a self- assembled host-guest inclusion. Moreover, both the cavity interaction of the cucurbit[7]uril with hexamethylenetetramine·HCl and the portal interaction of the dipole carbonyl of the cucurbit[7]uril with hexamethylenetetramine·HCl lead to form self-assembled capsules in which the hexamethylenetetramine·HCl are encapsulated in the hexamethylenetetramine·HCl "lidded" cucurbit[7]uril. Although the structures of the portal and cavity to cucurbit[5]uril are similar, there is no obvious interaction between decamethylcucurbit[5]uril and hexamethylenetetramine, and also between cucurbit [6]uril or cucurbit[8]uril and hexamethylenetetramine.

  5. FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J; Lucas, William J

    2007-05-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)-treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits.

  6. Complexation behavior of cucurbit[6]uril with short polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Hans-Juergen [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: buschmann@dtnw.de; Mutihac, Lucia [University of Bucharest, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 4-12 Blvd. Regina Elisabeta, 703461 Bucharest (Romania); Mutihac, Radu-Cristian [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany); Schollmeyer, Eckhard [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    The binding properties of cucurbit[6]uril towards various peptides have been investigated in acidic aqueous solution. Stability constants and thermodynamic values of the complex formation between following peptides: glycyl-L-alanine, L-leucyl-L-valine, glycyl-L-asparagine, L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine, L-leucyl-L-tryptophan, glycyl-L-histidine, L-glutathione reduced ({gamma}-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH), and DL-leucyl-glycyl-DL-phenylalanine) with cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous formic acid (50%, v/v) have been calculated from calorimetric titrations. From these results it can be seen that the peptides form exclusion complexes with cucurbit[6]uril. Due to the polar peptide bond they are not included within the hydrophobic cavity of cucurbit[6]uril. The complex formation is favoured by entropic contributions. The release of water molecules from the polar amino groups of the peptides and the carbonyl groups of cucurbituril are responsible.

  7. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  8. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of some dietary cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara; Rawat, Indu; Goel, H C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated few dietary cucurbits for anticancer activity by monitoring cytotoxic (MTT and LDH assays), apoptotic (caspase-3 and annexin-V assays), and also their anti-inflammatory effects by IL-8 cytokine assay. Aqua-alcoholic (50:50) whole extracts of cucurbits [Lagenaria siceraria (Ls), Luffa cylindrica (Lc) and Cucurbita pepo (Cp)] were evaluated in colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT-15) and were compared with isolated biomolecule, cucurbitacin-B (Cbit-B). MTT and LDH assays revealed that the cucurbit extracts and Cbit-B, in a concentration dependent manner, decreased the viability of HT-29 and HCT-15 cells substantially. The viability of lymphocytes was, however, only marginally decreased, yielding a potential advantage over the tumor cells. Caspase-3 assay revealed maximum apoptosis with Ls while annexin V assay demonstrated maximum efficacy of Lc in this context. These cucurbits have also shown decreased secretion of IL-8, thereby revealing their anti-inflammatory capability. The results have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of dietary cucurbits in inhibiting cancer and inflammatory cytokine.

  9. Growth models for tree stems and vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Palladino, Michele; Shen, Wen

    2017-08-01

    The paper introduces a PDE model for the growth of a tree stem or a vine. The equations describe the elongation due to cell growth, and the response to gravity and to external obstacles. An additional term accounts for the tendency of a vine to curl around branches of other plants. When obstacles are present, the model takes the form of a differential inclusion with state constraints. At each time t, a cone of admissible reactions is determined by the minimization of an elastic deformation energy. The main theorem shows that local solutions exist and can be prolonged globally in time, except when a specific ;breakdown configuration; is reached. Approximate solutions are constructed by an operator-splitting technique. Some numerical simulations are provided at the end of the paper.

  10. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  11. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  12. Yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  13. New Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many physiological races of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen (CPM) Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff have been reported on melon (Cucumis melo L.). Melon accession PI 313970 is the only reported source of host plant resistance to race S, which first appeared in Imperial Valley, CA...

  14. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  15. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits Origem e evolução de cucurbitáceas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae are among the most important plant families supplying humans with edible products and useful fibers. Plants of this family are very similar in above ground development, but they have high genetic diversity for fruit shape and other fruit characteristics, resulting in a variety of uses. The objective of this review was to discuss the origin and evolution of the most important cultivated cucurbits. Understanding the evolutionary history and domestication process increase the possibility for better exploiting the genetic diversity for cultivar development. The domestication selection in cucurbits was for shape, less bitter flesh, larger and fewer seeds, and larger fruit size, resulting in high genetic diversity within and among cultivated species. This variation can be associated with the wide range of uses that require different shape, size and a constant ratio between fruit length and fruit diameter. The discussion of the breeding history indicates how artificial selection could speed up changes in fruit characteristics to attend specific uses and increase adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions in which cucurbits are growing worldwide. Although interspecific hybridization has been employed in cucurbit breeding more than in any other family, there is still a high potential for increasing its application for germplasm and cultivar development.As cucurbitáceas (Cucurbitaceae são uma das mais importantes famílias de plantas utilizadas para produção de alimentos e fibras. Apesar de a parte aérea das plantas desta família ser muito similar em seu desenvolvimento, grande variabilidade genética tem sido mantida para formato e outras características de fruto, o que aumenta o seu potencial de uso. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir a origem e a evolução das cucurbitáceas cultivadas. A história da evolução e o conhecimento das alterações ocorridas durante este processo podem facilitar a utiliza

  16. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  17. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Andrea Vining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vining

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Vining is a Financial Advisor at Morgan Stanley in Pasadena, California who was named to the Firm’s Pacesetter’s Club in 2015, a global recognition program for Financial Advisors who, within their first five years, demonstrate the highest professional standards and first class client service. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Literature from the University of California at Santa Cruz and her interest in the arts is personal and life-long. She studied Jewelry Design & Fabrication at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, CA and is also a certified bench jeweler. She and her colleagues are passionate about leveraging their network to help others achieve their financial, philanthropic, and life goals.

  18. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  19. Differential Colonization Dynamics of Cucurbit Hosts by Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrisman, Cláudio M; Deblais, Loïc; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Miller, Sally A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of cucurbits in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Although the disease has been studied since 1900, host colonization dynamics remain unclear. Cucumis- and Cucurbita-derived strains exhibit host preference for the cucurbit genus from which they were isolated. We constructed a bioluminescent strain of Erwinia tracheiphila (TedCu10-BL#9) and colonization of different cucurbit hosts was monitored. At the second-true-leaf stage, Cucumis melo plants were inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 via wounded leaves, stems, and roots. Daily monitoring of colonization showed bioluminescent bacteria in the inoculated leaf and petiole beginning 1 day postinoculation (DPI). The bacteria spread to roots via the stem by 2 DPI, reached the plant extremities 4 DPI, and the plant wilted 6 DPI. However, Cucurbita plants inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 did not wilt, even at 35 DPI. Bioluminescent bacteria were detected 6 DPI in the main stem of squash and pumpkin plants, which harbored approximately 10(4) and 10(1) CFU/g, respectively, of TedCu10-BL#9 without symptoms. Although significantly less systemic plant colonization was observed in nonpreferred host Cucurbita plants compared with preferred hosts, the mechanism of tolerance of Cucurbita plants to E. tracheiphila strains from Cucumis remains unknown.

  20. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in Watermelon in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  1. Cucurbit powdery mildews: Methodology for objective determination and denomination of races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM), a disease on field and greenhouse cucurbit crops worldwide, is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites (Golovinomyces orontii s.l., Podosphaera xanthii) that are highly variable in their pathogenicity and virulence. Various, independent syste...

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  3. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  4. Cucurbit[8]uril/cucurbit[7]uril controlled off/on fluorescence of the acridizinium and 9-aminoacridizinium cations in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibing; Yuan, Lina; Ihmels, Heiko; Macartney, Donal H

    2007-01-01

    The blue fluorescence of acridizinium bromide (ADZ+) and the green fluorescence of 9-aminoacridizinium bromide (AADZ+) in aqueous solutions can be almost entirely switched off upon the double inclusion of these guests in the cavity of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) owing to the formation of a nonfluorescent, noncovalent dimer complex, and then fluorescence can be effectively restored by adding cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) to the complex because it competitively extracts the fluorophores out of the CB[8] cavity.

  5. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  6. A novel fluorometric determination of melamine using cucurbit[7]uril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yunyou, E-mail: zy161299@mail.ahnu.edu.c [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Yang Juan; Liu Min; Wang Sufan; Lu Qin [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Melamine is a toxic compound to both animals and human beings, and is connected to various diseases, such as kidney stones and bladder cancer. For the efficient detection of melamine, we have developed a novel sensitive cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) sensor with a detection limit at 0.20 mug mL{sup -1}, and applied it to detect melamine in tainted milk. Fluorescence studies indicate that CB7 forms complex with melamine in a 1:1 mole ratio. The binding constant at various temperatures has been calculated and the interaction mechanism has been discussed based on molecular modeling result.

  7. Virus symptoms and viruses associated with two cucurbit crops grown in a derived savannah agro-ecology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYO-JOHN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five watermelon varieties, Sugar Baby, Charleston Grey, Kaolak, Crimson Sweet and Oranaise and three cucumber varieties, Poinsett, Ashley and Royal hybrid were grown on the field in two trials (i late season between August and October 2008 and (ii early season between April and June 2012 in Abeokuta, Ogun State to evaluate the cultivars for virus symptoms and viruses under natural tropical conditions. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from each crop variety and indexed for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The disease incidence was 100.0% at 6 weeks after planting (WAP for all the cucurbits crops for both seasons while the highest symptom severity score at 10 WAP was 4 and 5 for watermelon and 3.6 and 4 for cucumber in the 1st and 2nd trials. The viruses detected in late season were CMV, CGMMV and MNSV which occurred in all the cucumber and watermelon varieties. In addition PRSV, WMV and ZYMV occurred in mixed infection in the cucumber varieties Pointsett and Royal Hybrid. In the early season, PRSV was the most prevalent virus infection in the cucumber and watermelon varieties. Also CMV+PRSV, PRSV+WMV, and MNSV+PRSV occurred in mixed infection in Charleston Grey, Oranaise and Sugar Baby respectively. The viruses detected are among the viruses reported to limit the production of cucurbit crops world-wide.

  8. Genetic Resistance in Melon PI 313970 to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a fresh vegetable and dessert fruit that may also be cooked or dried, processed for juice and flavoring, and the seeds of which are a source of high quality cooking oil and high protein seed meal. Melon production throughout many parts of the world is now threatened by Cuc...

  9. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  10. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  11. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  12. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  13. Biological and molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marques de Almeida Spadotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV causes substantial economic losses in cucurbit crops. Although ZYMV has been present in Brazil for more than 20 years, there is little information about the biological and molecular characteristics of the isolates found in the country. This study aimed to characterize the experimental hosts, pathotypes and genetic diversity of a collection of eleven Brazilian ZYMV isolates within the coat protein gene. For biological analysis, plant species from Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Pedaliaceae were mechanically inoculated and pathotypes were identified based on the reaction of a resistant Cucumis melo, accession PI414723. All of the cucurbit species/varieties and Sesamum indicum were systemically infected with all isolates. The nucleotide sequence variability of the coat protein gene ranged from 82 % to 99 % compared to the corresponding sequences of ZYMV isolates from different geographical locations. No recombination event was detected in the coat protein gene of the isolates.

  14. Natural Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Iranian Cucurbit Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Yazdani-Khameneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main areas for field-grown vegetable production in Iran were surveyed during the years of 2012–2014 to determine the occurrence of begomoviruses infecting these crops. A total of 787 leaf samples were collected from vegetables and some other host plants showing virus-like symptoms and tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using polyclonal antibodies produced against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. According to the ELISA results, 81 samples (10.3% positively reacted with the virus antibodies. Begomovirus infections were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using previously described TYLCV-specific primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr or universal primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R. The PCR tests using the primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr resulted in the amplification of the expected fragments of ca. 0.67-kb in size for ELISA-positive samples tested from alfalfa, pepper, spinach and tomato plants, confirming the presence of TYLCV. For one melon sample, having a week reaction in ELISA and no reaction in PCR using TYLCV-specific primers, the PCR reaction using the primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R resulted in the amplification fragments of the expected size of ca. 2.8 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA amplicons derived from the isolate, Kz-Me198, were determined and compared with other sequences available in GenBank. BLASTN analysis confirmed the begomovirus infection of the sample and showed 99% identities with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV; phylogenetic analysis supported the results of the database searches. This study reports the natural occurrence of TYLCV in different hosts in Iran. Our results also reveal the emergence of ToLCNDV in Iranian cucurbit crops.

  15. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  16. INFLUENCE OF THE LENGTH OF FRUIT VINES ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MOLDOVA GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of different lengths of fruit vines with the same load wintering buds of bushes on the yield and quality of Moldova grapes. It was found that the biological indicators of fruiting Moldova grapes improved by lengthening fruit vines, taking into account weather conditions. Shortening the vines increases germination and fruitfulness degree base buds and reserve buds. Productivity is increased by lengthening fruit vines. It is determined by the degree of fruitfulness buds of the vine, the development of floscules of wintering buds, bunch and berries weight, number of berries in bunches. The optimum is pruning vines to 10-12 buds. Harmonious taste, weight of bunches and berries, transportability factor fixed high yield of grapes standard (85,6-86,4% with different length of fruit vines. The highest productivity of leaves makes pruning fruit vines to 10-12 buds. The strength of shoot growth and volume growth of bushes reduced at an elongation of the fruit vines. The more moderate growth of shoots observed at long (10-12 buds pruning vines. There is no significant difference to the degree of maturation of shoots with different length vines. In order to increase the yield of Moldova grapes in the central zone of the Krasnodar region expedient cut fruit vines to 10-12 buds

  17. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  18. A study of the Fenton-mediated oxidation of methylene blue-cucurbit[n]uril complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Tomás; Fuentealba, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Cucurbit[n]urils efficiently decreased the Fenton-mediated oxidation of encapsulated dyes, providing a mechanism for some control and selectivity over the degradation. The encapsulation of methylene blue into cucurbit[7]uril made it highly refractory against Fenton oxidation in the dark or under UVA light irradiation. However, the oxidation of the encapsulated dye was significantly enhanced under visible light irradiation. This behavior was selective for the cucurbit[7]uril complex and not for the cucurbit[8]uril complex, which achieved the same degree of protection irrespective of the irradiation conditions. This different reactivity of the complexes was further discussed in terms of their excited state properties. The main mechanism for protection was the seclusion of the dye into cucurbit[n]urils as shown by the fact that the non-encapsulated dye safranin was protected much less than methylene blue. Additionally, cucurbit[n]urils efficiently trapped hydroxyl radicals, which contributed significantly to the protection of the dyes from Fenton-mediated oxidation.

  19. X-Vine: Secure and Pseudonymous Routing Using Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Distributed hash tables suffer from several security and privacy vulnerabilities, including the problem of Sybil attacks. Existing social network-based solutions to mitigate the Sybil attacks in DHT routing have a high state requirement and do not provide an adequate level of privacy. For instance, such techniques require a user to reveal their social network contacts. We design X-Vine, a protection mechanism for distributed hash tables that operates entirely by communicating over social network links. As with traditional peer-to-peer systems, X-Vine provides robustness, scalability, and a platform for innovation. The use of social network links for communication helps protect participant privacy and adds a new dimension of trust absent from previous designs. X-Vine is resilient to denial of service via Sybil attacks, and in fact is the first Sybil defense that requires only a logarithmic amount of state per node, making it suitable for large-scale and dynamic settings. X-Vine also helps protect the privacy o...

  20. Vine vigor components and its variability - relationship to wine composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Magali; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    It was pointed out that a high spatial variability for canopy size and yield would exist within a vineyard but a high temporal stability over the years was observed. Furthermore, a greater variability in grape phenolics than in sugars and pH was detected within a vineyard. But the link between remote sensing indices and quality parameters of grapes is still unclear. Indeed, though in red grape varieties anthocyanins content was spatially negatively correlated to vigor parameters, it seemed that yield, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Plant Cell Density (PCD) indices were poorly correlated. Moreover, the link to quality parameters of wines remains uncertain. It was shown that more vigorous vines would lead to wines with less tannins while anthocyanins in wines would be highest when the vines were balanced but the question is if vine size or architecture, yield or nitrogen assimilation would play major contribution to those differences. The general scope of our project was to provide further knowledge on the relationship between vigor parameters and wine composition and relate these to the information gained by remote sensing. Variability in a 0.15 ha vineyard of Pinot noir planted in 2003 and grafted on SO4 rootstock at Geisenheim (Germany) was followed. Vine vigor was assessed manually for each of the 400 vines (cane number, pruning weight, trunk diameter) together with yield parameters (number of bunches per vine, crop yield). Leaf composition was assessed with a hand-held optical sensor (Multiplex3® [Mx3] (Force-A, Orsay, France) based on chlorophyll fluorescence screening providing information on leaf chlorophyll (SFR_G) and nitrogen (NBI_G) content. A micro-scale winemaking of single vines with a 3 factorial design on yield (L low, M middle, H high), SFRG (L, M, H) and canopy size (pruning weight, trunk diameter) (L, M, H) was performed for 2013 and 2014 to completely reflect variability. Wine tannin concentration represented the highest

  1. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  2. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  3. Initiative for international cooperation of researchers and breeders related to determination and denomination of cucurbit powdery mildew races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites, Golovinomyces orontii s.l. and Podosphaera xanthii, that are highly variable in virulence. Various independent systems of CPM race determination and denomination cause a chaotic situation in cucurbit...

  4. Thiol accumulation and cysteine desulfhydrase activity in H2S-fumigated leaves and leaf homogenates of cucurbit plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, Bärbel; De Kok, Luit J.; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    Fumigation of both, cucurbit plants and cucurbit leaf homogenates with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) resulted in an increase in soluble thiol, mainly glutathione and cysteine. In leaf homogenates this increase was counteracted or prevented by the addition at 1 mM of inhibitors of pyridoxalphosphate depende

  5. Potential Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in US Plant Introductions (PI) of Lagenaria Siceraria (bottle gourd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in grafting watermelon plants onto various cucurbit rootstocks. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being use...

  6. Approximate Uncertainty Modeling in Risk Analysis with Vine Copulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Tim; Daneshkhah, Alireza; Wilson, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Many applications of risk analysis require us to jointly model multiple uncertain quantities. Bayesian networks and copulas are two common approaches to modeling joint uncertainties with probability distributions. This article focuses on new methodologies for copulas by developing work of Cooke, Bedford, Kurowica, and others on vines as a way of constructing higher dimensional distributions that do not suffer from some of the restrictions of alternatives such as the multivariate Gaussian copula. The article provides a fundamental approximation result, demonstrating that we can approximate any density as closely as we like using vines. It further operationalizes this result by showing how minimum information copulas can be used to provide parametric classes of copulas that have such good levels of approximation. We extend previous approaches using vines by considering nonconstant conditional dependencies, which are particularly relevant in financial risk modeling. We discuss how such models may be quantified, in terms of expert judgment or by fitting data, and illustrate the approach by modeling two financial data sets.

  7. Soil erosion on vineyards: impacts on vine performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Salvador-Banes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Goulet, Etienne; Le Duc, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Many agricultural practices increase soil degradation processes. The measurement of the effects of such practices helps for the management of constraints and ensures the stability of agricultural production. In viticulture, soil is one of the components that define the specificity and quality of wine. Chemical and physical soil properties indeed exert a strong influence on vine performances. However, the precise influences of soil properties, such as rock fragments, clay or lime contents, soil depth or mineral content are subjected to debate. Actually, vine performances derive also from climate and vintage, viticulture and winemaking techniques and plant genetic. Nerveless, soil erosion can significantly change the root growing zone properties and therefore the vine responses. In fact viticulture is the agricultural production that is the most prone to erosion, with an average rate of 12 t.ha -1.yr-1 in the European context (Cerdan et al., 2010). The soil's capacities to support crop growth, without resulting in soil degradation, need to be brought under control, to improve environmental sustainability and minimize in-site and off-site impacts. The aim of this study is to better quantify the effect of soil erosion in vineyards on soil parameters (such as available water content) that exert a key role in the specificity of viticultural terroirs. Two study areas are considered in Corsica and in the Loire Valley. Our approach is divided into three steps. Firstly, the identification and the mapping of soil properties that have an impact over vine performances, using digital soil mapping techniques and pedotransfer functions. The soil characteristics are identified by field survey at two spatial resolutions: the field and landscape. In the same study areas, the erosion dynamics is assessed. Various techniques are employed such as: 137Cs activities, spatial distribution of copper and stock unearthing. In order to comprehend erosion dynamics and evolutions, the third step

  8. Cucurbit[6]uril-Promoted Click Chemistry for Protein Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finbloom, Joel A; Han, Kenneth; Slack, Clancy C; Furst, Ariel L; Francis, Matthew B

    2017-07-19

    Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is a powerful reaction for the formation of bioconjugates. When catalyzed by Cu(I) or strain promotion, this cycloaddition is considered to be a "click" reaction with many applications in chemical biology and materials science. We report a new type of azide-alkyne click chemistry for the synthesis of protein conjugates using cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) supramolecular chemistry. CB6-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition has been previously used for the synthesis of rotaxanes but has not been applied to the development of complex bioconjugates. By developing new substrates for CB6 click that do not contain any cross-reactive functional groups and by optimizing reaction conditions, we converted CB6 click chemistry from a rotaxane synthesis tool into a useful bioconjugation technique. Using these new parameters, we synthesized a series of protein conjugates including protein-peptide, protein-DNA, protein-polymer, and protein-drug conjugates. We further demonstrated that CB6 click can be used in conjunction with strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition to generate distinct bioconjugates in protein mixtures. CB6 click is a promising new reaction for the development of protein conjugates and can be applied toward the synthesis of complex biomaterials for a wide range of applications.

  9. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Binuclear Gadolinium(Ⅲ) Complex Bridged by Cucurbit[6]uril

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Ling ZHANG; Zhi Yong WU; Yan Tuan LI; Da Qi WANG; Jian Min DOU

    2006-01-01

    A new cucurbit[6]uril bridged binuclear complex {[Gd(H2O)6]2[Q6(H2O)]}Cl6·4H2O,where Q6 represents cucurbit[6]uril, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction.The crystal structure shows that the complex has an extended cucurbit[6]uril-bridged structure consisting of two gadolinium(Ⅲ) ions, in which each gadolinium(Ⅲ) ion is coordinated with two neighboring carbonylic oxygen atoms of Q6 and six oxygen atoms of water molecules that leans toward one side of the portal. One disordered guest water molecule resides in the Q6 molecule cavity and occupies two different positions. Hydrogen bonds assemble the complex to three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  10. A multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Menzel, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    We present a multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using the high-dimensional vine copula. This hydrological indicator is based on the concept of the standardized index (SI) (the version of this algorithm for streamflow is called the standardized streamflow index, simply the SSI). Unlike the single SSI n-month scales (e.g., SSI 1-month or 6-month), this indicator is done without focusing on a certain time window. This means that all different time windows from 1- to 12-months (i.e., the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) are considered together when developing this hydrological drought indicator. Therefore, in this study, a 12-dimensional joint function is modeled to join the multivariate margins (the distribution functions of the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) for all time windows based on the copula algorithm. We then used the C-vine copulas to construct the joint dependence of the multivariate margins with window sizes from 1-month to 12-months. To construct the C-vine copula, five bivariate copulas (i.e., Gaussian, Clayton, Frank, Gumbel, and Joe copulas) were considered as the potential pair-copulas (building blocks). Based on well-fitted marginal distributions, a 12-d C-vine copula was used to join the margins, model the joint dependence structure and generate this 12-variate hydrological indicator (named joint streamflow drought indicator, simply JSDI). We tested the performance of this indicator using two hydrological stations in Germany. The results indicate that the JSDI generally combines the strengths of the short-term drought index in capturing the drought onset and medium-term drought index in reflecting the drought duration or persistence. Therefore, it provides a more comprehensive assessment of drought and could be more competitive than other traditional hydrological drought indices (e.g., the SSI). This attractive feature is attributed to the fact that the JSDI describes the overall drought conditions based on

  11. Evidence for cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen races based on watermelon differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii occurs in open fields and greenhouses and can severely limit cucurbit production. Presently seven races of P. xanthii have been identified using melon (Cucumis melo) differentials. Physiological races of this pathogen have not been classified for ot...

  12. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  13. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  14. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  15. Supramolecular Controlled Cargo Release via Near Infrared Tunable Cucurbit[7]uril-Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanwei; Yang, Xiran; Liu, Yingzhu; Ai, Qiushuang; Liu, Simin; Sun, Chunyan; Liang, Feng

    2016-02-26

    The near infrared (NIR) absorption and average particle size of gold nanostars (GNSs) can be precisely controlled by varying the molar ratios of cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) and GNSs in aqueous solution. GNSs modified with CB[7] achieved high cargo loading with thermally activated release upon the NIR laser irradiation.

  16. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  17. Size-tunable supramolecular nanoparticles mediated by ternary cucurbit (8)uril host-guest interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffelen, C.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    The formation of size-tunable, supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs), employing cucurbit[8]uril-assisted naphthol–viologen charge-transfer complexes, is strongly time and temperature dependent. Yet, the ternary complex formation is fast at all temperatures employed. This indicates that SNP formation

  18. The cucurbits of mediterranean antiquity: identification of taxa from ancient images and descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janick, Jules; Paris, Harry S; Parrish, David C

    2007-12-01

    A critical analysis was made of cucurbit descriptions in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica, Columella's De Re Rustica and Pliny's Historia Naturalis, works on medicine, agriculture and natural science of the 1st century ce, as well as the Mishna and Tosefta, compilations of rabbinic law derived from the same time period together with cucurbit images dating from antiquity including paintings, mosaics and sculpture. The goal was to identify taxonomically the Mediterranean cucurbits at the time of the Roman Empire. By ancient times, long-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melon) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) were selected, cultivated and used as vegetables around the Mediterranean and, in addition, bottle-shaped fruits of L. siceraria were employed as vessels. Citrullus lanatus (watermelons) and round-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melons) were also consumed, but less commonly. A number of cucurbit species, including Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocynthis and Ecballium elaterium, were employed for medicinal purposes. No unequivocal evidence was found to suggest the presence of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in the Mediterranean area during this era. The cucumis of Columella and Pliny was not cucumber, as commonly translated, but Cucumis melo subsp. melo Flexuosus Group (snake melon or vegetable melon).

  19. Tolerance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in USDA Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plant Introductions (PI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being used throughout the world as rootstocks for grafting watermelon. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in...

  20. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  1. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  2. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  3. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also

  4. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  5. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Queraltó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  6. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  7. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cucurbit[6]uril: A Possible Host for Noble Gas Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2015-08-27

    Density functional and ab initio molecular dynamics studies are carried out to investigate the stability of noble gas encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) systems. Interaction energy, dissociation energy and dissociation enthalpy are calculated to understand the efficacy of CB[6] in encapsulating noble gas atoms. CB[6] could encapsulate up to three Ne atoms having dissociation energy (zero-point energy corrected) in the range of 3.4-4.1 kcal/mol, whereas due to larger size, only one Ar or Kr atom encapsulated analogues would be viable. The dissociation energy value for the second Ar atom is only 1.0 kcal/mol. On the other hand, the same for the second Kr is -0.5 kcal/mol, implying the instability of the system. The noble gas dissociation processes are endothermic in nature, which increases gradually along Ne to Kr. Kr encapsulated analogue is found to be viable at room temperature. However, low temperature is needed for Ne and Ar encapsulated analogues. The temperature-pressure phase diagram highlights the region in which association and dissociation processes of Kr@CB[6] would be favorable. At ambient temperature and pressure, CB[6] may be used as an effective noble gas carrier. Wiberg bond indices, noncovalent interaction indices, electron density, and energy decomposition analyses are used to explore the nature of interaction between noble gas atoms and CB[6]. Dispersion interaction is found to be the most important term in the attraction energy. Ne and Ar atoms in one Ng entrapped analogue are found to stay inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation at 298 K. However, during simulation Ng2 units in Ng2@CB[6] flip toward the open faces of CB[6]. After 1 ps, one Ne atom of Ne3@CB[6] almost reaches the open face keeping other two Ne atoms inside. At lower temperature (77 K), all the Ng atoms in Ngn@CB[6] remain well inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation time (1 ps).

  9. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  10. Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, S; Svoboda, J; Glasa, M

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Slovak Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (ZYMV-H and ZYMV-SE04T) were determined. These isolates differ significantly in their pathogenicity, producing either severe or very mild symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts. The viral genome of both isolates consisted of 9593 nucleotides in size, and contained an open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3080 amino acids. Despite their different biological properties, an extremely high nucleotide identity could be noted (99.8%), resulting in differences of only 5 aa, located in the HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, respectively. In silico analysis including 5 additional fully-sequenced and phylogenetically closely-related isolates known to induce different symptoms in cucurbits was performed. This suggested that the key single mutation responsible for virus pathogenicity is likely located in the N-terminal part of P3, adjacent to the PIPO.

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Macrocyclic Cavitand Cucurbit[5]uril and Its Supramolecular Adduct with Cu(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Si-Min(刘思敏); HUANG,Zi-Xiang(黄子祥); WU,Xiao-Jun(吴晓军); LIANG,Feng(梁峰); WU,Cheng-Tai(吴成泰)

    2004-01-01

    The first supramolecular adduct (H3O)2[Cu(H2O)4](SO4)2·2(C30H30N20O10)·24(H2O) based on cucurbit[5]uril was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the adduct, copper ion is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from H2O. The latter links two cucurbit[5]uril molecules due to a complicated hydrogen bonding containing lattice water molecules.

  12. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-02-25

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  13. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josman P. Pérez-Expósito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  14. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain: Agronomy and quality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters, in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain. The reduction of vine distance has favored the vegetative growth, through the shoot weight, while the grape yield has been slightly higher in the intermediate vine distance, 1.40 m, through the cluster weight. Ravaz index showed some increase with the increasing of vine distance, derived from the decrease of pruning wood. In qualitative terms, the variation of the vine distance did not significantly modify the basic composition of the grape. Therefore, the choice of the vine distance involves the convenience to assess both potential effects in terms of production and economic objectives of the new plantations, in accordance with the characteristics of each growing situation.

  15. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  16. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P.; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine. PMID:28245619

  17. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    Thirteen species of woody shrubs and vines were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone for 8 hours at biweekly intervals throughout the 1975 growing season. A different set of plants was utilized in each biweekly exposure. The most susceptible species was staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), followed in descending order of susceptibility by Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Indian currant (coral berry) (Symphoricarpus orbiculatus), American elder (Sambucus canadensis), dwarf ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), autumn olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), white snowberry (Symphoricarpus albus), bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and Morrow honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi). The latter three species were very resistant. The most common symptom induced by ozone was a dark pigmented stipple on the upper leaf surface. The foliage of all species became increasingly resistant toward the end of the growing season.

  18. Coccidoxenoides perminutus parasitizing Planococcus citri on vine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Herlândia de Araújo Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From those of the mealybug family, the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citriRisso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is frequently held responsible for various diseases occurring in vineyards. This is a first time report in Brazil, on the occurrence of a parasitoid controlling P. citri. In our search for the natural enemies of P. citri, bunches of grapes with the vine were collected every week for one month, in those regions where table grapes were produced, like Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. In these samples, among the natural pest infestations Coccidoxenoides perminutusGirault, 1915 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was the only natural enemy species reported. In this research, we attempted to study the potential of parasitism as well as the strategies that this natural agent uses in pest control.

  19. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  20. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  1. Cucurbit[7]uril disrupts aggregate formation between rhodamine B dyes covalently attached to glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Ronald L; Moore, Jason L; Yip, Wai Tak

    2011-07-01

    Dye aggregation is detrimental to the performance of high optical density dye-doped photonic materials. To overcome this challenge, the ability of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) as a molecular host to disrupt aggregate formation on glass substrates was examined. Rhodamine B was covalently attached to glass slides by initially coating the surface with azidohexylsiloxane followed by copper-catalyzed "click" triazole formation with rhodamine B propargyl ester. The absorption and emission spectra of rhodamine B coated slides in water indicated diverse heterogeneous properties as surface dye density varied. Fluorescence quenching due to dye aggregation was evident at high surface dye density. Addition of aqueous cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) to the surface-tethered dyes perturbed the spectra to reveal a considerable reduction in heterogeneity, which suggested that the presence of a surface in close proximity does not significantly impair CB7's ability to complex with tethered rhodamine B.

  2. Triple emission from p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile-cucurbit[8]uril triggers the elusive excimer emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Biedermann, Frank; Uzunova, Vanya D; Assaf, Khaleel I; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas; Nau, Werner M; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The intriguing dual-emission behavior of p- dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) and the identity of the associated excited states is, arguably, the most extensively investigated and also controversially discussed molecule- specific phenomenon of modern photochemistry. We have now found a new, third fluorescence band when DMABN is encapsulated within the water-soluble molecular container cucurbit[8]uril (CB8). It is centered between the previously observed emissions and assigned to the elusive excimer emission from DMABN through 1:2 CB8:DMABN complex formation. Heating of the CB8⋅(DMABN)2 complex from 0 to 100 °C results in the dissociation of the ternary complex and restoration of the dual-emission properties of the monomer. Alternatively, monomer emission can be obtained by selecting cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), a host homologue that is too small to accommodate two DMABN molecules, or by introducing ethyl instead of methyl groups at the amino terminus of the aminobenzonitrile guest.

  3. Cucurbit[7]uril as a tool in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Thathan; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2010-12-03

    A simple, green, one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles was achieved through the reaction of an aqueous mixture of potassium tetrachloroaurate(III) and the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril in the presence of sodium hydroxide at room temperature without introducing any kind of traditional reducing agents and/or external energy. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles showed catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH(4), which has been established by visual inspection and UV/Vis spectroscopy. This report is the first for the preparation of gold nanoparticles using cucurbit[7]uril in aqueous media through chemical reduction without employing conventional reducing agents and/or external energy.

  4. Binding Studies of Cucurbit[7]uril with Gold Nanoparticles Bearing Different Surface Functionalities‡

    OpenAIRE

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ziwen; Hou, Singyuk; Das, Riddha; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Host-guest interactions between a synthetic receptor, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been quantified using isothermal titration calorimetry. AuNPs were functionalized with ligands containing tertiary or quaternary benzylamine derivatives, with electron donating or withdrawing groups at the para position of the benzene ring. Analysis of binding interactions reveals that functional groups at the para position have no significant effect on binding constant. However,...

  5. Determination of nevirapine in the presence of cucurbit(7uril with a gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELÍAS BLANCO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, at a gold electrode was studied by voltammetric techniques. Nevirapine showed a signal that interfered with a working electrode wave. This interference was solved by the use of cucurbit(7uril allowing nevirapine to be determined in tablets (80.4 % recovery, presence of stavudine and lamivudine and urine (98.4 %.

  6. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  7. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    ) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing......A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i...

  8. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing...

  9. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  10. Application of Multiplex RT-PCR for Detection of Cucurbit-infecting Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV are seed borne viruses and they are also transmitted mechanically during agricultural practice and through water. Hence, these viruses have potential diseases widely distributed throughout the world. To detect different strains of CGMMV and KGMMV, several specific primers for each virus were designed for single and multiplex RT-PCR. The results of single and multiplex RT-PCR showed that CGMMV was detected in zucchini isolated in Bali-Indonesia, while KGMMV was detected both in zucchini isolated in Bali-Indonesia and Cucumis metuliferus isolated in Thailand. Furthermore, artificial co-infection of these two viruses was prepared and carried out using two different ways of viral RNAs extraction. Based on the results, it could be reported that viral RNAs for cDNA amplification by multiplex RT-PCR could be extracted from a mixture of infected leaves or separate extraction of each viruses infected leaves. In addition, results presented in this study demonstrated the application of multiplex RT-PCR to simultaneously detect CGMMV and KGMMV from cucurbit leaves using a mixture of four primers and its feasibility as a sensitive and rapid laboratory assay. Since, no multiplex RT-PCR technique has been described for the detection of CGMMV and KGMMV, this technique can be a good option for sensitive and reliable tool for detection of two major cucurbit infecting Tobamoviruses.Keywords : Cucurbit infecting Tobamovirus, multiplex RT-PCR, seed borne viruses

  11. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  12. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  13. Tomato fruit quality as affected by ripening on- and off-vine

    OpenAIRE

    Koukounaras, A.; Makridou, C.; Siomos, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. In order to extend postharvest life and marketable period, tomato fruits are mainly harvested at the mature green stage and they ripen off vine. However, most of the consumers are convinced that on vine ripened tomatoes a...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experim...

  15. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Corrêa; BACKES, A. A.; Fagundes,J. L.; BARBOSA, L. T.; SOUSA, B. M. de L.; OLIVEIRA, V. de S.; Moreira, A L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal) and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units). The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of ...

  16. Efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.H.; Ali, M.A.; Ahmed, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis on gram seed in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period of February to May, 2009. The concentrations of dodder vine extract were 5, 2 and 1% respectively. Efficacies of these treatments were evaluated by considering oviposition, adult emergence, intensity of damage and seed weight...

  17. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea. PMID:28154492

  18. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2016-12-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.

  19. The 7% Solution - Cleaning Up After Fred Vine's Outstanding Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fred Vine was the first & greatest of the wiggle pickers, founding the marine magnetic anomaly field with his 1963 Vine & Matthews paper. Two of his classic study areas were Juan de Fuca & the Reykjanes Ridge. In Juan de Fuca, he recognized the axial symmetry in the Raff & Mason data that had shown the existence of magnetic stripes on the seafloor, demonstrating the seafloor spreading there that Tuzo Wilson had predicted. Fred's iconic color figure of these anomalies perfectly correlated with the magnetic reversal time scale (after the discovery of the Jaramillo event) became the striking cover illustration of 'The History of the Earth's Crust', the symposium volume of the influential 1966 Goddard meeting that confirmed the reality of seafloor spreading & continental drift. Everything Fred did in Juan de Fuca was correct, but fortunately for me he didn't do everything. Some of the linear magnetic anomaly offsets there became a major puzzle in 1967 when Jason Morgan & Dan McKenzie discovered plate tectonics, because those offsets were oblique to the ridges & transforms & thus were incompatible with simple plate tectonics. Although the oblique anomaly offsets look like faults, they instead turned out to be propagating rift pseudofault wakes with no relative motion along them, an interpretation resulting from my analysis of Galapagos magnetic anomalies. Fred's other iconic color figure was his correlation of the Heirtzler et al. Reykjanes Ridge aeromagnetic data with the reversal timescale. This figure, showing the symmetry predicted by seafloor spreading & field reversals, was another key step in the scientific revolution. At the Goddard Symposium Fred was asked if he'd tested the symmetry statistically & he replied "I never touch statistics. I just deal with the facts'. Fred was trying to have a scientific revolution, & of course on that scale pretty symmetric seafloor spreading is a reality. However, fine-scale asymmetric spreading can be seen in his figure (the

  20. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  1. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Delord; Étienne Montaigne; Alfredo Coelho

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the existence of both greater profitability for large-scale farms and economies of scale in the French viticulture sector, thereby confirming or invalidating the argument put forward by the European Commission to justify the abolition of vine planting rights. According to this argument (1) economic efficiency increases with the extension of the vine area in vineyards, and (2) vine planting rights prevent the expansion of farms. This article discusses the issue of econom...

  2. Retracing recurring vine mortality patterns over a long duration: case study of a Mediterranean viticultural estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at performing both long term historical and spatial tracing, focusing on the vine mortality patterns and their temporal repetition, across a 6 ha-farm, "Domaine des Chauvets", mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley in France. In this estate of long-standing wine-growing history, were mortality patterns randomly distributed or were they related to soil or historical management? Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected in the field at a total of 112 sampling locations. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947-2010 period, of which 7 were retained for further rectification and processing. This dataset was used to retrace the landuse and planting history for each plot, and then extract the frequency of missing vines. Within-field terroir units were demarcated using support vector machine classification of a set of present-day very high resolution data, including soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 maps and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images of May 2014 and July 2015. Field and recent data revealed important soil erosion rates which are likely to ruin terroir sustainability and pointed out those units for which soil restoration practices are urgently needed, while the temporal dataset exhibited a repeated spatial pattern of missing vines, throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements. The frequency of missing vines was related to within-field terroir units and also to past landuse, particularly forest or orchard dating back the 1940s, and current soil organic carbon content. This brings renewed questions about the determinism of vine decline, suggesting contribution of soil degradation processes.

  3. Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Bonilha; Ricardo Gioria; Rômulo Fujito Kobori; Paulo Tarcísio Della Vecchia; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown...

  4. Detection, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from cucurbits in the northwest region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Kalhor, Mohammad Rasaei; Zarghani, Shaheen Nourinejhad

    2006-06-01

    One hundred and twenty three cucurbit samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, leaf distortion, fruit mosaic, stunting, mottling and yellowing were collected from several locations in the northwest region of Iran. Screening by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with a cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) polyclonal antibody, produced positive reactions from 13 samples. However, none of these positive samples reacted with a CMV subgroup-II (S-II)-specific monoclonal antibody in a triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELSIA. When total RNA from the CMV-infected samples was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a pair of primers corresponding to the flanking regions of the virus coat protein (CP) gene, an expected DNA fragment of about 872 bp was amplified from 10 of the 13 isolates. This fragment covered the CP open reading frame (ORF) plus 92 and 123 bp of the 5' and 3' flanking regions, respectively. Restriction analysis with MspI (HpaII) was done on 9 of the PCR products and revealed a previously described CMV subgroup I (S-I) specific profile (537 and 335 bp fragments) for the isolates B13, B23, B5, SH5, SH17, S342 and S337, and an additional fragment, suggestive of combined profiles, was present for B13, SH5 and S342. Two other isolates, SH12 and B7 had a CMV S-II MspI profile (four visible fragments and a predicted non-visible 28-bp fragment on 2% agarose). Also, BsuRI (HaeIII) did not cut the PCR products characteristic of the CMV S-I specific MspI profile, whereas for the S-II isolates, BsuRI gave two fragments with sizes of approximately 559 and 313 bp. Nucleotide (nt) sequences of clones from the isolates B13, B23, SH5, SH17, S337 and SH12 were determined and aligned with those of previously published CMV strains and isolates. Consensus parsimonious trees constructed on the basis of the whole amplified region (841 nt excluding the primer sequences), CP ORF (nt or deduced amino acid data), or

  5. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: biological properties, detection procedures and comparison of coat protein gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Webster, C G; Wylie, S J; Jones, R A C

    2011-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, 5324 samples from at least 34 weed, two cultivated legume and 11 native species were collected from three cucurbit-growing areas in tropical or subtropical Western Australia. Two new alternative hosts of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were identified, the Australian native cucurbit Cucumis maderaspatanus, and the naturalised legume species Rhyncosia minima. Low-level (0.7%) seed transmission of ZYMV was found in seedlings grown from seed collected from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) fruit infected with isolate Cvn-1. Seed transmission was absent in >9500 pumpkin (C. maxima and C. moschata) seedlings from fruit infected with isolate Knx-1. Leaf samples from symptomatic cucurbit plants collected from fields in five cucurbit-growing areas in four Australian states were tested for the presence of ZYMV. When 42 complete coat protein (CP) nucleotide (nt) sequences from the new ZYMV isolates obtained were compared to those of 101 complete CP nt sequences from five other continents, phylogenetic analysis of the 143 ZYMV sequences revealed three distinct groups (A, B and C), with four subgroups in A (I-IV) and two in B (I-II). The new Australian sequences grouped according to collection location, fitting within A-I, A-II and B-II. The 16 new sequences from one isolated location in tropical northern Western Australia all grouped into subgroup B-II, which contained no other isolates. In contrast, the three sequences from the Northern Territory fitted into A-II with 94.6-99.0% nt identities with isolates from the United States, Iran, China and Japan. The 23 new sequences from the central west coast and two east coast locations all fitted into A-I, with 95.9-98.9% nt identities to sequences from Europe and Japan. These findings suggest that (i) there have been at least three separate ZYMV introductions into Australia and (ii) there are few changes to local isolate CP sequences following their establishment in remote growing areas. Isolates from A-I and B

  6. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  7. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  8. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2016-08-23

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P straw and sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China.

  9. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Binding Studies of Cucurbit[7]uril with Gold Nanoparticles Bearing Different Surface Functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ziwen; Hou, Singyuk; Das, Riddha; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-06-03

    Host-guest interactions between a synthetic receptor, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been quantified using isothermal titration calorimetry. AuNPs were functionalized with ligands containing tertiary or quaternary benzylamine derivatives, with electron donating or withdrawing groups at the para position of the benzene ring. Analysis of binding interactions reveals that functional groups at the para position have no significant effect on binding constant. However, headgroups bearing a permanent positive charge increased the binding of AuNPs to CB[7] ten-fold compared to monomethyl counterparts.

  11. Survey on The Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Cucurbits in Yogyakarta and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are grown throughout the Java Island as dry season crops. Plants having mosaic, mottling, chlorosis and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently found in most of the cucurbit fields during the survey which conducted in Central Java including Sleman, Kulon Progo, and Klaten during July–September 2000 and 2001. Using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA; Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV were found infecting cucurbits. CMV was widespread, infecting 48.9% of the samples tested followed by CGMMV (12.8% and KGMMV (6.4%, while others samples (31.9% were not tested, double infections were common with 8.5 % of the samples being infected with two viruses (CGMMV and KGMMV and 34% with three viruses (CMV, CGMMV, and KGMMV. Severe mosaic and mottle symptoms were associated most often with single infection of CGMMV and KGMMV respectively. In addition, these are the first detections of CGMMV and KGMMV infecting cucurbit plants in Indonesia. Tanaman labu-labuan umumnya tumbuh sepanjang musim kemarau diPulau Jawa. Tanaman labu-labuan dengan gejala mosaik, klorosis, mottling dan bentuk daun serta buah yang berubah banyak dijumpai selama survei yang dilakukan di Kulon Progo, Sleman dan Klaten pada bulan Juli sampai September tahun 2000 dan 2001. Deteksi menggunakan metode double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA telah berhasil mengetahui keberadaan dan infeksiCucumber mosaic virus(CMV,Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV dan Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV pada tanaman labu-labuan di tiga kabupaten tersebut. CMV menginfeksi tanaman labu-labuan tinggi yaitu 48,9% dari jumlah sampel tanaman yang dikoleksi, kemudian CGMMV (12,8% dan KGMMV(6,4%, sedangkan sebanyak 14 sampel tanaman (31,9%tidak dideteksi.Infeksi ganda banyak ditemukan dan 8,5 % sampel tanaman terinfeksi oleh dua jenis virus (CGMMV dan

  12. Taxonomic and functional diversity of cultured seed associated microbes of the cucurbit family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Eman M; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-06-27

    Endophytes are microbes that colonize plant internal tissues without causing disease. In particular, seed-associated endophytes may be vectors for founder microbes that establish the plant microbiome, which may subsequently contribute beneficial functions to their host plants including nutrient acquisition and promotion of plant growth. The Cucurbitaceae family of gourds (e.g., cucumbers, melons, pumpkin, squash), including its fruits and seeds, is widely consumed by humans. However, there is limited data concerning the taxonomy and functions of seed-associated endophytes across the Cucurbitaceae family. Here, bacteria from surface-sterilized seeds of 21 curcurbit varieties belonging to seven economically important species were cultured, classified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and subjected to eight in vitro functional tests. In total, 169 unique seed-associated bacterial strains were cultured from selected cucurbit seeds. Interestingly, nearly all strains belonged to only two phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria) and only one class within each phyla (Bacilli, γ-proteobacteria, respectively). Bacillus constituted 50 % of all strains and spanned all tested cucurbit species. Paenibacillus was the next most common genus, while strains of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were also cultured. Phylogenetic trees showed limited taxonomic clustering of strains by host species. Surprisingly, 33 % of strains produced the plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (auxin), known to stimulate the growth of fruits/gourds and nutrient-acquiring roots. The next most common nutrient acquisition traits in vitro were (in rank order): nitrogen fixation/N-scavenging, phosphate solubilisation, siderophore secretion, and production of ACC deaminase. Secretion of extracellular enzymes required for nutrient acquisition, endophyte colonization and/or community establishment were observed. Bacillus strains had the potential to contribute all tested functional traits to their hosts

  13. Interaction of host-guest complexes of cucurbit[n]urils with double probe guests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Peihua; DONG; Jun; XIANG; Shuangchun; XUE; Saifeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    [1]Freeman, W. A., Mock, W. L., Shih, N. Y., Cucurbituril, J. Am.Chem. Soc., 1981, 103: 7367-7368.[2]Day, A. I., Arnold, A. P., Method for synthesis cucurbiturils, WO 0068232, 2000, 8.[3]Kim, J., Jung, I. S., Kim, S. Y. et al., New cucurbituril homologues: syntheses, isolation, characterization, and X-ray crystal structures of cucurbit[n]uril (n = 5, 7 and 8), J. Am. Chem. Soc.,2000, 122(3): 540-541.[4]Day, A. I., Blanck, R. J, Amold, A. P., A cucurbituril-based gyroscane: a new supramolecular form, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2002,41(2): 275-277.[5]Blanck, R. J., Sleeman, A. J. White, T. J. et al., Cucurbit[7]uril and o-carborane self-assemble to form a molecular ball bearing,Nano. Lett., 2002, 2(2), 147-149.[6]Liu, J. X., Tao, Z., Xue, S. F. et al., Investigation of host-guest compounds of cucurbit[n = 5-8]uril with some piperazine derivatives, Chin. J. Inorg. Chem., 2004, 20(2): 139-147[7]Zhou, Y. L., Liu, Y., Inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin and α-aminopyridine and its assembling behavior, Science in China,Ser. B, 2004, 34(1): 68-74.[8]Ong, W., Kaifer, A. E., Molecular encapsulation by cucurbit[7]uril of the apical 4,4'-bipyridinium residuein newkome-type dendrime,Angew. Chem. Inter. Ed., 2003, 42: 2164-2167.[9]Samsonenko, D. G., Gerasko, O. A., Mitkina, T. V. et al., Synthesis and crystal structure of supramolecular adducts of macrocyclic cavitand cucurbituril with chromium (Ⅲ) and nickel (Ⅱ) aqua complexes, Russian J. Coord. Chem. (Translation of Koordinatsionnaya Khimiya), 2003, 29(3): 166-174.[10]He, X. Y., Li, G., Chen, H. L., A new cucurbituril-based metallo-rotaxane, Inorg. Chem. Commun., 2002, (5): 633-641.[11]Fedin, V. P., Sokolov, M. N., Dybtsev, D. N. et al., Supramolecular assemblies of [Mo3Se4Clx(H2O)9-x](4-x)+ with cucurbituril;complementarity control through the variation of x, Inorg. Chim.Acta., 2002, 331(1): 31-38.[12]Lorenzo, S., Day, A., Craig, D. et al., The first endoannular metal halide

  14. Spectral Discrimination and Reflectance Properties of Various Vine Varieties from Satellite, UAV and Proximate Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakizi, C.; Oikonomou, M.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of the spectral discrimination between different vine varieties was undertaken using non-destructive remote sensing observations at the veraison period. During concurrent satellite, aerial and field campaigns, in-situ reflectance data were collected from a spectroradiometer, hyperspectral data were acquired from a UAV and multispectral data from a high-resolution satellite imaging sensor. Data were collected during a three years period (i.e, 2012, 2013 and 2014) over five wine-growing regions, covering more than 1000ha, in Greece. Data for more than twenty different vine varieties were processed and analysed. In particular, reflectance hyperspectral data from a spectroradiometer (GER 1500, Spectra Vista Corporation, 350-1050nm, 512 spectral bands) were calculated from the raw radiance values and then were correlated with the corresponding reflectance observations from the UAV and satellite data. Reflectance satellite data (WorldView-2, 400nm-1040nm, 8 spectral bands, DigitalGlobe), after the radiometric and atmospheric correction of the raw datasets, were classified towards the detection and the discrimination of the different vine varieties. The concurrent observations from in-situ hyperspectral, aerial hyperspectral and satellite multispectral data over the same vines were highly correlated. High correlations were, also, established for the same vine varieties (e.g., Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc) cultivated in different regions. The analysis of in-situ reflectance indicated that certain vine varieties, like Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Ksinomavro and Agiorgitiko possess specific spectral properties and detectable behaviour. These observations were, in most cases, in accordance with the classification results from the high resolution satellite data. In particular, Merlot and also Sauvignon Blanc were detected and discriminated with high accuracy rates. Surprisingly different clones from the same variety could be separated (e.g., clones of Syrah), while they

  15. Influence of harvest date on volatile and sensory profile of vine leaves infusions from two Portuguese red grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to investigate the volatile composition and sensorial profile of vine leaves infusions prepared from vine leaves collected 30 and 60 days after grape harvest from two Portuguese red grape varieties (Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz. Twelve volatile compounds were detected in vine leaves infusions (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 1-undecene, Z-citral, cedrenol, DL-limonene, 2,4-hexadien-2-ol, benzaldehyde, heptane-1,2,4,6-tetraene, cyclohexene 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl, 1,6-octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, 5,9-undecadien-2-one-6,10-dimethyl-(5E and α-cedrol. In addition, it was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves infusions were dependent on the harvest time, with significantly major volatile content in vine leaves collected after 30 days of harvesting. Thus, it was more important the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaves infusion than the vine leave grape cultivar. Similar tendency was also obtained for the sensory profile, with significant differences for astringency and aroma intensity attributes of vine leaves infusions according to the harvesting date.

  16. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain): Agronomy and quality effects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters) in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters), in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain). The ...

  17. A morphological and molecular characterization of vine mealybug populations (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret populations in Tunisian vineyards have been morphologically and genetically characterized. The morphological examination was based on the main distinctive characteristics of species of Planococcus, namely the number and distribution of the multilocular disc pores and tubular ducts on the adult female. This showed the existence of two different vine mealybug populations in Tunisia. Likewise, in the molecular analyses, two separate clades were revealed in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, supporting the morphological studies and suggesting that there are two distinct populations of P. ficus on grapevine in Tunisia.

  18. Study on the Possibility of Using Vine Stalk Waste ( Vitis Vinifera) for Producing Gypsum Particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangavar, H.; Khosro, S. Kh.; Payan, M. H.; Soltani, A.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was the production of gypsum particleboards with vine stalk waste and the investigation of some physical and mechanical properties of the boards. For this purpose, boards were made from gypsum, oven-dried mass of vine stalk waste, and the white portland cement in various ratios. The thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of immersion in water, the modulus of rupture, the modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of the boards were determined according to the European Norms standard. The results show that, by selecting proper ratios between the constituents, particleboards with good physicomechanical properties can be produced.

  19. Eat Healthy, Eat Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy Gu

    2011-01-01

    What comes to mind when you think of yellow? Sunflowers, the school bus or the smiley face? As a food-junkie and a health nut, when I hear the word yellow, savory soy beans, munchy bananas and sweet corn are things that pop into my mind. That's how much I love food. Hopeless? Perhaps.

  20. The yellow Light Offensive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Arevised traffic regulation, seen as the harshest ever by many, took effect on January 1. Accordingly, drivers who run yellow lights will have six points deducted from the 12 allocated on their licenses. Those who have any part of their vehicles crossing the line at the time of change will not be punished.

  1. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  2. Supramolecular interaction of methotrexate with cucurbit[7]uril and analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Xia; Zhang, Xiang-Mei; Duan, Xue-Chao; Liu, Fan; Du, Li-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The supramolecular interaction between cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as the host and the anti-cancer drug methotrexate (MTX) as the guest was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, 1H NMR, 2D NOESY, and theoretical calculations. The experimental results confirmed the formation of 1:2 inclusion complex with CB[7] and indicated a simple and sensitive competitive method for the fluorescence detection of MTX. It was found that the fluorescence intensities of CB[7]-palmatine, CB[7]-berberine and CB[7]-coptisine were quenched linearly upon the addition of MTX. The linear ranges obtained in the detection of MTX were 0.1-15 μg mL- 1, 0.2-15 μg mL- 1, and 0.4-15 μg mL- 1 with detection limits of 0.03 μg mL-1, 0.06 μg mL-1, and 0.13 μg mL-1, respectively. This method can be used for the determination of MTX in biological fluids. These results suggested that cucurbit[7]uril is a promising drug carrier for targeted MTX delivery and monitoring, with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity in normal tissues.

  3. MODULATION OF GROWTH AND PROTON PUMPING ATPase ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTIC Lactobacilli BY DIETARY CUCURBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract predominantly harbor probiotic Lactobacilli which exert beneficial effects on human health. Aqueous extracts from fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Ls, Luffa cylindrica (Lc and Cucurbita maxima (Cm were prepared and lyophilized. Fruit extracts were investigated for their effects on Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus. Extracts were found to enhance growth of Lactobacilli without any toxic effect (up to 1000µg/mL concentration. Minimum concentration of extracts at which growth of probiotic strains were found to be enhanced significantly were determined (103.67 µg/mL-118µg/mL and considered as effective concentration (EC or growth stimulatory concentration (GSC. Proton pumping ATPase activity of Lactobacilli were examined and found to be enhanced significantly (29.89- 61.96% in extracts treated probiotics (Lactobacilli as compared to the normal control. Inulin used as positive control and found to enhance the proton efflux activity (28.06-37.72% with respect to the control. These dietary cucurbits enhance metabolic activity of probiotic Lactobacilli by modulating their proton pumping ATPase mechanism. This study suggested that the consumption of cucurbit fruits might be a natural source of enhancing the activities of probiotic Lactobacilli in the gut.

  4. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits inedible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS-NL, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in radish; a second application from the company Syngenta AGRO S.A.S to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in cucurbits, inedible peel was submitted to France (EMS-FR. In order to accommodate the intended uses of cyprodinil, EMSs proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification to 0.07 mg/kg for radish and to 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits inedible peel. EMS-NL and EMS-FR drafted two evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.08 mg/kg for radish and of 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits, inedible peel. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of cyprodinil on radish and cucurbits inedible peel under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  6. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  7. Studies on Constituents of Medicinal Plants. XXIII. Constituents of the Vines of Menispermum dauricum DC. (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Takani, Masako; Takasu, Yasuko; Takahashi, Kotaro

    1983-01-01

    A new oxoisoaporphine-type compound, named dauriporphine, was isolated from the vines of Menispermum dauricum DC. (Menispermaceac) and the structure of this compound was elucidated as 4,5,6,9-tetramethoxy-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-one(I).

  8. Rooting of jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray cuttings treated with indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rezende Muniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray, is native plant from Philippines. It has long blue-green pseudoracemes inflorescence, which makes it unique and incomparable. It is considered one of the most admired and sought vines, although rare in gardens. This study evaluated the effect of indolbutiric acid (IBA on the stalks rooting of this ornamental specie. Stem cuttings without leaves and with a couple of leaves cut in half, were collected from branches of a well developed jade vine plant and were immerged into dipping solutions with a concentration range of IBA (0, 500, 1.000, 2.000 and 4.000 mg L-1 for 15 seconds. Subsequently, the bases of the cuttings was planted in polystyrene trays containing vermiculite (one cutting per cell and maintained in an intermittent water mist chamber for a 80 days period. Then the percentage of stem rooting was assessed as well as the number of roots and the length of the main root. Jade vine plants can be produced byr stem cutting treated in a dipping solution containing an IBA concentration of 2.000 mg L-1.

  9. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  10. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as an alternative auxin for rooting of vine rootstock cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important agricultural activity in semiarid northeastern Brazil, and the quality and ease of vine propagation are very important in this context. This study evaluated the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D as an alternative to indolebutyric acid (IBA in the rooting of vine rootstock cuttings. The trial was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe (São Cristóvão-SE between January and March 2010 with cuttings of the rootstocks of 'IAC-766', 'IAC-572', and 'Paulsen 1103' treated with 2,4-D or IBA applied at concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, or 3000 rng-L-1 for 5 s and planted in a field on washed sand. At 56 days after planting, the percentages of rooted, sprouted, callused, and dead cuttings were evaluated, and also the average number and length of the rooted cuttings. The results showed that 2,4-D was not superior to IBA in the characteristics wanted for the rooting process of the vine rootstock cuttings. The vine rootstocks showed potential for propagation by cutting without auxin application. It was observed that the high concentrations were the worst for the rooting of the cuttings.

  11. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  12. Etiology, development and reaction of muskmelon to vine decline under arid conditions of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Saif Al-MAWAALI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon vine decline is considered the most important factor limiting muskmelon production in Oman. This study was conducted to characterize incidence, development, causal agents and response of muskmelon cultivars to this disease. A survey showed that incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 15% (mean 5% in spring 2011, 1 to 80% (mean 18% in autumn 2011 and 0 to15% (mean 10% in spring 2012. Isolations from 168 affected plants yielded Pythium aphanidermatum (56% of diseased plants sampled, Fusarium spp. (46%, Monosporascus cannonballus (27%, Rhizoctonia solani (22% and Macrophomina phaseolina (1%. In pathogenicity tests, R. solani, M. cannonballus and P. aphanidermatum were found to be pathogenic to muskmelon. In another experiment over three seasons, M. cannonballus, P. aphanidermatum and R. solani were consistently isolated from muskmelon plants on a weekly basis from 14 days after sowing until the end of the season. However, symptom development only began with the onset of fruiting, which suggests that fruiting stress may be a factor in vine decline disease development. Field assessment of 11 muskmelon cultivars showed that ‘Shahd F1’ was one of the cultivars least susceptible to vine decline and was relatively high yielding. This is the first record of M. cannonballus as a causal agent of muskmelon vine decline in Oman.

  13. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  14. The Rate of Water Loss in Relation to Internodes Position and Wood Maturity in Vine Chords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin SALA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to assess the rate of water loss from the strings of vines in relation to internodes position on vine chords and degree of wood maturity. The biological material was represented by Burgund vine cultivar, to which were analyzed individually all internodes distributed on the chord length (internodes number IN2-19. The rate of water loss and associated parameters (maximum rate of water loss - RWLMax, total drying time - T, time to achieve RWLMax - tRWLMax were determined from the Burgund vine cultivar, in controlled condition. Parameters studied were associated with dry matter content (refractometric method, degree of maturity of the wood, and internodes positions on chord. RWL Max had higher values in the basal internodes (IN2; RWL Max = 0.252±0.005 g/min and lower in the apical internodes (IN17-19; RWLMax = 0.202±0.011 g/min. RWLMax distributions values, according to the position of internodes on chord was described by a third degree polynomial function, statistical safety (R2 = 0.949, p<0.01. Dry substance content in internodes (sugar was correlated with the total time of water loss (T; R2 = 0.945, the time to reach the maximum rate of water loss (tRWLMax; R2 = 0.855, and maximum rate of water loss (RWLMax; R2 = 0.984.

  15. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    ) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...

  16. Interspecific variability and phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis for the invasive swallow-wort vines (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  17. Influence of leaf number and nodes on the rooting of semiwoody cuttings of flame vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flame vine (Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl. Miers is a semihardwood vine, vigorous, native, native, occurring in all Brazilian biomes and ornamental potential. Technical information about the propagation of this species will contribute to the production of seedlings and with that, their greatest use in landscaping. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the number of leaves and nodes in rooting intermediate flame vine. The experiment was conducted under conditions of intermittent mist. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 2 x 3, being respectively cuttings with one or two nodes, and zero, one or two leaflets. We used four replicates with plots consisting of 12 cuttings placed in substrate of rice hulls in polystyrene trays with 72 cells. We evaluated at 84 days the porcentage of rooted cuttings, length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and, per cutting, average: number of roots - first order; maximum length of each root of the first order, volume and dry weight of roots. It was observed that cuttings with two leaflets enabled 66% of rooting, greater length and dry mass of shoots. The higher quality of the root system occurs with stakes with two leaflets and two nodes. The spread of flame vine is efficient with semi-hardwood cuttings with two nodes and two leaflets, kept in a greenhouse under intermittent mist.

  18. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units. The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, and total carbohydrates. There was an increase in DM content with inclusion of the additive and CP was reduced from 11.23% (no additive to 9.46% (30% additive in sweet potato vine silage. NDIP and ADIP content was lower in sweet potato vine silage containing 30% additive (1.15% and 0.70%, respectively. No significant differences in organic matter, ashes, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or total digestible nutrients were observed between the different levels of additive. Regarding fermentative parameters, a quadratic effect of sweet potato vine silage containing different additive levels was observed on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen [N-NH3 (%NT], and losses from gases and effluent. A lower pH was observed at a level of the additive of 15% (3.31 and higher values at levels of 20%, 25% and 30% (3.88, 3.89 and 3.88, respectively. The  N-NH3 values (%NT ranged from 2.84% (no additive to 3.59% (15% additive, and the lowest loss from gases and effluents was 2.38% DM and 199 kg/t in sweet potato vine silages containing 30% and 10% additive, respectively. Sweet potato vine is a good-quality roughage alternative that can be stored as silage, as along as a water-absorbing additive such as corn meal is used at a level no less than 20%.

  19. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  20. Dicer-Like 4 Is Involved in Restricting the Systemic Movement of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Teresa; Cerdán, Lidia; Carbonell, Alberto; Katsarou, Konstantina; Kalantidis, Kriton; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) induces serious diseases in cucurbits. To create a tool to screen for resistance genes, we cloned a wild ZYMV isolate and inserted the visual marker Rosea1 to obtain recombinant clone ZYMV-Ros1. While in some plant-virus combinations Rosea1 induces accumulation of anthocyanins in infected tissues, ZYMV-Ros1 infection of cucurbits did not lead to detectable anthocyanin accumulation. However, the recombinant virus did induce dark red pigmentation in infected tissues of the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. In this species, ZYMV-Ros1 multiplied efficiently in local inoculated tissue but only a few progeny particles established infection foci in upper leaves. We used this system to analyze the roles of Dicer-like (DCL) genes, core components of plant antiviral RNA silencing pathways, in ZYMV infection. ZYMV-Ros1 local replication was not significantly affected in single DCL knockdown lines nor in double DCL2/4 and triple DCL2/3/4 knockdown lines. ZYMV-Ros1 systemic accumulation was not affected in knockdown lines DCL1, DCL2, and DCL3. However in DCL4 and also in DCL2/4 and DCL2/3/4 knockdown lines, ZYMV-Ros1 systemic accumulation dramatically increased, which highlights the key role of DCL4 in restricting virus systemic movement. The effect of DCL4 on ZYMV systemic movement was confirmed with a wild-type version of the virus.

  1. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the ... serious cases) 2 How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow ...

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND EFFECTS OF MIXED INFECTION OF Potyvirus ISOLATES WITH Cucumber mosaic virus IN CUCURBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAZIELA DA SILVA BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed infections in cucurbits are frequently observed in natural conditions between viruses from the Potyvirus genus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, which significantly decreases productivity. The objectives of the present study was to compare the host range of PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV isolates and evaluate the effects of mixed infections with CMV in zucchini plants ( Cucurbita pepo L.. Host range studies comprising 23 plant species confirmed some similarities and biological differences among the isolates of PRSV - W, ZYMV, and WMV. RT - PCR confirmed the amplification of DNA fragments of the PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV coat protein gene ( cp and cytoplasm inclusion gene ( ci . The virus interaction studies in zucchini Caserta plants indicated synergistic interactions, particularly among species from the Potyvirus genus, and some CMV interference with some virus combinations.

  3. Spectroscopy and laser characterization of synthesized supramolecular host cucurbit[7]uril using aqueous Rhodamine B dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak R Boraste; Monika Gupta; Ganapati Shankarling; Alok K Ray; Sandip K Nayak

    2014-02-01

    Recent demonstration in augmenting the efficiency of aqueous Rhodamine dye lasers using cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), a deaggregating and photostabilizing host, has drawn interest in the synthesis and characterization of spectroscopic grade CB[7] in larger quantities. Synthesis of cucurbituril group of macrocycles always leads to the formation of various homologues of CB[n]s (n=5–7) with CB[7] as the minor product. The literature procedure has been optimized to get pure CB[7] in 12–14% yield by fractional crystallization and the purity was checked by NMR, MS and spectrophotometric titration. Laser performances of the synthesized and commercial CB[7] sample as an additive were evaluated using Nd-YAG (532 nm) pumped Rhodamine B aqueous dye lasers and comparable results were obtained.

  4. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  5. Electrostatic repulsion between cucurbit[7]urils can be overcome in [3]pseudorotaxane without adding salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessêgo, M; Moreira, J A; Rosa da Costa, A M; Corrochano, P; Poblete, F J; Garcia-Rio, L

    2013-04-19

    The host-guest chemistry between cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and a series of bolaform (Bn) surfactants with different chain lengths, n = 12-22, was the target of our study. [3]Pseudorotaxanes are formed when the alkyl chain of the bolaform has more than 14 carbon atoms. In these cases, two CB7 molecules can be accommodated between the two head groups of the bolaform without addition of electrolytes to the medium. In the case of a bolaform with 12 carbon atoms, the electrostatic repulsion between the carbonyl groups of the CB7 molecules avoids the threading of a second CB7 molecule yielding a mixed structure formed by a [2]pseudorotaxane and an external host-guest complex. The assembly behavior was investigated using NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and kinetic measurements.

  6. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions.

  7. Determination of L-phenylalanine by cucurbit[7]uril sensitized fluorescence quenching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Feng Li; Li Ming Du; Hao Wu; Ying Xia Chang

    2011-01-01

    The determination method of L-phenylalanine (LPA) by fluorescence quenching was developed. The assay was based on the combination of the cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) with palmatine hydrochloride (PAL) reaction. In the presence of CB[7], the fluorescence of PAL was quenched by LPA which can be employed to detect LPA. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range 3.63 × 10-8-9.68 × 10-6 mol/L and a detection limit 1.27 × 10-8 mol/L of LPA were obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D) was 1.8% obtained from a series of11 standards each containing 6.05 × 10-6 mol/L oLPA. This paper also discusses the mechanism of fluorescence indicator probe.

  8. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  9. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  10. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: Do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Delord

    2015-06-01

    In summary, the main argument put forward by the European Commission to justify canceling vine planting rights is not adapted to the case of France because it considers wine as a single product sold at a single price.

  11. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  12. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for proquinazid in tomatoes, aubergines and cucurbits with edible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received two applications from Pflanzenschutzdienst der Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance proquinazid in tomatoes and aubergines and in cucurbits (edible peel, respectively. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of proquinazid, Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.15 mg/kg in tomatoes and aubergines and to 0.04 mg/kg in cucurbits with edible peel. Germany drafted two separate evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. For reasons of efficiency EFSA combined both applications in one reasoned opinion. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.15 mg/kg for the intended use on tomatoes and aubergines and of 0.05 mg/kg for the intended use on the whole group of cucurbits (edible peel. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of proquinazid in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of proquinazid on tomatoes, aubergines and cucurbits with edible peel will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  14. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime).

  15. MEASURING WORKING HOURS INPUT IN VINE GROWING AT WORK ORGANIZATION BASED ON PHENOLOGICAL PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J BRAZSIL

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was based on phenological phases of Italian Riesling, involving differences in labour and financial input for dry, optimal and wet weather. Worktime demand for certain operations in vine growing was determined with an analytic method, work day survey and We worked out alternatives for dry, optimum and wet weather on the basis of phenological phaseses. The worktime demand for the phenological phases with all their operations were analysed and planned in an itemized way based on our findings. We used them to work out the worktime demand for the given vine land for each operation. To analyse differences coming from diverse methods of cultivation and spacing, the material, operational and total costs of hand and mechanized labour were projected for 1 hectare and variance analysis was made.

  16. Wine and the vine in Upper Moesia archaeological and epigraphic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine-growing and winemaking in the area of the Roman province of Upper Moesia are looked at based on the information supplied by the ancient sources, and the archaeological and epigraphic evidence (inscriptions, artistic depictions, vinedressing and winemaking implements, drinking and transport vessels. Viniculture is associated with the Greco-Roman cultural orbit, while the native central-Balkan tribes typically consumed alcoholic beverages made from cereals. Therefore the goal of the research is to shed as much light as currently possible on the significance of vine-growing and wine in the life of the inhabitants of Upper Moesia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in raspberries, blackberries and cucurbits (edible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from TSGE Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in raspberries and blackberries. Germany also received an application from Landwirtschaftskammer NRW Pflanzenschutzdienst to modify the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in cucurbits with (edible peel. In order to accommodate the intended NEU outdoor use on raspberries and blackberries and the intended indoor use on cucurbits (edible peel, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs in these berries from 0.3 mg/kg to 1.5 mg/kg and in cucurbits (edible peel from 0.1 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg. The EMS drafted two evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the applications are sufficiently supported by data and EFSA confirmed the MRL proposals made by the EMS. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of difenoconazole in the crops under consideration. The risk assessment demonstrated that the intended use of difenoconazole on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  18. Why is my alfalfa yellow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, many parts of the Midwest experienced far wetter than normal summer weather and by August or September, many growers were asking, “Why is my alfalfa yellow?” When all or part of an alfalfa field is yellow, it is a certain sign that something has gone wrong. In this case the problem in most ...

  19. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  20. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  1. Mechanized methods for preparation and processing of compost from pruning residues in fruit-vine production

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of research about the effects of mechanized process of fragmentation of pruning residues on the composting process. Compost, as a form of organic fertilizer, requires specific production treatment depending on the form of biomass. Pruning residues from fruit-vine production can be translated into quality organic fertilizer, but it is necessary to coordinate mechanized treatment of biomass and technology of composting process with microbiological processes for organic matter...

  2. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine l...

  3. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  4. O vine e o diálogo audiovisual na cultura participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Neves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No atual ambiente midiático, a audiência possui ferramentas não apenas para consumir mas para produzir e distribuir conteúdo. Em um mercado onde as fronteiras entre entretenimento e publicidade se tornam cada vez menos claras, o conteúdo audiovisual e as comunidades formadas ao seu redor se tornam temas de estudo relevantes. Dominado pelo YouTube na primeira década do milênio, o mercado do vídeo online vem se ampliando em função da tecnologia mobile, e aplicativos para rápida produção e consumo de vídeo, como o Vine, que se destaca pelo seu caráter social e colaborativo. A proposta deste trabalho é examinar o potencial do Vine na publicidade – não aquela tradicionalmente interruptiva e unilateral, mas sim uma publicidade que entretém, envolve e convida a participar. Para isto, o caso da campanha Hollywood and Vines, da Airbnb, será analisado.

  5. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Boggio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19 and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15 showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  6. Dormancy break with garlic extract and hydrogen peroxide in rootstock vine ‘SO4’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilla Juan Saavedra del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic product is used to help overcome dormancy of the buds of vines in tropical and sub-tropical climate, but the product currently available in Brazil has the highest level of toxicity to humans. The objective was to study some alternatives to break the dormancy of the buds of the rootstock vine ‘SO4’. The sprayed treatments were: T1 = water (control; T2 = hydrogen cyanamide (3%; T3 = garlic (33% and; T4 = Hydrogen Peroxide – H2O2 – (3%. The cuttings were immersed in a indole acetic acid (IAA of 5 ppm for 15 seconds and placed in plastic bags (19 cm× 5 cm× 8 cm with 50% sand + 50% commercial substrate (H. Decker® . After 04 months, were evaluated: percentage of live cuttings, aerial part height (cm, length of roots (cm and dry matter of aerial parts and root (g. Regarding the roots, root dry weight and dry matter of aerial parts, stood out the cuttings treated with H2O2 at a concentration of 3% (T4. In the present work conditions, preliminarily concluded that H2O2 at a concentration of 3% can assist in breaking dormancy of the buds of the roostock vine ‘SO4’.

  7. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1922-01-01

    Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

  8. 叶菜型甘薯蔓尖产量构成分析%Yield Composition Analysis of Vine Tip of Leaf-vegetable Sweetpotato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅玉凡; 王卫强; 伍加勇; 黄世龙; 张晓春; 高静; 张志良; 喻淑芬

    2009-01-01

    Total yields of vine tip of seven varieties of Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato during 2006-2007 were investigated; proportions of the weights of leaf, leaf stalk and stem in total vine tip yield and their changes among varieties and during topping stages were studied. The results showed that vine tip yields of sweetpotato were significantly different among either varieties or topping stages; leaf yield accounted for about 51% of total vine yield, and changes in leaf yield among topping stages were higher than that among varieties; while yields of leaf stalk and stem each accounted for 25% of total vine tip yield, their changes among varieties were higher than those among topping stages. These results revealed the yield composition of vine tip of Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato, which provided scientific references for breeding and cultivating new Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato variety and its industrialization.

  9. Cucurbit[7]uril⋅guest pair with an attomolar dissociation constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Śekutor, Marina; Zavalij, Peter Y; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Glaser, Robert; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-01-20

    Host⋅guest complexes between cucurbit[7] (CB[7]) or CB[8] and diamantane diammonium ion guests 3 or 6 were studied by (1) H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. (1) H NMR competition experiments revealed that CB[7]⋅6 is among the tightest monovalent non-covalent complexes ever reported in water with Ka =7.2×10(17)  M(-1) in pure D2 O and 1.9×10(15)  M(-1) in D2 O buffered with NaO2 CCD3 (50 mM). The crystal structure of CB[7]⋅6 allowed us to identify some of the structural features responsible for the ultratight binding, including the distance between the NMe3 (+) groups of 6 (7.78 Å), which allows it to establish 14 optimal ion-dipole interactions with CB[7], the complementarity of the convex van der Waals surface contours of 6 with the corresponding concave surfaces of CB[7], desolvation of the CO portals within the CB[7]⋅6 complex, and the co-linearity of the C7  axis of CB[7] with the N(+) ⋅⋅⋅N(+) line in 6. This work further blurs the lines of distinction between natural and synthetic receptors.

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3% followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9% was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  11. Biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LJ02 induces systemic resistance against cucurbits powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Gu, Yilin; Li, Juan; Xu, Mingzhu; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuanhong

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease found in a wide range of plants and can significantly reduce crop yields. Bacterial strain LJ02 is a biocontrol agent (BCA) isolated from a greenhouse in Tianjin, China. In combination of morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, strain LJ02 was classified as a new member of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Greenhouse trials showed that LJ02 fermentation broth (LJ02FB) can effectively diminish the occurrence of cucurbits powdery mildew. When treated with LJ02FB, cucumber seedlings produced significantly elevated production of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as compared to that of the control. We further confirmed that the production of free salicylic acid (SA) and expression of one pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 in cucumber leaves were markedly elevated after treating with LJ02FB, suggesting that SA-mediated defense response was stimulated. Moreover, LJ02FB-treated cucumber leaves could secrete resistance-related substances into rhizosphere that inhibit the germination of fungi spores and the growth of pathogens. Finally, we separated bacterium and its fermented substances to test their respective effects and found that both components have SA-inducing activity and bacterium plays major roles. Altogether, we identified a BCA against powdery mildew and its mode of action by inducing systemic resistance such as SA signaling pathway.

  12. Transformation of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Jesús; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    The obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew in cucurbit crops all over the world. A major limitation of molecular studies of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) is their genetic intractability. In this work, we describe a robust method based on the promiscuous transformation ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for reliable transformation of P. xanthii. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system yielded transformants of P. xanthii with diverse transferred DNA (T-DNA) constructs. Analysis of the resultant transformants showed the random integration of T-DNA into the P. xanthii genome. The integrations were maintained in successive generations in the presence of selection pressure. Transformation was found to be transient, because in the absence of selection agent, the introduced genetic markers were lost due to excision of T-DNA from the genome. The ATMT system represents a potent tool for genetic manipulation of P. xanthii and will likely be useful for studying other biotrophic fungi. We hope that this method will contribute to the development of detailed molecular studies of the intimate interaction established between powdery mildew fungi and their host plants.

  13. Chemical composition of Apodanthera biflora, a Cucurbit of the dry forest in northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clark

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dry forest of northwestern Peru is the habitat of numerous native species that have received little attention beyond taxonomic purposes. Here we report the chemical composition of the roots and seeds of a set of accessions of Apondanthera biflora, a wild Cucurbit with potentialities as a food resource. The roots show features that are comparable to those from cassava roots and potato tubers: a high content of carbohydrates on a dry matter basis (77.5 – 84.9%, with starch representing around 20% of the total dry matter. The seeds’ fat content on a dry matter basis (22.22 – 39.37% falls within the percentages found in oily seeds such as safflower, whereas the protein content (21.37 – 29.06% is similar to that of flax and sunflower. The fatty acid profile of the seed’s oil shows a predominance of polyunsaturated acids, in particular linoleic acid (43.81%, making it comparable to that of cotton oil. Our results confirm the nutritional value of Apodanthera biflora and set the ground for its use in domestication and food security programs.

  14. Study on the inclusion interactions of berberine hydrochloride and cucurbit[7] by spectrofluorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ping Li; Hao Wu; Li Ming Du

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion interaction between berberine hydrochloride (BRH) and cucurbit[7] (CB[7]) has been studied by spectro-fluorimetry. The result showed that CB[7] interaction with BRH to form a stable inclusion complex with an association constant of 9.57 x 104 L/tool and the fluorescence intensity of the complex was enhanced in 17 times higher than that of the studied drug itself.Based on the significant enhancement of fluorescence intensity of BRH in inclusion complex, a spetrofluodmetric method with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed for the determination of BRH in aqueous solution. The linear range of the method was 3.2-2 x 103 ng]mL with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/mL. The proposed procedure could be applied successfully to determination of BRH remained in pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma and urine with satisfactory results.(C) 2008 Li Ming Du. Published by Elsevier B.V. On behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Supramolecular Adducts of Cucurbit[7]uril and Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ekaterina; Vilaseca, Marta; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Masliy, A. N.; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2016-02-01

    The complexation of the macrocyclic cavitand cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) with a series of amino acids (AA) with different side chains (Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) is investigated by ESI-MS techniques. The 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ adducts are observed as the base peak when equimolar Q7:AA solutions are electrosprayed, whereas the 1:2 [Q7 + 2AA + 2H]2+ dications are dominant when an excess of the amino acid is used. A combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and DFT calculations of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ (AA = Tyr, Val, and Ser) adducts is also reported and proven to be unsuccessful at discriminating between exclusion or inclusion-type conformations in the gas phase. Collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that the preferred dissociation pathways of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ dications are strongly influenced by the identity of the amino acid side chain, whereas ion molecule reactions towards N-butylmethylamine displayed a common reactivity pattern comprising AA displacement. Special emphasis is given on the differences between the gas-phase behavior of the supramolecular adducts with amino acids (AA = Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) and those featuring basic (Lys and Arg) and aromatic (Tyr and Phe) side chains.

  16. Encapsulation of the ethylene inhibitor 1-Methylcyclopropene by cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhen, Zeng; Jiang, Hong; Li, Xue-Gang; Liu, Jun-An

    2011-10-12

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is an excellent safe and commercially available ethylene antagonist for the preservation of horticultural products. However 1-MCP has to be stored in absorbents due to its gaseous and unstable characteristics. In this paper cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) was used as the absorbent to encapsulate 1-MCP, and the resultant inclusion complex was characterized by IR, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and fluorescent spectra. The effects of encapsulation conditions on the formation of inclusion complex were also investigated. The amount of 1-MCP encapsulated by CB[6] was about 4.5% by weight when the initial concentration of 1-MCP, encapsulation temperature, CB[6] concentration, and encapsulation time were set at 75 mL/L, 20 °C, 30 mM, and 8 h, respectively. Furthermore, the release of 1-MCP from the complex can be realized with different solutions such as sodium bicarbonate, benzoic acid, and distilled water. CB[6] can be used as an excellent absorbent for encapsulation of 1-MCP.

  17. Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10-10 M-2.5 × 10-4 M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.

  18. Cucurbit[7]uril host-guest complexes of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibing; Macartney, Donal H

    2008-06-07

    The macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril forms very stable complexes with the diprotonated (K(CB[7])(1) = 1.8 x 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1)), monoprotonated (K(CB[7])(2) = 1.0 x 10(7) dm(3) mol(-1)), and neutral (K(CB[7])(3) = 1.2 x 10(3) dm(3) mol(-1)) forms of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine in aqueous solution. The complexation behaviour was investigated using (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy as a function of pH and the pK(a) values of the guest were observed to increase (DeltapK(a1) = 1.5 and DeltapK(a2) = 1.6) upon host-guest complex formation. The energy-minimized structures of the host-guest complexes with the cationic guests were determined and provide agreement with the NMR results indicating the location of the CB[7] over the central portion of the guest. The inclusion of the monoprotonated form of ranitidine slows the normally rapid (E)-(Z) exchange process and generates a preference for the (Z) isomer. The formation of the CB[7] host-guest complex greatly increases the thermal stability of ranitidine in acidic aqueous solution at 50 degrees C, but has no effect on its photochemical reactivity.

  19. Ketoprofen encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril nanoparticles: a new exploration of macrocycles for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Tuyen Thi Dao, Phuong; Phu, Quoc Nam; Dam Le, Duy; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Tai Chi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is (i) to fabricate a nanoparticle formulation of ketoprofen (Keto) using a relatively new family of macrocycles as the carrier for drug delivery: cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]), (ii) to evaluate its in vitro dissolution and (iii) to investigate its in vivo pharmaceutical property. The CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Morphology and size of the successfully prepared nanoparticles were then confirmed using a transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. It was shown that they are spherical with hydrodynamic diameter of 200-300 nm. The in vitro dissolution studies of CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles were conducted at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The results indicated that there is a significant increase in Keto concentration at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. For the in vivo assessment, CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles and referential profenid were administered by oral gavages to rabbits. The results implied that CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles remarkably increased area under the curve compared to profenid.

  20. Cucurbit[6]uril nanocavity as an enhanced spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueldo Occello, Valeria N. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Veglia, Alicia V., E-mail: aveglia@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-03-09

    The effect of the addition of macrocyclic host cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) on the photophysical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene (PYR) was analyzed. The fluorescence emission spectra of the aromatic compound were determined at 25.0 {sup o}C in different acidic media (HCl 18%, w/v, or HCOOH 55%, w/v) with and without CB6. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence signals in the presence of CB6 was observed. The average values of the association constant (K{sub A}) for the 1:1 stoichiometry complex and the relative fluorescence quantum yield ratio between the complexed and free PYR ({phi}{sup PYR-CB6}/{phi}{sup PYR}) in acidic media were (4.0 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 2} M{sup -1} and (5.7 {+-} 0.2), respectively. The analytical parameters improved in the presence of CB6. The relative decrease in the limit of detection was 92%. The matrix effect was evaluated in fortified samples of tap water and tea extracts. Apparent recoveries obtained by the proposed method in tap water and tea extracts were (82-103)% and (89-99)%, respectively. Selectivity studies with inorganic and organic species were performed. The method is rapid, direct, selective and simple.

  1. Host-guest complexes and pseudorotaxanes of cucurbit[7]uril with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Ian W; Macartney, Donal H

    2009-11-06

    Pseudorotaxanes may be assembled in aqueous solution using dicationic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as succinylcholine, BW284c51, and alpha,omega-bis(trialkylammonium)alkane dications (or their phosphonium analogues), as bolaform axles and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as the wheel. With the exceptions of the shorter [(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(n)N(CH(3))(3)](2+) (n = 6, 8) dications, the addition of a second CB[7] results in the translocation of the first CB[7], such that the hydrophobic -NR(3)(+) and -PR(3)(+) end groups (R = Me or Et) are located in the cavities of the wheels, while the central portion of the axles extend through the CB[7] portals into the bulk solvent. In the case of the [Quin(CH(2))(10)Quin](2+) (Quin = quinuclidinium) dication, the CB[7] host(s) resides only on the quinuclidinium end group(s). The 1:1 host-guest stability constants range from 8 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(10) M(-1) and are dependent on both the nature of the end group as well as the length and hydrophobicity of the central linker. The magnitude of the stability constants for the 2:1 complexes closely follow the trend observed previously for CB[7] binding with the NR(4)(+) and PR(4)(+) cations.

  2. Macrocyclic cavitands cucurbit[n]urils: prospects for application in biochemistry, medicine and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasko, O. A.; Kovalenko, E. A.; Fedin, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The prospects of using the organic macrocyclic cavitands cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]) and their derivatives in biochemistry, medicine and nanotechnology are considered. A combination of CB[n] characteristics, such as a rigid highly symmetrical structure, polarized hydrophilic portals, a rather large intramolecular hydrophobic cavity, as well as high resistance to thermolysis and corrosive media and low toxicity, account for a wide range of unique opportunities for the deliberate design of new functional materials, which may find application in various areas of modern chemistry and new technologies. Inclusion compounds of CB[n] with biologically active molecules demonstrate a high potential for the design of a new generation of prolonged action pharmaceuticals. The review presents the prospects for the application of CB[n] to manufacture unique materials, such as CB[n]-containing vesicles, films and surfaces, suitable for immobilization of various molecules and nanoparticles on their surface and for the separation of complex mixtures. Potential applications of CB[n]-modified electrodes and hydrogels are analyzed, and the use of CB[n] in proton-conducting materials and materials for the gas sorption and separation are discussed. The bibliography includes 164 references.

  3. Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Cryptolepine in the Nanocavity of Cucurbit[7]uril and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninti, Raj Kumar; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Hazra, Partha

    2016-02-16

    Herein, we explored the photophysical properties of the antimalarial, anticancer drug cryptolepine (CRYP) in the presence of the macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and DNA with the help of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Ground-state and excited-state calculations based on density functional theory were also performed to obtain insight into the shape, electron density distribution, and energetics of the molecular orbitals of CRYP. CRYP exists in two forms depending on the pH of the medium, namely, a cationic (charge transfer) form and a neutral form, which emit at λ=540 and 420 nm, respectively. In a buffer solution of pH 7, the drug exists in the cationic form, and upon encapsulation with CB7, it exhibits a huge enhancement in fluorescence intensity due to a decrement in nonradiative decay pathways of the emitting cryptolepine species. Furthermore, docking and quantum chemical calculations were employed to decipher the molecular orientation of the drug in the inclusion complex. Studies with natural DNA indicate that CRYP molecules intercalate into DNA, which leads to a huge quenching of the fluorescence of CRYP. Keeping this in mind, we studied the DNA-assisted release of CRYP molecules from the nanocavity of CB7. Strikingly, DNA alone could not remove the drug from the nanocavity of CB7. However, an external stimulus such as acetylcholine chloride was able to displace CRYP from the nanocavity, and subsequently, the displaced drug could bind to DNA.

  4. Ankeny - Yellow Flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project aims to inventory and map all existing stands of yellow flag iris within wetland habitats at Ankeny NWR, treat them with herbicide in late spring and...

  5. Fontes de resistência em melancia aos principais potyvírus isolados de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Vanuzia B. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A melancia, Citrullus spp., pode ser infetada por várias espécies de vírus, dentre as quais se destacam as pertencentes à família Potyviridae. Visando identificar fontes de resistência a potyvírus, foi iniciado na UFC um programa de indexação do banco de germoplasma de melancia da Embrapa Semi-Árido. Foram utilizadas as espécies de potyvírus, isoladas de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste: Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W; Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2 e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. Dos 50 acessos de melancia avaliados, 37 pertencem a Citrullus lanatus, 9 a C. lanatus var. citroides e 4 a C. colocynthis. Em casa-de-vegetação foram inoculadas 4 plantas envasadas de cada acesso com PRSV-W, 4 com WMV-2 e 4 com ZYMV, ficando 4 sem inoculação. As inoculações foram efetuadas 8 dias após o plantio, e 15 dias depois. As plantas assintomáticas foram reinoculadas. As plantas que persistiram sem sintomas, após um período de 25 dias após a primeira inoculação, foram testadas por ELISA contra os anti-soros correspondentes. Dentre os acessos avaliados, 5 mostraram-se resistentes aos 3 vírus, um resistente somente ao PRSV-W, 21 resistentes somente ao ZYMV e nenhum com resistência isolada ao WMV-2. No entanto, 45 acessos apresentaram resistência ao ZYMV isoladamente ou em combinação com outro potyvírus. Os acessos suscetíveis, apresentaram sintomas 10 dias após a primeira inoculação enquanto que os resistentes permaneceram sem sintomas após a segunda inoculação e com resultados negativos em ELISA. Alguns acessos poderão ser cruzados visando obter populações segregantes para a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos recessivos e, juntamente com os acessos com resistência tripla identificados, ampliar a variabilidade genética de fontes quanto a características de planta e fruto.

  6. Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Caspers, Jana; Buckingham, Lauren; Anderson-Shelton, Gail Denise; Ridgway, Carrie; Buffington, C A Tony; Schulz, Stefan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2017-03-16

    Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried

  7. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50∘C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  8. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This ...

  9. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  10. Complexation of Eu(III) with cucurbit[n]uril, n = 5 and 7: a thermodynamic and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neetika; Kar, Aishwarya; Bhattacharyya, A; Rao, Ankita; Nayak, S K; Nayak, C; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Tomar, B S

    2015-03-07

    Cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) are a new class of macrocyclic cage compounds capable of binding organic and inorganic species, owing to their unique pumpkin like structure comprising of both a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic portal. The thermodynamics of the complexation of Eu(III) with CBn of a different cavity size viz. cucurbit[5]uril (CB5) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and calorimetry at 25 °C whereas the structure of the complexes was investigated using time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in a formic acid-water mixture (50 wt%). This is the first report on the structural investigation of Eu-CBn complexes in solution. The thermodynamic data (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) for Eu(III) complexation with CBn reveal the formation of a 1 : 1 complex with CB5, while both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes are observed with CB7. The signatures of these species are observed in ESI-MS measurements, which corroborates with the species postulated in thermodynamic studies. The complexation reactions are found to be driven by ΔS as ΔH is either small negative or positive indicating the formation of inner sphere complexes, which is in line with TRFS and EXAFS results. These studies show that Eu(III) caps one of the CB5 portals by binding with all the carbonyl groups in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB5 complex, whereas in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB7 complex, Eu(III) interacts with only a few of the carbonyl groups of CB7. The computational studies (DFT calculations) on Eu-CB5 and Eu-CB7 complexes further support the experimental data.

  11. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  12. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF COPOLYMERS CONTAINING CUCURBIT[6]URIL-BASED PSEUDOROTAXANE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Ma; Hui Yang; Kimoon Kim; Ye-bang Tan

    2012-01-01

    Novel copolymers based on acrylamide (AM) and complex pseudorotaxane monomer N'-(3-vinylbenzyl)-l,4-diaminobutane dihydrochloride with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) (3VBCB) were prepared via free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution,and characterized by 1H-NMR,FT-IR,elemental analysis and static light scattering.The compositions of the copolymers (PAM3VBCB) with pseudorotaxane units were determined by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis.Thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by TGA,and the effects of the copolymer concentration and pH on the average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the copolymer molecules were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS).The experiment data show that CB[6] beads are localized on 1,4-diaminobutane units in side chains of the copolymers.TGA results show that thermal stability of the copolymer increases with increasing the content of pseudorotaxane unit because of the enhanced rigidity and the bulky steric hindrance of 3VBCB in side chains of PAM3VBCB.DLS data show that the average hydrodynamic radius of copolymer molecules increases with the increase in the copolymer concentration,and both the pH and electrical conductivity of PAM3VBCB solutions demonstrate an acute change with addition of NaOH because of CB[6]dethreading from the side chains of PAM3VBCB.CB[6] threading and dethreading of PAM3VBCB could be controlled by addition of BaCl2 and Na2SO4.

  13. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  14. U-shaped conformation of alkyl chains bound to a synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Youngkook; Kim, Hyunuk; Kim, Kimoon

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of a series of alkanes bound to the molecular host cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) has been systematically studied by 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). CB[8] and alkyltrimethylammonium (C(m) TA(+), (CH(3))(3)N(+)C(m)H(2m+1), m=6-16) form 1:1 host-guest complexes with a high binding constant (K≈10(6) m(-1)). The shortest hexyl chain of C(6)TA(+) can be fully encapsulated in an extended conformation inside the CB[8] cavity, which is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. However, for the longer aliphatic chains, C(8)-C(16), the long alkyl tails take a U-shaped conformation inside the cavity, and their complexation is dominantly or almost exclusively enthalpy-driven, owing to the increased van der Waals contact between the folded aliphatic chain and the inner wall of the host cavity. As the chain length increases from C(8) to C(16), the ammonium head group of the guests moves away from the portal of CB[8] while the long aliphatic tails maintain the U-shaped conformation inside the cavity. The complexation of C(m)TA(+) with CB[8] follows the enthalpy-entropy compensation rule commonly observed in molecular recognition systems. For example, among the guest molecules, C(12)TA(+) shows the highest enthalpic gain (most favorable), owing to the large van der Waals contact between the guest and the host cavity, and at the same time the most unfavorable entropic contribution, owing to the severe conformational restriction of the U-shaped alkyl chain inside the host. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plot for the complexation suggests large conformational changes of the long alkyl chains and extensive dehydration associated with the inclusion complex formation.

  15. Examination of cucurbit[7]uril and its host-guest complexes by diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheate, Nial J; Kumar, P G Anil; Torres, Allan M; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R; Price, William S

    2008-02-28

    The self-diffusion of cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and its host-guest complexes in D2O has been examined using pulsed gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. CB[7] diffuses freely at a concentration of 2 mM with a diffusion coefficient (D) of 3.07 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1). At saturation (3.7 mM), CB[7] diffuses more slowly (D = 2.82 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) indicating that it partially self-associates. At concentrations between 2 and 200 mM, CsCl has no effect on the diffusion coefficient of CB[7] (1 mM). Conversely, CB[7] (2 mM) significantly affects the diffusion of 133Cs+ (1 mM), decreasing its diffusion coefficient from 1.86 to 0.83 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). Similar changes in the rate of diffusion of other alkali earth metal cations are observed upon the addition of CB[7]. The diffusion coefficient of 23Na+ changes from 1.26 to 0.90 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) and 7Li+ changes from 3.40 to 3.07 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). In most cases, encapsulation of a variety of inorganic and organic guests within CB[7] decreases their rates of diffusion in D2O. For instance, the diffusion coefficient of the dinuclear platinum complex trans-[[PtCl(NH3)2}2mu-dpzm](2+) (where dpzm is 4,4'-dipyrazolylmethane) decreases from 4.88 to 2.95 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1) upon encapsulation with an equimolar concentration of CB[7].

  16. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAND FIRST TESTS OF AN AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL VINE CUTTING TRANSPLANTERS BASED ON DGPS-RTK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Mazzetto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the proposal of an innovative system for commercial transplanter to allow the automatic point-laying location of each vine cutting, without any kind of field preliminary squaring. A DGPS-RTK system is able to calculate the vine cutting location according to the project values; the transplant operation, carried out by electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical components, is completely automated. The goal is to increase the work rate of the transplanting equipment and reduce the necessary skilled labour, without losing the accuracy of the vineyard planting.

  18. Selección de rizobacterias por su antagonismo frente a microorganismos patógenos de cucurbitáceas /Screening of rhizobacteria for their antagonism against microbial pathogens of cucurbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El desarrollo de inoculantes microbianos a partir de aislamientos de rizobacterias con potencial para el control biológico de enfermedades de los cultivos agrícolas requiere de una rigurosa selección. Se obtuvieron aislamientos bacterianos de la rizosfera de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y de maíz (Zea mays L. y de semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Las colonias que mostraron in vitro halos de inhibición de los patógenos de cucurbitáceas: Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrull y Fusarium oxysporum, se seleccionaron como antagonistas. A partir de las características morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas las cepas antagonistas F16/95 y Xph se identificaron con la especie Bacillus subtilis y la cepa 14A como Pseudomonas putida. Las pruebas presuntivas de producción de antibiocinas in vitro sugirieron modos de acción de las rizobacterias relacionados con antibiosis y competencia por el hierro mediante la producción de sideróforos. Los resultados indicaron el potencial de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis (F16/95, Xph y Pesudomonas putida 14A para el control biológico de enfermedades de las cucurbitáceas./Abstract:

  19. Regime Switching Vine Copula Models for Global Equity and Volatility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly every major stock market there exist equity and implied volatility indices. These play important roles within finance: be it as a benchmark, a measure of general uncertainty or a way of investing or hedging. It is well known in the academic literature that correlations and higher moments between different indices tend to vary in time. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one has yet considered a global setup including both equity and implied volatility indices of various continents, and allowing for a changing dependence structure. We aim to close this gap by applying Markov-switching R-vine models to investigate the existence of different, global dependence regimes. In particular, we identify times of “normal” and “abnormal” states within a data set consisting of North-American, European and Asian indices. Our results confirm the existence of joint points in a time at which global regime switching between two different R-vine structures takes place.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  1. Characterization of vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, and of their ethyleneglycol pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luis; Pérez, Antonio; de la Torre, María Jesús; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis

    2007-12-01

    We characterized vine shoots, cotton stalks, Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus as pulping raw materials and found C. proliferus and cotton stalks to be the best for the intended purpose on the grounds of their increased contents in holocellulose (79.73% and 72.86%) and alpha-cellulose (45.37% and 58.48%), and their decreased contents in ethanol-benzene extractables (2.64% and 1.42%), hot water solubles (2.79% and 3.33%) and 1% soda solubles (16.67% and 20.34%). These properties resulted in increased pulp yields and hence in efficient use of these two types of raw material. The previous raw materials were pulped by using an ethyleneglycol concentration of 65% at 180 degrees C for 75min, followed by beating at 1500 revolutions in a PFI refiner. The paper sheets obtained were characterized and those from C. proliferus found to be the best overall as they exhibited an increased breaking length (4644m), stretch (2.87%), burst index (2.46kN/g) tear index (0.33mNm(2)/g) and brightness (49.92% ISO); in addition C. proliferus pulp was obtained with a high-yield (62.88%). On the other hand, vine shoots provided the poorest results among the studied raw materials.

  2. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest.

  3. Aniline-containing guests recognized by α,α’,δ,δ’-tetramethyl-cucurbit[6]uril host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Lian; Fang, Guo-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Qi; Liu, Jing-Xin

    2016-12-01

    The host-guest complexation of symmetrical α,α’,δ,δ’-tetramethyl-cucurbit[6]uril (TMeQ[6]) and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7]) with a series of aniline-containing guests has been investigated by various experimental techniques including NMR, ITC, and X-ray crystallography. Experimental results indicate that both TMeQ[6] and Q[7] hosts can encapsulate aniline-containing guests to form stable inclusion complexes. However, the oval cavity of TMeQ[6] is more complementary in size and shape to the aromatic ring of the guests than the spherical cavity of Q[7]. Shielding and deshielding effects of the aromatic ring on guests lead to the remarkable chemical shifts of the TMeQ[6] host protons. The rotational restriction of the guests in the oval cavity of TMeQ[6] results in the large negative values of entropy. The X-ray crystal structure of the 1:1 inclusion complex between TMeQ[6] and N,N‧-diethyl-benzene-1,4-diamine unambiguously reveals that the aromatic ring of the guest resides in the oval cavity of TMeQ[6].

  4. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  5. Coproduction of lignin and glucose from vine shoots by eco-friendly strategies: Toward the development of an integrated biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Izaskun; Gullón, Patricia; Andrés, María A; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the suitability of the pretreated vine shoots as a source of lignin and to determine its structural features. The best conditions to achieve the aim of this work were 12% NaOH, 124°C and 105min, as they permitted a removal of 67.7% of the lignin present in the pretreated vine shoots and the obtaining of a solid with a 69.4% of glucan. This delignified solid was subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis achieving a conversion of glucan to glucose close to 100%. The characterization of lignins extracted from pretreated vine shoots was carried out for the first time and the following techniques were employed: a quantitative acid hydrolysis, HPSEC, TGA, FTIR and Pyrolysis-GC/MS. With this proposal, products from the main fractions of the vine shoots (hemicellulosic oligosaccharides, lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates) could be obtained separately, being potentially suitable for further applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  7. Potential carry-over of seeds from 11 common shrub and vine competitors of loblolly and shortleaf pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    2002-01-01

    Many of the competitors of the regeneration of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda, L. and Pinus echinata Mill., respectively) develop from seed disseminated on the site after reproduction cutting or from the seed bank. To evaluate the potential carry-over of the seeds from 11 shrub and vine competitors of these two...

  8. Yellow River, Cradle of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Yellow River is the Mother River of China. In the hearts of the Chinese people, it is not just an ancient river measuring 4,845 kilometers long that passes through nine provinces and regions, but also a symbol. The poets say that the waterway is the image of ancient China. Thephilosophers say the river is the shadow of a dragon. The river

  9. Grid inhomogeneous solvation theory: hydration structure and thermodynamics of the miniature receptor cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Crystal N; Young, Tom Kurtzman; Gilson, Michael K

    2012-07-28

    The displacement of perturbed water upon binding is believed to play a critical role in the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition, but it is nontrivial to unambiguously define and answer questions about this process. We address this issue by introducing grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST), which discretizes the equations of inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) onto a three-dimensional grid situated in the region of interest around a solute molecule or complex. Snapshots from explicit solvent simulations are used to estimate localized solvation entropies, energies, and free energies associated with the grid boxes, or voxels, and properly summing these thermodynamic quantities over voxels yields information about hydration thermodynamics. GIST thus provides a smoothly varying representation of water properties as a function of position, rather than focusing on hydration sites where solvent is present at high density. It therefore accounts for full or partial displacement of water from sites that are highly occupied by water, as well as for partly occupied and water-depleted regions around the solute. GIST can also provide a well-defined estimate of the solvation free energy and therefore enables a rigorous end-states analysis of binding. For example, one may not only use a first GIST calculation to project the thermodynamic consequences of displacing water from the surface of a receptor by a ligand, but also account, in a second GIST calculation, for the thermodynamics of subsequent solvent reorganization around the bound complex. In the present study, a first GIST analysis of the molecular host cucurbit[7]uril is found to yield a rich picture of hydration structure and thermodynamics in and around this miniature receptor. One of the most striking results is the observation of a toroidal region of high water density at the center of the host's nonpolar cavity. Despite its high density, the water in this toroidal region is disfavored energetically and

  10. ETHEPHON SPRAYS AS A DEFOLIANT IN ‘NIAGARA ROSADA’ VINE SUBJECTED TO TWO CROP PRODUCTION PER YEAR

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    THIAGO VIEIRA DA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In climate region Cwa of the State of São Paulo the technique of double cropping the grapevine is possible, however, when it is time for the second pruning of the crop, most of the vine’s leaves are still in the plant, posing the problem that the use of ethephon as a defoliant could increase leaf senescence and improve the vine management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethephon spray as a defoliant in the development and production of the ‘Niagara Rosada’ vine when subjected to double cropping, and the influence this bioactivator may have on carbohydrate reserves in the branch. The experiments were conducted in a commercial, non-irrigated area in agricultural years of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The length, diameter and total carbohydrate reserves of the branches, as well as bud break, number of clusters, crop production, length, width and mass of cluster, berry diameter, soluble solids and titratable acidity were evaluated. Ethephon treatments were applied at a concentration of 1,440 mg L-1 and 2,160 mg L-1 at 20 and 15 days before pruning. As a control, the vines were defoliated by hand at the time of pruning. A randomized block experimental design was used. Data was subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% significance level. In conclusion, we propose that ethephon sprays promoted vine defoliation and improved the bud break, altered plant development and crop production. This was not due to increases in concentration of carbohydrate reserves in the branches, but due to a higher induction stimulus of bud break, which allowed the vines to express their higher yield capacity.

  11. 南昌市藤蔓植物多样性调查报告%Investigation Report on Diversity of Vine Plants in Nanchang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉华; 李建; 舒涛

    2011-01-01

    The author investigated the vine plant resources in Nanchang, and identified 158 cultivated and wild vine plant species belonging to 80 genera, 39 families, including 120 woody vine species and 38 herbaceous vine species.The vine plant resources in Nanchang were initially classified according to their climbing habit.This paper also put forward the selection of plant species and the configuration application of vine plants in the vertical virescence in Nanchang, and summed up the application modes of vine plants in Nanchang city.%对南昌市藤蔓植物资源进行了调查,查明了南昌市现有栽培和野生藤蔓植物158种,隶属于39科80属,其中有木本藤蔓植物120种和草本藤蔓38种;根据藤蔓植物的攀缘习性对南昌市藤蔓植物资源进行了初步分类,并提出了南昌市垂直绿化植物种类的选择及藤蔓植物的配置应用方式;总结了南昌城区藤蔓植物的应用形式.

  12. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

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    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  13. Application of biochar amendments to Mediterranean soils: effects on vine growth and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel Ubalde, Josep; Payan, Esmeralda; Sort, Xavier; Guillermo Rosas, José; Gómez, Natalia; Sánchez, Marta Elena; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Introduction: Biochar is intended to be applied to soil, as a mean to sequester carbon and improve soil properties. To present, studies on the use of biochar in Mediterranean soils are still scarce. In this study different biochar and compost amendments were applied to a vineyard in Tarragona (Spain) in order to determine their effects on vine growth and grape quality so that the suitability of biochar amendments as an alternative to conventional organic compost could be evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out from 2011 to 2013 in an experimental vineyard of 1050 m2, located in Poblet (Catalonia, Spain). The climate type is Mediterranean, with 500 mm of annual precipitation and 13.6 oC of annual mean temperature. The soil type is a Fluvic Cambisol, very deep (>120 cm), pH of 7, high coarse fragment content, low organic matter content (1.5 %) and without calcium carbonate. The studied plots were 20-year-old vines of Grenache, trained to an espalier-type canopy system, dry-land farmed and weeds controlled by ploughing. Repeated applications of soil amendments took place in spring 2012 and 2013, following a randomized block design with three replicates per treatment. The treatments considered were biochar, compost and mixture compost x biochar. A control treatment without any organic amendment was also included. The biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis (550 oC of average temperature) of grapevine trunks from a vineyard close to the experimental plot. The compost was commercial certified organic compost. The application doses were 5 tons C · ha-1 per treatment. The petiole analysis and leaf architecture sampling were undertaken during the veraison period (August). During grape ripening, berry composition was measured on a weekly basis (September). At the harvest date, yield parameters were also determined. It is worth noting that in 2013 these harvest data were highly perturbed by millerandage. Finally, in early winter, vegetative development

  14. Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Neotropical Vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae

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    Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to assess polymorphism and level of genetic diversity in four Mexican populations of the neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae. Methods and Results: Thirty-seven microsatellite markers representing bi-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotide microsatellite repeats were developed. In total, 166 alleles were identified across 54 individuals. The number of alleles varied from one to 11 with an average of 4.49 alleles per locus. All loci except one were highly polymorphic between populations, whereas considerably less variation was detected within populations for most loci. The average observed and expected heterozygosities across study populations ranged from 0 to 0.63 and 0 to 0.59, respectively, for individual loci, and a deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was observed for most loci. Conclusions: The developed markers may be useful for studying genetic structure, parentage analysis, mapping, phylogeography, and cross-amplification in other closely related species of Dalechampia.

  15. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  16. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine

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    Jutamas Saengsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and the separation box (Sepbox comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50 of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells.

  17. THE INTEGRATION OF PIGMEAT MARKETS IN THE EU. EVIDENCE FROM A REGULAR MIXED VINE COPULA

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    Vasilis GRIGORIADIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the degree of integration of national pigmeat markets in the EU. This is pursued using monthly wholesale prices from seven major markets and the statistical tool of mixed R-vine copulas. The empirical results suggest that the markets considered do not constitute a great pool in which prices move, boom, and crash together. The markets of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands exhibit a higher degree of integration relative to the others, whereas the Italian market exhibits a lower degree of integration. Also, there is an indication that, in certain cases, the benefits of free trade may be unequally distributed between the trading partners.

  18. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  19. Emprêgo de desfolhantes na cultura da batatinha The use of potato vine killers

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    O. J. Boock

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das medidas que se impõem para a melhoria do estado de sanidade dos tubérculos de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto para o consumo como principalmente para o plantio, é a destruição da folhagem com alguma antecedência à colheita normal Além dessa melhoria, tal prática permite colocar o produto no mercado antes das épocas das maiores safras obtendo-se maiores lucros. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados obtidos com o emprêgo de desfolhantes físicos, químicos e mecânicos, para determinação dos mais eficientes nas condições locais. Tal prática, em relação ao estado de sanidade, principalmente quanto às moléstias de vírus e apodrecimentos devidos à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e pinta preta (Alternaria solani, será objeto de novos experimentos, utilizando-se como desfolhante aquêles que, neste trabalho, se mostraram mais eficientes e econômicos, como foi o casododinitro-orto-secundário-butil-fenol e do dínitro-cresol.This paper discusses the results of preliminary tests for determining the best way to kill the potato vine under the conditions of the State of São Paulo. Of the methods compared (cutting or flaming the vines, or spraying them with sodium chlorate, sodium arsenite, dinitro cresol or dinitro-o-sec-butyl phenol, spraying with the dinitro derivatives seemed to be the best. Further experiments are needed to observe the incidence of virus diseases and rots caused by Phytophthora infstans and Alternaria solani in the seed potatoes coming from fields treated with the latter products.

  20. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  2. Influence of hydropedology on viticulture and oenology of Sangiovese vine in the Chianti area (Central Italy

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    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture requires the knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of available soil water. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (central Italy on Sangiovese vine to test the prediction capacity of selected hydropedological models for two soil series cultivated with grape and for delineating hydrological functional units within two vineyards. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soils were mapped with a geophysical survey and six plots were selected in different morphological positions: summit, backslope and footslope. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, and yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes were determined. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of water stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the tested hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water differed considerably between the vineyards and increased significantly along the three positions on slope in both vineyards and in every year, even during the very dry 2006. However, both the response of Sangiovese to water stress and the quality of wine were influenced by the interaction between transpirable water and salinity. The installation of IRIS tubes allowed confirmation of the occurrence of redox processes, although discoloration was influenced more by soil temperature, rather than by moisture. The map produced by once only geophysical survey mirrored only

  3. Contribuição das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento de plântulas de cucurbitáceas Cotyledonary leaf contribution for growth and establishment of cucurbit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As cucurbitáceas apresentam germinação epigeal, cujos cotilédones têm a dupla função de fornecer substâncias de reserva e fotoassimilados para o crescimento e o estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nível de dependência de plântulas de abóbora híbrida (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, pepino (Cucumis sativus e porongo (Lagenaria siceraria em relação às folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento inicial. Foi efetuada a remoção de um ou dois cotilédones aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a emergência (DAE, comparando-se o crescimento das plântulas com o de plântulas controle (sem remoção. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado a cada três dias, da emergência até 21 DAE, determinando-se a taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o período de tempo até a equivalência entre área foliar e cotiledonar e a produção de matéria seca. A abóbora apresentou a maior taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o menor período até a emissão e expansão das folhas verdadeiras e a maior produção de matéria seca. As plântulas de abóbora e pepino apresentaram a maior dependência em relação às folhas cotiledonares. Os resultados obtidos mostram que danos às folhas cotiledonares, dependendo da espécie, da intensidade e da idade da plântula, podem afetar drasticamente o crescimento inicial e o estabelecimento das plântulas, com reflexos evidentes no rendimento de frutos em cucurbitáceas.Cucurbit species have epigeal cotyledons adapted for both storage and photoassimilation functions. Seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for initial growth and establishment was quantified for hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria. One or both cotyledons were excised at 3; 6; 9; and 12 days after emergence (DAE and initial growth was compared to control

  4. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Bratislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results. It should be pointed out that bud load per vine had a much greater influence on the studied traits than the applied way of pruning. .

  5. A highly luminescent tetramer from a weakly emitting monomer: acid- and redox-controlled multiple complexation by cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Giacomo; Fermi, Andrea; Marchini, Marianna; Locritani, Mirko; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita; Negri, Fabrizia; Ceroni, Paola; Baroncini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    The tetrahedral, shape-persistent molecule 1(4+), containing four pyridylpyridinium units connected through a central carbon atom, exhibits unexpected photophysical properties including a substantially redshifted absorption (2350 cm(-1)) and a very strong fluorescence (Φem = 40 %), compared with the monomer 2(+) (Φem = 0.4 %). Density functional theory calculations on the structure and spectroscopic properties of 1(4+) and 2(+) show that exciton interactions, homoconjugation, and orbital nature account for the observed differences in their photophysical properties. The protonated tetramer binds four cucurbit[7]uril molecules and the host/guest interactions can be controlled by chemical (acid/base) as well as redox stimuli.

  6. TaqMan real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of squash leaf curl virus in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Che; Lu, Yi-Lin

    2012-02-01

    A real-time PCR assay based on the TaqMan chemistry was developed for reliable detection and quantitation of the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in melon and squash plants. This method was highly specific to SLCV and it was about one thousand times more sensitive than the conventional PCR method. The protocol of the real-time PCR established in this study enabled detection of as little as 10(2) copies of SLCV DNA with CP gene as the target. This TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of SLCV would be a useful tool for application in quarantine and certification of SLCV in cucurbits as well as in the research of disease resistance and epidemiology.

  7. Patterns of species richness and diversity of insects associated with cucurbit fruits in the southern part of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokam, Didi Gaëlle; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Bilong Bilong, Charles-Félix

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure of insects associated with fruits of domesticated cucurbits were investigated from January 2009 to 2011 in three localities from two agroecological zones in the southern part of Cameroon. Rarefaction curves combined with nonparametric estimators of species richness were used to extrapolate species richness beyond our own data. Sampling efforts of over 92% were reached in each of the three study localities. Data collected revealed a total of 66 insect morphospecies belonging to 37 families and five orders, identified from a set of 57,510 insects. The orders Diptera (especially Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and Hymenoptera (mainly Braconidae and Eulophidae) were the most important, in terms of both abundance and species richness on the one hand, and effects on agronomic performance on the other. Values for both the species diversity (Shannon and Simpson) and the species richness indices (Margalef and Berger-Parker) calculated showed that the insect communities were species-rich but dominated, all to a similar extent, by five main species (including four fruit fly species and one parasitoid). Species abundance distributions in these communities ranged from the Zipf-Mandelbrot to Mandelbrot models. The communities are structured as tritrophic networks, including cucurbit fruits, fruit-feeding species (fruit flies) and carnivorous species (parasitoids). Within the guild of the parasitoids, about 30% of species, despite their low abundance, may potentially be of use in biological control of important pests. Our field data contribute in important ways to basic knowledge of biodiversity patterns in agrosystems and constitute baseline data for the planned implementation of biological control in Integrated Pest Management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  9. Comprehensive Utilization of Vines as Ornamental Plant%葡萄(vines)作为观赏植物的综合利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红芳; 张宏建

    2012-01-01

    The vines, as climbing shrubs, are one kind of common ii-uit trees, and are graclualty into city s rives as ornamental plant. What will the prospect of the vines be as ornamental plant? This article analyses the value of the vines from several aspects, i.e. ornamental value, greening function, extensive adaptability and integrated value. And the article also proposes three criteria for choosing the varieties. The conclusion shows that the application of vines as ornamental plant has promising prospect.%分析了葡萄作为观赏植物的价值所在,对于其品种的选择,提出了相应的标准,指出了葡萄作为观.赏植物,前景广阔。

  10. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Management practices designed to increase carbon sequestration via perennial tree crops, are potential tools to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Changes in orchard management could enable growers to meet eco-verification market demands for products with a low carbon footprint, and potentially exploit the emerging business opportunity in carbon storage, whilst enhancing the delivery of ecosystem services that depend on soil carbon stocks. However, there is no standard methodology to verify any potential claims of carbon storage by perennial vine crops. We developed a robust methodology to quantify carbon storage in kiwifruit orchards. Soil carbon stocks (SCS) were determined in six depth increments to 1 m depth in two adjacent kiwifruit blocks, which had been established 10 ('young') and 25 ('old') years earlier. We used a 'space-for-time' analysis. Our key results were: • The 'young' and 'old' kiwifruit block stored about 139 and 145 t C/ha to 1 m depth. Between 80-90% of the SCS were stored in the top 0.5 m, and 89-95% in the top 0.7 m. • There was no significant difference between the SCS in row and alley to a depth of 0.5 m. • A CV of 5-15% indicates that 4-10 cores are needed for 80% confidence in the estimated SCS. • We recommend separating each core into the depths 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5 and 0.5-1 m to allow the assessment of SCS dynamics. • We detected a weak spatial pattern of the SCS only for the 'old' kiwifruit block with a range of about 3 m. A sampling bay along a vine-row should have a maximum length of 3 m. We then assessed SCS in over 60 kiwifruit orchards throughout New Zealand. They stored on average 174.9 ± 3 t C ha-1 to 1 m depth. On average, 51% of the SCS down to 1 m depth were stored in the top 0.3 m, which is the standard depth according to the Kyoto protocol. About 72% of the SCS to 1 m depth were captured when increasing the sampling depth to 0.5 m. These results underscore the necessity to analyze SCS in an orchard

  11. A mixed C-vine copula model for hedging price and volumetric risk in wind power trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pircalabu, Anca; Jung, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    correlation with the much more liquid German market to construct a proxy hedge. We propose a three-dimensional mixed vine copula to model the evolution of the Danish and German spot electricity prices and the Danish wind power production. We construct a realistic hedging portfolio by identifying various...... of not only forwards, but also a basket of e.g. call and put options. Illiquidity and an almost non-existent market for options challenge however the optimal hedging of joint price and volumetric risk in many market places. Here, we consider the case of the Danish power market, and exploit its strong positive...... instruments available in the market, such as real options in the form of the right to transfer electricity across the border and the right to convert electricity to heat. Using the proposed vine copula to determine optimal hedging decisions, we show that significant benefits are to be drawn by extending...

  12. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  13. Natural Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Musts, Wines and Grape Vine Fruits from Grapes Harvested in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in Argentinean musts, wines and dried vine fruits was evaluated, alongside with the performance of OchraStarTM columns for OTA extraction. In all the three matrices analyzed, the OchraStarTM columns showed good performance. The analysis of natural occurrence of OTA in the red must and the red wine samples showed low incidence with low levels of mean OTA contamination (0.12 ng/mL and 0.37 ng/mL, respectively, while 60% of the dried vine fruit samples were contaminated with OTA, in levels ranging from 0.26 to 20.28 ng/g.

  14. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-06

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration.

  15. Selected mild strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV fail to protect pre-immunized vines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Quelmo Silva de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV is the most important virus affecting passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. crops in Brazil. The main purpose of this work was to select mild strains of PWV and to evaluate their protective effect against a severe strain of the virus. Three mild strains were selected from outstanding plants found in orchards severely affected by the virus (F-101, F-102 and F-103 and three others were obtained from blisters formed in passion fruit vine leaves showing mosaic (F-99, F-144 and F-145. The protective effect of the mild strains was evaluated for vines under greenhouse and field conditions. Plants pre-immunized with mild strains F-101, F-102 and F-144, in a greenhouse, had partial protection against the severe strain PWV-SP. In a first field experiment, all passion fruit vines pre-immunized with the six selected mild strains showed severe symptoms of the disease, approximately four months after the challenge inoculation with the PWV-SP strain. Results from a second field experiment, with vines pre-immunized with strains F-101 and F-144, followed by a quantitative evaluation of the mild strains in different leaves of the protected plants, indicated that breakdown in protection seems to be related to the low concentration and/or irregular distribution of the mild strains in leaves, which allows the existence of infection sites available for the establishment of the severe strain. Pre-immunization was not an appropriate alternative for the control of the passion fruit woodiness disease.

  16. The Scientific Challenges of Yellow River Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Sun Yangbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Yellow River is famous for its complex and unique physical conditions which give great challenges to the river management. Based on the study and analysis of the existing problems and research progress, this paper indicated that the most significant challenges of Yellow River studies are: long term hydrological and morphological changes; the optimized hydrology and sediment conditions to maintain the healthy life of the River; and simulation of Yellow River through mathematical model and physical models.

  17. Nursery substrates and provenances influence rooting performance of juvenile, single-node vine cuttings of Gnetum africanum Welw. (Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Biloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gnetum africanum Welw. (Gnetaceae is a forest vine that is highly valued for its leaves which are a source of food and income. Because wild populations are threatened by over-harvesting, there is an increasing need to cultivate the plant, which in turn entails a need for developing good quality planting material. This study investigates the effects of four provenances, four substrates and their interactions on rooting and shoot development of vine cuttings of G. africanum using the non-mist propagation system developed by ICRAF. Single-node, half-leafed vine cuttings were used and data on rooting and leaf production were collected monthly from the second to the fifth months. Rooting percentages were subjected to analysis of variance using logistic regression procedures in Genstat version 12. Provenance (P<0.001, substrate (P<0.001 and interaction between provenance and substrate (P<0.001 showed highly significant effects on rooting. Excel was used to determine rooting percentages, with the highest observed in fine sand on cuttings from Lekie-Assi (81% and Boumnyebel (79% which are high G. africanum exploitation areas in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Boumnyebel showed a significantly higher shoot development than the other provenances. Fine sand and sharp sand can be recommended for rapid, low-cost production of G. africanum planting material.

  18. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  19. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  20. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  1. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  2. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Markaki, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six samples of dried vine fruits from Athens and Thebes (Central Greece) market were simultaneously extracted and cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). A combination of ELISA and HPLC methods was applied for the determination of AFB1. Recovery was 97.6%, RSD 6.46%, while the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 μg kg(-1) and 0.09 μg kg(-1), respectively. OTA concentrations were only estimated by ELISA. Results revealed the presence of AFB1 in 23% of the samples (mean 1.4 μg AFB1 kg(-1)), but none exceeded the EU limit (2 μg AFB1 kg(-1)). However, OTA was detected in 100% of the samples (mean 47.2 μg OTA kg(-1)). Six samples were found to be contaminated at high levels (median 120.6 μg OTA kg(-1)) and 18 exceeded the EU limit (10 μg OTA kg(-1)).

  3. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  4. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  5. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  6. Meteorological estimates for the water balance of a sparse vine crop growing in semiarid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, K. J.

    1996-05-01

    Estimates are presented for the long-term water balance of a sparse vine crop growing under semiarid conditions. The annual water losses are estimated using a simple soil moisture accounting model combined with a two-component energy combination model representing the separate but coupled evaporation fluxes from plants and bare soil. The models we calibrated using data collected during the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-threatened Area (EFEDA) field experiment in the summer of 1991 in southern Spain. The hourly averaged meteorological conditions required as input to the model were derived both from field observations and using a stochastic model. For the year of the field experiment, the simulations suggested that the plant water consumption was close to the long-term average but that the groundwater recharge was substantially below normal. The sensitivity of this balance was examined using the stochastic model both for current conditions and for various hypothetical changes in the average rainfall, plant spacing and plant species.

  7. Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2014-11-15

    The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment.

  8. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  9. Cytogenetics of semi-fertile triploid and aneuploid intergeneric vine cacti hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Mizrahi, Y

    2005-01-01

    Crosses between the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus, as the female parent, and the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus, as the male parent, yielded triploid and aneuploid hybrids. The fruits of these hybrids combined the attractive appearance of Hylocereus fruits with the delicious taste of S. megalanthus fruits. The aim of this work was to assess the fertility and breeding potential of the triploid and aneuploid hybrids with a view to developing an improved vine cactus crop. Pollen mother cells at metaphase I revealed univalents, bivalents, trivalents, and occasionally quadrivalents. Chromosome distribution at anaphase I revealed different classes of chromosome segregation as well as lagging chromosomes. At metaphase II, parallel and tripolar spindles were observed. The occurrence of triads was frequent, whereas dyads were rarely observed. Pollen stainability varied among the clones studied ranging from 9.8% to 18.6%. The diameters of the stained pollen grains varied widely, probably as a result of the number of chromosomes. Despite the allotriploid origin of our hybrids, functional female and male gametes were produced in considerable proportions, most likely as a result of balanced chromosome segregation. The triploid and aneuploid clones studied yielded viable seeds whose number per fruit was strongly dependent on the pollen donor.

  10. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  11. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-10-20

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients.

  13. Nitrate and potassium concentration in fertigated soil cultivated with wine vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the semiarid region of Brazil the use of irrigation systems for applying fertilizers in horticulture is the primary means for incorporating nutrients in the soil. However, this technique still requires its use in wine vines to be assessed. In view of this, this study aimed to assess nitrate and potassium concentrations in soil fertigated with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers in 3 wine grape growing cycles. A field experiment was conducted with 'Syrah' wine grapes, in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil; it assessed five nitrogen doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and five K2O doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 applied by drip irrigation system with two emitters per plant, with a flow rate of 4 L h-1. The experimental design used was the factorial split-plot, making up 13 combinations arranged in 4 randomized blocks. Soil solution samples were collected weekly with the aid of porous cup extractors for all treatments and at depths of 0.4 and 0.6 m by determining nitrate and potassium concentrations and electrical conductivity. Increased levels of both nutrients in the irrigation water increased the availability of nitrate and potassium in the soil solution. The highest nitrate and potassium concentrations were found in the second growing cycle at both depths studied.

  14. Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opedal, Øystein H; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Albertsen, Elena; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Stenøien, Hans K; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates among populations. To assess bee-mediated pollen dispersal on a smaller scale, we conducted paternity analyses within a focal population, and quantified within-population spatial genetic structure in four populations. Gene flow was limited to certain nearby populations within continuous forest blocks, whereas drift appeared to dominate on larger scales. Limited long-distance gene flow was supported by within-population patterns; gene flow was biased towards nearby plants, and significant small-scale spatial genetic structure was detected within populations. These findings suggest that, although female euglossine bees might be effective at moving pollen within populations, and perhaps within forest blocks, their contribution to gene flow on the regional scale seems too limited to counteract genetic drift in patchily distributed tropical plants. Among-population gene flow might have been reduced following habitat fragmentation.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  16. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity.Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Full-Polarimetric Emissivity of Vines and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Vall-llossera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture is a key variable needed to understand and predict the climate. L-band microwave radiometry seems to be the best technique to remotely measure the soil moisture content, since the influence of other effects such as surface roughness and vegetation is comparatively small. This work describes a numerical model developed to efficiently compute the four elements of the Stokes emission vector (Th, Tv, TU and TV of vegetation-covered soils at low microwave frequencies, as well as the single-scattering albedo and the extinction coefficient of the vegetation layer over a wide range of incidence angles. A comparison with L-band (1.400–1.427 MHz experimental radiometric data gathered during the SMOS REFLEX 2003 field experiment over vines is presented and discussed. The measured and simulated emissivities at vertical polarization agree very well. However, at horizontal polarization there is some disagreement introduced by the soil emission model. Important radiometric parameters, such as the albedo, the attenuation and the transmissivity are computed and analyzed in terms of their values and trends, as well as their dependence on the observation and scene parameters. It is found that the vegetation attenuation is mainly driven by the presence of branches and leaves, while the albedo is mainly driven by the branches. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the values obtained by fitting the experimental data with the t-w model is very satisfactory.

  18. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  19. Thoracic surgical implications of the yellow nail syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, I; Crawford, F A; Hendrix, G H; Harley, R A; Tucker, T

    1986-05-01

    Idiopathic lymphedema associated with yellow discoloration of the nail beds constitutes the yellow nail syndrome. Pleural effusions and chronic sinusitis are also frequently present. This report describes a case of yellow nail syndrome in a 65-year-old woman.

  20. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%).

  1. Comparative molecular epidemiology provides new insights into Zucchini yellow mosaic virus occurrence in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Nozeran, K; Millot, P; Desbiez, C

    2014-06-24

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, genus Potyvirus) causes important crop losses in cucurbits worldwide. In France, ZYMV epidemics are sporadic but occasionally very severe. This contrasts with Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, genus Potyvirus) which causes regular and early epidemics. Factors influencing ZYMV epidemiology are still poorly understood. In order to gain new insights on the ecology and epidemiology of this virus, a 5-year multilocation trial was conducted in which ZYMV spread and populations were studied in each of the 20 plot/year combinations and compared with WMV. Search for ZYMV alternative hosts was conducted by testing weeds growing naturally around one plot and also by checking ZYMV natural infections in selected ornamental species. Although similar ZYMV populations were observed occasionally in the same plot in two successive years suggesting the occurrence of overwintering hosts nearby, only two Lamium amplexicaule plants were found to be infected by ZYMV of 3459 weed samples that were tested. The scarcity of ZYMV reservoirs contrasts with the frequent detection of WMV in the same samples. Since ZYMV and WMV have many aphid vectors in common and are transmitted with similar efficiencies, the differences observed in ZYMV and WMV reservoir abundances could be a major explanatory factor for the differences observed in the typology of ZYMV and WMV epidemics in France. Other potential ZYMV alternative hosts have been identified in ornamental species including begonia. Although possible in a few cases, exchanges of populations between different plots located from 500 m to 4 km apart seem uncommon. Therefore, the potential dissemination range of ZYMV by its aphid vectors seems to be rather limited in a fragmented landscape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  3. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  4. Resveratrol in Parts of Vine and Wine Originating from Bohemian and Moravian Vineyard Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Melzoch

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemically, resveratrol is a substance of a polyphenolic character from the group of phytoalexins - 3,5,4´- trihydroxystilbene - and exists in cis and trans-isomer forms. In natural sources trans-isomer is more common. As a natural polyphenolic substance, it shows a whole range of biological activities, such as anti-oxidizing and anti-microbial features (namely anti-fungal activities, the ability to absorb free radicals, affects blood sedimentation rate etc. Recently, trans-resveratrol has also been attributed anti-mutagen and chemo-protective features against cancer proliferation. It is assumed that resveratrol could be one of the active substances contributing to the health benefits, namely it decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases through a reasonable consumption of red wine. Grapes of Vitis vinifera and especially red wine represent its main source in human diet. Grape peels contain about 0.5 to 2.0 mg of resveratrol/g of dry weight and the average concentration in red wines of world provenience fluctuates between 1.0 and 3.0 mg/l. Resveratrol was determined by HPLC method with electrochemical detection after direct injection of wine or plant extracts. As expected, red wines from vines originating in the Bohemian and Moravian vineyard regions appeared to contain relatively high levels of resveratrol (from 1.3 to 15.4 mg/l and trans/cis ratio ranged from 0.5 to 4.8, excess of cis-resveratrol to trans-isomer was typical for red wine growing in Most region (northern Bohemia where vineyards are exposed to higher environmental stress due to frequent air pollutions in this area. In addition, resveratrol determined in different parts of grapevine (leaves, rachis varied from 6 to 490 mg/kg of the dry matter. Cluster stems were found as the richest source of resveratrol.

  5. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  6. Separation performance of cucurbit[8]uril and its coordination complex with cadmium (II) in capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Ji, Ningning; Qi, Meiling; Tao, Zhu; Fu, Ruonong

    2014-05-23

    Here we report the investigation of using cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) and its coordination complex with cadmium (II) (CB8-Cd) as stationary phases for capillary gas chromatography (GC). The prepared capillary columns of CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases achieved column efficiency of 2200plates/m and 1508plates/m, respectively, and showed weak polarity based on the measured McReynolds constants. Their separation performance was investigated by GC separation of mixtures of different types while a commercial column was used for comparison. The CB8 stationary phase achieved high resolution for a wide range of analytes from nonpolar to polar while the CB8-Cd stationary phase exhibited good separation mainly for nonpolar to weak polar analytes. The CB stationary phases differ from the commercial one in terms of retention behaviors and resolving ability due to their different molecular interactions with analytes. Moreover, energy effect on the retention of analytes on CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases was examined, showing that retention on CB8 column was determined mainly by enthalpy change for polar analytes and by both enthalpy change and entropy change for weak polar analytes whereas retention on CB8-Cd column was mainly controlled by entropy change. This work demonstrates the great potential of CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases as a new type of GC stationary phases in GC analysis.

  7. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of antitumor camptothecin with cucurbit[n=7,8]urils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The slightly water-soluble anticancer drug camptothecin(CPT) and its inclusion complexes with cucurbit[n = 7,8]uril(Q[n](n = 7,8)) were investigated.The formation of 1:2 complexes with Q[n](n = 7,8) in aqueous solution was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the apparent stability constants were determined to be higher than 3.01 × 1012 L2/mol2.The solid inclusion complexes of CPT and Q[n](n = 7,8) were also prepared by the co-evaporation method and characterized by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy,differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.Aqueous solubility and dissolution studies indicate that the complexes exhibited significantly increased dissolution rates compared with the pure drug and physical mixtures.The potential of Q[7] or Q[8] for stabilizing lactone modality of CPT was investigated by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) method.The results reveal more than 63% CPT lactone form(active form) in CPT-Q[7] or Q[8] complexes compared to only 36% CPT lactone form in the absence of Q[7] or Q[8] after being incubated in the phosphate buffer solution(pH 7.4 at 37 °C) for 5h.

  8. A Binary Bivalent Supramolecular Assembly Platform Based on Cucurbit[8]uril and Dimeric Adapter Protein 14-3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vink, Pim J; Briels, Jeroen M; Schrader, Thomas; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2017-07-24

    Interactions between proteins frequently involve recognition sequences based on multivalent binding events. Dimeric 14-3-3 adapter proteins are a prominent example and typically bind partner proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent mono- or bivalent manner. Herein we describe the development of a cucurbit[8]uril (Q8)-based supramolecular system, which in conjunction with the 14-3-3 protein dimer acts as a binary and bivalent protein assembly platform. We fused the phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (FGG) tripeptide motif to the N-terminus of the 14-3-3-binding epitope of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) for selective binding to Q8. Q8-induced dimerization of the ERα epitope augmented its affinity towards 14-3-3 through a binary bivalent binding mode. The crystal structure of the Q8-induced ternary complex revealed molecular insight into the multiple supramolecular interactions between the protein, the peptide, and Q8. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. A competitive strategy based on cucurbit[7]uril supramolecular interaction for simple and sensitive detection of dibucaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Chang-Feng; Du, Li-Ming; Feng, Jian-Xia; Liu, Hai-Long; Fu, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the competitive interaction between dibucaine and three fluorescent probes (i.e., berberine, palmatine, and coptisine) for occupancy of the cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) cavity was studied by fluorescence spectra, UV-visible absorption spectra, (1)H NMR spectra, and theoretical calculations in acidic aqueous solution. Based on the fluorescence enhancement of berberine, palmatine, and coptisine upon binding with CB[7], respectively, a series of fluorescence detection methods for dibucaine were proposed. At the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of berberine-CB[7], palmatine-CB[7], and coptisine-CB[7] complexes showed negative correlation to the concentration of dibucaine, which led to a series of simple and sensitive fluorescence methods for the determination of dibucaine for the first time. Linear ranges obtained in the detection of the dibucaine were 0.018-3.34 μmol L(-1), 0.032-4.47 μmol L(-1), and 0.079-4.42 μmol L(-1) with detection limits of 6.0 nmol L(-1), 12.0 nmol L(-1), and 25.0 nmol L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the drug in biological fluids. The competitive mode based on CB[7] superstructure provided a promising assay strategy for fluorescence detection in various potential applications.

  10. Controlled gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels with competing guest molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Hou, Shengzhen; Ma, Haili; Li, Xu; Tan, Yebang

    2016-02-01

    Gelation kinetics of hydrogels is closely linked to many applications such as the development of injectable and printable hydrogels. However, the control of gelation kinetics without compromising the structure and other properties of the hydrogels, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a method to control the gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane (CB[7]-AD) cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels by using competing guest molecules. The association between CB[7] and AD moieties on the polymer backbone was impeded by pre-occupying the CB[7] cavity with competing guest molecules. By using various guest molecules and concentrations, the gelation of the hydrogels could be varied from seconds to hours. The strong interaction of CB[7]-AD pair endue the hydrogels good mechanical properties and stability. Moreover, the binding of functionalized guest molecules of CB[7] moieties offers a facile approach for tailoring of the hydrogels’ scaffold. Combined with hydrogel injection and printing technology, this method offers an approach for the development of hydrogels with advanced temporal and spatial complexity.

  11. Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy: A rapid tool for the identification and quantification of minerals in cucurbit seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsana; Kumar, Rohit; Awasthi, Shikha; Singh, Vinti; Rai, A K

    2017-04-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated to estimate the viability as a simple and rapid method for analysis of nutrient elements in seed kernels of cucurbits. LIBS spectra were recorded in the range of 200-975nm by using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532nm (4ns, 10Hz) attached to echelle spectrometer with intensified charged coupled device (ICCD). The spectral analysis revealed the presence of several elements like C, O, N, Mg, Ca, Na and K in seeds. The quantification of elements (Mg, Ca, Na and K) through LIBS was done using calibration curve method in which all calibration curve shows good linearity (r>0.95). The result obtained through LIBS was in reasonable agreement with that obtained through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to the LIBS data for rapid categorization of seed samples belonging to same species although samples have similar nutrient elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PH responsive self-assembly of cucurbit[7]urils and polystyrene-block- polyvinylpyridine micelles for hydrophobic drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH +) pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8), P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  13. Dynamical evolution of massive black holes in galactic-scale N-body simulations - introducing the regularized tree code `rVINE'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Simon J.; Aarseth, Sverre J.; Naab, Thorsten; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    We present a hybrid code combining the OpenMP-parallel tree code VINE with an algorithmic chain regularization scheme. The new code, called `rVINE', aims to significantly improve the accuracy of close encounters of massive bodies with supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galaxy-scale numerical simulations. We demonstrate the capabilities of the code by studying two test problems, the sinking of a single massive black hole to the centre of a gas-free galaxy due to dynamical friction and the hardening of an SMBH binary due to close stellar encounters. We show that results obtained with rVINE compare well with NBODY7 for problems with particle numbers that can be simulated with NBODY7. In particular, in both NBODY7 and rVINE we find a clear N-dependence of the binary hardening rate, a low binary eccentricity and moderate eccentricity evolution, as well as the conversion of the galaxy's inner density profile from a cusp to a core via the ejection of stars at high velocity. The much larger number of particles that can be handled by rVINE will open up exciting opportunities to model stellar dynamics close to SMBHs much more accurately in a realistic galactic context. This will help to remedy the inherent limitations of commonly used tree solvers to follow the correct dynamical evolution of black holes in galaxy-scale simulations.

  14. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (pMadeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  15. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides.

  16. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba.

  17. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  18. STUDY OF SOIL TYPES AROUND THE VILLAGE OF SUSAM-HASKOVSKI MINERALNI BANI FOR THE PURPOSE OF VINE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POPOVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Five soil types in the region of the village of Susam-Haskovski mineralni bani were studied. The soil indexes pH, humus content, active carbonates, physical clay, and clay fraction were studied, and the soil texture coeffi cient was determined. The soil reserves with respect to the basic nutritive elements – N, P, K – were also determined. The soil types were defi ned as eluviated chromic luvisols and in combination with the climatic characteristics of the region they proved suitable for vine growing and red table wines production, in case of application of appropriate agrotechnical measures and fertilization norms.

  19. 江苏省葫芦科作物6种病毒的多重 RT-PCR方法及应用%Establishment and application of multiplex RT-PCR assays for simultane-ous detection of six viruses on Cucurbit crops in Jiangsu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春梅; 程兆榜; 杨柳; 缪倩; 周益军

    2015-01-01

    江苏省葫芦科作物上的病毒主要有小西葫芦黄花叶病毒( ZYMV)、西瓜花叶病毒( WMV)、黄瓜花叶病毒( CMV)、黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒( CGMMV)、烟草花叶病毒( TMV)和番木瓜环斑病毒( PRSV),通常发生复合侵染。基于GenBank中这6种病毒的核苷酸序列保守区设计特异性引物,在单重RT-PCR技术的基础上,通过对影响2种多重RT-PCR扩增的DNA聚合酶浓度、dNTPs及镁离子浓度、退火温度、延伸时间、循环次数等因素进行优化,对检测灵敏度进行测定,建立了2种PCR反应同时检测葫芦科作物上6种病毒的多重RT-PCR方法。结果显示:2种多重RT-PCR体系均能同时扩增出各自特异性片段,测序分析结果表明序列同源性在97%以上;优化的2种多重RT-PC体系检测灵敏度为总RNA稀释102~103倍,应用于江苏省210份样品的检测结果与单重RT-PCR一致,体现了检测的可靠性;检测结果表明近年来江苏省葫芦科作物以种子传播的ZYMV和CGMMV侵染为主,病毒的复合侵染率达75.24%。%Cucurbit crops are frequently co-infected by zucchini yellow mosaic virus ( ZYMV) , watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), tobacco mosaic virus ( TMV) and papaya ringspot virus ( PRSV) in Jiangsu province. Based on the RT-PCR for the detection of single virus, the two multiplex RT-PCR ( mRT-PCR) systems were established for simultaneous detection of the six viruses by using six sets of specific primers designed on the basis of conserved sequences of the viruses in GenBank. The main factors suches con-centrations of DNA polymerase, Mg2+ and dNTPs, PCR conditions of annealing temperature, extension time and amplifica-tion cycles, sensitivity of the detection were examined and optimized. The results showed that expected fragments of the six viruses were amplified in the two mRT-PCR systems and the sequences shared above 97 percent

  20. The Study of Correlation and Portfolio Selection among Multi-Markets Based on EVT-Vine-copula%基于 EVT-Vine-copula的多市场相关性及投资组合选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帮正; 魏宇; 余江; 李云红

    2014-01-01

    There is significance for avoiding investment risk through choosing market investment portfolio with studying the corre -lation among multi-markets.Taking the stock, fund, bond, future, money, exchange and spot markets in China into a frame-work, with the indices of HS300, Shanghai Stock Exchange Fund , Bond Index, Fuel Oil Future, Shibor overnight interest rate , central parity rate of Euro against Yuan and crude oil commodity between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2014 as samples, this study first modeled its marginal distribution with GJR-EVT method, and then analyzed the net correlation among different finan-cial markets with the R-Vine copula, D-Vine copula and C-Vine copula methods, last analyzed the all non-conditional correlation between any two markets and its conditional correlation on the other one conditional market .The main empirical results show that there is significant asymmetric and fat tail correlation characteristics between the different financial markets in China , and the three Vine copula models are not significant different in modeling the Chinese financial markets ;There exists high non-condition-al correlation between most two of the markets , but their conditional correlation is lower than the 20 percent of non-conditional correlation after taking every other market into account .Composing the triple-portfolio with the corresponding market can avoid the market prices falling at the same time when investment are in the binary-markets;In bear market period , avoiding only long or short investment in the markets with high unconditional or conditional correlation , it could hedge the risk of different market prices fall at the same time through selecting these markets with low non-conditional , or the markets with low or independent con-ditional correlation to build investment portfolio .%研究多元市场间的相关性对构建市场投资组合进而有效规避风险具有重要现实意义。将股票、基金、国债、期货、货

  1. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Dombrovsky

    Full Text Available We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV. PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV (both poleroviruses. The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs, which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93% and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%. Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP, may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2 were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5 and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3 with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s, resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  2. Johnston Atoll - Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or yellow...

  3. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-13

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.

  4. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  5. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  6. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  7. Synthesis of honeycomb-like palladium nanostructures by using cucurbit[7]uril and their catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Thathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); The University College/Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Geckeler, Kurt E., E-mail: keg@gist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics (WCU), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    An eco-friendly one-pot method to synthesize self-assembled palladium nanoclusters using a macrocycle, namely cucurbit[7]uril, in the alkaline medium without employing any special reducing or capping agents and/or external energy at room temperature is described. This greener approach, which utilizes water as a benign solvent and biocompatible cucurbit[7]uril as both reducing and protecting agents, can be applied to synthesize other noble metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver, and platinum. Owing to unique structural arrangement of cucurbit[7]uril, it was possible to prepare palladium nanoclusters of honeycomb-like structure irrespective of the reaction conditions. The honeycomb-like palladium nanoclusters were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), higher-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Significantly, the synthesized palladium nanoclusters exhibited catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature. The approach launched here is easy, green, and user-friendly in contrast to the conventional techniques using polymers or surfactants and harsh reductants. - Highlights: • A simple and one-pot method to synthesis palladium nanostructures with honey-comb like structure. • The strategy established here does not require any harsh and toxic reducing agents. • It has a potential to be a general method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in water medium. • Palladium nanoclusters can be used as catalyst for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol. • This system makes a novel platform for industrial and biomedical applications.

  8. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-05

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇(2)ρ(r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2ns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermomechanical behavior of comercial yellow gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš G. Djordjević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, in the late 19th century, began the research and application of new alloys for making jewelry. By adding different amounts of Cu and Ag alloy of Au, as well as adding some new elements (Zn, alloys were obtained with different color spectrum (from red to yellow and different technological and metallurgical characteristics. This paper aims to show thermomechanical behavior of commercial yellow Au alloys for making jewelry.

  10. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results...

  11. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  12. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  13. Arsenic present in the soil-vine-wine chain in vineyards situated in an old mining area in Trentino, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Daniela; Villegas, Tomás Román; Larcher, Roberto; Santato, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The present study follows arsenic (As) transfer through the chain of soil-vine-leaves-grapes-wine to assess the possible risk of arsenic intake related to consuming grapes and wines produced in 10 vineyards located in a mining area rich in this element. The results are compared with date from 18 uncontaminated areas. In the soil, the content of As extracted with acqua regia and that extracted with ammonium acetate, were analyzed. Leaves and berries were analyzed after washing with acidified aqueous solution and acid mineralization in a closed vessel, whereas wines were simply diluted before analysis. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometer. The aqua regia extractable As concentration in soil ranged from 3.7 to 283 mg/kg, whereas available As varied from 18 to 639 µg/kg, and As total concentration ranged from 16.3 to 579 µg/kg dry weight in leaves and from Arsenic levels in wines were always below 1.62 µg/L, with higher concentration in red wines than in white wines. Significant and positive correlations between the As concentrations in soils, leaves, and berries are highlighted, with the samples collected near the mining area having significantly higher values. Nevertheless, As levels in wines were always well below the limit (200 µg/L) suggested by the International Organization of Vine and Wine.

  14. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  15. Sequence-specific, nanomolar peptide binding via cucurbit[8]uril-induced folding and inclusion of neighboring side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren C; Leach, David G; Blaylock, Brittney E; Ali, Omar A; Urbach, Adam R

    2015-03-18

    This paper describes the molecular recognition of the tripeptide Tyr-Leu-Ala by the synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril (Q8) in aqueous buffer with nanomolar affinity and exceptional specificity. This combination of characteristics, which also applies to antibodies, is desirable for applications in biochemistry and biotechnology but has eluded supramolecular chemists for decades. Building on prior knowledge that Q8 binds to peptides with N-terminal aromatic residues, a library screen of 105 peptides was designed to test the effects of residues adjacent to N-terminal Trp, Phe, or Tyr. The screen used tetramethylbenzobis(imidazolium) (MBBI) as a fluorescent indicator and resulted in the unexpected discovery that MBBI can serve not only as a turn-off sensor via the simultaneous inclusion of a Trp residue but also as a turn-on sensor via the competitive displacement of MBBI upon binding of Phe- or Tyr-terminated peptides. The unusual fluorescence response of the Tyr series prompted further investigation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. From these studies, a novel binding motif was discovered in which only 1 equiv of peptide binds to Q8, and the side chains of both the N-terminal Tyr residue and its immediate neighbor bind within the Q8 cavity. For the peptide Tyr-Leu-Ala, the equilibrium dissociation constant value is 7.2 nM, whereas that of its sequence isomer Tyr-Ala-Leu is 34 μM. The high stability, recyclability, and low cost of Q8 combined with the straightforward incorporation of Tyr-Leu-Ala into recombinant proteins should make this system attractive for the development of biological applications.

  16. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  17. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  18. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.

    2017-06-01

    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  19. Drosophila gypsy insulator and yellow enhancers regulate activity of yellow promoter through the same regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Larisa; Kostuchenko, Margarita; Silicheva, Margarita; Georgiev, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    There is ample evidence that the enhancers of a promoterless yellow locus in one homologous chromosome can activate the yellow promoter in the other chromosome where the enhancers are inactive or deleted, which is indicative of a high specificity of the enhancer-promoter interaction in yellow. In this paper, we have found that the yellow sequence from -100 to -69 is essential for stimulation of the heterologous eve (TATA-containing) and white (TATA-less) promoters by the yellow enhancers from a distance. However, the presence of this sequence is not required when the yellow enhancers are directly fused to the heterologous promoters or are activated by the yeast GAL4 activator. Unexpectedly, the same promoter proximal region defines previously described promoter-specific, long-distance repression of the yellow promoter by the gypsy insulator on the mod(mdg4) ( u1 ) background. These finding suggest that proteins bound to the -100 to -69 sequence are essential for communication between the yellow promoter and upstream regulatory elements.

  20. The Property and Subject Classification of China Cucurbits and Vegetables%《中国瓜菜》性质及学科分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 朱安; 房威; 张志转; 朱永和

    2012-01-01

    Classify China Cucurbits and Vegetables according to property and subject of journal based on quantity of literatures. 61.24% of itspapers in 2010 are relate to academic research and the literatures about horticulture account for 75. 13% of summation. The literatures of othersubject failed to obtain adequate influence as a result of small quantity. So China Cucurbits and Vegetables belongs to scholarly journal abouthorticulture.%根据期刊性质和学科分类方法,以文献数量为依据对《中国瓜菜》进行分类结果发现,《中国瓜菜》2010年刊登的论文61.24%属研究性论文,园艺类文献占当年发表文献总量的75.13%,其余学科文献均较少,不能划入相应学科,因此应将该刊归类为园艺类专业学术期刊.

  1. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  2. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred

  3. Dynamical evolution of massive black holes in galactic-scale N-body simulations - introducing the regularized tree code "rVINE"

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, S J; Naab, T; Haehnelt, M G; Spurzem, R

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid code combining the OpenMP-parallel tree code VINE with an algorithmic chain regularization scheme. The new code, called "rVINE", aims to significantly improve the accuracy of close encounters of massive bodies with supermassive black holes in galaxy-scale numerical simulations. We demonstrate the capabilities of the code by studying two test problems, the sinking of a single massive black hole to the centre of a gas-free galaxy due to dynamical friction and the hardening of a supermassive black hole binary due to close stellar encounters. We show that results obtained with rVINE compare well with NBODY7 for problems with particle numbers that can be simulated with NBODY7. In particular, in both NBODY7 and rVINE we find a clear N-dependence of the binary hardening rate, a low binary eccentricity and moderate eccentricity evolution, as well as the conversion of the galaxy's inner density profile from a cusp to a a core via the ejection of stars at high velocity. The much larger number of par...

  4. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p tannin-binding polyethylene glycol (PEG) increased (p tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats.

  5. Assessing Efficiency of D-Vine Copula ARMA-GARCH Method in Value at Risk Forecasting: Evidence from PSE Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Klepáč

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out the possibilities of using static D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model for estimation of 1 day ahead market Value at Risk. For the illustration we use data of the four companies listed on Prague Stock Exchange in range from 2010 to 2014. Vine copula approach allows us to construct high-dimensional copula from both elliptical and Archimedean bivariate copulas, i.e. multivariate probability distribution, created from process innovations. Due to a deeper shortage of existing domestic results or comparison studies with advanced volatility governed VaR forecasts we backtested D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model against the VaR rolling out of sample forecast from October 2012 to April 2014 of chosen benchmark models, e.g. multivariate VAR-GO-GARCH, VAR-DCC-GARCH and univariate ARMA-GARCH type models. Common backtesting via Kupiec and Christoffersen procedures offer generalization that technological superiority of model supports accuracy only in case of an univariate modeling – working with non-basic GARCH models and innovations with leptokurtic distributions. Multivariate VAR governed type models and static Copula Vines performed in stated backtesting comparison worse than selected univariate ARMA-GARCH, i.e. it have overestimated the level of actual market risk, probably due to hardly tractable time-varying dependence structure.

  6. Influence of lime, peat and cation exchanger on the heavy-metal-uptake of vine (Vitis vinifera L. ) from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, H.D.

    1980-10-01

    In pot experiments with heavy-metal-contaminated soils, the influence of different soil admixtures on growth and heavy-metal-uptake of vine cuttings was investigated. The following results were obtained: 1. The heavy metal uptake of vines from mixtures of soil and garbage-sewage-compost was strongly reduced by a cation exchanger. The heavy metal content of the roots decreased as follows: Cu68-77%; Zn36-74%; Cd29-81%; Mn20-45%; Pb13-52%; Cr7-58%. The Mn-, Zn- and Cu-content of wood, tendrils and leaves also decreased considerably. 2. Vine cuttings, which were cultivated on an acid, artificially Cd-contaminated soil, showed heavy damages and high Cd-contents. Admixtures of lime, cation exchanger or garbage-sewage-sludge-compost strongly reduced the injury of vines and their Cd-content. A combined addition of lime and cation exchanger was most effectful. On the contrary, the toxic effect of Cd was intensified by the acid reaction of peat.

  7. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SP

  8. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred p

  9. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  10. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis for burn wound healing process on albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis, or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Results: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05, while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05. The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. Conclusion: The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  11. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  12. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on corn cob and vine trimming shoots for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; García-Bernet, D; Domínguez, J M

    2016-12-01

    Due to their lignocellulosic nature, corn cob and vine trimming shoots (VTS) could be valorized by anaerobic digestion for biogas production. To enhance the digestibility of substrates, pretreatments of lignocellulosic materials are recommended. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasounds pretreatments (US) and the combination of both was assayed in lignocellulosic composition, methane, and biogas yields. The pretreatments leaded to a reduction in lignin and an increase in neutral detergent soluble compounds making corn cob and VTS more amendable for biogas conversion. The US were negative for biogas production from both substrates and in particular strongly detrimental for VTS. On the opposite side, the enzymatic hydrolysis was certainly beneficial increasing 59.8% and 14.6% the methane production from VTS and corn cob, respectively. The prior application of US did not potentiate (or not sufficiently) the improvement in the methane production reflected by the enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of VTS and corn cob.

  13. Autografted vines of cultivar ‘Refošk’ (Vitis vinifera L. reveal symptoms of the rugose wood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rugose wood disease complex is one of the most important graft-transmissible grapevine diseases and it is considered to be a viral disease. With the aim to obtain more information about appearance of rugose wood disease observed on cultivar ‘Refošk’, ‘Refošk’ vines from collection vineyard in Komen were used for green grafting on SO4 rootstock and autografts for control were made as well. Rugose wood symptoms were observed on grafts of two ‘Refošk’ biotypes, which confirmed graft transmissibility. Appearance of rugose wood symptoms on autografts excluded the impact of incompatibility in rugose wood disease, but at the same time it could be proposed that stress caused by grafting has an important role.

  14. Fisiologia do amadurecimento na planta do tomate 'Santa Clara' e do mutante 'Firme' Physiology of vine-ripened tomato 'Santa Clara' and its mutant 'Firme'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lima Moura

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O mutante natural de tomate 'Firme' da cv. Santa Clara tem frutos com coloração "amarelo-creme" quando imaturos, firmes e com amadurecimento lento. Estudou-se as alterações fisiológicas que ocorrem durante o processo de amadurecimento na planta de frutos de tomate da cv. Santa Clara e do mutante 'Firme'. Os frutos normais e mutantes foram colhidos em 6 diferentes estádios de maturidade, e em cada um deles foram avaliados a produção de etileno e CO2, os teores de açúcares solúveis totais do pericarpo e do tecido locular, e as atividades das enzimas oxidase do ACC e poligalacturonase. Os frutos mutantes apresentaram menores taxas respiratórias e de produção de etileno em todos os estádios de maturidade. A atividade da oxidase do ACC apresentou padrão de comportamento distinto durante o amadurecimento na planta dos frutos mutantes e normais, porém com semelhante atividade final. Os frutos mutantes apresentaram atraso no aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase em relação aos frutos normais nas fases iniciais do amadurecimento. Frutos normais acumularam açúcares solúveis totais durante seu amadurecimento na planta, enquanto que nos frutos mutantes os teores foram inferiores nos estádios mais avançados do amadurecimento quando comparados com aqueles no início do climatério. O pericarpo dos frutos mutantes nos estádios mais avançados do amadurecimento teve teores de açúcares total inferiores.The natural tomato mutant 'Firme' from cv. Santa Clara presents a yellow-pale appearance when immature, firm texture and slow ripening. Some of the physiological changes throughout ripening of cv. Santa Clara and the natural mutant 'Firme' were evaluated on the vine. Fruit ethylene and CO2 production, locular and outer pericarp total soluble sugars content, ACC oxidase and poligalacturonase activities were evaluated in both genotypes at six maturity stages. Mutant fruits presented lower ethylene and CO2 production at all

  15. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  16. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  17. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature.

  18. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  19. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  20. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers) be

  1. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  2. A Hopi tradition: Yellow firing ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canouts, Veletta; Bishop, Ronald

    1995-09-01

    The famed Hopi yellow-ware vessels of the American southwest were not the product of any single technological variable, firing technique, clay, or temper Instead, all of these factors worked together in a technological system affected by the desires, knowledge, and effectualness of the people producing the pottery.

  3. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  4. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  6. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for... pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures; or (2) Steel drums (1A1) not over 250 L (66...

  7. Host-Mediated Effects of Semipersistently Transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Deepak; McAuslane, Heather J; Adkins, Scott T; Smith, Hugh A; Dufault, Nicholas; Colee, James; Webb, Susan E

    2017-08-01

    Plant viruses may indirectly affect insect vector behavior and fitness via a shared host plant. Here, we evaluated the host-mediated effects of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) on the behavior and fitness of its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Middle East-Asia Minor 1, formerly biotype B. Alighting, settling, and oviposition behavioral assays were conducted on infected and mock-inoculated squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum and Nakai] plants. Developmental time of immature stages, adult longevity, and fecundity were measured on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants. For adult longevity and fecundity, whiteflies were reared on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants to determine the effects of nymphal rearing host on the adult stage. More whiteflies alighted and remained settled on infected squash than on mock-inoculated squash 0.25, 1, 8, and 24 h after release. No such initial preference was observed on watermelon plants, but by 8 h after release, more whiteflies were found on mock-inoculated watermelon plants than on infected plants. Whiteflies laid approximately six times more eggs on mock-inoculated watermelon than on infected watermelon; however, no differences were observed on squash. Development from egg to adult emergence was 3 d shorter on infected than mock-inoculated squash plants. Females lived 25% longer and had higher fecundity on infected squash plants than on mock-inoculated plants, regardless of infection status of the rearing host. The host-mediated effects of SqVYV infection on whitefly behavior differ on two cucurbit host plants, suggesting the potential for more rapid spread of the virus within watermelon fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Structural determination of unknown subsidiary colors in food yellow no. 5 (Sunset yellow FCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Nakamura, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T; Goda, Y

    1996-08-01

    Major unknown subsidiary colors A (Sub A) and B (Sub B) in commercial Sunset Yellow FCF (Food Yellow No. 5 in Japan) have been isolated by preparative HPLC. Spectroscopic analyses of Sub A and Sub B revealed that their structures are trisodium salt of 6-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfophenyl)-5-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthale nesulfonic acid, and disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, respectively.

  9. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  10. [Evolution process and related driving mechanisms of Yellow River Delta since the diversion of Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Xuan; Li, Yun-Zhao; Yu, Jun-Bao; Xu, Jing-Wei; Wang, Guang-Mei; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Mao, Pei-Li; Liu, Yu-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 23 sheets of remote sensing images from 1976 to 2009, in combining with the water and sediment data from Lijin station and the annual precipitation data of Yellow River Basin from 1976 to 2008, this paper quantitatively analyzed the features of water and sediment discharge from Yellow River, and the evolution process of Yellow River Delta and related driving mechanisms. In 1976-2008, the annual runoff and the annual sediment discharge into sea changed largely and frequently, but overall, presented a decreasing trend. Since the course of the Yellow River changed its direction to Qingshui channel in 1976, the Delta coastline and area were generally in a silting-up state. The evolution process of the Delta could be approximately divided into three stages, i.e., 1976-1985, 1986-1995, and 1996-2009, and the increasing rate of the Delta decreased with the stages. The coastline and area of the Delta were significantly exponentially correlated to the sediment accumulated at Lijin station, and the inter-annual variation of the precipitation of the Yellow River Basin had a strong correlation with that of the sediment at Lijin station, suggesting that the annual variation of the precipitation in Yellow River Basin was the main factor affecting the runoff and sediment discharge into sea.

  11. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  12. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shafii Bafti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activity of 178 soil actinomycete isolates was assayed against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyde and Hansen cause of root rot and fusarium wilt of greenhouse cucurbits in Kerman Province, southeast of Iran. From tested isolates, Streptomyces olivaceus (strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity revealed through screening and bioassays by agar disk and well-diffusion methods. The active strain was grown in submerged cultures for determination of growth curve and preparation of crude extract for further biological characterizations. Antifungal activity was fungistatic type on the pathogen mycelia. It is prominent that amending greenhouse soil mix with the S. olivaceus (strain 115 will reduce crop losses by the pathogen.

  13. The effect of cucurbit[7]uril on photophysical properties of aqueous solution of 3,3‧-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N. Kh.; Ivanov, D. A.; Golubkov, D. V.; Gromov, S. P.; Alfimov, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    Photophysical properties of aqueous solutions of 3,3'-diethyl-thiacarbocyanine iodide (DTCI) was studied in the presence of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) by means of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The addition of CB7 decreases the 550 nm peak of the DTCI absorption spectrum and concomitantly transforms the familiar shoulder at 510 nm into a pronounced peak; fluorescence was found to decay monoexponentially with a lifetime of 0.12 ns in aqueous DTCI solution without CB7 and 1.07 ns in the presence of CB7. The association constant of 1:1 complexes of DTCI with CB7 has been determined to be K = (2.8 ± 0.2) × 10 4 M -1. The Rullière model of photoisoomerisation of cyanines was used for explaining the main features of the effect observed.

  14. Unusual Complex Formation and Chemical Reaction of Haloacetate Anion on the Exterior Surface of Cucurbit[6]uril in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Su; Ko, Jae Yoon; Heo, Sung Woo; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Hugh I.

    2012-10-01

    Noncovalent interactions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with haloacetate and halide anions are investigated in the gas phase using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. Strong noncovalent interactions of monoiodoacetate, monobromoacetate, monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate on the exterior surface of CB[6] are observed in the negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectra. The strong binding energy of the complex allows intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which yields externally bound CB[6]-halide complex, by collisional activation. Utilizing ion mobility technique, structures of exteriorly bound CB[6] complexes of haloacetate and halide anions are confirmed. Theoretically determined low energy structures using density functional theory (DFT) further support results from ion mobility studies. The DFT calculation reveals that the binding energy and conformation of haloacetate on the CB[6] surface affect the efficiency of the intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which correlate well with the experimental observation.

  15. The Survey and Application Research on Native Vine Plants in Changsha City%长沙乡土藤本植物资源调查与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎育成

    2014-01-01

    通过实地调查和资料分析,确认长沙分布有乡土藤本植物30科、89种。依据其攀援方式,可将长沙乡土藤本植物划分为如下4类,即缠绕藤本32种,吸附性藤本10种,攀缘藤本43种,蔓生性藤本4种。阐述了它们在垂直绿化、边坡生态修复、石漠化治理上的应用,同时就在国家生态文明建设中,如何能有效地发挥长沙乡土藤本植物的支持作用进行了探讨。%Based on the field survey and the analysis of the literatures,the paper confirmed that there were 89 speices from 30 genera native vine plants in Changsha city. According to the climbing mechanics,the native vine plants in Changsha could be divided into 4 kinds:32 speices of twiining vine,10 species of adsorption vine,43 speices of climbers,4 speices of vining growth vine. This arcticle not only demonstraed the application of the vine plants on vertical greening,ecological recovery of slope and rocky desertification control,but also put forward suggestions on how to make the native vine plants in Changsha city to contribute for the spiritual civilization construction of China.

  16. Cucurbit[n]uril-Based Microcapsules Self-Assembled within Microfluidic Droplets: A Versatile Approach for Supramolecular Architectures and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Lan, Yang; Yu, Ziyi; Tan, Cindy S Y; Parker, Richard M; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-02-21

    of development in the field of monodisperse supramolecular microcapsules, fabricated through the integration of traditional microfluidic techniques and interfacial host-guest chemistry, specifically cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-mediated host-guest interactions. Three different strategies, colloidal particle-driven assembly, interfacial condensation-driven assembly and electrostatic interaction-driven assembly, are classified and discussed in detail, presenting the methodology involved in each microcapsule formation process. We highlight the state-of-the-art in design and control over structural complexity with desirable functionality, as well as promising applications, such as cargo delivery stemming from the assembled microcapsules. On account of its dynamic nature, the CB[n]-mediated host-guest complexation has demonstrated efficient response toward various external stimuli such as UV light, pH change, redox chemistry, and competitive guests. Herein, we also demonstrate different microcapsule modalities, which are engineered with CB[n] host-guest chemistry and also can be disrupted with the aid of external stimuli, for triggered release of payloads. In addition to the overview of recent achievements and current limitations of these microcapsules, we finally summarize several perspectives on tunable cargo loading and triggered release, directions, and challenges for this technology, as well as possible strategies for further improvement, which will lead to substainitial progress of host-guest chemistry in supramolecular architectures and materials.

  17. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  18. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  19. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  20. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  1. 枸杞菜营养保健馒头的研制%Development of Nutritional Steamed Bread with Matrimony Vine Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立红; 肖月娟; 杨晓宽; 付金锋; 董立峰; 王凤宝

    2012-01-01

    为了增加主食馒头的营养保健功能,以小麦粉为主要原料,将功能性食品配料枸杞菜添加于馒头中制成营养保健馒头。通过测定比容、硬度,结合感观鉴评,确定枸杞菜馒头的最佳工艺参数。结果表明,混合粉中枸杞菜粉的最佳添加细度为0.180mm,最佳添加量的质量分数为0.020,每100g混合粉加水量为53g。枸杞菜的添加,既能增加馒头的感观品质,又能增加营养保健功能。%In order to increase the nutrition and health care function of steamed bread, using the wheat flour as the main raw material, this paper studied the utilizations of matrimony vine leaf in making steamed bread. The best technology parameters were confirmed by measuring specific votume of the steamed bread combining with sensory evaluation, The results showed that the right granularity of matrimony vine leaf powder was 0.18mm, optimum mass fraction of the matrimony vine leaf in mixed powder was 0.020, and 53 g water was added into 100 g mixed powder. The steamed bread added matrimony vine leaf could not only fortify the sensory quality and nutrition, but also satisfy the need of customers.

  2. Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasne É.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (≤ 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

  3. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  4. 葡萄秧埋枝机运动参数的研究%Design on the Vine Wood Burying Machine Motion Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福燕; 邓春岩; 陈立东; 李国昉

    2014-01-01

    为了保证葡萄秧安全过冬,入冬前需把葡萄秧掩埋起来。通过分析酒葡萄规模化种植农艺模式,研究葡萄秧埋枝机的作业条件,计算了埋枝机的取土深度,提出了采用两个拨土轮做啮合式旋转的新方法,对土壤进行刮削式挖掘,保证防冻土的细碎、密实,对埋枝机拨土轮的运动参数进行了分析和设计。%In order to ensure the safety of the vine in winter , the vine should be buried before winter .Through analyzing the wine grape scale planting mode , studying the operating conditions of the vine wood burying machine , this paper gave the sampling depth of buried branch machine by calculating , and proposed a new type of the two earth drawing wheel meshing rotary,the soil scraping type mining to ensure the freezing soil fine ,dense.In this paper,the movement parameters of the wood burying machine scarification wheel is analyzed and designed .

  5. Influence of vineyard location and vine water status on fruit maturation of nonirrigated cv. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.). Effects on wine phenolic and aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Marinos, Vassilios; Gkoulioti, Anna; Kotseridis, Yorgos; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2006-07-12

    The influence of site on grape and wine composition was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko in the Nemea appellation area in southern Greece. Three nonirrigated plots were studied during the 1997 and 1998 vintages, which were typically very hot and without summer rainfall. Vines were subjected to different water regimens as a result of the variation of soil water-holding capacity and evaporative demand. Vine water status was determined by means of predawn leaf water potential. Differences in vine water status between sites were highly correlated with the earliness of shoot growth cessation and veraison. Grape composition was monitored during fruit ripening. Water deficit accelerated sugar accumulation and malic acid breakdown in the juice. Early water deficit during the growth period was demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolics in berry skins. A similar pattern was observed for the phenolic content of wines elaborated after vinification of grapes harvested on each plot, in both seasons. Limited water availability seemed to increase glycoconjugates of the main aromatic components of grapes as a quantitative increase in levels of bound volatile compounds of the experimental wines was observed under water deficit in both years. Wines produced from grapes of stressed vineyards were also preferred in tasting trials.

  6. Analysis on Nutrition Value of Different Batatas Vine%不同品种甘薯秧营养价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 李魁英; 王学清; 王昆; 马书林; 张新同; 吴占军; 刘小虎

    2011-01-01

    对不同品种甘薯秧营养成分进行测定分析.结果表明,不同品种甘薯秧间营养成分含量有显著差异,粗蛋白含量最高是冀薯13-10,粗脂肪含量最高的是冀薯6-5,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维以冀薯4号最高,粗灰分最高冀薯13-10.%Studying on regularity about nutrient content of differencet batatas vine,The results show that there are significant difference between different batatas vine in crude protein,NDF,ADF,crude fat,AshJi Shu 13-10 has the hightest crude protein and crude AshJi Shu 6-5 has the highest crude fat,Ji Shu NO 4 has the highest NDF and ADF among other batatas vine.

  7. Identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine B2 in Weir vine (Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, R J; McKenzie, R A; O'Sullivan, B M; Elbein, A D

    1995-06-01

    The polyhydroxy alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine [1] and calystegine B2 [6] have been identified as constituents of the seeds of the Australian plant Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra] (Weir vine) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by their biological activity as inhibitors of specific glycosidases. This plant, which is known only from a small area of southern Queensland, has been reported to produce a neurological disorder when consumed by livestock. The extract of the seeds showed inhibition of alpha-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and alpha-galactosidase, consistent with the presence of 1 and alkaloids of the calystegine class. Histological examination of brain tissue from field cases of sheep and cattle poisoned by Weir vine showed lesions similar to those observed in animals poisoned by the swainsonine-containing poison peas (Swainsona spp.) of Australia and locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) of North America. These results indicate that Weir vine poisoning is an additional manifestation of the induced lysosomal storage disease, mannosidosis, possibly exacerbated by inhibition of the enzymes beta-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase by calystegine B2. This is the first reported example of a single plant species capable of producing structurally distinct glycosidase inhibitors, namely, alkaloids of the indolizidine and nortropane classes.

  8. 瓜菜类病原细菌耐药外排泵RND研究进展%Advances in RND-type multi-drug efflux pumps from cucurbit and veg-etable pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真; 赵廷昌; 杨玉文; 关巍; 胡俊

    2016-01-01

    近年来,瓜菜类作物病原细菌的耐药性日益增强,增加了瓜菜相关病害防治的难度。存在于瓜菜作物病原细菌中的外排泵耐药结节分化家族(RND)与细菌的耐药性及细菌/植物互作关系密切。笔者根据有关文献综述了RND外排泵的结构与功能、细菌/植物互作过程中外排泵的作用以及外排泵抑制剂(EPIS)的相关研究进展,为瓜类和蔬菜类作物病原细菌耐药性的研究提供参考。%In recent years, drug resistance of bacteria causing diseases on cucurbits and vegetables has been increasingly re⁃ported which caused huge difficluties in cucurbit and vegetable prevention. Resistance-nodulation-division family (RND) is one of the most important efflux pump family in cucurbit and vegetable pathogenic bacteria, which is closely related to bacte⁃ria multidrug resistance and interactions between pathogenic bacteria and plants. We describe structures and functions of RND efflux pumps, relationships between efflux pumps and bacterial/plant interactions as well as the relevant research of ef⁃flux pump inhibitors (EPIS). This review will provide references for further studies on drug resistance of cucurbit and vegeta⁃ble pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  10. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  11. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  12. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Drug and Health Food Products Containing Red Vine Leaf Extracts on the Japanese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yutaka; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Red vine leaf extracts (RVLEs) have traditionally been used for leg wellness and are now standardized to be used as OTC drugs in Europe. In Japan, one brand of RVLE products was recently approved as a direct OTC drug, and RVLEs are still used as ingredients in health food products. Since there is no mandated criterion for the quality of health food products in Japan, the consistent quality and composition of these products are not assured. Here we analyzed OTC drug and health food products containing RVLEs with different lot numbers by LC/MS. Subsequent multivariate analyses clearly indicated that the quality of the health food products was highly variable compared to that of the drug products. Surprisingly, the component contents in the health foods were different even within a same lot in a same brand. The quantitative analyses of flavonols and stilbene derivatives in the drugs and health foods indicated that the concentration of each substance was kept constant in the drugs but not in the health foods. These results strongly indicated that the quality of RVLEs as a whole was not properly controlled in the manufacturing process of health foods. Since RVLE is an active ingredient with pharmaceutical evidences and is used for drugs, the proper regulation for ensuring the consistent quality of RVLEs from product to product would be recommended even in the health foods.

  14. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  15. Optimization of NIR Spectral Data Management for Quality Control of Grape Bunches during On-Vine Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380–1,700 nm. The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC, reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r2 = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r2 ranging between 0.73 and 0.87 for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content.

  16. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y H Kim; K S Kim; N J Kwak; K H Lee; S A Kweon; Y Lim

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01 ± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.

  17. Study on Vine Diversity of Dehang Region in Hunan Province%湖南德夯风景区藤本植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建军; 徐亮; 张代贵; 肖艳; 陈功锡

    2011-01-01

    对德夯风景区藤本植物进行了调查,结果表明:本区有藤本植物249种(含变种),隶属于49科110属.科属的区系性质均以热带为主,分别占54.17%、60.91%.生活型以木质藤本为主,占68.67%.攀援类型分为4大类、9小类,其中缠绕类最多,占38.96%,卷曲类占27.31%,搭靠类占20.07%,吸固类最少,仅占13.66%.藤本植物按资源类型可分为药用植物、观赏植物、纤维植物、芳香植物、食用植物及其他,药用植物居多,而最具潜力的是观赏类植物.%Based on both field and herbarium observations in Dehang region, the results showed that the number of vine plants were 249 species, including varieties, which belonged to 110 genus and 49 families.The flora of genus and families displayed significant tropical feature, which accounting for 54.17% of total species number and 60.91% respectively.Ligneous vines were its predominant living form, accounting for 68.67%.Vine climbing mechanics were divided into 4 types and 9 subtypes, among which twining account for 38.96%, curling 27.31%, hooking 20.07%, adhering 13.66%.While according to economical properties, vine plants could be divided into medicinal plants, ornamental plants, fiber plants, food plants and others, and the species number of medicinal vine are the most, while the ornamental plants have the most promising prospect.

  18. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent.

  19. Nutrition Indicators of Tenebrio Fed with Purple Sweet Potato Vine%饲喂紫红薯藤对黄粉虫营养指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓蕾; 郑国勇; 李汉臣; 吉志新; 侯东军; 李明媛; 张锐; 孟品品

    2012-01-01

    [目的]寻求新的黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor L.)饲料资源及紫红薯藤的开发利用途径.[方法]在室内研究了不同比例的紫红薯藤对黄粉虫半干物质中粗蛋白、粗脂肪、钙、磷、粗灰分的含量及黄粉虫体重的影响.[结果]与对照全麦麸相比,采用紫红薯藤饲喂黄粉虫有利于黄粉虫半干物质中粗灰分、钙含量的增加,但不利于老熟幼虫体重及粗脂肪的积累,且随着紫红薯藤添加量的增加呈逐渐降低趋势.与对照相比,当紫红薯藤的添加量为40%时有利于粗蛋白的积累,且达到显著水平;当紫红薯藤的添加量超过20%时磷含量呈逐渐降低趋势.[结论]适量添加紫红薯藤能促进黄粉虫体内粗蛋白、粗灰分、钙、磷的积累,但不利于黄粉虫幼虫体重的增加,并直接影响粗脂肪的积累.%[ Objective ] To seek the new feed resources of Tenebrio molitor L. and the way of the development and utilization of purple sweet potato vine. [ Method] The crude protein, crude fat, Ca, P, crude ash, and weigh of Tenebrio molitor L. fed with different proportions of purple sweet potato vine were studied. [ Result] Compared with the control of whole wheat bran, feeding Tenebrio molito with purple sweet potato vine can increase the Ca and crude ash in the semi-dry matters of Tenebrio molitor, but goes against the accumulation of crude fat and weigh of Tenebrio molitor, and the content of crude ash and the weight of Tenebrio molitor were decreased gradually with the increasing addition of purple sweet potato vine. Compared with the control, 40% addition of purple sweet potato vine was beneficial to accumulation of crude protein. When the quantity of purple sweet potato vine was more than 20% , the phosphorus content was gradually decreased. [ Conclusion] The proper addition of purple sweet potato vine can increase the accumulation of crude protein, crude ash, Ca and P of Tenebrio molitor L. , but goes a-gainst the increase

  20. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Wasserman; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Poh Lian Lim

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivi...

  1. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano; Zouraide Guerra Antunes Costa; Daniel Garkauskas Ramos; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme; Marco Antônio Barreto de Almeida; Kátia Campomar Vettorello; Melissa Mascheretti; Brendan Flannery

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Yellow fever is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by mosquitos, endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. Large urban outbreaks of yellow fever have been eliminated in the Americas, where most yellow fever cases result from human exposure to jungle or forested environments. Vaccination is effective but carries a risk of potentially fatal adverse events in a small number of vaccinees. In a large country such as Brazil, vaccination is recommended only in area...

  2. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  3. Yellow nail syndrome following thoracic surgery: A new association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banta D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old man presented with the characteristic triad of yellow nail syndrome (chronic respiratory disorders, primary lymphedema and yellow nails in association with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Treatment with mechanical pleurodesis and vitamin E resulted in near complete resolution of the yellow nails, pleural effusions, and lower extremity edema. The etiology of the yellow nail syndrome has been described as an anatomical or functional lymphatic abnormality. Several conditions have previously been described as associated with this disease. This is the first report of the association of this syndrome with thoracic surgery.

  4. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  5. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  6. Dot-Blot Hybridization for Detection of Five Cucurbit Viruses by Digoxigenin-Labelled cDNA Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan; GU Qin-sheng; LIN Shi-ming; PENG Bin; LIU Li-feng; TIAN Yan-ping; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    Dot-blot hybridization was applied in this paper to detect five viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops,Zuccini yellow mosaic virus(ZYMV),Watermelon mosaic virus(WMV),Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV),Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain(PRSV-W)and Squash mosaic virus(SqMV),as a good alternative assay in seed health test and epidemiological and transgenic research.Digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes of the five viruses were synthesized by PCR with the specific primers and applied in dot-blot hybridization to detect five viruses in crude extraction of the infected leaves.And three SqMV probes of different lengths(0.55,1.6,and 2.7 kb,respectively)were designed to investigate the effect of hybridization.The results showed that the sensitivity for detecting the crude extraction of infected leaves by ZYMV,WMV,CMV,PRSV-W,and SqMV was down to 1:160,1:160,1:320,1:160,and 1:320,respectively.Three SqMV probes of different length showed no differences on the sensitivity and specificity.The digoxigenin-labelled probes prepared by PCR could be used for accurate and rapid identification of 5 viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops with good stabilities,sensitivities,specificity,and reproducibilities.

  7. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant foods are naturally present some bioactive compounds, that are compounds having or not nutritional value and with biological activity that is expressed in reducing the risk of developing many chronic diseases, therefore leading a key protective effect on our health. Within this group of compounds the antioxidants are included. The importance of antioxidants contained in food is associated with their ability to exert in vivo, in the human body, beneficial effects against chronical- degenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress and age. It has been attributed a positive role to grape polyphenols in terms of increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses, thanks to regulation of genes coding for key enzymes of antioxidant system. For the polyphenols it has also been recognized a specific action of tumor growth inhibition, linked to the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis or to the inhibition of growth factors and cell proliferation activation. After carbohydrates and acids, the phenolic compounds represent the largest group among grape constituents. The synthesis of these secondary metabolites takes place in two distinct phases of vine growth cycle: fruit set and maturation. The polyphenolic composition contributes to grapes and wine sensory properties, such as color, flavor, astringency, and determines the antioxidant capacity of the extract. These metabolites are mainly related to the variety and their content is influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Among the polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxicinnamiltartaric acids, flavonols, flavans, stilbene and resveratrol are of particular interest. Despite numerous studies in the vine-wine industry on polyphenols quantification and qualification, we don't know much about the environmental conditions that affect their synthesis in grapes and how they are extracted from it in wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the study of antioxidant property and

  8. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Duguay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.

  9. Biofortified yellow cassava and Vitamin A status of Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, Hans; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Maziya-Dixon, B.; Boy, Erick; Zimmermann, M.B.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas conventional white cassava roots are devoid of provitamin A, biofortified yellow varieties are naturally rich in b-carotene, the primary provitamin A carotenoid. Objective: We assessed the effect of consuming yellow cassava on serum retinol concentration in Kenyan schoolchildr

  10. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1973 Beeswax (yellow and white). (a) Beeswax (CAS.... Beeswax is prepared from honeycombs after removal of the honey by draining or centrifuging. The combs...

  11. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  12. Ups and Downs of the Yellow Phosphorus Market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Surplus capacity The rapid growth of the economy in China promoted drastic development of the yellow phosphorus sector from 1985 to 2004. The capacity of yellow phosphorus expanded rapidly from 100 000 t/a in 1985 to 1.2 million t/a in 2004 with an average annual growth of around 14.0%.

  13. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel....

  14. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph).

  15. pH Responsive Self-Assembly of Cucurbit[7]urils and Polystyrene-Block-Polyvinylpyridine Micelles for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem A. Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7] were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH+ pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8, P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  16. New dendrimers containing a single cobaltocenium unit covalently attached to the apical position of Newkome dendrons: electrochemistry and guest binding interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobransingh, David; Kaifer, Angel E

    2006-12-05

    Two new dendrimer series were prepared and characterized. These dendrimers contain a single bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) (cobaltocenium, Cob+) unit covalently attached to the apical (focal) position of Newkome-type dendrons, ranging in size from first to third generation. The dendrimers in the first series (1ECob+-3ECob+) are hydrophobic and have 3, 9, and 27 tert-butyl esters on their peripheries, whereas the dendrimers in the second series (1Cob+-3Cob+) are hydrophilic with 3, 9, and 27 carboxylic acid groups on their surfaces, respectively. In voltammetric experiments, all dendrimers showed the expected one-electron reversible reduction of the cobaltocenium center, and the heterogeneous rate of electron transfer decreased with generation in both dendrimer series. The host-guest binding interactions between water-soluble dendrimers 1Cob+-3Cob+ and the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) host were investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and electrochemical techniques. The association equilibrium constants (K) for all dendrimer guests were significantly lower than that measured for the inclusion complex between underivatized Cob+ and CB7 (K = 5.7 x 10(9) M(-1)). Nonetheless, among the three dendrimers surveyed, the second-generation dendrimer, 2Cob+, afforded optimum stabilization for the CB7 inclusion complex.

  17. Study of the counter anions in the host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril and 1-ethyl-1'-benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hailong; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Shiguo

    2013-01-01

    A series of 1-ethyl-1'-benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium compounds with different counter anions (BEV-X2, where the X is Cl, Br, I, PF6, ClO4) were synthesized. By using of NMR, MS, electrochemistry, Na2S2O4-induced redox chemistry, and UV-Vis, the role of the different counter anions in the host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) was studied for the first time. The result demonstrated that BEV-X2 can form a 1 : 1 host-guest complex with CB[8] in water. Theoretical calculation further suggested that the viologen region was threaded through the cavity of CB[8], while the corresponding counter anions were located outside the cavity. Some difference can be observed on UV-Vis titration and Na2S2O4-induced redox chemistry, which showed that the counter anions have some effect on the host-guest chemistry. All these provide new insights into CB[8] host-guest system.

  18. Preferential molecular encapsulation of an ICT fluorescence probe in the supramolecular cage of cucurbit[7]uril and β-cyclodextrin: an experimental and theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Anuva; Guchhait, Nikhil; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2014-11-20

    Supramolecular interaction between an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe, N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl-(acrylo)-nitrile (DMANAN), and two well-recognized macrocyclic hosts, cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), has been studied in aqueous medium by absorption, emission, time-resolved measurements, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods. The changes in the profiles of the fluorescence spectra illustrate significant modifications in fluorescence intensity, decay time, and quantum yield upon confinement of probe within the hydrophobic cavity of the hosts. Using the Benesi-Hildebrand relationship, the stoichiometric ratio as well as the binding constant of the host-guest complexation has been estimated. The stable inclusion complexes of the probe with different hosts have been supported by DFT and ONIOM based quantum chemical calculations. These methods of measurement establish that the acceptor group of the probe resides inside the hydrophobic cavity of the macrocycle. The competitive binding of metal ions and cationic surfactants to CB7 has been excellently mapped with this guest fluorosensor.

  19. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria.

  20. Cell Adhesion on RGD-Displaying Knottins with Varying Numbers of Tryptophan Amino Acids to Tune the Affinity for Assembly on Cucurbit[8]uril Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan; Cavatorta, Emanuela; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2017-09-05

    Cell adhesion is studied on multivalent knottins, displaying RGD ligands with a high affinity for integrin receptors, that are assembled on CB[8]-methylviologen-modified surfaces. The multivalency in the knottins stems from the number of tryptophan amino acid moieties, between 0 and 4, that can form a heteroternary complex with cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) and surface-tethered methylviologen (MV(2+)). The binding affinity of the knottins with CB[8] and MV(2+) surfaces was evaluated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Specific binding occurred, and the affinity increased with the valency of tryptophans on the knottin. Additionally, increased multilayer formation was observed, attributed to homoternary complex formation between tryptophan residues of different knottins and CB[8]. Thus, we were able to control the surface coverage of the knottins by valency and concentration. Cell experiments with mouse myoblast (C2C12) cells on the self-assembled knottin surfaces showed specific integrin recognition by the RGD-displaying knottins. Moreover, cells were observed to elongate more on the supramolecular knottin surfaces with a higher valency, and in addition, more pronounced focal adhesion formation was observed on the higher-valency knottin surfaces. We attribute this effect to the enhanced coverage and the enhanced affinity of the knottins in their interaction with the CB[8] surface. Collectively, these results are promising for the development of biomaterials including knottins via CB[8] ternary complexes for tunable interactions with cells.

  1. Host-guest complexes of a water soluble cucurbit[6]uril derivative with some dications of 1,ω-alkyldipyridines:~1H NMR and X-ray structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between a symmetrical tetramethyl-substituted cucurbit[6]uril (host:TMeQ[6]) and 1,ω-alkylenedipyridine (ω = 2,4,6,8,10) dicationic guests were investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. In these inclusion complexes,combined cavity and portal binding in TMeQ[6] were observed,and the length of the bridged alkylene was found to play an important role not only in balancing the overall hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction between the host and the guest,but also in defining the structure of the resulting inclusion complexes. For the guest 1,2-ethylenedipyridine (Edpy),TMeQ[6] includes a positively charged pyridine ring of Edpy to form an unsymmetrical inclusion complex; for the guest 1,4-butylenedipyridine (Bdpy),TMeQ[6] includes a positively charged pyridine ring of Bdpy,but the different competitive interactions in and between the related inclusion complexes could lead to a fast exchange between the hosts and guests. For the guests with longer bridge chains,such as 1,6-hexamethylenedipyridine (Hdpy) or 1,8-octylenedipyridine (Odpy),a stable pseudorotaxane inclusion complex is formed by combining the hydrophobic cavity and the outer portal dipoleion interactions. However,for 1,10-decatylenedipyridine (Ddpy),the two TMeQ[6] host molecules include the two end pyridine rings of Ddpy and form a dumbbell inclusion complex.

  2. Design of Single Ridge Sweet Potato Vine Shredder%单垄红薯薯藤切碎机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申屠留芳; 巩尊国; 宗林新; 孙星钊; 孙成龙

    2014-01-01

    红薯味道甜美,富含碳水化合物、膳食纤维、胡萝卜素、维生素以及钾、镁、铜、硒、钙等10余种元素,其营养价值和养生保健作用很大。因此,红薯在世界各地是很多人喜欢的食物,近年来得到广泛的种植,因此红薯收割机器有着广阔的市场前景。藤蔓的处理是红薯收割的主要组成部分,人工切除耗时耗力,并且不能达到切碎的效果。红薯薯藤切碎机的设计能很好地将藤蔓切割、切碎且回归田地,使红薯藤的处理方便快捷,可增加土壤有机质,达到农业生产节本增效的目的。%Sweet potato taste sweet , rich in carbohydrates , dietary fiber , carotene , vitamins and potassium , magnesium , copper, selenium, calcium and so on more than 10 kinds of elements, the sweet potato is small, its nutritional value and health care function is great .Therefore , the sweet potato is a lot of people like the food in the world , in recent years more and more widely planted , so can harvest sweet potatoes machine has broad market prospects. The vine treatment is the main part of the sweet potato harvest , artificial excision and time-consuming , and cannot achieve the shredding effect .Design of sweet potato vine shredder can be chopped vines cut and return to field , the processing of sweet potato vine is convenient , at the same time , increase soil organic matter , to realize the agricultural production cost saving pur-pose .

  3. Mechanical properties of sweet potato vine and stalk during harvest%甘薯收获期藤蔓茎秆的机械特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良龙; 王公仆; 凌小燕; 王冰; 王伯凯; 游兆延

    2015-01-01

    为探明甘薯收获期藤蔓茎秆机械特性,以便提高甘薯藤蔓机械粉碎还田作业质量,该文农机农艺结合,以江苏南京地区鲜食紫甘薯宁紫1号、宁紫2号为试验对象,应用电子万能试验机、甘薯藤蔓粉碎还田试验机等仪器设备,研究了收获期甘薯藤蔓茎秆含水率和剪切强度的变化,揭示了茎秆含水率、剪切强度和机械碎蔓作业质量的内在关系,获得了含水率在86.92%~70.08%时,2个紫甘薯品种藤蔓茎秆剪切力与含水率之间变化的二次函数回归方程;明确了经验收获期开始时藤蔓茎秆含水率分别为81.5%和78.1%、剪切力分别为90.1和94.8 N;从提高机械作业质量角度出发,提出了收获期内最宜机械碎蔓作业时间约为6~8 d。研究结果为新型甘薯藤蔓粉碎还田机转速、切刀线速度等参数设计提供了直接依据,并为适宜的甘薯收获期选择和适宜机械作业的栽培农艺研究提供了参考。%Sweet potato is a crop which is drought-resistant, tolerant of poor soil, and owns increasingly enormous potential. It is an important foodstuff, a raw material for starch industry, a kind of health food to prevent cancer and a new raw material for energy as well. The sweet potato planting area in China per year on average is usually 3 667 000 hectares, accounting for 45% of the world's planting area. As sweet potato vines are very long and broomy, the vines must be cleaned up before sweet potatoes are harvested, otherwise are unable to be harvested. Vine crushing and returning machine is usually the dominant form adopted to clean sweet potato vines internationally, but the problems existed in this type of machine were obvious such as low smashing proportion and more stubble residue on the top ridge. New problems have been brought by long stubble such as blocking, larger load and worse smooth working property. Aiming at these problems, the machinery and agronomy should

  4. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  5. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations.

  6. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  7. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  8. Increase in Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Symptom Severity in Tolerant Zucchini Cultivars Is Related to a Point Mutation in P3 Protein and Is Associated with a Loss of Relative Fitness on Susceptible Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Gal-On, A; Girard, M; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Lecoq, H

    2003-12-01

    ABSTRACT Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) is a very damaging cucurbit virus worldwide. Interspecific crosses with resistant Cucurbita moschata have led to the release of "resistant" zucchini squash (C. pepo) F(1) hybrids. However, although the resistance is almost complete in C. moschata, the commercial C. pepo hybrids are only tolerant. ZYMV evolution toward increased aggressiveness on tolerant hybrids was observed in the field and was obtained experimentally. Sequence comparisons and recombination experiments revealed that a point mutation in the P3 protein of ZYMV was enough to induce tolerance breaking. Competition experiments were performed between quasi-isogenic wild-type, and aggressive variants of ZYMV distinguished by monoclonal antibodies. The aggressive mutants were more fit than wild-type strains in mixed infections of tolerant zucchini, but they presented a drastic fitness loss in mixed infections of susceptible zucchini or melon. Thus, the ability to induce severe symptoms in tolerant zucchini is related to a genetic load in susceptible zucchini, but also on other susceptible hosts. This represents the first quantitative study of the fitness cost associated with tolerance breaking for a plant virus. Thus, although easily broken, the tolerance might prove durable in some conditions if the aggressive variants are counterselected in susceptible crops.

  9. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  10. Subchronic oral toxicity and analytical studies on nickel rutile yellow and chrome rutile yellow with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, E; Löser, E; Dornemann, A; Schilde, B

    1982-12-01

    The inorganic pigments nickel rutile yellow and chrome rutile yellow were fed to groups of 15 male and 15 female rats each for 3 months at dietary levels of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 ppm, respectively. On an additional 5 animals each, levels of nickel and antimony or chromium and antimony in liver and kidneys, respectively, were measured after 1 and 2 months. Appearance, behaviour, food consumption, growth, mortality, haematological and clinical chemical data, organ weights, and gross and micromorphology of organs were not affected in any dose group. In livers and kidneys antimony median levels below 30 ppb were detectable only in the group of rats fed the highest level of 10000 ppm of the two pigments.

  11. Biological pretreatment of Yellow River water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; TANG Xiao-yan; WU Wei-zhong; WEN Dong-hui; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-ceramic filter(BF) and moving-bed biofilm reactor(MBBR) were used for biological pretreatment of Yellow River water in this study. The BF only had slight advantage over MBBR for TOC and ammonia removal. However, like UV254, the average removal rate of THMFP in the BF was much higher than that in the MBBR. UV254 removal did not show obvious correlation with trihalomethane formation potential(THMFP) removal. Hexachlorocyclohexane could be effectively removed in both BF and MBBR. As for diatom and cyanobateria removal the MBBR had better performance than the BF, which was contrary to the average chlorophyll-a (Chi-a) removal rate. The proposal was made in this study that biological flocculation and sedimentation of sloughed biofilm should play a more important role on algae removal in the MBBR than in the BF. The BF and MBBR could effectively remove microcystins. Moreover, MBBR could be a promising technology for biological pretreatment.

  12. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  13. Yellow pseudochromhidrosis in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Surti, Nishit K; Diwan, Nilofar G; Gandhi, Shailee S

    2017-01-01

    Chromhidrosis is a rare disorder in which there is pigmentation of sweat in a variety of colors. It can be classified into apocrine, pseudoeccrine, and true eccrine chromhidrosis. Pseudochromhidrosis is a condition in which the excreted sweat is colorless, but later acquires color due to contact with chromogenic chemicals. Systemic and topical antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Although it does not constitute a major health issue, it causes psychological stress and social embarrassment. A 20-year-old female presented to us with yellow-colored sweat and discoloration of clothes since 1 month. Routine laboratory investigations were normal. Skin scrapings were negative for fungus and bacteria. Skin biopsy was also normal. She was labelled as a case of pseudochromhidrosis, and oral and topical antibiotics were prescribed, to which she responded well.

  14. The yellow-red-black bladder diary: red-yellow-black is not just for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Nancy Ann

    2009-12-01

    The Red-Yellow-Black (RYB) wound classification system was introduced to the US in the late 1980s for the purpose of simplifying wound assessment and guiding treatment. Although the color system was found to have limitations for wound care, the colors (in revised order) may be useful for a bladder diary. Colored pencils are used to record fluid intake and voided output. For fluid intake, yellow signifies nonirritants (water); red, low bladder irritants (alcoholic, artificially sweetened, carbonated, or citrus beverages); and black, high bladder irritants (caffeinated beverages). For voided output, yellow denotes continent voids and red, incontinent voids. Output quantity is measured using a commode "hat". The completed diary allows the practitioner to tabulate the colored daily rows and quickly assess progress weekly or monthly and provide appropriate treatment/advice. The YRB diary was used successfully by a 78-year old woman with urge incontinence without evidence of stress incontinence. Modifications to the YRB diary can be made when additional data need to be collected. Studies to evaluate optimal usage criteria of bladder diaries are needed.

  15. The results of the vine varieties reconversion measures in the North-Eastern Romania / Résultats de la mesure de reconversion des cépages dans le Nord-Est de la Roumanie

    OpenAIRE

    Enia Florin-Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The vine varieties reconversion measure is one of the many benefits that the Romania's integration to the European Union brings to the wine sector. This study aims to analyze the results of this measure during 2007–2015 in the Romania's North-East Region. From the Vineyard Plantation Register, the plots noble vine parcels of each department were divided into two groups: those who existed in the field in before and those converted during the period. The surface of each group was classified fir...

  16. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile.

  17. A Synoptic Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Grapevine Leafroll Disease in a Historic Napa Vineyard and Experimental Vine Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, K; Golino, D A; McRoberts, N

    2017-04-01

    Five Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) epidemics were analyzed utilizing a standardized approach to robustly characterize the temporal and spatial parameters. Published data included in the analysis are from Spain, New Zealand, and Napa Valley, CA together with new data from a historic vineyard in Napa Valley, CA. Linear regression analyses of logit-transformed incidence data indicated a maximum average increase of 11% per year in disease incidence, with considerable variation among locations. Spatial analyses, including distribution fitting, examination of the effective sample size, and evaluation of the parameters of the binary power law fitted to variance data for disease incidence, indicated a high degree of consistency among the data sets. In all cases, except at very low disease incidence, a high degree of spatial aggregation was noted, with evidence that the degree of aggregation varied as a function of mean disease incidence. The polyetic dynamics of disease follow a logistic-like pattern over multiple seasons, consistent with limitation by inoculum availability (infected vines) at low incidence and limitation by disease-free vines at high incidence.

  18. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  19. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  20. 葛根膳食纤维饼干的研制%Development of Biscuit Made by Kudzu Vine Root Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐凌锋

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu vine Root dietary fiber was used to made functional biscuits. Results showed that the best recipes were: flour 100 g, Kudzu Vine Root dietary fiber 30%, oil 10%, bulking agent 1% [ratio of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate 1:0.5 (m/m)] and sugar 30%. The biscuits were crispy and had attractive colors and unique flavors.%本文以葛根膳食纤维为辅料,研究制备具有保健作用的葛根膳食纤维饼干.试验结果表明,该饼干的最佳配方为:面粉100g,葛根膳食纤维粉30%,植物油10%,疏松剂1%[碳酸氢钠与碳酸氢铵1∶0.5(m/m)],白砂糖30%.制得的饼干色泽诱人,口感酥脆,风味独特.

  1. Landscape Application of the Vine in Ordos%藤本植物在鄂尔多斯地区的园林应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娇; 李欣; 杨絮茹; 李瑞娟; 吴建华

    2015-01-01

    Using climbing plants for vertical greening is an important path to expand the green space,in-crease the amount of garden city and improve the ecological environment. As area available for garden af-forestation is becoming smaller and smaller,making full use of climbing plants for creating garden land-scape has become the current focus. in this paper,we aim to discuss the vine rescourse in Ordos,land-scape application form and development and utilization value vine rescourse,so as to provide the theoreti-cal basis for their introduction to landscaping.%藤本植物进行垂直绿化是拓展城市绿化空间、提高绿化覆盖率、改善生态环境的重要途径。随着城市园林绿化面积愈来愈小,利用藤本植物营造园林绿化景观已成为当下热点。本文主要对鄂尔多斯地区藤本植物资源、园林绿化应用方式及具开发价值的藤本植物资源进行了初步探讨,旨在对藤本植物园林应用提供理论参考依据。

  2. At-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography for bioassay-guided separation of antioxidants from vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruyi; Zhou, Rongrong; Tong, Runna; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), a widely used healthy tea, beverage and herbal medicine, exhibited strong antioxidant activity. However, systematic purification of antioxidants, especially for those with similar structures or polarities, is a challenging work. Here, we present a novel at-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (HSCCC-Sephadex LH-20 CC) for rapid and efficient separation of antioxidants from vine tea target-guided by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) experiment. A makeup pump, a six-port switching valve and a trapping column were served as interface. The configuration had no operational time and mobile phase limitations between two dimensional chromatography and showed great flexibility without tedious sample-handling procedure. Seven targeted antioxidants were firstly separated by stepwise HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:9:4:9, v/v/v/v) and (4:9:5:8, v/v/v/v) as solvent systems, and then co-eluted antioxidants were on-line trapped, concentrated and desorbed to Sephadex LH-20 column for further off-line purification by methanol. It is noted that six elucidated antioxidants with purity over 95% exhibited stronger activity than ascorbic acid (VC). More importantly, this at-line hyphenated strategy could sever as a rapid and efficient pathway for systematic purification of bioactive components from complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions.

  4. High-resolution mapping of zym, a recessive gene for Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masashi; Mochizuki, Akira; Kawagoe, Yumi; Iwahori, Keisuke; Niwa, Kaori; Svoboda, Jiri; Maeda, Takanori; Imura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Using a high-resolution mapping approach, we identified a candidate gene for ZYMV resistance in cucumber. Our findings should assist the development of high-versatility molecular markers for MAS for ZYMV resistance. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes significant disease, which leads to fruit yield loss in cucurbit crops. Since ZYMV resistance is often inherited recessively in cucumber, marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a useful tool for the development of resistant cucumber cultivars. Using 128 families of an F2:3 population derived from a cross between susceptible 'CS-PMR1' and resistant 'A192-18' cucumber inbred lines, we confirmed that ZYMV resistance is conferred by a single recessive locus: zym (A192-18) . We constructed a cucumber genetic linkage map that included 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into 7 linkage groups (chromosomes). The zym (A192-18) locus was mapped to chromosome 6, at genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.3 cM from two closely linked SSR markers. For high-resolution genetic mapping, we identified new molecular markers cosegregating with the zym (A192-18) locus; using cucumber genomic and molecular marker resources and screening an F2 population of 2,429 plants, we narrowed down the zym (A192-18) locus to a <50-kb genomic region flanked by two SSR markers, which included six candidate genes. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes' coding regions revealed that the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4-like (VPS4-like) gene had two SNPs between the parental lines. Based on SNPs of the VPS-4-like gene, we developed zym (A192-18) -linked DNA markers and found that genotypes associated with these markers were correlated with the ZYMV resistance phenotype in 48 cucumber inbred lines. According to our data, the gene encoding VPS4-like protein is a candidate for the zym (A192-18) locus. These results may be valuable for MAS for ZYMV resistance in cucumber.

  5. Cucurbit[6]uril Modified Silver on the Catalytic Oxidation Property of Dyes%六元瓜环修饰的银对染料的催化氧化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵安婷; 高丽; 罗娟

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit[6]uril modified silver was prepared by chemical reduction method using cucurbit[6] uril as the modifier and ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. And its catalytic performance in the oxidation of methylene blue and rhodamine B were studied. The results showed that the silver following the modification had special of clocklike morphology with a diameter of 2 µm when 0.4 mmol cucurbit[6]uril was used. Catalyzed by 0.02 g/L clocklike silver, more than 74.0% of rhodamine-B and 78.0%of methylene blue could be oxidized in 300 min with H2O2.%以六元瓜环(Q[6])为怱饰剂,抗坏血酸为还原剂,采用化学还原法制备了 Q[6]怱饰的银。用X射线粉末衍射、扫描电镜对产物进行结构和形貌表征,并研究了银催化氧化染料次甲基蓝和罗丹明B的性能。结果表明,怱饰剂Q[6]用量为0.4 mmol时,获得的银呈直径为2µm花团状结构,并且对罗丹明B和次甲基蓝具有较好的催化氧化效果,0.02 g/L花团状银在300 min内对罗丹明B和次甲基蓝的脱色率超过74.0%和78.0%。

  6. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  7. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  8. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  9. Tempranillo vine & wine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La variedad Tempranillo es originaria de la zona limítrofe entre La Rioja y Burgos, se ha extendido siguiendo la ruta de los monasterios Cirtescienses por toda España, llegando así a Madrid, Valdepeñas, Cataluña, Extremadura y toda la ribera del río Duero, donde se ha extendido desde su nacimiento hasta Portugal. •La variedad Tempranillo es la variedad por excelencia dedicada en España a la producción de vinos de crianza y reserva. Actualmente es importante además de en España en Portugal ...

  10. Thunder God Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... us ... 66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/NON-DISPLAY (Supplements page) ... us ... 66954 ... https:// ...

  11. Grapevine yellows diseases in Spain: eight year survey of disease spread and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Ester

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Among grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases in Europe, flavescence dorée (FD is the most devastating and in the last decade has reached Spanish vineyards, mainly in Catalonia. An eight-year survey was carried out in the areas where the disease has spread (Alt Empordà, Catalonia, Northern Spain and in the remaining vine-growing areas of Catalonia. Sequence analyses of a portion of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA cistron, from selected grapevine samples from Catalonia, showed that the phytoplasmas involved in grapevine yellows belong to 16S ribosomal subgroups V-D (flavescence dorée, FD and XII-A (bois noir, BN. A set of Spanish FD isolates collected during these years were further studied by RFLP analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA fragment, as well as the rpS3 and SecY genes. All the FD phytoplasma strains studied were related to phytoplasmas belonging to ribosomal protein subgroup rp-E.La flavescencia dorada (FD es la enfermedad más agresiva de entre todas las enfermedades de fitoplasmas que causan amarilleos de vid en Europa, y que en la última década ha alcanzado también a los viñedos de España, principalmente en Cataluña. Se ha realizado un seguimiento durante ocho años en las zonas donde la enfermedad se había difundido (Alt Empordà, Cataluña y en el resto de zonas con cultivo de vid de Cataluña. El análisis del fragmento del gen DNA ribosomal 16S-23S, de una selección de muestras de vides de Cataluña, indica que los fitoplasmas que están implicados en los amarilleos de vid pertenecen a los subgrupos ribosomales 16S V-D (flavescencia dorada, FD y XII-A (bois noir, BN. Una selección de aislados españoles de FD obtenidos durante estos años se ha examinado mediante análisis RFLP del fragmento del gen ribosomal 16S-23S, y de los genes rpS3 y SecY. Todos los aislamientos de fitoplasmas FD estudiados están relacionados con fitoplasmas pertenecientes al subgrupo de proteína ribosomal rp-E.

  12. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: Solvent Yellow 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    10 in skin, and consequently, a decrease in its allergic potential. The USFDA has approved D&C Yellow No. 10 for use in a wider variety of products...perivascular lymphocyte aggregates (p < 0.001), alveolitis (p < 0.05), and mild rnd severe foreign-b,’dy reaction charac- torized by the presence of alveoli...No. 11 and simultaneous reaction to Quinoline Yellow. C Bj8rkner, B. and B. Niklasson. 1983. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and

  13. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  14. Fifty shades of yellow: a review of the xanthodermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John W; Murrell, Dédée F; Haber, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    The xanthodermatoses consist of a heterogeneous group of cutaneous disorders characterized by the macroscopic yellow hue seen on examination. This hue is attributable to the chemical structure of the accumulating substances within the skin or surrounding tissues. The most common culprits are lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), elastin, and bilirubin. Exogenous sources of yellow pigment include yellow dyes (including hennas) and metal salts. This article will focus on recognition of these entities, classified in terms of morphology and the site of initial eruption, in order to support the recognition and diagnosis of these widely variable conditions.

  15. In Vitro selectivity of an acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular container towards neuromuscular blocking agents relative to commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Shweta; Zavalij, Peter Y; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-01-28

    An acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) based molecular container (2, a.k.a. Calabadion 2) binds to both amino-steroidal and benzylisoquinolinium type neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in vitro, and reverses the effect of these drugs in vivo displaying faster recovery times than placebo and the γ-cyclodextrin (CD) based and clinically used reversal agent Sugammadex. In this study we have assessed the potential for other drugs commonly used during and after surgery (e.g. antibiotics, antihistamines, and antiarrhythmics) to interfere with the ability of 2 to bind NMBAs rocuronium and cisatracurium in vitro. We measured the binding affinities (Ka, M(-1)) of twenty seven commonly used drugs towards 2 and simulated the equilibrium between 2, NMBA, and drug based on their standard clinical dosages to calculate the equilibrium concentration of 2·NMBA in the presence of the various drugs. We found that none of the 27 drugs studied possess the combination of a high enough binding affinity with 2 and a high enough standard dosage to be able to promote the competitive dissociation (a.k.a. displacement interactions) of the 2·NMBA complex with the formation of the 2·drug complex. Finally, we used the simulations to explore how the potential for displacement interactions is affected by a number of factors including the Ka of the 2·NMBA complex, the Ka of the AChR·NMBA complex, the Ka of the 2·drug complex, and the dosage of the drug.

  16. A solid-phase microextraction coating of sol-gel-derived perhydroxy cucurbit[6]uril and its application on to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nan; Li, Tao; Luo, Yujie; Shao, Lin; Tao, Zhu; Zhu, Chun

    2016-10-28

    A novel solid-phase microextraction coating that contains perhydroxy cucurbit[6]uril((OH)12Q[6]) was prepared by a sol-gel method. (OH)12Q[6] was used as a starting coating material with hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (OH-PDMS) to bond chemically to a fused-silica substrate using 3-(2-cyclooxypropoxyl)propyltrimethoxysilane as cross-linking agent; hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions then led to the formation of a (OH)12Q[6]/PDMS-coating. The coating has a high thermal stability (360°C), long lifetime and can withstand organic and inorganic solvent rinsing because of the chemical binding between the coating and silica substrate. Its performance was tested by headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled with gas chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) compounds in water samples. The (OH)12Q[6]/PDMS-coated fiber exhibited higher enrichment factors from fourfold for naphthalene to tenfold for pyrene compared with commercial PDMS fiber, and the enrichment factors increased with the number of condensed PAH rings. The strong adsorption affinity is believed to be attributed to hydrogen bonding and CH⋯π interactions between PAHs and (OH)12Q[6], according to the results of quantum chemical calculations. In the PAH analysis, the (OH)12Q[6]-coated fiber showed a good repeatability (<4.7%) and reproducibility between fibers (<9.4%), low detection limits (0.03-0.15μgL(-1)), and a wide linearity (0.1-1000μgL(-1)) under optimized conditions. This method was used for the simultaneous determination of seven PAHs with satisfactory recoveries of 90.56%-107.4% for Huaxi river water samples and 90.23%-109.5% for local wastewater samples, respectively.

  17. Seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil para cucurbitáceas Selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl for cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil nas doses de 0, 94, 188, 376 e 752 g i.a. ha-1 para cinco espécies de cucurbitáceas (abobrinha, melancia, melão, moranga e pepino. Foi determinada a fitotoxicidade aos 14 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Aos 20 DAT foram avaliadas a estatura, área foliar e matéria seca. O melão e o pepino mostraram sensibilidade ao fluazifop-p-butil na maior dose estudada, com maior intensidade no melão. Os resultados demonstraram que existe resposta a estes herbicidas mesmo dentro da classe Dicotiledoneae. Especula-se que essas respostas possam auxiliar no entendimento do completo mecanismo de ação desse herbicida.Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl at rates of 0, 94, 188 and 752 g a.i. ha-1 for five cucurbitaceous species (summer squash, watermelon, melon, pumpkin and cucumber. Plant injury at 14 days after treatments (DAT and plant size, leaf area and dry weight at 20 DAT were determined. Melon and cucumber were susceptible to fluazifop-p-buthyl at the highest rate with highest herbicide effect being observed on melon. These results indicated that responses to these herbicides occur, even in the Dicotiledonae class. These responses are thought to help understand the overall mechanism of action of this herbicide.

  18. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  19. Separation performance of cucurbit[7]uril in ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating as stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong

    2014-12-05

    Here we report the separation performance of a new stationary phase of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) incorporated into an ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating (CB7-SG) for capillary gas chromatography (GC). The CB7-SG stationary phase showed an average polarity of 455, suggesting its polar nature. Abraham system constants revealed that its major interactions with analytes include H-bond basicity (a), dipole-dipole (s) and dispersive (l) interactions. The CB7-SG stationary phase achieved baseline separation for a wide range of analytes with symmetrical peak shapes and showed advantages over the conventional polar stationary phase that failed to resolve some critical analytes. Also, it exhibited different retention behaviors from the conventional stationary phase in terms of retention times and elution order. Most interestingly, in contrast to the conventional polar phase, the CB7-SG stationary phase exhibited longer retentions for analytes of lower polarity but relatively comparable retentions for polar analytes such as alcohols and phenols. The high resolving ability and unique retention behaviors of the CB7-SG stationary phase may stem from the comprehensive interactions of the aforementioned interactions and shape selectivity. Moreover, the CB7-SG column showed good peak shapes for analytes prone to peak tailing, good thermal stability up to 280°C and separation repeatability with RSD values in the range of 0.01-0.11% for intra-day, 0.04-0.41% for inter-day and 2.5-6.0% for column-to-column, respectively. As demonstrated, the proposed coating method can simultaneously address the solubility problem with CBs for the intended purpose and achieve outstanding GC separation performance.

  20. One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers of Lanthanide Cations to Cucurbit[7]uril Built Using a Range of Tetrachloride Transition-Metal Dianion Structure Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Feng Xue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of linear coordination polymers have been assembled from lanthanide cations (Ln3+ and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7] in the presence of [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions acting as inorganic structure inducers in HCl solution. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that they form three groups of isomorphous structures. Generally, the complexes of Q[7] with light lanthanide cations (those with atomic number below that of neodymium (Nd3+ are in one group. The other two groups, in which the lanthanide cation has atomic number greater than that of europium (Eu3+, seem to follow no obvious rule. For example, the complexes of Q[7] with Eu3+ and Gd3+cations are in the second group in the presence of [CuCl4]2− anions, while they are in the third group in the presence of [CoCl4]2− anions. However, whatever group a given complex belongs to, they all show a common honeycomb-patterned supramolecular assembly, in which [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions form a honeycomb structure. The Ln3+ cations then coordinate to neighboring Q[7] molecules to form 1D coordination polymers that are inserted into the channels of the honeycomb framework, such that each individual coordination polymer is surrounded by [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions.

  1. Population genomic analyses from low-coverage RAD-Seq data: a case study on the non-model cucurbit bottle gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Xu, Shizhong; Wu, Xiaohua; Tao, Ye; Wang, Baogen; Wang, Sha; Qin, Dehui; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2014-02-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq), a next-generation sequencing-based genome 'complexity reduction' protocol, has been useful in population genomics in species with a reference genome. However, the application of this protocol to natural populations of genomically underinvestigated species, particularly under low-to-medium sequencing depth, has not been well justified. In this study, a Bayesian method was developed for calling genotypes from an F₂ population of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] to construct a high-density genetic map. Low-depth genome shotgun sequencing allowed the assembly of scaffolds/contigs comprising approximately 50% of the estimated genome, of which 922 were anchored for identifying syntenic regions between species. RAD-Seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 80 accessions identified 3226 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), based on which two sub-gene pools were suggested for association with fruit shape. The two sub-gene pools were moderately differentiated, as reflected by the Hudson's F(ST) value of 0.14, and they represent regions on LG7 with strikingly elevated F(ST) values. Seven-fold reduction in heterozygosity and two times increase in LD (r²) were observed in the same region for the round-fruited sub-gene pool. Outlier test suggested the locus LX3405 on LG7 to be a candidate site under selection. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the cucumber genome region syntenic to the high FST island on LG7 harbors an ortholog of the tomato fruit shape gene OVATE. Our results point to a bright future of applying RAD-Seq to population genomic studies for non-model species even under low-to-medium sequencing efforts. The genomic resources provide valuable information for cucurbit genome research.

  2. Yield of varieties of Cucurbita pepo preimmunized with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Bonilha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown in a plastic greenhouse did not exhibit typical leaf symptoms or significant alterations in quantitative and qualitative fruit yield. However, when infected with PRSV-W-1, or PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, the plants exhibited severe leaf mosaic symptoms and reduced fruit quality, although there were no changes in the number and mean fruit weight harvested from these plants. When these plants were infected with PRSV-W-1 and studied simultaneously in the field and plastic greenhouse, intensification of symptoms in the fruits and leaves was more pronounced under the greenhouse conditions. Quantitative yield did not change. Environmental factors seem to influence symptoms induced by PRSV-W-1.O Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W e o Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV são os vírus predominantes em culturas de cucurbitáceas no Brasil, onde geralmente causam danos significativos na produção. As doenças causadas por ambos os vírus são de difícil controle. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin em condições de estufa plástica e de campo. Plantas infectadas com a estirpe ZYMV-M sob condições de estufa plástica não exibiram sintomas foliares típicos da doença e alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos produzidos. No entanto, quando infectadas com a estirpe PRSV-W-1, ou PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, as plantas

  3. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  4. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  5. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  6. The Yellow and Red Supergiants of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Drout, Maria R; Meynet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Yellow and red supergiants are evolved massive stars whose numbers and locations on the HR diagram can provide a stringent test for models of massive star evolution. Previous studies have found large discrepancies between the relative number of yellow supergiants observed as a function of mass and those predicted by evolutionary models, while a disagreement between the predicted and observed locations of red supergiants on the HR diagram was only recently resolved. Here we extend these studies by examining the yellow and red supergiant populations of M33. Unfortunately, identifying these stars is difficult as this portion of the color-magnitude diagram is heavily contaminated by foreground dwarfs. We identify the red supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and a two-color surface gravity discriminant and, after re-characterizing the rotation curve of M33 with our newly selected red supergiants, we identify the yellow supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and the strength of the...

  7. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase...

  8. Development of yellow birch nursery stock not affected by transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1959-01-01

    In nursery seedbeds, severe root competition soon develops among seedlings of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). This is due to the characteristic root system of the species - wide-spreading lateral growth with little downward penetration (fig. 1).

  9. Distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Yellow Sea sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Hyeon Ho; LIM Dhongil; PARK Soung-Yun; HEO Seung; KIM So-Young

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the distribution, abundance, and species composition of dinoflagellate cysts in the Yellow Sea, surface sediment samples were collected at 37 sites, including the Korean dump site. Twenty-one di-noflagellate cyst taxa were identified, with the assemblages dominated mainly by Spiniferites bulloideus, Operculodinium centrocarpum, and cyst of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense type. A high frequency of O. centrocarpum in the Yellow Sea was observed for the first time, and it is likely that this can be attributed to the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and the Changjiang (Yangtze) River runoff. Total cyst concentrations ranged from 23 to 48 442 cysts/g dry weight, and high cyst concentrations were recorded adjacent to the dumping site. This result suggests that anthropogenic activities such as ocean dumping s-timulate the growth of dinoflagellates in the Yellow Sea, which in turn leads to high levels of dinoflagellate cyst production.

  10. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow-flag iris is an escaped ornamental rhizomatous perennial herb that forms dense vegetative mats in riparian and wetland areas. These mats can displace most...

  11. Viscoelastic behavior of yellow pitahaya treated with 1-MCP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Sofia Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Adolfo Ayala-Aponte; Liliana Serna

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of 1-MCP on the viscoelastic properties of minimally processed yellow pitahaya during refrigeration storage, by using a stress relaxation test...

  12. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  13. Purification of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisoni, E; Milne, R G; Vecchiati, M

    1995-07-01

    Attempts were made to find a good purification procedure for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a dangerous and continuously spreading whitefly-transmitted germinivirus, up to now only partially purified. Electron microscopy, serology and spectrophotometry were used to evaluate different procedures. The scheme finally adopted was the following: collect leaves and stems from Nicotiana benthamiana graft-infected 45-60 days previously (5-10 g/plant); homogenize with 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 6 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA, 10 mM Na2SO3, 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Driselase (3-4 ml of buffer for each g of material); incubate overnight on ice with gentle agitation; filter; emulsify with 15% cold chloroform; centrifuge at low speed; ultracentrifuge supernatant; resuspend pellets in 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 7 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA; centrifuge at low speed; repeat resuspension of the pellets and low-speed centrifugation; ultracentrifuge the pooled supernatant on a Cs2SO4 gradient (e.g. for 5 h at 41,000 rpm); collect the virus band and dialyse or ultracentrifuge the virus. The virus yield was 5-10 mg per kg of tissue.

  14. The pulsating yellow supergiant V810 Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Burnet, M; Meynet, G

    1998-01-01

    The F8Ia supergiant V810 Centauri is part of a long-term high-precision photometric monitoring program on long period variables started twenty years ago. Time series analysis of this unique set of 500 data points, spanning almost fifteen years in the homogeneous Geneva photometric system, is presented. Cluster membership, physical parameters and evolutionary status of the star are reinvestigated. Radial velocity data do not support the cluster membership to Stock 14}. Ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry is combined with optical and infrared photometry to evaluate the physical parameters of the yellow supergiant (Teff = 5970 K, M_bol = -8.5, R = 420 R_sun) and of its B0III companion. From theoretical stellar evolutionary tracks, an initial mass of 25 M_sun is estimated for V810 Cen, which is actually at the end of its first redward evolution. V810 Cen is a multi-periodic small amplitude variable star, whose amplitudes are variable with time. The period of the main mode, 156 d, is in agreement with the Pe...

  15. Global Warming May Trigger Water Crisis in Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The temperature of the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the second longest river in China,is clearly related to the worldwide warming trend, according to a study conducted by CAS researchers and their colleagues from Administration of Hydrology and Water Resources of the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River. They warn that, due to the possible temperature hike and drastic decline in local precipitation, the runoff in the reaches may face a trend of continued decrease over the next decade.

  16. [Studies on rejected food yellow no. 5 (sunset yellow FCF) aluminum lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, S; Umino, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2001-01-01

    One out of two sunset yellow FCF aluminum lakes (Y-5Als) did not comply with the specifications in JSFA-VII in the official inspection of tar colors in fiscal year 2000. A sub-spot was detected in the paper chromatography test. This rejected sample was analyzed by HPLC for the subsidiary color, raw materials and intermEdiates in Y-5. The sub-spot was identified as sulfanilic acid azo R salt color, and its content was estimated at 4.5% as the content of Y-5 in Y-5Al being 100.0%.

  17. The effect of nitrogen rate on vine kill, tuber skinning injury, tuber yield and size distribution, and tuber nutrients and phytonutrients in two potato cultivars grown for early potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early potatoes are typically produced using less nitrogen than a full season potato crop as high rates of nitrogen may delay tuber set and lead to excessive vine growth that is difficult to terminate prior to harvest. Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars were grown with preplant soil nitrogen levels...

  18. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  19. Community structure changes of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junlong; XU Fengshan; LIU Ruiyu

    2012-01-01

    The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms.In this study,data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in community structure.The agglomerative classification (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods were applied.Five communities were recognized by cluster analysis:1.The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass community dominated by cold water species,which changed slightly in species composition since the 1950s; 2.The mixed community with the coexistence of cold water species and warm water species,as had been reported previously; 3.The polychaete-dominated eurythermal community in which the composition changed considerably as some dominant species disappeared or decreased; 4.The Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuarine community,with some typical estuarine species; 5.The community affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.The greatest change occurred in the coastal area,which indicated that the change may be caused by human activities.Macrobenthos in the central region remained almost unchanged,particularly the cold water species shielded by the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass.The depth,temperature and median grain size of sediments were important factors affecting the distributions of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  20. [Trends in yellow fever mortality in Colombia, 1998-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Ángela María; Cardona, Doris; Garzón, María Osley

    2013-09-01

    Yellow fever is a neglected tropical disease, thus, knowing the trends in mortality from this disease in Colombia is an important source of information for decision making and identifying public health interventions. To analyze trends in yellow fever mortality in Colombia during the 1998-2009 period and the differences in the morbidity and mortality information sources for the country, which affect indicators such as the lethality one. This is a descriptive study of deaths by yellow fever according to the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística and the incidence of the disease according to the Instituto Nacional de Salud . We used secondary sources of information in the calculation of proportions of socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased and epidemiological measures of lethality, incidence and mortality from yellow fever by department of residence of the deceased. Yellow fever deaths occur primarily in men of working age residing in scattered rural areas, who were members of the regimen vinculado, and who were living in the eastern, southeastern, northern and central zones in the country. We observed inconsistencies in the reports that affect the comparative analysis. The inhabitants of the departments located in national territories and Norte de Santander have an increased risk of illness and death from yellow fever, but this information could be underestimated, according to the source of information used for its calculation.

  1. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  2. Relocation of the Yellow River estuary in 1855 AD recorded in the sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Liguang

    2013-12-01

    Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.

  3. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

  4. Differential absorption of metals from soil to diverse vine varieties from the Valley of Tulum (Argentina): consequences to evaluate wine provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabani, María P; Toro, María E; Vázquez, Fabio; Díaz, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-08-26

    We report the effect of vine variety on the absorption of metals from soil and follow the variety from wine through juice, verifying which metals could be used to assess wine provenance. Eleven metals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 32 soils, 16 grapes juices, and 18 wines sampled from a single vineyard having four red grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Bonarda, Malbec, and Syrah). The K nearest neighbor method allows us to distinguish among different soils, juices, and wines. Linear discriminant analysis affords descriptors to point out differences, mainly Mg, Mn, Ca, K, and Na. Data analysis evidenced that some elements have equivalent concentrations in soil, juice, and wine, while others did not. Canonical analysis shows good correlation between grape juice and wine with their provenance soil. We suggest using Mg as a marker of wine provenance, while Mn could be used to evaluate differences between wine varieties associated with plant physiology.

  5. 不同葛种质资源的植物学性状、藤蔓产量和营养品质分析%Botany traits and nutritional quality and yield of kudzu vine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕群; 陈建芳; 揭雨成; 邢虎成; 张英; 熊力夫

    2016-01-01

    对8个葛种质的植物学性状、营养成分和产量进行研究,以评价葛根饲用价值。结果表明:桃江粉葛与湘葛2号葛蔓较长,江西野葛和桃江粉葛的叶较大。湘葛3号、桃江野葛1和桃江野葛2的茎皮色为褐色,其它5种为黄褐色。江西粉葛、湘葛3号和桃江野葛1的叶形是近圆形,江西野葛和桃江粉葛是卵圆形,其它3种是菱形。湘葛2号和桃江粉葛的叶面皱纹较少。8个葛种质的叶柄色全是绿色。葛根中粗纤维的含量最高,其次是粗蛋白、灰分、粗脂肪、钙、磷。其中,湘葛2号中粗纤维和钙的含量较高,桃江野葛1的粗蛋白含量较高,湘葛3号的灰分和粗脂肪含量较高,桃江粉葛的磷含量较高。产量最高的是江西野葛。%The botany traits and nutritional quality and yield of eight kudzu germplasm were researched. The results showed that,the vines of Taojiang fenge and Xiangge No.2 was longer than others,the leaf blade of Jiangxi yege and Tao-jiang fenge were larger than others. The bark color of Xiangge No.3,Taojiang yege No.1 and Taojiang yege No.2 were brown,but others were yellow brown.The leaf shape of Jiangxi fenge,xiangge No.3 and Taojiang yege No.1 was nearly circular,the leaf shape of Jiangxi yege and Taojiang fenge was oval,and the others were diamond. There were less leaf wrinkle in Xiangge No.2 and Taojiang fenge than others. The petiole color of 8 kudzu germplasms was green. The highest content of the nutrient of germplasms was crude fibre,followed by crude protein,ash content,crude fat,calcium,phos-phorus. And the crude fibre and calcium content of Xiangge No.2 was higher than others,the crude protein content of Taojiang yege No.1 was higher than others. The crude fat and ash content of Xiangge No.3 was higher than others,Tao-jiang fenge had higher phosphorus content than others. Jiangxi yege had the highest yield.

  6. The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide generation and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Bölck, Birgit; Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Stabenow, Christina Julia Annika; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-01

    The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 improves cutaneous oxygen supply and the microcirculation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Regulation of blood flow was associated to nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO (nitric oxide) production, and endothelial and red blood cells (RBC) have been shown to possess respective NOS isoforms. It was hypothesized that AS195 positively affects NOS activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RBC. Because patients with microvascular disorders show increased oxidative stress which limits NO bioavailability, it was further hypothesized that AS195 increases NO bioavailability by decreasing the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant capacity. Cultured HUVECs and RBCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with AS195 (100 μmol/L), tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP, 1 mmol/L) to induce oxidative stress and with both AS195 and TBHP. Endothelial and red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation significantly increased after AS195 incubation. Nitrite concentration, a marker for NO production, increased in HUVEC but decreased in RBC after AS195 application possibly due to nitrite scavenging potential of flavonoids. S-nitrosylation of RBC cytoskeletal spectrins and RBC deformability were increased after AS195 incubation. TBHP-induced ROS were decreased by AS195, and antioxidative capacity was significantly increased in AS195-treated cells. TBHP also reduced RBC deformability, but reduction was attenuated by parallel incubation with AS195. Adhesion of HUVEC was also reduced after AS195 treatment. Red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases NOS activation and decreases oxidative stress. Both mechanisms increase NO bioavailability, improve cell function, and may thus account for enhanced microcirculation in both health and disease.

  7. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  8. COEXISTENCE YELLOW NAIL SYNDROME WITH SYSTEMIC SYMPTOMS - PRESENTATION OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nail changes can accompany many systemic diseases and very often indicate the ongoing systemic process of illness. The yellow nail syndrome (YNS is very rare clinical entity characterized by marked thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of the nails. Congenitally hypoplastic lymphostasis plays a major role in the clinical manifestation of that disease. Syndrome includes pleural effusions, lymphedema and yellow dystrophic nails. The pathogenesis stays still unknown.Aim: Presentation the coexistence of YNS with the systemic symptoms by analyzing cases of 3 patients.Material and methods: The analysis involved 3 patients with YNS (2 women and 1 man aged from 43 to 48 years.Results: We confirmed 3 cases of YNS, with the characteristic nails changes (yellow-greenish discoloration, absence of lunula, etc.. None of the patients had a family history of YNS. All suffered from chronic diseases: the first patient suffered from lymphedema and diabetes mellitus, second - from rheumatoid arthritis and the third complained of a chronic caught and sinusitis. All YNS`s symptoms occurred in the patients` forties. We observed fingers and toes involvement on 7-8 nails in each patient.Conclusions: The YNS offen associated with systemic disease, most commonly lymphedema and bronchiectasis. However, the literature describes some connections with carcinoma and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, each patient with YNS should be examined for cancer detection and stay under periodic medical control.

  9. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sediment transportation and bed morphology reshaping in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta supports the ecological function as a typical estuarine foreshore wetland. The wetland area is changing greatly every year because of sediment deposition and erosion, which influences the wetland function tremendously. Application of environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) to the Yellow River Delta is on the basis of the mobile bed dynamic model and wetting-drying process. Careful calibration is carried out for the numerical model which is set up for the Yellow River Delta, the sediment transport process of the model is compatible to the Yellow River situation. The simulated bed elevation by considering the sediment deposition in the Mouth is particularly focused on, the numerical results are in agreement with the measured bed morphology within 1992 2000. Simulation in this paper indicates that most of the sediment deposited just out of the Mouth which makes the mouth move forward into the sea 2.5 km per year. This paper presents good results in simulation of varying sediment deposition and provides further methods to predict the future morphology and area of the Yellow River Delta.

  11. Yellow and Red Supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Neugent, Kathryn F; Skiff, Brian; Meynet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Due to their transitionary nature, yellow supergiants provide a critical challenge for evolutionary modeling. Previous studies within M31 and the SMC show that the Geneva evolutionary models do a poor job at predicting the lifetimes of these short-lived stars. Here we extend this study to the LMC while also investigating the galaxy's red supergiant content. This task is complicated by contamination by Galactic foreground stars that color and magnitude criteria alone cannot weed out. Therefore, we use proper motions and the LMC's large systemic radial velocity (\\sim278 km/s) to separate out these foreground dwarfs. After observing nearly 2,000 stars, we identified 317 probable yellow supergiants, 6 possible yellow supergiants and 505 probable red supergiants. Foreground contamination of our yellow supergiant sample was \\sim80%, while that of the the red supergiant sample was only 3%. By placing the yellow supergiants on the H-R diagram and comparing them against the evolutionary tracks, we find that new Geneva...

  12. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  13. REGULATION OF FLOW AND SEDIMENT LOAD IN THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Jixiang LIU; Zhanwei WAN

    2007-01-01

    Small runoff, large sediment load, and incompatible relationship of flow and sediment load are very important characteristics of the Yellow River. They are also the crux of the most prominent problems of the Yellow River. To solve these problems, the regimes of flow and sediment load have to be improved by increasing water, reducing sediment load, and by using reservoirs to regulate flow and sediment load. The results of experiments for regulating the flow and sediment load in the last three years by the Xiaolangdi Reservoir have indicated that this measure is a realistic and effective way to mitigate the prominent problems in flood control of the Lower Yellow River at present and in the near future. However, the regulation system is still imperfect. It is advisable to speed up the pace of research and construction of the system for regulating flow and sediment load.

  14. Evaluation of the Yellow IRIS. An automated method for urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C E; Carlson, D A; Daigneault, R W; Statland, B E

    1986-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Yellow IRIS automated urinalysis instrument (International Remote Imaging Systems, Chatsworth, CA 91311) in terms of its analytic performance as well as its ease of use. The Yellow IRIS is a system using automated intelligence microscopy (AIM), coupled with a dipstick reader and specific gravity module. The instrument can handle up to 30 specimens per hour in the authors' setting as compared with 10 specimens per hour using a full manual urinalysis coupled with microscopic examination. The authors conclude that the Yellow IRIS performed better than the manual method in terms of precision, linearity, and throughput. In addition, the diagnostic yield using this system in terms of abnormal results was higher than would have been picked up by manual analysis alone.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.

  16. Preparation of cucurbit [6] uril anchored silica gel and its adsorption characteristics of sulfamonomethoxine%固载化瓜环的制备及其对磺胺间甲氧嘧啶的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳涛; 陈德强; 刘云; 董元华; 乔洪涛; 陈晓流

    2013-01-01

    在微波无极灯下将烯氧基瓜环固载到巯基硅胶(MSG)上,制得固载化瓜环(ACB[6]-SG).通过红外光谱表征固载产物,并研究固载化瓜环对磺胺间甲氧嘧啶(SMM)的吸附性能.结果表明,SMM在固载化瓜环上的吸附基本在2 min内即可达到平衡;Henry方程和Freundlich方程均能较好地拟合SMM在固载化瓜环和巯基硅胶上的等温吸附曲线,但是SMM在固载化瓜环上的吸附主要是在瓜环中的分配,而SMM在巯基硅胶上的吸附则主要是多分子层的表面吸附作用;SMM在固载化瓜环上的平衡吸附量远大于在巯基硅胶上的平衡吸附量;SMM在两者上的吸附过程是一个放热过程,温度越低吸附效果越好.%Cucurbit [ 6 ] uril anchored silica gel ( ACB [ 6 ] -SG) was produced by anchoring perallyloxy-cucurbit [ 6 ] uril onto 3-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel (MSG) under a microwave electrodeless lamp and was characterized by infrared spectrum analysis. The adsorption behaviors of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) on ACB[6]-SG and MSG were studied. The results showed that the adsorption of SMM on ACB[6]-SG reached equilibrium in 2 min. The adsorption of SMM on ACB[6]-SG and MSG could be well described by both the Henry model and the Freundlich model. However, the adsorption of SMM on ACB[6]-SG was mainly partition processes of SMM in the cucurbit[6 ] uril, whereas the adsorption of SMM on MSG occurred mainly on the multilayer molecular surface of ACB[6]-SG. Furthermore, the adsorption amount of SMM on ACB[6]-SG at equilibrium was much higher than that on MSG. The adsorption of SMM on both ACB[6]-SG and MSG was an exothermic process, in which the lower the temperature was, the higher the adsorption efficiency.

  17. Component-resolved diagnosis of wasp (yellow jacket) venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Leysen, J; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S

    2013-02-01

    Wasp venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with serious consequences of diagnostic error. To assess whether component-resolved diagnosis, using non-glycosylated recombinant allergen components from yellow jacket can add to the diagnosis of wasp venom allergy. In total, 148 patients with a wasp (yellow jacket) allergy were included, 91 with unequivocal tests, 26 with double positivity of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to both venoms, 21 with discrepant sIgE and skin test results and finally 10 having their diagnosis only confirmed by basophil activation test (negative sIgE and skin test results). Specific IgE to recombinant species-specific allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 from yellow jacket, Api m 1 from honeybee and Ves v 5 complemented wasp venom were tested by ImmunoCAP. Overall, combined use of sIgE to rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed correct diagnosis in 139 of the 148 patients (94%) and rApi m 1 was demonstrable in only one patient. Supplementing the traditional yellow jacket allergosorbent with rVes v 5 allowed to correctly diagnose wasp allergy in patients sensitized to Ves v 5 but demonstrating a negative sIgE to wasp venom. Component-resolved diagnoses with the wasp-specific recombinant allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 is a reliable method to diagnose yellow jacket allergy and can help to take out the sting of difficult cases. However, as the number of patients with doubt after conventional tests is small, larger collaborative studies are needed to draw more definitive conclusions. Whether the rVes v 5 supplemented yellow jacket allergosorbent constitutes an asset in the diagnostic management of wasp venom allergy remains to be further established. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  19. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Dystrophic Nails, Peripheral Lymphedema and Chronic Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dornia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case involving a 41-year-old man with yellow nail syndrome (YNS is reported. YNS is a rare disorder characterized by yellow, dystrophic nails, peripheral lymphedema and bronchiectasis with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. YNS is often misdiagnosed because the syndrome is not well known. An interdisciplinary approach is required to recognize and collate the components of the syndrome accurately. Correct diagnosis is of utmost clinical importance because YNS can occur secondary to malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Hence, the diagnosis of YNS must prompt further investigation.

  20. Yellow luminescence of gallium nitride generated by carbon defect complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, D O; Diallo, I C; Reshchikov, M A

    2013-02-22

    We demonstrate that yellow luminescence often observed in both carbon-doped and pristine GaN is the result of electronic transitions via the C(N)-O(N) complex. In contrast to common isolated defects, the C(N)-O(N) complex is energetically favorable, and its calculated optical properties, such as absorption and emission energies, a zero phonon line, and the thermodynamic transition level, all show excellent agreement with measured luminescence data. Thus, by combining hybrid density functional theory and experimental measurements, we propose a solution to a long-standing problem of the GaN yellow luminescence.