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Sample records for cucurbit yellow vine

  1. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  2. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  3. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  4. Analysis of an RNA-seq Strand-Specific Library from an East Timorese Cucumber Sample Reveals a Complete Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2017-05-11

    Analysis of an RNA-seq library from cucumber leaf RNA extracted from a fast technology for analysis of nucleic acids (FTA) card revealed the first complete genome of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) from East Timor. We compare it with 35 complete CABYV genomes from other world regions. It most resembled the genome of the South Korean isolate HD118. Copyright © 2017 Maina et al.

  5. Genetic diversity and potential vectors and reservoirs of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Juarez, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro; Mengual, Carmen M; Sempere, Raquel N; Plaza, María; Elena, Santiago F; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto; Aranda, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year, or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97 to 100 and 94 to 97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.

  6. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus from Bemisia tabaci captured on sticky traps using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and simple template preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuru; Okuda, Shiori; Iwai, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) of the genus Crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae is an emerging infectious agent of cucurbits leading to severe disease and significant economic losses. Effective detection and identification methods for this virus are urgently required. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect CCYV from its vector Bemisia tabaci. LAMP primer sets to detect CCYV were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity, and a primer set designed from the HSP70h gene with corresponding loop primers were selected. The RT-LAMP assay was applied to detect CCYV from viruliferous B. tabaci trapped on sticky traps. A simple extraction procedure using RNAsecure™ was developed for template preparation. CCYV was detected in all of the B. tabaci 0, 1, 7 and 14 days after they were trapped. Although the rise of turbidity was delayed in reactions using RNA from B. tabaci trapped for 7 and 14 days compared with those from 0 and 1 day, the DNA amplification was sufficient to detect CCYV in all of the samples. These findings therefore present a simple template preparation method and an effective RT-LAMP assay, which can be easily and rapidly performed to monitor CCYV-viruliferous B. tabaci in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Both structural and non-structural forms of the readthrough protein of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus are essential for efficient systemic infection of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvaine Boissinot

    Full Text Available Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT. Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT* incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.

  9. Both structural and non-structural forms of the readthrough protein of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus are essential for efficient systemic infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissinot, Sylvaine; Erdinger, Monique; Monsion, Baptiste; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family) with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT). Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT*) incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.

  10. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    to the existing Integrated Disease Management strategy for ZYMV in vegetable cucurbits in WA, but necessitated modification of its recommendations over deployment of cultivars with resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

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    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  12. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 2009 growing seasons, virus-like symptoms were noticed on cucurbit crops (melons (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai)] grown in the Sistan region. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and ...

  13. Molecular diversity of poleroviruses infecting cucurbit crops in four countries reveals the presence of members of six distinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, D; Tsai, W S; Maiss, E; Kenyon, L

    2014-06-01

    When 66 cucurbit samples with yellowing symptoms from fields in Mali, the Philippines, Thailand and Uzbekistan were screened by RT-PCR using universal polerovirus primers, 21 were identified as harboring polerovirus RNA. When these 21 samples were screened with specific primers for the known cucurbit-infecting poleroviruses, suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus and a recombinant strain of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus were detected for the first time in the Philippines and Thailand. However, seven polerovirus-positive samples did not react with any of the known species-specific primers. Sequencing of 1.4-kb universal polerovirus RT-PCR products revealed the presence of two poleroviruses that had not been described previously. These viruses, from Mali and Thailand, were provisionally named pepo aphid-borne yellows virus and luffa aphid-borne yellows virus, respectively.

  14. Thunder God Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Thunder God Vine Share: On This Page Background How Much ... This fact sheet provides basic information about thunder god vine—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  15. Incidence and molecular diversity of poleroviruses infecting cucurbit crops and weed plants in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheewachaiwit, S; Warin, N; Phuangrat, B; Rukpratanporn, S; Gajanandana, O; Balatero, C H; Chatchawankanphanich, O

    2017-07-01

    Overall, 244 samples of cucurbit crops with yellowing symptoms and selected weed species, from 15 provinces in Thailand, were screened by RT-PCR using primers Polero-CP-F and Polero-CP-R. A total of 160 samples (~66%) were infected by poleroviruses. Analysis of a 1.4 kb region covering the 3' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, the intergenic non-coding region (iNCR), and the coat protein (CP), showed that four poleroviruses, namely, cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV), melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) and suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV) were associated with the yellowing symptoms in cucurbit crops. Further analyses indicated presence of putative recombinant viruses referred to as CABYV-R and SABYV-R. CABYV-R was derived from the recombination between MABYV and the common strain of CABYV (CABYV-C). SABYV-R was derived from the recombination of MABYV and SABYV.

  16. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  17. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

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    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  18. Distribution and molecular diversity of three cucurbit-infecting poleroviruses in China.

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    Shang, Qiao-xia; Xiang, Hai-ying; Han, Cheng-gui; Li, Da-wei; Yu, Jia-lin

    2009-11-01

    Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) and Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) have been found to be associated with cucurbit yellowing disease in China. Our report identifies for the first time a third distinct polerovirus, tentatively named Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV), infecting Suakwa vegetable sponge. To better understand the distribution and molecular diversity of these three poleroviruses infecting cucurbits, a total of 214 cucurbitaceous crop samples were collected from 25 provinces in China, and were investigated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Of these, 108 samples tested positive for CABYV, while 40 samples from five provinces were positive for MABYV, and SABYV was detected in only 4 samples which were collected in the southern part of China. Forty-one PCR-amplified fragments containing a portion of the RdRp gene, intergenic NCR and CP gene were cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons showed that CABYV isolates shared 78.0-79.2% nucleotide sequence identity with MABYV isolates, and 69.7-70.8% with SABYV. Sequence identity between MABYV and SABYV was 73.3-76.5%. In contrast, the nucleotide identities within each species were 93.2-98.7% (CABYV), 98.1-99.9% (MABYV), and 96.1-98.6% (SABYV). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the polerovirus isolates fit into three distinct groups, corresponding to the three species. The CABYV group could be further divided into two subgroups: the Asia subgroup and the Mediterranean subgroup, based on CP gene and partial RdRp gene sequences. Recombination analysis suggested that MABYV may be a recombinant virus.

  19. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  20. A new approach for weed control in a cucurbit field employing an attenuated potyvirus-vector for herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboleth, Y M; Arazi, T; Wang, Y; Gal-On, A

    2001-12-14

    Expression of bar, a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, in plant tissues, leads to resistance of these plants to glufosinate ammonium based herbicides. We have created a bar expressing, attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus-vector, AGII-Bar, to enable herbicide use in cucurbit fields. The parental vector, ZYMV-AGII, has been rendered environmentally safe by both disease-symptom attenuation and aphid-assisted virus transmission abolishment. The recombinant AGII-Bar virus-encoding cDNA, when inoculated on diverse cucurbits was highly infectious, accumulated to similar levels as AGII, and elicited attenuated AGII-like symptoms. Potted cucurbits inoculated with AGII-Bar became herbicide resistant about a week post-inoculation. Herbicide resistance was sustained in squash over a period of at least 26 days and for at least 60 days in cucumber grown in a net-house under commercial conditions. To test the applicability of AGII-Bar use in a weed-infested field, a controlled experiment including more than 450 plants inoculated with this construct, was performed. Different dosages of glufosinate ammonium were sprayed, 2 weeks after planting, on the foliage of melons, cucumbers, squash, and watermelons. AGII-Bar provided protection to all inoculated plants, of every variety tested, at each dosage applied, including the highest doses that totally eradicated weeds. This study demonstrates that AGII-Bar can be utilized to facilitate weed control in cucurbits and exemplifies the practical potential of attenuated virus-vector use in agriculture.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCURBIT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND DISEASE PREVALENCE IN MUNICIPALITIES IN PERNAMBUCO

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    GERFFESON THIAGO MOTA DE ALMEIDA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits have great economic, nutritional and social importance in the Brazilian semiarid region. In this region, many factors can result in reduced productivity of these crops, especially fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, knowledge of cucurbits is crucial for proper disease management. The objective of this work was to identify the major diseases of cucurbits grown in some municipalities in the Hinterland of the state of Pernambuco. Thus, plant samples were collected with symptoms in crops in the municipalities of Salgueiro, Serra Talhada, Floresta, Petrolândia, Ibimirim, Custódia and Inajá. A questionnaire was also applied to gather information about the production profile of producers. Seven fungal pathogens infecting cucurbits were identified: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Colletotrichum sp., Podosphaera xanthii, Rhizoctonia solani, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium sp. e Alternaria sp., and three viruses as well: Papaya ringspot virus - watermelon strain (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. It was found that in small crops, there is limited search for technical information om cropping, and these crops originate mostly from native seeds, in contrast to medium and large producers, who use improved cultivars. The melon and watermelon crops are the most commercially exploited, while pumpkins are used in subsistence agriculture. As for plant health problems, most respondents reported knowing the main diseases that occur in crops and perform disease control based on personal experience and / or through the help of the technical assistance provided by agricultural stores. In a few cases, in large farms, there was an agronomist to assist in this type of control.

  2. Complete sequence analysis reveals two distinct poleroviruses infecting cucurbits in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai-ying; Shang, Qiao-xia; Han, Cheng-gui; Li, Da-wei; Yu, Jia-lin

    2008-01-01

    The complete RNA genomes of a Chinese isolate of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV-CHN) and a new polerovirus tentatively referred to as melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) were determined. The entire genome of CABYV-CHN shared 89.0% nucleotide sequence identity with the French CABYV isolate. In contrast, nucleotide sequence identities between MABYV and CABYV and other poleroviruses were in the range of 50.7-74.2%, with amino acid sequence identities ranging from 24.8 to 82.9% for individual gene products. We propose that CABYV-CHN is a strain of CABYV and that MABYV is a member of a tentative distinct species within the genus Polerovirus.

  3. Yellow Fever

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    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  4. Modeling stochastic frontier based on vine copulas

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    Constantino, Michel; Candido, Osvaldo; Tabak, Benjamin M.; da Costa, Reginaldo Brito

    2017-11-01

    This article models a production function and analyzes the technical efficiency of listed companies in the United States, Germany and England between 2005 and 2012 based on the vine copula approach. Traditional estimates of the stochastic frontier assume that data is multivariate normally distributed and there is no source of asymmetry. The proposed method based on vine copulas allow us to explore different types of asymmetry and multivariate distribution. Using data on product, capital and labor, we measure the relative efficiency of the vine production function and estimate the coefficient used in the stochastic frontier literature for comparison purposes. This production vine copula predicts the value added by firms with given capital and labor in a probabilistic way. It thereby stands in sharp contrast to the production function, where the output of firms is completely deterministic. The results show that, on average, S&P500 companies are more efficient than companies listed in England and Germany, which presented similar average efficiency coefficients. For comparative purposes, the traditional stochastic frontier was estimated and the results showed discrepancies between the coefficients obtained by the application of the two methods, traditional and frontier-vine, opening new paths of non-linear research.

  5. FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J; Lucas, William J

    2007-05-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)-treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits.

  6. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

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    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  7. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... P. O. Box, 98616-93511, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan Iran. E-mail: .... Nepal, Taiwan, China, Reunion Island, Swaziland, Brazil, .... A 10-year survey (1993–2002) of cucurbit viruses in Sudan.

  8. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Gill; William M. Healy

    1974-01-01

    A non-technical handbook in which 34 authors discuss management of 97 native and 3 naturalized shrubs or woody vines most important to wildlife in the Northeast,-Kentucky to Maryland to Newfoundland to Ontario. Topics include range, habitat, life history, uses, propagation, and management; but not identification.

  9. Application of Vine Copulas to Credit Portfolio Risk Modeling

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    Marco Geidosch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the superiority of vine copulas over conventional copulas when modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio. We show statistical and economic implications of replacing conventional copulas by vine copulas for a subportfolio of the Euro Stoxx 50 and the S&P 500 companies, respectively. Our study includes D-vines and R-vines where the bivariate building blocks are chosen from the Gaussian, the t and the Clayton family. Our findings are (i the conventional Gauss copula is deficient in modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio and economic capital is seriously underestimated; (ii D-vine structures offer a better statistical fit to the data than classical copulas, but underestimate economic capital compared to R-vines; (iii when mixing different copula families in an R-vine structure, the best statistical fit to the data can be achieved which corresponds to the most reliable estimate for economic capital.

  10. Yellow fever

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    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  11. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

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    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  12. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  13. Cucurbits powdery mildew race identity and reaction of melon genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resistance is one of the most suitable strategies to control cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) on melon, incited by Podosphaera xanthii or Golovinomyces orontii. However, many races of these pathogens have been reported worldwide in recent years, what may compromise the effectiveness of this met...

  14. An accurate, specific, sensitive, high-throughput method based on a microsphere immunoassay for multiplex detection of three viruses and bacterial fruit blotch bacterium in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Makornwattana, Manlika; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Phuengwas, Sudtida; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2017-09-01

    To employ a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to simultaneously detect multiple plant pathogens (potyviruses, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Melon yellow spot virus, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli) in actual plant samples, several factors need to be optimized and rigorously validated. Here, a simple extraction method using a single extraction buffer was successfully selected to detect the four pathogens in various cucurbit samples (cucumber, cantaloupe, melon, and watermelon). The extraction method and assay performance were validated with inoculated and field cucurbit samples. The MIA showed 98-99% relative accuracy, 97-100% relative specificity and 92-100% relative sensitivity when compared to commercial ELISA kits and reverse transcription PCR. In addition, the MIA was also able to accurately detect multiple-infected field samples. The results demonstrate that one common extraction method for all tested cucurbit samples could be applied to detect multiple pathogens; avoiding the need for multiple protocols to be employed. This multiplex method can therefore be instrumental for high-throughput screening of multiple plant pathogens with many advantages such as a shorter assay time (2.5h) with single assay format, a lower cost of detection ($5 vs $19.7 for 4 pathogens/sample) and less labor requirement. Its multiplex capacity can also be expanded to detect up to 50 different pathogens upon the availability of specific antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The toxic effect of alunimium in vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, E.G.; Peisach, M.; Pineda, C.A.; Pougnet, M.A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The split-root technique was used to study the effect of varying the growth media on the elemental content of nutrient elements in the roots of grape vines. The varieties 2-1 (R99 x Jacquez) and Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera) were grown in Hoagland water culture with and without added aluminium. The elemental concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca in the dried roots were determined by PIXE. Roots grown in Al-rich media were deficient in Mg and Ca, but enriched in Al. There was a correlation between Al and Si but the uptake differed in the two varieties. (author) 7 refs.; 4 figs

  16. FLOWERING LOCUS T Protein May Act as the Long-Distance Florigenic Signal in the Cucurbits[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)–treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits. PMID:17540715

  17. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  18. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits Origem e evolução de cucurbitáceas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae are among the most important plant families supplying humans with edible products and useful fibers. Plants of this family are very similar in above ground development, but they have high genetic diversity for fruit shape and other fruit characteristics, resulting in a variety of uses. The objective of this review was to discuss the origin and evolution of the most important cultivated cucurbits. Understanding the evolutionary history and domestication process increase the possibility for better exploiting the genetic diversity for cultivar development. The domestication selection in cucurbits was for shape, less bitter flesh, larger and fewer seeds, and larger fruit size, resulting in high genetic diversity within and among cultivated species. This variation can be associated with the wide range of uses that require different shape, size and a constant ratio between fruit length and fruit diameter. The discussion of the breeding history indicates how artificial selection could speed up changes in fruit characteristics to attend specific uses and increase adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions in which cucurbits are growing worldwide. Although interspecific hybridization has been employed in cucurbit breeding more than in any other family, there is still a high potential for increasing its application for germplasm and cultivar development.As cucurbitáceas (Cucurbitaceae são uma das mais importantes famílias de plantas utilizadas para produção de alimentos e fibras. Apesar de a parte aérea das plantas desta família ser muito similar em seu desenvolvimento, grande variabilidade genética tem sido mantida para formato e outras características de fruto, o que aumenta o seu potencial de uso. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir a origem e a evolução das cucurbitáceas cultivadas. A história da evolução e o conhecimento das alterações ocorridas durante este processo podem facilitar a utiliza

  19. Radioecology of the vine. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In a field investigation (1983-1985) comprising eight places of the most important viticultural regions in the Federal Republic of Germany, the contents of the radionuclides T, C-14, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in air, soils, leaves of the vine, grapes and wine were measured and site-specific transfer factors were calculated. A relation between transfer of radionuclides and soil parameters and between the contents of grapes and wine was not recognizeable. While cultivar-specific differences were not observed in grapes, red wines contained somewhat more Cs-137 than white wines. Transfer factors soil grapes were 0.027 for Sr-90 and 0.0057 for Cs-137. Site-specific influences such as soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years led to a relatively small fluctuation of values. An influence of the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim has not been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Identifikasi Pepper vein yellows virus yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Yellow Vein Banding pada Tanaman Mentimun di Bali

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    I Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing vein banding disease has been reported infecting cucurbit plants in Bali since 2014. Similar vein banding symptom on chilli pepper was observed previously, and early diagnosis indicated infection of Polerovirus. The objective of this research was to confirm the presence of Polerovirus infection on cucumber plant showing yellow vein banding symptom in Bali. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction – based detection method was conducted using specific primer pairs PeVYV-CP-F-BamH1/ PeVYV-CP-R-Pst1followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis.  Specific DNA fragments of ± 650 bp was successfully amplified from field samples.  Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the sequence has the highest similarity > 95% with Pepper vein yellow virus (PeVYV infecting chili pepper from Indonesia (Bali, and Rembang, Japan, and Greece.

  1. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  2. Differential Colonization Dynamics of Cucurbit Hosts by Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrisman, Cláudio M; Deblais, Loïc; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Miller, Sally A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of cucurbits in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Although the disease has been studied since 1900, host colonization dynamics remain unclear. Cucumis- and Cucurbita-derived strains exhibit host preference for the cucurbit genus from which they were isolated. We constructed a bioluminescent strain of Erwinia tracheiphila (TedCu10-BL#9) and colonization of different cucurbit hosts was monitored. At the second-true-leaf stage, Cucumis melo plants were inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 via wounded leaves, stems, and roots. Daily monitoring of colonization showed bioluminescent bacteria in the inoculated leaf and petiole beginning 1 day postinoculation (DPI). The bacteria spread to roots via the stem by 2 DPI, reached the plant extremities 4 DPI, and the plant wilted 6 DPI. However, Cucurbita plants inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 did not wilt, even at 35 DPI. Bioluminescent bacteria were detected 6 DPI in the main stem of squash and pumpkin plants, which harbored approximately 10(4) and 10(1) CFU/g, respectively, of TedCu10-BL#9 without symptoms. Although significantly less systemic plant colonization was observed in nonpreferred host Cucurbita plants compared with preferred hosts, the mechanism of tolerance of Cucurbita plants to E. tracheiphila strains from Cucumis remains unknown.

  3. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in watermelon in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  4. The Ethno-Botany and utility evaluation of some Species of cucurbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need to develop accurate data, and to put in place more effort toward the cultivation, improvement and conservation of various cucurbits germplasm. An inventory was canned out to track down and document the ethnobotanical uses of the various species of cucurbits found in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria.

  5. Agrobiodiversity Indices for Three Cucurbit Species in Khorasan- Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The deterioration of genetic resources of many field crops due to monoculture and other agricultural activities has been well documented. Estimates indicate that the introduction of new varieties has contributed at least 80% of the increase in crop production, yet, these gains have been offset by the loss of 90% of landraces. The importance of biodiversity in enhancing the sustainability of crop production in agroecosystems has been well acknowledged in the literature. This has been achieved by increasing the biodiversity at cropping systems, species, and variety levels, which corresponds to biodiversity at the ecosystem, species, and ecotype levels in natural ecosystems. Conservation of biodiversity is prerequisite for sustainable agroecosystems. In the past, diverse species, genotypes and varieties were used in agroecosystems that ensured their sustainability. At present, this approach has changed and new varieties have replaced old ones and on sustainability of systems has been negatively impacted. In the other word, agrobiodiversity or the variety of species in cropping systems has dropped rapidly. Materials and methods In this research, agrobiodiversity of melon (Cucumis.melo var. Inodorus, watermelon (Citrullus Vulgaris and cantaloupe (Cucumis.melo var. Cantaloupensis were evaluated at the genotype and variety levels. For this purpose necessary data including the number of cultivated genotypes or land races and cultivated area for each of them were collected from 25 counties of Khorasan Razavi province. Accurate data was gathered from the appropriate database and also by filling questionnaire for growing season of 2010-2011. Then spatial biodiversity indices of Simpson and Shannon, evenness, and similarity indices of Sorenson were calculated for three cucurbit crops. Results and discussion The results showed that from total cultivated area of cucurbit species in 2010-2011 growing season, 48, 30, 20 and 2 percent belonged to

  6. Cucurbit[6]uril p-xylylenediammonium diiodide decahydrate inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hao Huang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title inclusion complex, C36H36N24O12·C8H14N22+·2I−·10H2O, displays a large ellipsoidal deformation of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6] skeleton upon complex formation. The benzene ring of the cation is rotationally disordered between two orientations in a ratio of 3:1. The solvent H2O molecules form a hydrogen-bonded network by interaction with the carbonyl groups of CB[6] and the I− counterions. The crystal studied exhibited non-merohedral twinning. Both CB[6] and the cation are centrosymmetric.

  7. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biological and molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marques de Almeida Spadotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV causes substantial economic losses in cucurbit crops. Although ZYMV has been present in Brazil for more than 20 years, there is little information about the biological and molecular characteristics of the isolates found in the country. This study aimed to characterize the experimental hosts, pathotypes and genetic diversity of a collection of eleven Brazilian ZYMV isolates within the coat protein gene. For biological analysis, plant species from Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Pedaliaceae were mechanically inoculated and pathotypes were identified based on the reaction of a resistant Cucumis melo, accession PI414723. All of the cucurbit species/varieties and Sesamum indicum were systemically infected with all isolates. The nucleotide sequence variability of the coat protein gene ranged from 82 % to 99 % compared to the corresponding sequences of ZYMV isolates from different geographical locations. No recombination event was detected in the coat protein gene of the isolates.

  9. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  11. ARBOLITCONCRETE ON SILICATESODIUM COMPOSITE BINDER AND SCRAPS OF VINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Manturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The results of experimental studies produce siliсatеsodium composite binder of calcareous stone sawing waste, anhydrous sodium silicate, and based on them wood concrete using as an organic filler vine cuttings for the production of heat-insulating, heat-insulating, structural and structural wall material.Methods.The main technological operations of the developed arbalitconcrete are given : preparation of a composite binder; production of organic filler from the vine; preparation of arbolit concrete mass; formation of arbolit concrete mass; low-temperature treatment (drying.Results. It is found that the composite binder derived from waste stone sawing and anhydrous sodium silicate at their joint fine grinding (Ssp = 3000 cm2 / g, acquires binding properties and with the appropriate seal and heat treatment hardens and gains strength characteristics sufficient for making arbolitconcrete using crushed vine.Conclusion. It was determined that arbolitobeton obtained on the basis of the crushed vine and silikatnatrievogo composite binder strength exceeds arbolitobetona from other types of binders and organic fillers of vegetable origin.

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  13. Risk Measurement and Risk Modelling Using Applications of Vine Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite financial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in financial applications, but is usually applied to pairs of securities. By contrast, Vine copulas provide greater flexibility and permit the modelling of complex dependency patterns using the rich variety of bivariate copulas which may be arranged and analysed in a tree structure to explore multiple dependencies. The paper features the use of Regular Vine copulas in an analysis of the co-dependencies of 10 major European Stock Markets, as represented by individual market indices and the composite STOXX 50 index. The sample runs from 2005 to the end of 2013 to permit an exploration of how correlations change indifferent economic circumstances using three different sample periods: pre-GFC (January 2005–July 2007, GFC (July 2007– September 2009, and post-GFC periods (September 2009–December 2013. The empirical results suggest that the dependencies change in a complex manner, and are subject to change in different economic circumstances. One of the attractions of this approach to risk modelling is the flexibility in the choice of distributions used to model co-dependencies. The practical application of Regular Vine metrics is demonstrated via an example of the calculation of the VaR of a portfolio made up of the indices.

  14. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  15. Vine vigor components and its variability - relationship to wine composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Magali; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    It was pointed out that a high spatial variability for canopy size and yield would exist within a vineyard but a high temporal stability over the years was observed. Furthermore, a greater variability in grape phenolics than in sugars and pH was detected within a vineyard. But the link between remote sensing indices and quality parameters of grapes is still unclear. Indeed, though in red grape varieties anthocyanins content was spatially negatively correlated to vigor parameters, it seemed that yield, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Plant Cell Density (PCD) indices were poorly correlated. Moreover, the link to quality parameters of wines remains uncertain. It was shown that more vigorous vines would lead to wines with less tannins while anthocyanins in wines would be highest when the vines were balanced but the question is if vine size or architecture, yield or nitrogen assimilation would play major contribution to those differences. The general scope of our project was to provide further knowledge on the relationship between vigor parameters and wine composition and relate these to the information gained by remote sensing. Variability in a 0.15 ha vineyard of Pinot noir planted in 2003 and grafted on SO4 rootstock at Geisenheim (Germany) was followed. Vine vigor was assessed manually for each of the 400 vines (cane number, pruning weight, trunk diameter) together with yield parameters (number of bunches per vine, crop yield). Leaf composition was assessed with a hand-held optical sensor (Multiplex3® [Mx3] (Force-A, Orsay, France) based on chlorophyll fluorescence screening providing information on leaf chlorophyll (SFR_G) and nitrogen (NBI_G) content. A micro-scale winemaking of single vines with a 3 factorial design on yield (L low, M middle, H high), SFRG (L, M, H) and canopy size (pruning weight, trunk diameter) (L, M, H) was performed for 2013 and 2014 to completely reflect variability. Wine tannin concentration represented the highest

  16. Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus: a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, Jacques D; Laing, Mark D; Gubba, Augustine

    2017-02-01

    Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) has been proposed as a putative representative of a new species in the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The genomes of two South African (SA) isolates of cucurbit-infecting PABYV were described in this record. Total RNA, extracted from a pattypan (Cucurbita pepo L.) and a baby marrow (C. pepo L.) leaf samples, was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to authenticate the integrity of PABYV's genome generated from de novo assembly of the NGS data. PABYV genome of SA isolates consists of 5813 nucleotides and displays an organisation typical of poleroviruses. Genome sequence comparisons of the SA PABYV isolates to other poleroviruses support the classification of PABYV as a new species in the genus Polerovirus. Recombination analyses showed that PABYV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) shared the same ancestor for the genome part situated between breaking points. Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein genes showed that SA PABYV isolates shared distant relationship with CABYV and Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus. Based on our results, we propose that PABYV is a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus.

  17. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  18. Ruth Rendell and Barbara Vine – family matters

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, F

    2017-01-01

    This article traces themes and preoccupations that work across Ruth Rendell’s work, writing both as Rendell and also as Barbara Vine. It investigates the ways in which the\\ud use of a pseudonym allows her to delve deeper into areas that she also explores as Rendell – the dysfunctional family and heredity, both in relation to physical disease and the fruitless search for origins, the latter discussed by her through the lens of Freudian psychoanalysis.

  19. Complexation (cucurbit[6]uril-pyrene): Thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueldo Occello, Valeria N.; Rossi, Rita H. de; Veglia, Alicia V., E-mail: aveglia@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2015-02-15

    The influence of the macrocyclic compound cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) on the photophysical properties of the fluorophore pyrene (PYR) has been studied. Guest–host interaction was observed by UV–visible spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The fluorescence of PYR was significantly increased in the presence of CB6. The binding equilibrium constants for the complex with 1:1 stoichiometry were determined in HCOOH 55% w/v. The values of the association constants, K{sub A}, and the fluorescence quantum yield ratios between complexed and free substrate, ϕ{sup PYR–CB6}/ϕ{sup PYR}, at different temperatures were (3.1±0.9)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.1±0.2), (3.6±0.5)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.9±0.1), (4.8±0.7)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.5±0.1) at 15.0 °C, 25.0 °C and 40.0 °C, respectively. The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the complexation process were determined, yielding ΔS=(92±3) J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} and ΔH=(13±1) kJ mol{sup −1}. From these results it can be concluded that the complex formation is mainly driven by the entropic term. The forces involved in the complexation are interpreted from the sign and magnitude of the thermodynamic parameters obtained. The partial inclusion of PYR or the formation of a suspended complex is proposed in base of all the data. The interaction is also demonstrated in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. - Highlights: • The cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) effects on the absorption and fluorescence of pyrene (PYR) were analyzed. • The association constant (K{sub A}) and the stoichiometry of the complex were determined. • The complex formation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). • The thermodynamic parameters were determined. • The hydrophobic entropic contribution is the main driving force for the PYR–CB6 complex formation.

  20. Initiative for international cooperation of researchers and breeders related to determination and denomination of cucurbit powdery mildew races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites, Golovinomyces orontii s.l. and Podosphaera xanthii, that are highly variable in virulence. Various independent systems of CPM race determination and denomination cause a chaotic situation in cucurbit...

  1. Energetic exploitation of vine shoot by gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Al-Kassir Abdulla, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Cuerda Correa, E.M. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Macias-Garcia, A. [Dpto. Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    In this study the energy potential generated by the biomass remnants of vine shoot produced in Extremadura (Spain) by a gasification process is evaluated. The raw material was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis, its Higher Heating Value (HHV) being evaluated as well. In order to determine the optimal gasification temperature for the production of gases, the vine shoots were treated at different temperatures, i.e., 650, 700, 750 and 800 {sup o}C in air atmosphere. The optimal temperature (800 {sup o}C) was selected and the vine shoot remnants were gasified in air stream (200 mL min{sup -1}) and for different times (8 and 50 min). The yield of the so-obtained phases was calculated and the study was focused on solid and gaseous phases. The solid phase was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis as well as by HHV. In order to determine their properties as precursors of activated carbons, the adsorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K were measured. Finally, the electric power that could be obtained by a combustion process in a vapor boiler was calculated. (author)

  2. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  3. Interaction of Cucurbit(5)uril with U(VI) in formic acid water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Neetika; Kar, Aishwarya; Tomar, B.S.; Nayak, S.K.; Mohapatra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbit(n)urils (CBn) are a new class of macrocyclic cage compounds capable of binding organic and inorganic species, owing to their unique pumpkin like structure comprising of both hydrophobic cavity and hydrophilic portal. Complexation of U(VI) with Cucurbit(5)uril (CB5) in 50 wt% formic acid medium has been studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. In order to understand the species formed, the interaction of formic acid with CB5 was studied by monitoring fluorescence of CB5. Formic was found to form 1:1 species with interaction constant (K) 17.4 M -1 . (author)

  4. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamena, A. E

    2013-07-01

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  5. Review. Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.; Domingo, R.; Castel, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    Water has become the most precious of natural resources in many areas of Spain and, since agriculture is the major consumer of water, improvements in water use efficiency are increasingly sought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is an irrigation strategy based on applying only a fraction of the plant water requirements during certain periods of plant development. The paper reviews the available information on RDI strategies, in woody tree crops and vines based on studies by Spanish research groups. Both the promising results obtained and the drawbacks are covered. (Author) 130 refs.

  6. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  7. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  8. Hydrophilic Cucurbit[7]uril-Pseudorotaxane-Anchored-Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    FULL PAPER DOI:10.1002/ejic.201300010 Hydrophilic Cucurbit[7]uril-Pseudorotaxane-Anchored- Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods Xiang Ma,[a] Yuhua Xue... Cao , Q. Wang, H. Tian, Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 3559–3561. [8] a) I. Hwang, K. Baek, M. Jung, Y. Kim, K. M. Park, D. W. Lee, N. Selvapalam, K. Kim, J. Am

  9. Application of a new approach for study of virulence variation in cucurbit powdery mildew populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is caused by two obligate ectoparasites, Golovinomyces orontii s.l. (Go) and Podosphaera xanthii (Px), that are highly variable in virulence. Various systems of CPM race determination and denomination were used (Lebeda et al. 2011). We developed new tools to enhance res...

  10. Cucurbit[8]uril templated supramolecular ring structure formation and protein assembly modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.; Wijnands, S.P.W.; van Dongen, J.L.J.; Brunsveld, L.; Dankers, P.Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of Phe-Gly-Gly (FGG)-tagged proteins and bivalent FGG-tagged penta(ethylene glycol) as guest molecules with cucurbit[8]uril (Q8) hosts is studied to modulate the supramolecular assembly process. Ring structure formation of the bivalent guest molecule with Q8 leads to enhanced binding

  11. Application of selection and estimation regular vine copula on go public company share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasna Afifah, R.; Noviyanti, Lienda; Bachrudin, Achmad

    2018-03-01

    The accuracy of financial risk management involving a large number of assets is needed, but information about dependencies among assets cannot be adequately analyzed. To analyze dependencies on a number of assets, several tools have been added to standard multivariate copula. However, these tools have not been adequately used in apps with higher dimensions. The bivariate parametric copula families can be used to solve it. The multivariate copula can be built from the bivariate parametric copula which is connected by a graphical representation to become Pair Copula Constructions (PCCs) or vine copula. The application of C-vine and D-vine copula have been used in some researches, but the use of C-vine and D-vine copula is more limited than R-vine copula. Therefore, this study used R-vine copula to provide flexibility for modeling complex dependencies on a high dimension. Since copula is a static model, while stock values change over time, then copula should be combined with the ARMA- GARCH model for modeling the movement of shares (volatility). The objective of this paper is to select and estimate R-vine copula which is used to analyze PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk (JSMR), PT Waskita Karya (Persero) Tbk (WSKT), and PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk (BMRI) from august 31, 2014 to august 31, 2017. From the method it is obtained that the selected copulas for 2 edges at the first tree are survival Gumbel and the copula for edge at the second tree is Gaussian.

  12. Vines and canopy contact: a route for snake predation on parrot nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUSAN E. KOENIG; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE; ERNESTO C. ENKERLINHOEFLICH

    2007-01-01

    Ornithologists have hypothesized that some tropical forest birds avoid snake predation by nesting in isolated trees that do not have vines and canopy contact with neighbouring trees. Here we review two complementary studies that support this hypothesis by demonstrating (1) that an abundance of vines and an interlocking canopy characterized Jamaican Black-billed Parrot...

  13. Specialised Sweetpotato Vine Multiplication in Lake Zone, Tanzania: What “Sticks” and What Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan Margaret A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Zone, Tanzania, farmers were trained to multiply and distribute quality sweetpotato planting material. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in skills and practices among the trained farmers as vine multiplication became a specialized task. Nine months after the project ended, all 88 decentralized vine multipliers (DVMs operating as groups (72% or individuals (28% were visited and qualitative data on their current multiplication practices collected through a questionnaire, checklists and observations. Results showed that 69% of DVMs were still multiplying vines, but less than half were using the seed production technologies promoted by the project. 34% used rapid multiplication beds; 61% used conventional plant spacing on ridges for roots and vines and 5% used both. As the vine multiplication cycle became a specialised activity, the multiplication and root production cycles were separated. Vines were treated differently in terms of site selection, length of cutting and spacing, depending on whether the objective of their use was for high root or high vine production. Capacity building of specialised vine multipliers and scaling-up seed interventions should consider the implications of skilling and task segregation in a broader context based on society’s choice of technologies and agrarian change.

  14. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  15. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  16. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  17. Complexation of Cucurbit(7)uril with Eu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Aishwarya; Rawat, Neetika; Rao, Ankita; Tomar, B.S.; Nayak, S.K.; Ray, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbiturils (CBs) CB(n)s are macrocyclic molecules with carbonyl groups at the portals, which bind cations through ion dipole interactions and the cavity which stabilize hydrophobic moieties. The size of the portal and the volume of the interior cavities of CB(n)s are dependent on the number of glycoluril units present in CBs. CBs are widely used as supramolecular host systems in applications, such as formation of supramolecular hydrogels, drug delivery systems. Though the binding of CBs with organic guest molecules have been studied extensively where as metal complexation studies are very few. In the present work, complexation studies of Cucurbit(7)uril (with seven glycouril units, CB7) with Eu(III) were carried out using fluorescence, UV-vis spectrophotometry. The stability constant for 1:1 complex CB7-Eu(III) complex determined by monitoring the change in CB7 UV- vis absorption spectra on addition of Eu(III) was found to be 2.99 ± 0.08. The fluorescence spectra of increasing ligand to metal ratio exhibited the increase in the intensity ratio of peak at 616 and 592 which is the measure of complexation of Eu(III) with CB7 and was used to deduce the stability constant and the value (2.82 ± 0.07) obtained was in good agreement with that obtained from UV vis spectroscopy. Further, the life time of Eu(III) ion, which increased with CB7 to Eu(III) ratio, was used to deduce number of water molecules around Eu(III) metal ion which were found to decrease from 9 to 3 thereby suggesting inner sphere complexation. The stability constant of CB7 with Eu(III) is one order of magnitude less than CB5, derived in separate study by authors. The smaller cavity of CB5 (2.4 A 0 ) favors its interactions with Eu(III) ion of comparable diameter (2.16 A 0 ) leading to higher stability constant compared to CB7 (5.4 A 0 ) having larger cavity

  18. Cucurbit[6]uril: A Possible Host for Noble Gas Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2015-08-27

    Density functional and ab initio molecular dynamics studies are carried out to investigate the stability of noble gas encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) systems. Interaction energy, dissociation energy and dissociation enthalpy are calculated to understand the efficacy of CB[6] in encapsulating noble gas atoms. CB[6] could encapsulate up to three Ne atoms having dissociation energy (zero-point energy corrected) in the range of 3.4-4.1 kcal/mol, whereas due to larger size, only one Ar or Kr atom encapsulated analogues would be viable. The dissociation energy value for the second Ar atom is only 1.0 kcal/mol. On the other hand, the same for the second Kr is -0.5 kcal/mol, implying the instability of the system. The noble gas dissociation processes are endothermic in nature, which increases gradually along Ne to Kr. Kr encapsulated analogue is found to be viable at room temperature. However, low temperature is needed for Ne and Ar encapsulated analogues. The temperature-pressure phase diagram highlights the region in which association and dissociation processes of Kr@CB[6] would be favorable. At ambient temperature and pressure, CB[6] may be used as an effective noble gas carrier. Wiberg bond indices, noncovalent interaction indices, electron density, and energy decomposition analyses are used to explore the nature of interaction between noble gas atoms and CB[6]. Dispersion interaction is found to be the most important term in the attraction energy. Ne and Ar atoms in one Ng entrapped analogue are found to stay inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation at 298 K. However, during simulation Ng2 units in Ng2@CB[6] flip toward the open faces of CB[6]. After 1 ps, one Ne atom of Ne3@CB[6] almost reaches the open face keeping other two Ne atoms inside. At lower temperature (77 K), all the Ng atoms in Ngn@CB[6] remain well inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation time (1 ps).

  19. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josman P. Pérez-Expósito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  20. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain: Agronomy and quality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters, in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain. The reduction of vine distance has favored the vegetative growth, through the shoot weight, while the grape yield has been slightly higher in the intermediate vine distance, 1.40 m, through the cluster weight. Ravaz index showed some increase with the increasing of vine distance, derived from the decrease of pruning wood. In qualitative terms, the variation of the vine distance did not significantly modify the basic composition of the grape. Therefore, the choice of the vine distance involves the convenience to assess both potential effects in terms of production and economic objectives of the new plantations, in accordance with the characteristics of each growing situation.

  1. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  2. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Expósito, Josman P; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Castedo, Luis

    2017-02-25

    This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain) and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  3. Survey of mycoflora and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Argentina markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Astoreca, A; Ponsone, L; Combina, M; Palacio, G; Rosa, C A R; Dalcero, A M

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify the mycoflora and to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in dried vine fruits. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was studied. Fifty samples of dried vine fruits were obtained from Mendoza and San Juan provinces. The surface disinfection method was used for mycoflora determination using the medium dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18) and dichloran Rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). Statistical analysis demonstrated that the species A. niger var. niger and Aspergillus niger var. awamori were isolated in higher frequency from black dried vine fruits from DRBC and DG18 media (P < 0.01). OA was found in 74% of the dried vine fruits samples. Sixty-two strains (28%) of Aspergillus section Nigri, were OA producers. In the species A. carbonarius the highest percentages of ochratoxigenic strains were detected (82.6%). The presence of ochratoxigenic strains of Nigri section in dried vine fruits suggests that they may be an important source of OA in this substrate. Dried vine fruits can also be an important source of OA people who consume large amounts. The dried vine fruits contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri and OA was significant.

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation to Yellow Flesh Watermelon cv. ''Huay Sai Thong''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai

    2003-06-01

    Yellow flesh watermelon seeds cv. Huay Sai Thong was irradiated with gamma rays. The experiment has been shown LD 50 dose at 420 Gy and GR 50 dose at 480 Gy approximately. Seeds of watermelon irradiated at 200 and 400 Gy were sown to find out mutation characteristics. The growth rate of M 1 plants was lower than the normal one. In M 2 plants, some irradiated lines showed non-dark green stripe on surface of fruit. Genetic testing was done according to skin color on watermelon fruit. It was found that the normal stripe characteristic was dominant and non-stripe characteristic was recessive. The Short length vine characteristic was selected till M 7 generation. The two lines of non-stripe watermelon and two lines of normal-stripe watermelon were selected for short length vine characteristic

  5. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  6. Cucurbit[7]uril as a tool in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Thathan; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2010-12-03

    A simple, green, one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles was achieved through the reaction of an aqueous mixture of potassium tetrachloroaurate(III) and the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril in the presence of sodium hydroxide at room temperature without introducing any kind of traditional reducing agents and/or external energy. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles showed catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH(4), which has been established by visual inspection and UV/Vis spectroscopy. This report is the first for the preparation of gold nanoparticles using cucurbit[7]uril in aqueous media through chemical reduction without employing conventional reducing agents and/or external energy.

  7. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  8. Co-grinding Effect on Crystalline Zaltoprofen with ?-cyclodextrin/Cucurbit[7]uril in Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanshan; Lin, Xiang; Xu, Kailin; He, Jiawei; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the co-grinding effects of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on crystalline zaltoprofen (ZPF) in tablet formulation. Crystalline ZPF was prepared through anti-solvent recrystallization and fully analyzed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Co-ground dispersions and mono-ground ZPF were prepared using a ball grinding process. Results revealed that mono-ground ZPF slightly affected the solid state, solubility, and dissolution of crystalline Z...

  9. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  10. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350-600 ce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350-600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round-pyriform and probably used as vessels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  11. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  12. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  13. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Bluff Experimental Forest, Warren County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Johnson; Elbert L. Little

    1967-01-01

    Nearly 100 species of trees, shrubs, and woody vines grow naturally on the 450-acre Bluff Experimental Forest in west-central Mississippi. This publication lists the plants and provides information on silvical characteristics of the tree species.

  14. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Abstract. The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five. Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight ± s.d. = 41.4 ± 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine ...

  15. A functional-structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N; Hanan, Jim

    2011-04-01

    Functional-structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. By integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects of organ position within the canopy on its size; (c) effects of environment and horticultural management on shoot growth, light distribution and organ size; and (d) role of carbon reserves in early shoot growth. Using the L-system modelling platform, a functional-structural plant model of a kiwifruit vine was created that integrates architectural development, mechanistic modelling of carbon transport and allocation, and environmental and management effects on vine and fruit growth. The branching pattern was captured at the individual shoot level by modelling axillary shoot development using a discrete-time Markov chain. An existing carbon transport resistance model was extended to account for several source/sink components of individual plant elements. A quasi-Monte Carlo path-tracing algorithm was used to estimate the absorbed irradiance of each leaf. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the model's potential to reproduce the major features of the vine's behaviour. The model simulated vine growth responses that were qualitatively similar to those observed in experiments, including the plastic response of shoot growth to local carbon supply, the branching patterns of two Actinidia species, the effect of carbon limitation and topological distance on fruit size and the complex behaviour of sink competition for carbon. The model is able to reproduce differences in vine and fruit growth arising from various experimental treatments. This implies it will be a valuable

  16. Relations between Polyphenols Content and Antioxidative Activity in Vine Grapes and Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balík, J.; Kyseláková, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Kumšta, M.; Veverka, J.; Híc, P.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, special (2008), s. 25-35 ISSN 1212-1800. [Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/06/1757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : vine grapes * vine leaves * stems * piceid * resveratrol * caftaric acid * catechin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  17. An automatized frequency analysis for vine plot detection and delineation in remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Delenne , Carole; Rabatel , G.; Deshayes , M.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of an automatic tool for vine plot detection, delineation, and characterization would be very useful for management purposes. An automatic and recursive process using frequency analysis (with Fourier transform and Gabor filters) has been developed to meet this need. This results in the determination of vine plot boundary and accurate estimation of interrow width and row orientation. To foster large-scale applications, tests and validation have been carried out on standard ver...

  18. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  19. Retracing recurring vine mortality patterns over a long duration: case study of a Mediterranean viticultural estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at performing both long term historical and spatial tracing, focusing on the vine mortality patterns and their temporal repetition, across a 6 ha-farm, "Domaine des Chauvets", mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley in France. In this estate of long-standing wine-growing history, were mortality patterns randomly distributed or were they related to soil or historical management? Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected in the field at a total of 112 sampling locations. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947-2010 period, of which 7 were retained for further rectification and processing. This dataset was used to retrace the landuse and planting history for each plot, and then extract the frequency of missing vines. Within-field terroir units were demarcated using support vector machine classification of a set of present-day very high resolution data, including soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 maps and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images of May 2014 and July 2015. Field and recent data revealed important soil erosion rates which are likely to ruin terroir sustainability and pointed out those units for which soil restoration practices are urgently needed, while the temporal dataset exhibited a repeated spatial pattern of missing vines, throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements. The frequency of missing vines was related to within-field terroir units and also to past landuse, particularly forest or orchard dating back the 1940s, and current soil organic carbon content. This brings renewed questions about the determinism of vine decline, suggesting contribution of soil degradation processes.

  20. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: biological properties, detection procedures and comparison of coat protein gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Webster, C G; Wylie, S J; Jones, R A C

    2011-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, 5324 samples from at least 34 weed, two cultivated legume and 11 native species were collected from three cucurbit-growing areas in tropical or subtropical Western Australia. Two new alternative hosts of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were identified, the Australian native cucurbit Cucumis maderaspatanus, and the naturalised legume species Rhyncosia minima. Low-level (0.7%) seed transmission of ZYMV was found in seedlings grown from seed collected from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) fruit infected with isolate Cvn-1. Seed transmission was absent in >9500 pumpkin (C. maxima and C. moschata) seedlings from fruit infected with isolate Knx-1. Leaf samples from symptomatic cucurbit plants collected from fields in five cucurbit-growing areas in four Australian states were tested for the presence of ZYMV. When 42 complete coat protein (CP) nucleotide (nt) sequences from the new ZYMV isolates obtained were compared to those of 101 complete CP nt sequences from five other continents, phylogenetic analysis of the 143 ZYMV sequences revealed three distinct groups (A, B and C), with four subgroups in A (I-IV) and two in B (I-II). The new Australian sequences grouped according to collection location, fitting within A-I, A-II and B-II. The 16 new sequences from one isolated location in tropical northern Western Australia all grouped into subgroup B-II, which contained no other isolates. In contrast, the three sequences from the Northern Territory fitted into A-II with 94.6-99.0% nt identities with isolates from the United States, Iran, China and Japan. The 23 new sequences from the central west coast and two east coast locations all fitted into A-I, with 95.9-98.9% nt identities to sequences from Europe and Japan. These findings suggest that (i) there have been at least three separate ZYMV introductions into Australia and (ii) there are few changes to local isolate CP sequences following their establishment in remote growing areas. Isolates from A-I and B

  1. Comparative proteomics of cucurbit phloem indicates both unique and shared sets of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cobollo, Rosa M; Filippis, Ioannis; Bennett, Mark H; Turnbull, Colin G N

    2016-11-01

    Cucurbits are well-studied models for phloem biology but unusually possess both fascicular phloem (FP) within vascular bundles and additional extrafascicular phloem (EFP). Although the functional differences between the two systems are not yet clear, sugar analysis and limited protein profiling have established that FP and EFP have divergent compositions. Here we report a detailed comparative proteomics study of FP and EFP in two cucurbits, pumpkin and cucumber. We re-examined the sites of exudation by video microscopy, and confirmed that in both species, the spontaneous exudate following tissue cutting derives almost exclusively from EFP. Comparative gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics of exudates, sieve element contents and microdissected stem tissues established that EFP and FP profiles are highly dissimilar, and that there are also species differences. Searches against cucurbit databases enabled identification of more than 300 FP proteins from each species. Few of the detected proteins (about 10%) were shared between the sieve element contents of FP and EFP, and enriched Gene Ontology categories also differed. To explore quantitative differences in the proteomes, we developed multiple reaction monitoring methods for cucumber proteins that are representative markers for FP or EFP and assessed exudate composition at different times after tissue cutting. Based on failure to detect FP markers in exudate samples, we conclude that FP is blocked very rapidly and therefore makes a minimal contribution to the exudates. Overall, the highly divergent contents of FP and EFP indicate that they are substantially independent vascular compartments. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  3. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  4. Hybridization and adaptation to introduced balloon vines in an Australian soapberry bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, J A; Thampy, P R; Mathieson, M T; Loye, J; Zalucki, M P; Dingle, H; Carroll, S P

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary adaptation of plant feeding insects to introduced hosts provides clear cases of ecologically based population divergence. In most cases the mechanisms permitting rapid differentiation are not well known. Here we study morphological and genetic variation associated with recent shifts by the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus onto two naturalized Neotropical balloon vines, Cardiospermum halicacabum and C. grandiflorum that differ in time since introduction. Our results show that these vines have much larger fruits than the native hosts (Whitewood tree -Atalaya hemiglauca- and Woolly Rambutan -Alectryon tomentosus-) and that bugs living on them have evolved significantly longer beaks and new allometries. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial haplotypes and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers indicate that the lineage of bugs on the annual vine C. halicacabum, the older introduction, is intermediate between the two subspecies of L. tagalicus found on native hosts. Moreover, where the annual vine and Whitewood tree co-occur, the morphology and genomic composition of the bugs are similar to those occurring in allopatry. These results show that hybridization provided the genetic elements underlying the strongly differentiated 'Halicacabum bugs'. In contrast, the bugs feeding on the recently introduced perennial balloon vine (C. grandiflorum) showed no evidence of admixture, and are genetically indistinguishable from the nearby populations on a native host. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Eman M.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2018-01-01

    The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated cucurbits

  6. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  7. Smart supramolecular sensing with cucurbit[n]urils: probing hydrogen bonding with SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Bart; Kamp, Marlous; Szabó, Istvan; Barrow, Steven J; Benz, Felix; Wu, Guanglu; Carnegie, Cloudy; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Wang, Wenting; Deacon, William M; Rosta, Edina; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-12-04

    Rigid gap nano-aggregates of Au nanoparticles formed using cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecules are used to investigate the competitive binding of ethanol and methanol in an aqueous environment. We show it is possible to detect as little as 0.1% methanol in water and a ten times higher affinity to methanol over ethanol, making this a useful technology for quality control in alcohol production. We demonstrate strong interaction effects in the SERS peaks, which we demonstrate are likely from the hydrogen bonding of water complexes in the vicinity of the CB[n]s.

  8. Survey on The Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Cucurbits in Yogyakarta and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are grown throughout the Java Island as dry season crops. Plants having mosaic, mottling, chlorosis and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently found in most of the cucurbit fields during the survey which conducted in Central Java including Sleman, Kulon Progo, and Klaten during July–September 2000 and 2001. Using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA; Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV were found infecting cucurbits. CMV was widespread, infecting 48.9% of the samples tested followed by CGMMV (12.8% and KGMMV (6.4%, while others samples (31.9% were not tested, double infections were common with 8.5 % of the samples being infected with two viruses (CGMMV and KGMMV and 34% with three viruses (CMV, CGMMV, and KGMMV. Severe mosaic and mottle symptoms were associated most often with single infection of CGMMV and KGMMV respectively. In addition, these are the first detections of CGMMV and KGMMV infecting cucurbit plants in Indonesia. Tanaman labu-labuan umumnya tumbuh sepanjang musim kemarau diPulau Jawa. Tanaman labu-labuan dengan gejala mosaik, klorosis, mottling dan bentuk daun serta buah yang berubah banyak dijumpai selama survei yang dilakukan di Kulon Progo, Sleman dan Klaten pada bulan Juli sampai September tahun 2000 dan 2001. Deteksi menggunakan metode double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA telah berhasil mengetahui keberadaan dan infeksiCucumber mosaic virus(CMV,Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV dan Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV pada tanaman labu-labuan di tiga kabupaten tersebut. CMV menginfeksi tanaman labu-labuan tinggi yaitu 48,9% dari jumlah sampel tanaman yang dikoleksi, kemudian CGMMV (12,8% dan KGMMV(6,4%, sedangkan sebanyak 14 sampel tanaman (31,9%tidak dideteksi.Infeksi ganda banyak ditemukan dan 8,5 % sampel tanaman terinfeksi oleh dua jenis virus (CGMMV dan

  9. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanidermatum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  10. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  11. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  12. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  13. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  15. POMICS: A Simulation Disease Model for Timing Fungicide Applications in Management of Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapak, Z; Salam, M U; Minchinton, E J; MacManus, G P V; Joyce, D C; Galea, V J

    2017-09-01

    A weather-based simulation model, called Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits Simulation (POMICS), was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles. The underlying environmental factors associated with P. xanthii infection were quantified from laboratory and field studies, and also gathered from literature. The performance of the POMICS model when validated with two datasets of uncontrolled natural infection was good (the mean difference between simulated and observed disease severity on a scale of 0 to 5 was 0.02 and 0.05). In simulations, POMICS was able to predict high- and low-risk disease alerts. Furthermore, the predicted disease severity was responsive to the number of fungicide applications. Such responsiveness indicates that the model has the potential to be used as a tool to guide the scheduling of judicious fungicide applications.

  16. MODULATION OF GROWTH AND PROTON PUMPING ATPase ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTIC Lactobacilli BY DIETARY CUCURBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract predominantly harbor probiotic Lactobacilli which exert beneficial effects on human health. Aqueous extracts from fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Ls, Luffa cylindrica (Lc and Cucurbita maxima (Cm were prepared and lyophilized. Fruit extracts were investigated for their effects on Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus. Extracts were found to enhance growth of Lactobacilli without any toxic effect (up to 1000µg/mL concentration. Minimum concentration of extracts at which growth of probiotic strains were found to be enhanced significantly were determined (103.67 µg/mL-118µg/mL and considered as effective concentration (EC or growth stimulatory concentration (GSC. Proton pumping ATPase activity of Lactobacilli were examined and found to be enhanced significantly (29.89- 61.96% in extracts treated probiotics (Lactobacilli as compared to the normal control. Inulin used as positive control and found to enhance the proton efflux activity (28.06-37.72% with respect to the control. These dietary cucurbits enhance metabolic activity of probiotic Lactobacilli by modulating their proton pumping ATPase mechanism. This study suggested that the consumption of cucurbit fruits might be a natural source of enhancing the activities of probiotic Lactobacilli in the gut.

  17. Florigenic effects of IAA for improving pistillate and staminate flowering in some cucurbits under Pb stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Chaudhary, N.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the enhancement of on knowledge about behaviour of cucurbits with heavy metal i.e., Pb (NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and/or their combination with growth hormones (IAA). Effects of Pb and IAA were studied on flowering in Cucumis sativus L. and Momordica charantia L. There is very little information on the effects of heavy metals on the flowering in plants particularly in cucurbits; this in itself makes the issue of interest apart from the interaction of heavy metals with hormones. Plant under the stress of heavy metals can be treated with growth hormones to improve growth parameters, to avoid delay in flowering and likewise quality of fruit can be improved. Applied 400 mg/l IAA caused precocious flowering, increasing the number of flowers in both the plants. Lead caused significant delay in flowering, consequently leading to reduction in the number of pistillate and staminate flowers. However, when IAA was applied with Pb (NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, there was less decrease in staminate and pistillate flowers, revealing the dominant effect of IAA. Current study reveals that inhibitory effects of heavy metals on flowering were partially restored by IAA applications. (author)

  18. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  19. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  20. An eco-friendly in situ activatable antibiotic via cucurbit[8]uril-mediated supramolecular crosslinking of branched polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengke; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Wenxuan; Ding, Yuan-Fu; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Lian-Hui; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Ruibing

    2017-05-30

    We report an unprecedented, eco-friendly, in situ activatable model antibiotic, phenylalanyl-polyethylenimine (PhePEI), to potentially diminish antibiotic pollution of the environment and associated antibiotic resistance. The inactive PhePEI can be reversibly activated upon supramolecular crosslinking by cucurbit[8]uril, conferring potent antibacterial activity.

  1. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  2. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  3. Vine water deficit impacts aging bouquet in fine red Bordeaux wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guyon, François; Gaillard, Laetitia; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed correlations between δ13C values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  4. Influence of leaf number and nodes on the rooting of semiwoody cuttings of flame vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flame vine (Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl. Miers is a semihardwood vine, vigorous, native, native, occurring in all Brazilian biomes and ornamental potential. Technical information about the propagation of this species will contribute to the production of seedlings and with that, their greatest use in landscaping. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the number of leaves and nodes in rooting intermediate flame vine. The experiment was conducted under conditions of intermittent mist. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 2 x 3, being respectively cuttings with one or two nodes, and zero, one or two leaflets. We used four replicates with plots consisting of 12 cuttings placed in substrate of rice hulls in polystyrene trays with 72 cells. We evaluated at 84 days the porcentage of rooted cuttings, length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and, per cutting, average: number of roots - first order; maximum length of each root of the first order, volume and dry weight of roots. It was observed that cuttings with two leaflets enabled 66% of rooting, greater length and dry mass of shoots. The higher quality of the root system occurs with stakes with two leaflets and two nodes. The spread of flame vine is efficient with semi-hardwood cuttings with two nodes and two leaflets, kept in a greenhouse under intermittent mist.

  5. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  6. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing...

  7. The impact of the age of vines on soil hydraulic conductivity in vineyards in eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Prima, Di Simone; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Iovino, Massimo; Pirastru, Mario; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    Soil infiltration processes manage runoff generation, which in turn affects soil erosion. There is limited information on infiltration rates. In this study, the impact of vine age on soil bulk density (BD) and hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was assessed on a loam soil tilled by chisel plough. Soil

  8. Effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted in 2014 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Agricultural Education Department, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe to investigate the effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas(L) Lam) in ultisols of ...

  9. Identification of grape cultivars and rootstocks with resistance to vine mealybug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine mealybug, an insect pest capable of causing direct and indirect damage to grape vineyards, costs California growers millions of dollars annually. Insecticide sprays used to manage the pest provide inconsistent results, and sustainable methods of control are needed. A previous study identified a...

  10. Rooting of jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray cuttings treated with indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rezende Muniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray, is native plant from Philippines. It has long blue-green pseudoracemes inflorescence, which makes it unique and incomparable. It is considered one of the most admired and sought vines, although rare in gardens. This study evaluated the effect of indolbutiric acid (IBA on the stalks rooting of this ornamental specie. Stem cuttings without leaves and with a couple of leaves cut in half, were collected from branches of a well developed jade vine plant and were immerged into dipping solutions with a concentration range of IBA (0, 500, 1.000, 2.000 and 4.000 mg L-1 for 15 seconds. Subsequently, the bases of the cuttings was planted in polystyrene trays containing vermiculite (one cutting per cell and maintained in an intermittent water mist chamber for a 80 days period. Then the percentage of stem rooting was assessed as well as the number of roots and the length of the main root. Jade vine plants can be produced byr stem cutting treated in a dipping solution containing an IBA concentration of 2.000 mg L-1.

  11. Vine Water Deficit Impacts Aging Bouquet in Fine Red Bordeaux Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Picard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C, this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C-values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed correlations between δ13C-values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  12. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  13. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  14. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  15. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  16. The use of non-lethal defoliation to minimize the foliar Cs-uptake by vine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Montruccoli, M.; Anguissola-Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical non-lethal defoliation of fruit trees might be used to minimize the translocation of radionuclides from the leaves to the fruits and to the internal ligneous tissues, reducing their redistribution in next harvest. The current paper describes a study on vine - a Mediteranian arboreous specie of high economical value. The leaf-fruit translocation of radiocaesium has been analyzed from different points of view, in particular, the possibility of reducing the foliar uptake of such radionuclide by means of a nonlethal defoliation. Vines grown in pots have been directly contaminated in two different years by sprinkling a carrier free solution of 134 Cs on leaves. Grapes have been covered during sprinkling to avoid their direct contamination. Other vines have been defoliated after contamination to evaluate the influence of leaf removal on the radiocaesium translocation to the fruits. The radiocaesium concentration has been determined in grapes at the ripening stage in the must. The radiocaesium interception measured on removed leaves is about 30% of the sprinkled activity. The radioactivity of covered grapes is with 20% lower than uncovered ones. Such a lower activity is likely ascribable only to leaf-fruit translocation without direct contamination of the grapes. The translocation factor expressed as percentage of fruit activity compared to the total intercepted one is about four times lower when the leaf removal treatment is affected just after the contamination. Grapes of plants contaminated a year before have a 134 Cs residual activity about 17 times lower than plants contaminated in the same year. When the vines have been contaminated and defoliated the year before, the residual activity of grapes is about 70 times lower. The ratio between defoliated and non-defoliated plants is still 1:4. Radioactivity of the must is five times lower for defoliated vines than for non-defoliated ones. (author)

  17. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  18. Acid-Labile Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dake; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yamin; Zhou, Xianhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia; Ma, Da

    2017-10-02

    Stimuli-responsive molecular containers are of great importance for controlled drug delivery and other biomedical applications. A new type of acid labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular containers is presented that can degrade and release the encapsulated cargo at accelerated rates under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5). These containers retain the excellent recognition properties of CB[n]-type hosts. A cell culture study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of cargos could be fine-tuned by complexation with different containers. The release and cell uptake of cargo dye was promoted by acidic pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. First full-length genome sequence of the polerovirus luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) reveals the presence of at least two consensus sequences in an isolate from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Dennis; Maiss, Edgar; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Menzel, Wulf

    2015-10-01

    Luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) was proposed as the name for a previously undescribed polerovirus based on partial genome sequences obtained from samples of cucurbit plants collected in Thailand between 2008 and 2013. In this study, we determined the first full-length genome sequence of LABYV. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genome properties, it is clear that this virus represents a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus. Analysis of sequences from sample TH24, which was collected in 2010 from a luffa plant in Thailand, reveals the presence of two different full-length genome consensus sequences.

  20. Toxicology and drug delivery by cucurbit[n]uril type molecular containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Nguyen, Duc; Wu, Jing; Lucas, Derick; Ma, Da; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2010-05-06

    Many drug delivery systems are based on the ability of certain macrocyclic compounds - such as cyclodextrins (CDs) - to act as molecular containers for pharmaceutical agents in water. Indeed beta-CD and its derivatives have been widely used in the formulation of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals despite their poor abilities to act as a molecular container (e.g., weak binding (K(a)containers that bind to a variety of cationic and neutral species with high affinity (K(a)>10(4) M(-1)) and therefore show great promise as a drug delivery system. In this study we investigated the toxicology, uptake, and bioactivity of two cucurbit[n]urils (CB[5] and CB[7]) and three CB[n]-type containers (Pentamer 1, methyl hexamer 2, and phenyl hexamer 3). All five containers demonstrated high cell tolerance at concentrations of up to 1 mM in cell lines originating from kidney, liver or blood tissue using assays for metabolic activity and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the CB[7] molecular container was efficiently internalized by macrophages indicating their potential for the intracellular delivery of drugs. Bioactivity assays showed that the first-line tuberculosis drug, ethambutol, was as efficient in treating mycobacteria infected macrophages when loaded into CB[7] as when given in the unbound form. This result suggests that CB[7]-bound drug molecules can be released from the container to find their intracellular target. Our study reveals very low toxicity of five members of the cucurbit[n]uril family of nanocontainers. It demonstrates the uptake of containers by cells and intracellular release of container-loaded drugs. These results provide initial proof-of-concept towards the use of CB[n] molecular containers as an advanced drug delivery system.

  1. Fumonisin contamination and fumonisin producing black Aspergilli in dried vine fruits of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Suri, K; Szigeti, Gy; Szekeres, A; Varga, M; Tóth, B; Bartók, T

    2010-10-15

    Aspergillus niger isolates are able to produce fumonisins in high quantities on agar media with a low water activity. Several agricultural products fit this criterion, including dried vine fruits, dates and figs. Data on the occurrence and role of this species in fumonisin contamination of agricultural products with high sugar content are needed to clarify the importance of A. niger in human health. The mycobiota and fumonisin contamination of various dried vine fruit samples collected from different countries were examined to clarify the role of black Aspergilli in fumonisin contamination of such products. All except two of the examined samples were contaminated with black Aspergilli. Species assignment of the isolates was carried out using sequence analysis of part of the calmodulin gene. The range of fumonisin isomers present in the raisins samples, and produced by A. niger isolates collected from dried vine fruits was also examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-ITMS). Among the 30 A. niger/A. awamori isolates identified, 20 were found to be able to produce fumonisins (average contamination: 5.16 mg/kg; range: 0.017-19.6 mg/kg). The average fumonisin content of the 7 dried vine fruit samples which were found to be contaminated by potential fumonisin producing black Aspergilli was 7.22 mg/kg (range: 4.55-35.49 mg/kg). The isolates produced several fumonisin isomers also present in the dried vine fruit samples, including fumonisins B(1-4), 3-epi-FB(3), 3-epi-FB(4), iso-FB(1), and two iso-FB(2,3) forms. Fumonisin B(1) was detected for the first time in A. niger cultures. Most of these isomers have previously only been identified in Fusarium species. Our data indicate that A. niger and A. awamori are responsible for fumonisin contamination of dried vine fruits worldwide. The observed levels of contamination are alarming and pose a new threat for food safety. Copyright

  2. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  3. Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Yang, Kun; Wei, Yu; Lei, Likun

    2018-01-01

    Volatilities of crude oil price have important impacts on the steady and sustainable development of world real economy. Thus it is of great academic and practical significance to model and measure the volatility and risk of crude oil markets accurately. This paper aims to measure the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of a portfolio consists of four crude oil assets by using GARCH-type models, extreme value theory (EVT) and vine copulas. The backtesting results show that the combination of GARCH-type-EVT models and vine copula methods can produce accurate risk measures of the oil portfolio. Mixed R-vine copula is more flexible and superior to other vine copulas. Different GARCH-type models, which can depict the long-memory and/or leverage effect of oil price volatilities, however offer similar marginal distributions of the oil returns.

  4. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: Do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Delord

    2015-06-01

    In summary, the main argument put forward by the European Commission to justify canceling vine planting rights is not adapted to the case of France because it considers wine as a single product sold at a single price.

  5. Host-Guest Interaction of Cucurbit[8]uril with N-(3-Aminopropyl)cyclohexylamine: Cyclohexyl Encapsulation Triggered Ternary Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Wang, Chuan-Zeng; Tian, Mengkui; Tao, Zhu; Ni, Xin-Long; Prior, Timothy J; Redshaw, Carl

    2018-01-15

    The host-guest interaction of a series of cyclohexyl-appended guests with cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8]) was studied by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and X-ray crystallography. The X-ray structure revealed that two cycloalkane moieties can be simultaneously encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the Q[8] host to form a ternary complex for the first time.

  6. Host-Guest Interaction of Cucurbit[8]uril with N-(3-Aminopropylcyclohexylamine: Cyclohexyl Encapsulation Triggered Ternary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The host-guest interaction of a series of cyclohexyl-appended guests with cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8] was studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and X-ray crystallography. The X-ray structure revealed that two cycloalkane moieties can be simultaneously encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the Q[8] host to form a ternary complex for the first time.

  7. Predicting the risk of cucurbit downy mildew in the eastern United States using an integrated aerobiological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, K. N.; Keinath, A. P.; Gugino, B. K.; McGrath, M. T.; Sikora, E. J.; Miller, S. A.; Ivey, M. L.; Langston, D. B.; Dutta, B.; Keever, T.; Sims, A.; Ojiambo, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    Cucurbit downy mildew caused by the obligate oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is considered one of the most economically important diseases of cucurbits worldwide. In the continental United States, the pathogen overwinters in southern Florida and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Outbreaks of the disease in northern states occur annually via long-distance aerial transport of sporangia from infected source fields. An integrated aerobiological modeling system has been developed to predict the risk of disease occurrence and to facilitate timely use of fungicides for disease management. The forecasting system, which combines information on known inoculum sources, long-distance atmospheric spore transport and spore deposition modules, was tested to determine its accuracy in predicting risk of disease outbreak. Rainwater samples at disease monitoring sites in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and South Carolina were collected weekly from planting to the first appearance of symptoms at the field sites during the 2013, 2014, and 2015 growing seasons. A conventional PCR assay with primers specific to P. cubensis was used to detect the presence of sporangia in rain water samples. Disease forecasts were monitored and recorded for each site after each rain event until initial disease symptoms appeared. The pathogen was detected in 38 of the 187 rainwater samples collected during the study period. The forecasting system correctly predicted the risk of disease outbreak based on the presence of sporangia or appearance of initial disease symptoms with an overall accuracy rate of 66 and 75%, respectively. In addition, the probability that the forecasting system correctly classified the presence or absence of disease was ≥ 73%. The true skill statistic calculated based on the appearance of disease symptoms in cucurbit field plantings ranged from 0.42 to 0.58, indicating that the disease forecasting system had an acceptable to good

  8. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  9. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  10. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New highly sensitive method of simultaneous instrumental neutron activation determination of 12 microelements in vine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoniya, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    The main principles and methods of simultaneous multi-element instrumental neutron activation determination of microelements in vine seeds are presented. The methods permit to carry out quantitative evaluation for every single corn of the seeds. It is shown that the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis with the utilization of a semiconductor spectrometer of high resolution and mini electronic computer permit to carry out serial determinations of 12 microelements in the individual corns of vine seeds of different sorts. This method will permit to determine the missing or excess content of this or that biologically important microelement in soils, plants, fruit and genetic material - seeds, and so to determine the optimum conditions of growing plants by applying microelement fertilizers as extra nutrient means

  12. MEASURING WORKING HOURS INPUT IN VINE GROWING AT WORK ORGANIZATION BASED ON PHENOLOGICAL PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J BRAZSIL

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was based on phenological phases of Italian Riesling, involving differences in labour and financial input for dry, optimal and wet weather. Worktime demand for certain operations in vine growing was determined with an analytic method, work day survey and We worked out alternatives for dry, optimum and wet weather on the basis of phenological phaseses. The worktime demand for the phenological phases with all their operations were analysed and planned in an itemized way based on our findings. We used them to work out the worktime demand for the given vine land for each operation. To analyse differences coming from diverse methods of cultivation and spacing, the material, operational and total costs of hand and mechanized labour were projected for 1 hectare and variance analysis was made.

  13. Biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilov, D.

    1977-01-01

    Long term experiments have proved the affinity of cv. Mavroud in transplantations on various root stocks. Best affinity was observed in the combination cv. Mavroud X Riparia tomanteau, followed, in a descending order, by the combinations Mavroud X Mavroud (autotransplantation), Mavroud X Berlandieri X Riparia Kobber SBB and Mavroud X Riparia 33 EM. In view to establish indices for predicting the transplantation affinity a great number of physiological-biochemical and morphological-anatomical studies were carried out. The results obtained showed that a most clearly expressed positive, statistically significant correlation exists between the amount of 15 N transported from the root stock to the scions, shoots and leaves. As a result, a biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation has been developed. The reliability of the method has been checked up also with other cultivars. Up to the present no such method was known in grape-vine science and practice. (author)

  14. Wine and the vine in Upper Moesia archaeological and epigraphic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine-growing and winemaking in the area of the Roman province of Upper Moesia are looked at based on the information supplied by the ancient sources, and the archaeological and epigraphic evidence (inscriptions, artistic depictions, vinedressing and winemaking implements, drinking and transport vessels. Viniculture is associated with the Greco-Roman cultural orbit, while the native central-Balkan tribes typically consumed alcoholic beverages made from cereals. Therefore the goal of the research is to shed as much light as currently possible on the significance of vine-growing and wine in the life of the inhabitants of Upper Moesia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  15. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  16. Mobile Application Development for Optimal and Rapid Diagnosis of Vine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lucia TOMOIAGĂ

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of machine learning (Ghahramani, 2015, breakthroughs in computer vision (Krizhevsky et al., 2012 and the availability of cheap computational hardware has led us to look for a way to automatically detect and classify a disease just by having a computer or a mobile phone process a picture of an affected plant. Given the widespread availability of mobile devices, we believe we can help the vine growers further.

  17. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-Chang, Mauricio; Boyer, St?phane; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Steve D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Methods...

  18. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  19. C-Vine copula mixture model for clustering of residential electrical load pattern data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, M; Konstantelos, I; Strbac, G

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing deployment of residential smart meters in numerous jurisdictions has led to an influx of electricity consumption data. This information presents a valuable opportunity to suppliers for better understanding their customer base and designing more effective tariff structures. In the past, various clustering methods have been proposed for meaningful customer partitioning. This paper presents a novel finite mixture modeling framework based on C-vine copulas (CVMM) for carrying out cons...

  20. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  1. Use of radiation for improving vines regarding their resistance to mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Vines (Vitis vinifera) resistant to mildew (Plasmopara viticola) offer real advantages in Europe, and the problems of producing such vines were studied for a long time. At first conventional techniques were used, obtaining plants with high yield and with resistance persisting under widely differing ecological conditions; moreover, pathogenically different biotypes of Plasmopara have never been found. However, various factors - such as the quantitative nature of this resistance, which is controlled by a polygenic system, certain genetic correlations between resistance and poor quality of the grapes and the lack of resistance sources in V. vinifera - suggested that mutagenesis should be included among the methods used for the improvement of vines. Hence shoots and, more particularly, seeds have been undergoing irradiation with X-rays and neutrons since 1966. The exposure of seeds to low radiation doses (about 1000rad), particularly of X-rays, has in most varieties produced a very welcome increase in the germination percentage. Seedlings from irradiated seeds are selected mainly on the basis of the characteristics of the infection spots which develop on the leaves. In V. vinifera, resistance to mildew is reflected not in necroses but in small and usually not very sporulated spots. Using these criteria, the author has already selected - after natural infections and inoculations - plants representing approximately 0.001-0.0025% of the total number of plants screened. Tables illustrate the selection procedure up to 1976

  2. Correlations between Natural Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Vine-Growth Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisane, T.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stellenbosch district is known as one of the best wine-producing regions in South Africa and lies 45 km east of Cape Town. It has a large number of estates, of which one of them was earmarked for vineyard development and is of much importance to this study. Soil plays an important role in the development of the vine and ultimately the grapes harvested from the vine. It is therefore important to characterise vineyard soils (quantitatively and qualitatively) and to study the impact of soil properties on the vine. These properties include among others and of importance to this study, the soil ph, concentrations of trace elements, clay content and natural radioactivity concentrations (1). In this study correlations between radiometric data and traditional chemical data in vineyard soils used to infer growth potential were studied. Discussed below are experimental techniques used in the determination of activity concentration of natural radionuclide ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) in soil, data analysis, results and conclusions

  3. Dormancy break with garlic extract and hydrogen peroxide in rootstock vine ‘SO4’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilla Juan Saavedra del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic product is used to help overcome dormancy of the buds of vines in tropical and sub-tropical climate, but the product currently available in Brazil has the highest level of toxicity to humans. The objective was to study some alternatives to break the dormancy of the buds of the rootstock vine ‘SO4’. The sprayed treatments were: T1 = water (control; T2 = hydrogen cyanamide (3%; T3 = garlic (33% and; T4 = Hydrogen Peroxide – H2O2 – (3%. The cuttings were immersed in a indole acetic acid (IAA of 5 ppm for 15 seconds and placed in plastic bags (19 cm× 5 cm× 8 cm with 50% sand + 50% commercial substrate (H. Decker® . After 04 months, were evaluated: percentage of live cuttings, aerial part height (cm, length of roots (cm and dry matter of aerial parts and root (g. Regarding the roots, root dry weight and dry matter of aerial parts, stood out the cuttings treated with H2O2 at a concentration of 3% (T4. In the present work conditions, preliminarily concluded that H2O2 at a concentration of 3% can assist in breaking dormancy of the buds of the roostock vine ‘SO4’.

  4. O vine e o diálogo audiovisual na cultura participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Neves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No atual ambiente midiático, a audiência possui ferramentas não apenas para consumir mas para produzir e distribuir conteúdo. Em um mercado onde as fronteiras entre entretenimento e publicidade se tornam cada vez menos claras, o conteúdo audiovisual e as comunidades formadas ao seu redor se tornam temas de estudo relevantes. Dominado pelo YouTube na primeira década do milênio, o mercado do vídeo online vem se ampliando em função da tecnologia mobile, e aplicativos para rápida produção e consumo de vídeo, como o Vine, que se destaca pelo seu caráter social e colaborativo. A proposta deste trabalho é examinar o potencial do Vine na publicidade – não aquela tradicionalmente interruptiva e unilateral, mas sim uma publicidade que entretém, envolve e convida a participar. Para isto, o caso da campanha Hollywood and Vines, da Airbnb, será analisado.

  5. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  6. Acidovorax citrulli: generating basic and applied knowledge to tackle a global threat to the cucurbit industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Saul; Walcott, Ron

    2012-10-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbit plants. In recent years, the disease has spread to many parts of the world, mainly via the inadvertent distribution of contaminated commercial seeds. Because of the costly lawsuits filed by growers against seed companies and the lack of efficient management methods, BFB represents a serious threat to the cucurbit industry, and primarily to watermelons and melons. Despite the economic importance of the disease, little is known about the basic aspects of A. citrulli pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the release of the genome of one A. citrulli strain, as well as the optimization of molecular manipulation and inoculation methods, has prompted basic studies and allowed advances towards an understanding of A. citrulli pathogenicity. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge about this important pathogen, with emphasis on its epidemiology and the factors involved in its pathogenicity and virulence. Bacteria; Betaproteobacteria; order Burkholderiales; family C omamonadaceae; genus Acidovorax; species citrulli. Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped; average dimensions of 0.5 μm × 1.7 μm; motile by means of an ~5.0-μm-long polar flagellum; colonies on King's medium B are round, smooth, transparent and nonpigmented; optimal temperatures for growth around 27-30 °C; induces a hypersensitive response on nonhost tobacco and tomato leaves. Acidovorax citrulli strains are pathogenic to various species of the Cucurbitaceae family, including watermelon, melon, squash, pumpkin and cucumber. Significant economic losses have been reported in watermelon and melon. Watermelon and melon seedlings and fruits are highly susceptible to A. citrulli. Typical seedling symptoms include water-soaked lesions on cotyledons that are often adjacent to the veins and later become necrotic, lesions on the hypocotyl, and seedling collapse and death. On watermelon fruits, symptoms begin as small

  7. VINE-A NUMERICAL CODE FOR SIMULATING ASTROPHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING PARTICLES. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-01-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose 'GRAPE' hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  8. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chang, Mauricio; Boyer, Stéphane; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Steve D

    2017-01-01

    Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines ( Vitis vinifera ). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6-28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a silhouette against the sky. Therefore, long-term management

  9. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio González-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera. Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Methods Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. Results By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6–28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. Discussion The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a

  10. Biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LJ02 induces systemic resistance against cucurbits powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Gu, Yilin; Li, Juan; Xu, Mingzhu; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuanhong

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease found in a wide range of plants and can significantly reduce crop yields. Bacterial strain LJ02 is a biocontrol agent (BCA) isolated from a greenhouse in Tianjin, China. In combination of morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, strain LJ02 was classified as a new member of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Greenhouse trials showed that LJ02 fermentation broth (LJ02FB) can effectively diminish the occurrence of cucurbits powdery mildew. When treated with LJ02FB, cucumber seedlings produced significantly elevated production of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as compared to that of the control. We further confirmed that the production of free salicylic acid (SA) and expression of one pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 in cucumber leaves were markedly elevated after treating with LJ02FB, suggesting that SA-mediated defense response was stimulated. Moreover, LJ02FB-treated cucumber leaves could secrete resistance-related substances into rhizosphere that inhibit the germination of fungi spores and the growth of pathogens. Finally, we separated bacterium and its fermented substances to test their respective effects and found that both components have SA-inducing activity and bacterium plays major roles. Altogether, we identified a BCA against powdery mildew and its mode of action by inducing systemic resistance such as SA signaling pathway.

  11. Flavylium network of chemical reactions in confined media: modulation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavilium reactions by host-guest interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Nuno; Pina, Fernando

    2014-08-04

    In moderately acidic aqueous solutions, flavylium compounds undergo a pH-, and in some cases, light-dependent array of reversible chemical reactions. This network can be described as a single acid-base reaction involving a flavylium cation (acidic form) and a mixture of basic forms (quinoidal base, hemiketal and cis and trans chalcones). The apparent pK'a of the system and the relative mole fractions of the basic forms can be modulated by the interaction with cucurbit[7]uril. The system is studied by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, flash photolysis, and steady-state irradiation. Of all the network species, the flavylium cation possesses the highest affinity for cucurbit[7]uril. The rate of interconversion between flavylium cation and the basic species (where trans-chalcone is dominant) is approximately nine times lower inside the cucurbit[7]uril. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  13. Effect of biostimulant sprays on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and esca proper infected vines under greenhouse and fi eld conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are compounds that infl uence physiological processes in plants, producing better growth and enhancing stress tolerance. The effect of some biostimulants on vines was investigated over a number of years to assess their effect both on the incidence of esca leaf symptoms in the vineyard and on the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora artifi cially inoculated into potted vines. Field trials were carried out for 4–7 years in fi ve 15-20-yearold vineyards infected with esca proper. Potted plants were sprayed with biostimulants, after which the vine trunks were inoculated with P. chlamydospora, and then the vines were sprayed again with biostimulants in the following 2 or 3 growing seasons. On the whole, biostimulants in the fi eld did not reduce foliar symptoms. The percentage of symptomatic vines that had shown symptoms in previous years was higher in the biostimulant-sprayed plots. In the greenhouse, a certain reduction of internal necrosis caused by P. chlamydospora was seen with three of the four biostimulants tested. Prospects for biostimulants as a means control esca are discussed.

  14. Influence of mating disruption on the reproductive biology of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Muscas, Enrico; Mura, Alessandra; Iodice, Andrea; Savino, Francesco; Lentini, Andrea

    2018-05-08

    Although mating disruption is increasingly being used to control the worldwide grapevine pest vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), its mode of action remains unclear. A three-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of mating disruption on the development and reproduction of the vine mealybug. The influence of mating disruption applied over consecutive years on the pest population density was also evaluated. The percentage of ovipositing females was significantly reduced in disrupted plots by 18.8-66.2%, depending on the year. The absence of ovipositing females in disrupted plots in the autumn of the second and third year indicates the effectiveness of mating disruption throughout the whole growing season. Mating disruption consistently prolonged the pre-oviposition period in all years by up to 12.5 days. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the pheromone-based control of the vine mealybug and indicate that the reduction of the pest population density is due to both a decrease and delay in female mating. In addition, the population density of vine mealybugs under mating disruption decreased over years, indicating that consecutive applications of this control strategy would significantly increase the effectiveness of controlling the vine mealybug by mating disruption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-supervised learning of hyperspectral image segmentation applied to vine tomatoes and table grapes

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    Jeroen van Roy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, quality inspection of fruit and vegetables is typically accomplished through visual inspection. Automation of this inspection is desirable to make it more objective. For this, hyperspectral imaging has been identified as a promising technique. When the field of view includes multiple objects, hypercubes should be segmented to assign individual pixels to different objects. Unsupervised and supervised methods have been proposed. While the latter are labour intensive as they require masking of the training images, the former are too computationally intensive for in-line use and may provide different results for different hypercubes. Therefore, a semi-supervised method is proposed to train a computationally efficient segmentation algorithm with minimal human interaction. As a first step, an unsupervised classification model is used to cluster spectra in similar groups. In the second step, a pixel selection algorithm applied to the output of the unsupervised classification is used to build a supervised model which is fast enough for in-line use. To evaluate this approach, it is applied to hypercubes of vine tomatoes and table grapes. After first derivative spectral preprocessing to remove intensity variation due to curvature and gloss effects, the unsupervised models segmented 86.11% of the vine tomato images correctly. Considering overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and time needed to segment one hypercube, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was found to be the best choice for in-line use, when using one training image. By adding a second image, the segmentation results improved considerably, yielding an overall accuracy of 96.95% for segmentation of vine tomatoes and 98.52% for segmentation of table grapes, demonstrating the added value of the learning phase in the algorithm.

  16. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50°C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  17. El Amarilleo de las cucurbitáceas : diagnóstico y microscopía de las relaciones virus-planta y virus-vector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Villar, Gema

    2002-01-01

    L' ENGROGUIMENT DE LES CUCURBITÀCIES: DIAGNÓSTIC I MICROSCOPIA DE LES RELACIONS VIRUS-PLANTA I VIRUS-VECTOR La malaltia de l'engroguiment de les cucurbitàcies, de gran importància, en els cultius del sud-est espanyol, està produïda per dos Closteroviridae transmesos per mosques blanques, el virus del fals engroguiment de la remolatxa (BPYV) i el virus de l'engroguiment enanitzant de les cucurbitàcies (CYSDV). BPYV és transmès específicament i de forma semipersistent per Trialeurodes vaporario...

  18. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  19. The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, has a large distribution, occurring from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it is found from the Amazon in the north, to Santa Catarina in the south. In the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, there are only two records of I. cenchoa in the literature. In the present study, a search for I. cenchoa from Minas Gerais was conducted in the main Brazilian herpetological collections, revealing a total of 13 localities with records of this species.

  20. 134Cs foliar contamination of vine: translocation to grapes and transfer to wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Anguissola Scotti, I.; Montruccoli, M.; Silva, S.

    1996-01-01

    Grape vines growing in pots placed in open field were contaminated by sprinkling an aqueous solution of carrier free 134 Cs. Activity was determined in acini and must at the ripening stage. Interception and Translocation Factors (TLF) were quantified. They strictly depend on the state of growth of the crop. Wine was produced by a laboratory process and analysed as to radiocesium. Transfer parameters, F r and P e , were calculated to predict radiocesium concentration in wine: it is 0.6 times the activity found in grapes. The leaf fruit translocation seems to be the dominant process in the contamination of acini when compared to direct deposition. (author)

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Performance of Cucurbit Fruit Fly Dacus ciliatus(Loew)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Taweel, A. A.; AL-Shammary, A. J. M; Ahmed, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays on males and females cucurbit fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Loew) exposed as pupae at age of 5 days was investigated. The results revealed that the dose of 75 and 90 Gray caused complete sterility in females and males, respectively.Furthermore,the result of this study showed the exposing females and males as pupae to dose of 45 Gray or higher and mated either to gather or to unirradiated sex caused reduction in their production of the eggs and its percent of hatch. Finally results showed that all dosed of gamma rays had no effect on sex ratio of produced adults. (author)

  2. A vine copula mixed effect model for trivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies accounting for disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K

    2017-10-01

    A bivariate copula mixed model has been recently proposed to synthesize diagnostic test accuracy studies and it has been shown that it is superior to the standard generalized linear mixed model in this context. Here, we call trivariate vine copulas to extend the bivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies by accounting for disease prevalence. Our vine copula mixed model includes the trivariate generalized linear mixed model as a special case and can also operate on the original scale of sensitivity, specificity, and disease prevalence. Our general methodology is illustrated by re-analyzing the data of two published meta-analyses. Our study suggests that there can be an improvement on trivariate generalized linear mixed model in fit to data and makes the argument for moving to vine copula random effects models especially because of their richness, including reflection asymmetric tail dependence, and computational feasibility despite their three dimensionality.

  3. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  4. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  5. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  6. Selección de rizobacterias por su antagonismo frente a microorganismos patógenos de cucurbitáceas /Screening of rhizobacteria for their antagonism against microbial pathogens of cucurbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El desarrollo de inoculantes microbianos a partir de aislamientos de rizobacterias con potencial para el control biológico de enfermedades de los cultivos agrícolas requiere de una rigurosa selección. Se obtuvieron aislamientos bacterianos de la rizosfera de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y de maíz (Zea mays L. y de semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Las colonias que mostraron in vitro halos de inhibición de los patógenos de cucurbitáceas: Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrull y Fusarium oxysporum, se seleccionaron como antagonistas. A partir de las características morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas las cepas antagonistas F16/95 y Xph se identificaron con la especie Bacillus subtilis y la cepa 14A como Pseudomonas putida. Las pruebas presuntivas de producción de antibiocinas in vitro sugirieron modos de acción de las rizobacterias relacionados con antibiosis y competencia por el hierro mediante la producción de sideróforos. Los resultados indicaron el potencial de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis (F16/95, Xph y Pesudomonas putida 14A para el control biológico de enfermedades de las cucurbitáceas./Abstract:

  7. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  8. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Regime Switching Vine Copula Models for Global Equity and Volatility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly every major stock market there exist equity and implied volatility indices. These play important roles within finance: be it as a benchmark, a measure of general uncertainty or a way of investing or hedging. It is well known in the academic literature that correlations and higher moments between different indices tend to vary in time. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one has yet considered a global setup including both equity and implied volatility indices of various continents, and allowing for a changing dependence structure. We aim to close this gap by applying Markov-switching R-vine models to investigate the existence of different, global dependence regimes. In particular, we identify times of “normal” and “abnormal” states within a data set consisting of North-American, European and Asian indices. Our results confirm the existence of joint points in a time at which global regime switching between two different R-vine structures takes place.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD 99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males. - Highlights: • Effects of gamma irradiation on Lobesia botrana mature larvae are examined. • Results showed that a dose of 200 Gy was sufficient to prevent adult emergence from mature larvae. • This dose (200 Gy) is less than the suggested generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidopteran larvae. • The dose is also much lower than the maximum allowed dose for irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables

  11. Two Crinivirus-specific proteins of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), P26 and P9, are self-interacting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lucy R; Hwang, Min Sook; Falk, Bryce W

    2009-11-01

    Interactions of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV)-encoded proteins were tested by yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays. LIYV-encoded P34, Hsp70h, P59, CP, CPm, and P26 were tested in all possible pairwise combinations. Interaction was detected only for the P26-P26 combination. P26 self-interaction domains were mapped using a series of N- and C-terminal truncations. Orthologous P26 proteins from the criniviruses Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), and Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) were also tested, and each exhibited strong self-interaction but no interaction with orthologous proteins. Two small putative proteins encoded by LIYV RNA2, P5 and P9, were also tested for interactions with the six aforementioned LIYV proteins and each other. No interactions were detected for P5, but P9-P9 self-interaction was detected. P26- and P9-encoding genes are present in all described members of the genus Crinivirus, but are not present in other members of the family Closteroviridae. LIYV P26 has previously been demonstrated to induce a unique LIYV cytopathology, plasmalemma deposits (PLDs), but no role is yet known for P9.

  12. The formation of amino acid and dipeptide complexes with α-cyclodextrin and cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous solutions studied by titration calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.-J.; Schollmeyer, E.; Mutihac, L.

    2003-01-01

    The complex stabilities and the thermodynamic data for the complexation of α-cyclodextrin and cucurbit[6]uril with some amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine, 6-amino hexanoic acid, 8-amino octanoic acid, 11-amino undecanoic acid) and dipeptides (glycyl-glycine, glycyl-L-valine, glycyl-L-leucine and glycyl-L-phenylalanine) have been determined in aqueous solution by calorimetric titrations. The complex formation with α-cyclodextrin is mainly favoured by entropic contributions due to the release of water molecules from the cavity of the ligand. The values of the reaction enthalpies are small with the exception of 11-amino undecanoic acid. In case of the ligand cucurbit[6]uril, ion-dipole interactions between the protonated amino groups of the amino acids and the carbonyl groups take place. By steric reasons these interactions are lowered for native amino acids because the polar carboxylic groups are always located outside the hydrophobic cavity of cucurbit[6]uril. The complexes of both ligands with dipeptides in water are characterised by hydrophobic interactions and in case of cucurbit[6]uril by additional ion-dipole interactions

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Strain Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghamnia, Hamid Reza; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Azizi, Abdolbaset

    2018-03-01

    The complete genome sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain Kurdistan (ZYMV-Kurdistan) infecting squash from Iran was determined from 13 overlapping fragments. Excluding the poly (A) tail, ZYMV-Kurdistan genome consisted of 9593 nucleotides (nt), with 138 and 211 nt at the 5' and 3' non-translated regions, respectively. It contained two open-reading frames (ORFs), the large ORF encoding a polyprotein of 3080 amino acids (aa) and the small overlapping ORF encoding a P3N-PIPO protein of 74 aa. This isolate had six unique aa differences compared to other ZYMV isolates and shared 79.6-98.8% identities with other ZYMV genome sequences at the nt level and 90.1-99% identities at the aa level. A phylogenetic tree of ZYMV complete genomic sequences showed that Iranian and Central European isolates are closely related and form a phylogenetically homogenous group. All values in the ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites ( d N / d S ) were below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ZYMV protein history. This is the first report of complete genome sequence information of the most prevalent virus in the west of Iran. This study helps our understanding of the genetic diversity of ZYMV isolates infecting cucurbit plants in Iran, virus evolution and epidemiology and can assist in designing better diagnostic tools.

  14. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  15. Rare Earth and other Chemical Elements Accumulation in Vines of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Dias, Maria Isabel; Franco, Dulce

    2017-04-01

    The Fogo Island is the fourth bigger island of the Cape Verde (central Atlantic Ocean). This archipelago is located 570 kilometres off the coast of West Africa, and is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The volcanic soils of the caldera of this island, with an active volcanism during historical times, have been used for viticulture. The study of uptake of chemical elements by vines - absorption and translocation to grapes - grown in soils developed on alkaline pyroclasts is the main goal of this work. The concentrations of 27 chemical elements in bark, leafs and grapes of two vines, as well as in the corresponding soils ( 50). The bioavailable fraction of Cr and As in these soils may be due to the low percentage of iron oxides (particularly in the form of nanoparticles), which play an important role in the retention of these elements. The factors responsible for the phytoavailability of Sb in soils and its uptake by plants it's still poorly known. Although the Sb concentrations in earth's crust are low, higher concentrations of this element in soils may be related with hydrothermal and volcanic processes. Also, the temperature may influence the accumulation of Sb in plants, with an increase of the Sb uptake by plants at higher temperatures, due to an increased desorption rate of Sb from soil particles. Concerning U, its mobility and dispersion in soils is controlled by its oxidation state, its adsorption capacity in clay minerals or iron oxides, and the ability to form more or less soluble complexes. Although U concentrations in these volcanic soils are low, there is a fraction available for absorption and accumulation by grapes. Concerning the rare earth elements (REE), it should be noted that the light REE are not enriched in any part of the vines studied, and only the heavy REE are enriched in grapes (EF = 20-50); this can be explained by the preferential uptake of the heavy REE, after primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds

  16. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  17. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  18. Grid inhomogeneous solvation theory: hydration structure and thermodynamics of the miniature receptor cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Crystal N; Young, Tom Kurtzman; Gilson, Michael K

    2012-07-28

    The displacement of perturbed water upon binding is believed to play a critical role in the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition, but it is nontrivial to unambiguously define and answer questions about this process. We address this issue by introducing grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST), which discretizes the equations of inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) onto a three-dimensional grid situated in the region of interest around a solute molecule or complex. Snapshots from explicit solvent simulations are used to estimate localized solvation entropies, energies, and free energies associated with the grid boxes, or voxels, and properly summing these thermodynamic quantities over voxels yields information about hydration thermodynamics. GIST thus provides a smoothly varying representation of water properties as a function of position, rather than focusing on hydration sites where solvent is present at high density. It therefore accounts for full or partial displacement of water from sites that are highly occupied by water, as well as for partly occupied and water-depleted regions around the solute. GIST can also provide a well-defined estimate of the solvation free energy and therefore enables a rigorous end-states analysis of binding. For example, one may not only use a first GIST calculation to project the thermodynamic consequences of displacing water from the surface of a receptor by a ligand, but also account, in a second GIST calculation, for the thermodynamics of subsequent solvent reorganization around the bound complex. In the present study, a first GIST analysis of the molecular host cucurbit[7]uril is found to yield a rich picture of hydration structure and thermodynamics in and around this miniature receptor. One of the most striking results is the observation of a toroidal region of high water density at the center of the host's nonpolar cavity. Despite its high density, the water in this toroidal region is disfavored energetically and

  19. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  20. Reduction of radio-contamination of vines by the method of 'non-lethal defoliation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study is included in the European Commission Programme RESSAC (Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after a nuclear Accident). Its objective is to investigate the possibility of using 'non-lethal defoliation' as a countermeasure to mitigate the foliar uptake of radionuclides by plant leaves. We experimented on vines in productive agricultural fields in Spata - Attica, Greece. Interception factors and translocation of radionuclides studies were performed by using 134 Cs as marker. The deposition of 134 Cs was dry. Two pesticides, Harvade 60% FL and Basta 20 S.L., were used as defoliants. Our data showed that the recommended commercial doses of these chemicals resulted in defoliating up to 80% of the plants. We observed a reduction of radioactivity translocation to grapes by half, related to the defoliating degree. The efficacy of Harvade seemed higher than that of Basta. (authors)

  1. THE INTEGRATION OF PIGMEAT MARKETS IN THE EU. EVIDENCE FROM A REGULAR MIXED VINE COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis GRIGORIADIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the degree of integration of national pigmeat markets in the EU. This is pursued using monthly wholesale prices from seven major markets and the statistical tool of mixed R-vine copulas. The empirical results suggest that the markets considered do not constitute a great pool in which prices move, boom, and crash together. The markets of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands exhibit a higher degree of integration relative to the others, whereas the Italian market exhibits a lower degree of integration. Also, there is an indication that, in certain cases, the benefits of free trade may be unequally distributed between the trading partners.

  2. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  3. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1987-01-01

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutamas Saengsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and the separation box (Sepbox comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50 of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells.

  5. Contribuição das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento de plântulas de cucurbitáceas Cotyledonary leaf contribution for growth and establishment of cucurbit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As cucurbitáceas apresentam germinação epigeal, cujos cotilédones têm a dupla função de fornecer substâncias de reserva e fotoassimilados para o crescimento e o estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nível de dependência de plântulas de abóbora híbrida (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, pepino (Cucumis sativus e porongo (Lagenaria siceraria em relação às folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento inicial. Foi efetuada a remoção de um ou dois cotilédones aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a emergência (DAE, comparando-se o crescimento das plântulas com o de plântulas controle (sem remoção. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado a cada três dias, da emergência até 21 DAE, determinando-se a taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o período de tempo até a equivalência entre área foliar e cotiledonar e a produção de matéria seca. A abóbora apresentou a maior taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o menor período até a emissão e expansão das folhas verdadeiras e a maior produção de matéria seca. As plântulas de abóbora e pepino apresentaram a maior dependência em relação às folhas cotiledonares. Os resultados obtidos mostram que danos às folhas cotiledonares, dependendo da espécie, da intensidade e da idade da plântula, podem afetar drasticamente o crescimento inicial e o estabelecimento das plântulas, com reflexos evidentes no rendimento de frutos em cucurbitáceas.Cucurbit species have epigeal cotyledons adapted for both storage and photoassimilation functions. Seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for initial growth and establishment was quantified for hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria. One or both cotyledons were excised at 3; 6; 9; and 12 days after emergence (DAE and initial growth was compared to control

  6. Chiral Binaphthylbis(4,4'-Bipyridin-1-Ium)/Cucurbit[8]Uril Supramolecular System and Its Induced Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Man; Chen, Yong; Liang, Lu; Liu, Qiu-Jun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) induced by host-guest complexation remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, a couple of CPL-silent enantiomeric guest binaphthylbis(4,4'-bipyridinium) salts can emit obvious CPL in the presence of cucurbit[8]uril in aqueous media, due to the restriction of molecular rotation limitation effect. Such CPL can be reversibly adjusted by the addition of acid and base. Furthermore, the resultant supramolecular systems can interact with DNA, accompanied by the morphological conversion from branched supramolecular nanowires to exfoliated nanowires, which can enable to the exploration of such supramolecular systems as DNA markers by CPL signals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Toward a versatile toolbox for cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular hydrogel networks through in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Soo Yun Tan, Cindy; Lan, Yang; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-09-15

    The success of exploiting cucurbit[ n ]uril (CB[ n ])-based molecular recognition in self-assembled systems has sparked a tremendous interest in polymer and materials chemistry. In this study, polymerization in the presence of host-guest complexes is applied as a modular synthetic approach toward a diverse set of CB[8]-based supramolecular hydrogels with desirable properties, such as mechanical strength, toughness, energy dissipation, self-healing, and shear-thinning. A range of vinyl monomers, including acrylamide-, acrylate-, and imidazolium-based hydrophilic monomers, could be easily incorporated as the polymer backbones, leading to a library of CB[8] hydrogel networks. This versatile strategy explores new horizons for the construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks and materials with emergent properties in wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors, and structural biomaterials. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017 , 55 , 3105-3109.

  8. Assessment of the genetic and phenotypic diversity among rhizogenic Agrobacterium biovar 1 strains infecting solanaceous and cucurbit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lien; Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Moerkens, Rob; Wittemans, Lieve; Van Calenberge, Bart; Kerckhove, Stefan Van; Paeleman, Anneleen; De Mot, René; Rediers, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Rhizogenic Agrobacterium biovar 1 strains have been found to cause extensive root proliferation on hydroponically grown Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae crops, resulting in substantial economic losses. As these agrobacteria live under similar ecological conditions, infecting a limited number of crops, it may be hypothesized that genetic and phenotypic variation among such strains is relatively low. In this study we assessed the phenotypic diversity as well as the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of several rhizogenic Agrobacterium biovar 1 strains from cucurbit and solanaceous crops. A collection of 41 isolates was subjected to a number of phenotypic assays and characterized by MLSA targeting four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, recA, rpoB and trpE) and two loci from the root-inducing Ri-plasmid (part of rolB and virD2). Besides phenotypic variation, remarkable genotypic diversity was observed, especially for some chromosomal loci such as trpE. In contrast, genetic diversity was lower for the plasmid-borne loci, indicating that the studied chromosomal housekeeping genes and Ri-plasmid-borne loci might not exhibit the same evolutionary history. Furthermore, phylogenetic and network analyses and several recombination tests suggested that recombination could be contributing in some extent to the evolutionary dynamics of rhizogenic Agrobacterium populations. Finally, a genomospecies-level identification analysis revealed that at least four genomospecies may occur on cucurbit and tomato crops (G1, G3, G8 and G9). Together, this study gives a first glimpse at the genetic and phenotypic diversity within this economically important plant pathogenic bacterium. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Developing electrodes chemically modified with cucurbit[6]uril to detect 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) by voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadini, Maraine Catarina; Balbino, Marco Antonio; Eleoterio, Izabel Cristina; Siqueirade Oliveira, Laura; Dias, Luis Gustavo; Jean-François Demets, Grégoire; Firmino de Oliveira, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new stand in forensic chemistry. • Voltammetric method for the determination of MDMA in seized samples. • A new voltammetric sensor for MDMA. - Abstract: This study aimed to develop an electrode chemically modified with cucurbit[6]uril to detect 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the main active principle of ecstasy samples, by voltammetry. We modified the electrode surface with a film containing cucurbit[6]uril, Nafion, and methanol, using the dip coating or the spin coating technique. During analysis, we employed an electrochemical cell with a conventional three-electrode system and KCl solution (0.1 mol L −1 ) as the supporting electrolyte. We conducted cyclic voltammetry at concentrations ranging from 4.2 × 10 −6 to 4.8 × 10 −5 mol L −1 . We also accomplished scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the structural behavior of the film that originated on the electrode surface. We obtained the following results when we used dip coating to prepare the modified electrode: standard deviation (SD) = 0.024 μA, limit of detection (LOD) = 3.5 μmol L −1 , limit of quantification (LOQ) = 11.7 μmol L −1 , and amperometric sensitivity (m) = 20.9 × 10 3 μA L mol −1 . As for spin coating, we obtained SD = 0.024 μA, LOD = 2.7 μmol L −1 , LOQ = 9.1 μmol L −1 and m = 25.9 × 10 3 μA mol L −1 . These are very promising data: the modified electrode is more sensitive than the conventional glassy carbon electrode under the studied experimental conditions

  10. Patterns of species richness and diversity of insects associated with cucurbit fruits in the southern part of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokam, Didi Gaëlle; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Bilong Bilong, Charles-Félix

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure of insects associated with fruits of domesticated cucurbits were investigated from January 2009 to 2011 in three localities from two agroecological zones in the southern part of Cameroon. Rarefaction curves combined with nonparametric estimators of species richness were used to extrapolate species richness beyond our own data. Sampling efforts of over 92% were reached in each of the three study localities. Data collected revealed a total of 66 insect morphospecies belonging to 37 families and five orders, identified from a set of 57,510 insects. The orders Diptera (especially Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and Hymenoptera (mainly Braconidae and Eulophidae) were the most important, in terms of both abundance and species richness on the one hand, and effects on agronomic performance on the other. Values for both the species diversity (Shannon and Simpson) and the species richness indices (Margalef and Berger-Parker) calculated showed that the insect communities were species-rich but dominated, all to a similar extent, by five main species (including four fruit fly species and one parasitoid). Species abundance distributions in these communities ranged from the Zipf-Mandelbrot to Mandelbrot models. The communities are structured as tritrophic networks, including cucurbit fruits, fruit-feeding species (fruit flies) and carnivorous species (parasitoids). Within the guild of the parasitoids, about 30% of species, despite their low abundance, may potentially be of use in biological control of important pests. Our field data contribute in important ways to basic knowledge of biodiversity patterns in agrosystems and constitute baseline data for the planned implementation of biological control in Integrated Pest Management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Investigating the potential of an autodissemination system for managing populations of vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Tom W; Hough, Gemma; Arbona, Charlotte; Roberts, Harriet; Bennison, Jude; Buxton, John; Prince, Gill; Chandler, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia. In this system, 88% of adult weevils came in contact with the powder within 48 h. When the powder was applied to five adult weevils that were then placed within a population of 35 potential recipients, it was transmitted on average to 75% of the recipient population within 7 days. Three isolates of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana isolate codes 433.99 and 1749.11 and Metarhizium brunneum isolate code 275.86), selected from a laboratory virulence screen. These three isolates were then investigated for efficacy when applied as conidial powders in artificial refuges placed among populations of adult weevils held in experimental boxes in the laboratory at 20 °C. Under this regime, the fungal isolates caused 70-90% mortality of adult weevils over 28 days. A final polytunnel experiment tested the efficacy of conidial powders of M. brunneum 275.86 placed in artificial refuges to increase vine weevil mortality. Overall weevil mortality was relatively low (26-41%) but was significantly higher in cages in which the conidial powders were placed in refuge traps than in cages with control traps. The lower weevil mortality recorded in the polytunnel experiment compared to the laboratory test was most likely a consequence of the greater amounts of inoculum required to kill adult weevils when conditions

  12. A 2D electrical resistivity tomography survey of a vineyard plot of the Gaillac appellation (France: interpretation with respect to possible implications on vine water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Courjault-Radé

    2010-06-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Consequently, the water supply regime, which points out a potential risk of drought stress for vine crops, implies a minimization strategy when choosing vegetal material and viticultural management operations

  13. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  14. Evolution of wild and feral vines from the Ega river gallery forest (Basque country and Navarra, Spain from 1995 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meléndez

    2016-07-01

    Significance and impact of the study : Wild grapevines are a valuable genetic resource for the genetic improvement of cultivated vines. However, our study shows that human impacts and increasing pressure of feral accessions are threatening wild grapevine populations.

  15. Bleeding Sap and Old Wood Are the Two Main Sources of Contamination of Merging Organs of Vine Plants by Xylophilus ampelinus, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grall, S.; Roulland, C.; Guillaumès, J.; Manceau, C.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of vine plants contaminated by Xylophilus ampelinus, the agent responsible for bacterial necrosis, was studied over a 5-year period within two vineyards in the Cognac area. Both vineyards were planted with Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc but were different in age and agronomic location. The emission of X. ampelinus in contaminated bleeding sap was observed during vine sprouting. Contaminated bleeding sap is an important source of inoculum for external contamination due ...

  16. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A D-vine copula-based model for repeated measurements extending linear mixed models with homogeneous correlation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiches, Matthias; Czado, Claudia

    2018-03-22

    We propose a model for unbalanced longitudinal data, where the univariate margins can be selected arbitrarily and the dependence structure is described with the help of a D-vine copula. We show that our approach is an extremely flexible extension of the widely used linear mixed model if the correlation is homogeneous over the considered individuals. As an alternative to joint maximum-likelihood a sequential estimation approach for the D-vine copula is provided and validated in a simulation study. The model can handle missing values without being forced to discard data. Since conditional distributions are known analytically, we easily make predictions for future events. For model selection, we adjust the Bayesian information criterion to our situation. In an application to heart surgery data our model performs clearly better than competing linear mixed models. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  18. A mixed C-vine copula model for hedging price and volumetric risk in wind power trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pircalabu, Anca; Jung, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    correlation with the much more liquid German market to construct a proxy hedge. We propose a three-dimensional mixed vine copula to model the evolution of the Danish and German spot electricity prices and the Danish wind power production. We construct a realistic hedging portfolio by identifying various...... of not only forwards, but also a basket of e.g. call and put options. Illiquidity and an almost non-existent market for options challenge however the optimal hedging of joint price and volumetric risk in many market places. Here, we consider the case of the Danish power market, and exploit its strong positive...... instruments available in the market, such as real options in the form of the right to transfer electricity across the border and the right to convert electricity to heat. Using the proposed vine copula to determine optimal hedging decisions, we show that significant benefits are to be drawn by extending...

  19. A Nexus between Theory and Experiment: Non-Empirical Quantum Mechanical Computational Methodology Applied to Cucurbit[n]urilGuest Binding Interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostaš, Jiří; Sigwalt, D.; Šekutor, M.; Ajani, Haresh; Dubecký, M.; Řezáč, Jan; Zavalij, P. Y.; Cao, L.; Wohlschlager, Ch.; Mlinaric-Majerski, K.; Isaacs, L.; Glaser, R.; Hobza, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 48 (2016), s. 17226-17238 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adamantane-/diamantane-skeleton guests * biomimetic complexes * BLYP-D3 quantum mechanical calculations * cucurbit[n]uril * host-guest complexes * primary ammonium loops Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.317, year: 2016

  20. Describing the spatio-temporal variability of vines and soil by satellite-based spectral indices: A case study in Apulia (South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno-Mondino, E.; Novello, V.; Lessio, A.; de Palma, L.

    2018-06-01

    A time series of Landsat 8 OLI (L8 OLI) multispectral images acquired between May 2013 and February 2016 were used to investigate vigour, vine and soil water content in a vineyard of Moscato Reale (syn. Moscato Bianco) sited in the Castel del Monte DOCG area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were calculated and compared with vine midday stem water potential (ΨMDstem) and soil volume water content (VWC), to calibrate estimation models. Estimation models were calibrated using already existing ground observation datasets from previous ordinary vineyard management operations: ΨMDstem was measured at two different locations in vineyard at 6 different dates in summer 2014; VWC was continuously measured from June to October 2014 and from January to September 2015. Results showed that: a) vine stem water potential can be locally estimated with an accuracy ranging from ±0.046 (high vigour vines) to ±0.127 (low vigour vines) MPa; b) soil volume water content can be locally estimated with an accuracy of about ±1.7%. Medium resolution satellite imagery proved, therefore, to be effective, at vineyard level, to describe vigour, vine and soil water status and their seasonality. This is an important issue to focus on since, as Landsat 8 images are free, the entire process is economic enough to be consistent with cost and incoming of the farming system.

  1. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  2. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  3. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  4. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  5. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  6. Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines: effect on grape amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Elicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe), to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition. The results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe. The influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to grapevines on grape amino acid concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity. Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  9. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  11. The Impact of the Age of Vines on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in Vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Alagna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration processes manage runoff generation, which in turn affects soil erosion. There is limited information on infiltration rates. In this study, the impact of vine age on soil bulk density (BD and hydraulic conductivity (Ks was assessed on a loam soil tilled by chisel plough. Soil sampling was conducted in the inter row area of six vineyards, which differed by the age from planting: 0 (Age 0; just planted, 1, 3, 6, 13, and 25 years (Age 1, Age 3, Age 6, Age 13, and Age 25, respectively. The One Ponding Depth (OPD approach was applied to ring infiltration data to estimate soil Ks with an α* parameter equal to 0.012 mm−1. Soil bulk density for Age 0 was about 1.5 times greater than for Age 25, i.e., the long-term managed vineyards. Saturated hydraulic conductivity at Age 0 was 86% less than at Age 25. The planting works were considered a major factor for soil compaction and the reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Compared to the long-term managed vineyards, soil compaction was a very short-term effect given that BD was restored in one year due to ploughing. Reestablishment of Ks to the long-term value required more time.

  12. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  13. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  14. Mislabeling of an invasive vine (Celastrus orbiculatus) as a native congener (C. scandens) in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Hetrea, Christopher S.; Ashley, Mary V.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel; Hetrea, Christopher S.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2018-01-01

    The horticultural industry is an important source of invasive ornamental plant species, which is part of the motivation for an increased emphasis on using native alternatives. We were interested in the possibility that plants marketed in the midwestern United States as the native Celastrus scandens, or American bittersweet, were actually the difficult-to-distinguish invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) or hybrids of the two species. We used nuclear microsatellite DNA loci to compare the genetic identities of 34 plants from 11 vendors with reference plants from wild populations of known species identity. We found that 18 samples (53%) were mislabeled, and 7 of the 11 vendors sold mislabeled plants. Mislabeled plants were more likely to be purchased through Internet or phone order shipments and were significantly less expensive than accurately labeled plants. Vendors marketed mislabeled plants under five different cultivar names, as well as unnamed strains. Additionally, the most common native cultivar, ‘Autumn Revolution,’ displays reproductive characteristics that diverge from the typical C. scandens, which could be of some concern. The lower price and abundance of mislabeled invasive plants introduces incentives for consumers to unknowingly contribute to the spread of C. orbiculatus. Revealing the potential sources of C. orbiculatus is critical for controlling further spread of the invasive vine and limiting its impact on C. scandens populations.

  15. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buwalda, J.G.; Meekings, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal trend of photosynthetic capacity of leaves of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) vines growing in the field was examined, by measuring the response of net photosynthesis (A) to irradiance (PAR) at monthly intervals for leaves that emerged at different stages of the growing season. A climate controlled minicuvette system was used, to ensure constant environmental conditions, apart from the controlled changes in leaf irradiance. Responses of A to irradiance were described using asymptotic exponential curves, providing estimates of the radiation saturated rate of A (A sat ), and the response of A to increasing incident PAR at low PAR levels (ϕ i ). The change in photosynthetic capacity with leaf age was similar for leaves emerging 1, 2, 3 or 4 months after bud burst. At 1 month after leaf emergence, when leaves were fully expanded, Asat was 9–11 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . Maximum photosynthetic capacity was not attained until 3–5 months after leaf emergence, when Asat was 16–17 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 . The increasing photosynthetic capacity during 3–5 months after leaf emergence was closely related to concomitant changes in leaf N and chlorophyll contents. The possibility that N import to the leaf was a significant factor limiting the development of photosynthetic capacity is discussed. (author)

  16. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  17. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  18. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  19. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  20. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  1. Characterization of Hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of Cucurbita pepo var Styriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, István; Palkovics, László

    2003-04-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in Hungary. The Hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. The virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. It can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo (L) var Styriaca), although at a very low rate. Three isolates from seed transmission assay experiments were chosen and their nucleotide sequences of coat proteins have been compared with the available CP sequences of ZYMV. According to the sequence analysis, the Hungarian isolates belong to the Central European branch in the phylogenetic tree and, together with the ZYMV isolates from Austria and Slovenia, share specific amino acids at positions 16, 17, 27 and 37 which are characteristic only to these isolates. The phylogenetic tree suggests the common origin of distantly distributed isolates which can be attributed to widespread seed transmission.

  2. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  3. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1989-10-01

    This Part 2 presents all of the results, including the harvest of 1986 and 1987; it thus describes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. H-3, C-14, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were determined in soil, vine leaves, grapes and wine at different locations. In some of the samples Cs-134, K-40 and Ra-226 were also measured. Site-specific transfer factors were calculated for Sr-90 and for the Cs radionuclides. The mean content of Cs-137 before Chernobyl (after Chernogyl) was about 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil (top 30 cm), 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg FM in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/l in wine. As comapred to 1986 distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine from 1987. The content of Cs-134 was about half that of Cs-137 in 1986. Due to its shorter half-life Cs-134 had fallen below detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Mean Sr-90 levels were 1-2 Bq/kg in soil and in leaves (dry matter and fresh matter, respectively), 19-56 mBq/kg in grapes, and 3-11 mBq/l in wine. Samples obtained in the fall of 1986 showed no increase of Sr-90 in soil and leaves, whereas a slight increase was found in grapes and wine as a consequence of Chernobyl. Site-specific influences such als soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years had no pronounced effects on transfer factors. No influence of the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Interactions of Dihydromyricetin, a Flavonoid from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) with Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Tong, Qing; Zhou, Xiya; Chen, Jing; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqing; Shi, Chunyang

    2018-05-01

    Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the main bioactive constituent in vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), which was predominantly distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and showed poor oral bioavailability. Our aim was to systematically investigate the interactions of DMY with gut microbiota. Through the metabolism study of DMY by fecal microflora in vitro, it was found that DMY could be metabolized into three metabolites by fecal microflora via reduction and dehydroxylation pathways, and the dehydroxylation metabolite was the dominant one. Meanwhile, in order to consider the influence of gut microbiota metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of DMY, the pharmacokinetics of DMY in control and pseudo-germ-free rats were compared. It was shown that area under the curve (AUC) could only slightly increase, however, peak concentration (C max ) could significantly increase in the pseudo-germ-free rats compared with the control rats, which indicated the gut microbiota metabolism played an important role in the pharmacokinetics of DMY. In addition, the long-term influence of DMY on gut microbiota composition by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was further investigated. And it was found that DMY could markedly alter the richness and diversity of the gut microbiota and modulate the gut microbiota composition. The present findings will be helpful for the future development and clinical application of DMY. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids. As well, the long-term supplements of flavonoids could alter the gut microbiota composition in turn. The study aims to clarify the mutual interaction of DMY with gut microbiota, which may lead to new information with respect to the mechanism study and clinical application of DMY. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1989-01-01

    This Part 2 presents all of the results, including the harvest of 1986 and 1987; it thus describes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. H-3, C-14, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were determined in soil, vine leaves, grapes and wine at different locations. In some of the samples Cs-134, K-40 and Ra-226 were also measured. Site-specific transfer factors were calculated for Sr-90 and for the Cs radionuclides. The mean content of Cs-137 before Chernobyl (after Chernobyl) was about 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil (top 30 cm), 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg FM in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/l in wine. As compared to 1986 distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine from 1987. The content of Cs-134 was about half that of Cs-137 in 1986. Due to its shorter half-life Cs-134 had fallen below detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Mean Sr-90 levels were 1-2 Bq/kg in soil and in leaves (dry matter and fresh matter, respectively), 19-56 mBq/kg in grapes, and 3-11 mBq/l in wine. Samples obtained in the fall of 1986 showed no increase of Sr-90 in soil and leaves, whereas a slight increase was found in grapes and wine as a consequence of Chernobyl. Site-specific influences such als soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years had no pronounced effects on transfer factors. No influence of the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  7. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  8. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Fischer, E.

    1988-12-01

    In a field investigation (1983-1985) comprising 8 locations of the most important viticultural regions in Germany, the contents of H-3, C-14, Sr-90, and Cs-137 in air, soils, leaves of the vine, grapes and wine were measured and site-specific transfer factors were calculated. Data concerning soil parameters, climatic conditions, cultivation and vinification were collected. The T contents of all samples were 10 Bq/l water of combustion, independent of location and year. The specific activity of C-14 in the atmosphere and in biological material was 0.22 Bq/g C, independent of site and year. Sr-90 contents of soils fluctuated between 0.7 and 3.5 Bq/kg dry matter. The mean content of leaves was 2 Bq/kg fresh material, of grapes 0.035 Bq/kg and of wine 0.008 Bq/l. The Cs-137 level of soils fluctuated between 1.3 and 7.9 Bq/kg dry matter. The mean content of leaves was 0.098 Bq/kg fresh material, of grapes 0.021 Bq/kg and of wine 0.0085 Bq/l. A relation between transfer and soil parameters and between the contents of grapes and wine was not recognizeable. While cultivar-specific differences were not observed in grapes, red wines contained somewhat more Cs-137 than white wines. Transfer factors soil-grapes were 0.027 for Sr-90 and 0.0057 for Cs-137. Site-specific influences such as soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years led to a small fluctuation of values. No influence of the Neckarwestheim reactor has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Co-grinding Effect on Crystalline Zaltoprofen with β-cyclodextrin/Cucurbit[7]uril in Tablet Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Lin, Xiang; Xu, Kailin; He, Jiawei; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to investigate the co-grinding effects of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on crystalline zaltoprofen (ZPF) in tablet formulation. Crystalline ZPF was prepared through anti-solvent recrystallization and fully analyzed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Co-ground dispersions and mono-ground ZPF were prepared using a ball grinding process. Results revealed that mono-ground ZPF slightly affected the solid state, solubility, and dissolution of crystalline ZPF. Co-ground dispersions exhibited completely amorphous states and elicited a significant reinforcing effect on drug solubility. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRPD, FT-IR, DSC, ssNMR, and molecular docking demonstrated the interactions in the amorphous product. Hardness tests on blank tablets with different β-CD and CB[7] contents suggested the addition of β-CD or CB[7] could enhance the compressibility of the powder mixture. Disintegration tests showed that CB[7] could efficiently shorten the disintegrating time. Dissolution tests indicated that β-CD and CB[7] could accelerate the drug dissolution rate via different mechanisms. Specifically, CB[7] could accelerate the dissolution rate by improving disintegration and β-CD showed a distinct advantage in solubility enhancement. Based on the comparative study on β-CD and CB[7] for tablet formulation combined with co-grinding, we found that CB[7] could be considered a promising drug delivery, which acted as a disintegrant.

  10. Co-grinding Effect on Crystalline Zaltoprofen with β-cyclodextrin/Cucurbit[7]uril in Tablet Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Lin, Xiang; Xu, Kailin; He, Jiawei; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the co-grinding effects of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on crystalline zaltoprofen (ZPF) in tablet formulation. Crystalline ZPF was prepared through anti-solvent recrystallization and fully analyzed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Co-ground dispersions and mono-ground ZPF were prepared using a ball grinding process. Results revealed that mono-ground ZPF slightly affected the solid state, solubility, and dissolution of crystalline ZPF. Co-ground dispersions exhibited completely amorphous states and elicited a significant reinforcing effect on drug solubility. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRPD, FT-IR, DSC, ssNMR, and molecular docking demonstrated the interactions in the amorphous product. Hardness tests on blank tablets with different β-CD and CB[7] contents suggested the addition of β-CD or CB[7] could enhance the compressibility of the powder mixture. Disintegration tests showed that CB[7] could efficiently shorten the disintegrating time. Dissolution tests indicated that β-CD and CB[7] could accelerate the drug dissolution rate via different mechanisms. Specifically, CB[7] could accelerate the dissolution rate by improving disintegration and β-CD showed a distinct advantage in solubility enhancement. Based on the comparative study on β-CD and CB[7] for tablet formulation combined with co-grinding, we found that CB[7] could be considered a promising drug delivery, which acted as a disintegrant. PMID:28368030

  11. PH responsive self-assembly of cucurbit[7]urils and polystyrene-block- polyvinylpyridine micelles for hydrophobic drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Mashat, A.; Li, W.; Fhayli, K.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2013-01-01

    Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH +) pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8), P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  12. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine ( Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (pMadeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  13. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  14. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-05

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇ 2 ρ (r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2ns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of honeycomb-like palladium nanostructures by using cucurbit[7]uril and their catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Thathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); The University College/Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Geckeler, Kurt E., E-mail: keg@gist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics (WCU), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    An eco-friendly one-pot method to synthesize self-assembled palladium nanoclusters using a macrocycle, namely cucurbit[7]uril, in the alkaline medium without employing any special reducing or capping agents and/or external energy at room temperature is described. This greener approach, which utilizes water as a benign solvent and biocompatible cucurbit[7]uril as both reducing and protecting agents, can be applied to synthesize other noble metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver, and platinum. Owing to unique structural arrangement of cucurbit[7]uril, it was possible to prepare palladium nanoclusters of honeycomb-like structure irrespective of the reaction conditions. The honeycomb-like palladium nanoclusters were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), higher-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Significantly, the synthesized palladium nanoclusters exhibited catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature. The approach launched here is easy, green, and user-friendly in contrast to the conventional techniques using polymers or surfactants and harsh reductants. - Highlights: • A simple and one-pot method to synthesis palladium nanostructures with honey-comb like structure. • The strategy established here does not require any harsh and toxic reducing agents. • It has a potential to be a general method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in water medium. • Palladium nanoclusters can be used as catalyst for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol. • This system makes a novel platform for industrial and biomedical applications.

  16. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.

  17. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇2ρ(r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2 ns.

  18. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Dombrovsky

    Full Text Available We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV. PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV (both poleroviruses. The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs, which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93% and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%. Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP, may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2 were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5 and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3 with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s, resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  19. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV) and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Glanz, Eyal; Lachman, Oded; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Antignus, Yehezkel

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV). PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV) and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (both poleroviruses). The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs), which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93%) and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%). Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV) contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP), may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2) were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5) and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3) with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s) between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s), resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  20. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  1. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  2. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  3. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  5. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  6. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  7. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  8. Observations on the influence of vine covering by means of a transparent plastic sheet on berry ripening and wine quality (Saint-Emilion, 1995 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Leeuwen

    1998-09-01

    On the covered plots, yields were higher. In 1996, on BT, the vines carried more bunches, the bunches carried more berries and berry weight was higher. The control vines were significantly more affected by Botrytis compared to BS ; BT showed almost no rot. Berries on the covered plots showed a tendancy of having more sugar and total phenolics, and less malic acid. Separate microvinifications were done with 50 kg of grapes from each plot. Wine from BT was preferred over BS. Wine from the control plot was the least appreciated.

  9. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  10. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  11. Cucurbit[8]uril-Containing Multilayer Films for the Photocontrolled Binding and Release of a Guest Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Henning; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Xi; Schönhoff, Monika

    2016-03-15

    The powerful host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) was employed to obtain photoresponsive polyelectrolyte multilayer films for the reversible and photocontrolled binding and release of an organic guest molecule. For this purpose, we designed and synthesized a polyelectrolyte with azobenzene side groups. Then, CB[8] was associated with the azo side group to obtain a supramolecular host-guest complex that was further used as building block in order to prepare photoresponsive and CB[8]-containing polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and a dissipative quartz crystal microbalance are employed to monitor the formation of the host-guest complex and the layer-by-layer self-assembly of the multilayer films, respectively. We demonstrate that the photoresponsive properties of the azo side groups are maintained before and after host-guest complexation with CB[8] in solution and within the multilayer films, respectively. A guest molecule was then specifically included as second binding partner into the CB[8]-containing multilayer films. Subsequently, the release of the guest was performed by UV light irradiation due to the trans-cis isomerization of the adjacent azo side groups. Re-isomerization of the azo side groups was achieved by VIS light irradiation and enabled the rebinding of the guest into CB[8]. Finally, we demonstrate that the photocontrolled binding and release within CB[8]-containing multilayer films can reliably and reversibly be performed over a period of more than 2 weeks with constant binding efficiency. Therefore, we expect such novel type of photosensitive films to have promising future applications in the field of stimuli-responsive nanomaterials.

  12. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  13. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.

    2017-06-01

    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  14. Can we beat the biotin-avidin pair?: cucurbit[7]uril-based ultrahigh affinity host-guest complexes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Dinesh; Khedkar, Jayshree K; Park, Kyeng Min; Kim, Kimoon

    2015-12-07

    The design of synthetic, monovalent host-guest molecular recognition pairs is still challenging and of particular interest to inquire into the limits of the affinity that can be achieved with designed systems. In this regard, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), an important member of the host family cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n], n = 5-8, 10, 14), has attracted much attention because of its ability to form ultra-stable complexes with multiple guests. The strong hydrophobic effect between the host cavity and guests, ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions of guests with CB portals helps in cooperative and multiple noncovalent interactions that are essential for realizing such strong complexations. These highly selective, strong yet dynamic interactions can be exploited in many applications including affinity chromatography, biomolecule immobilization, protein isolation, biological catalysis, and sensor technologies. In this review, we summarize the progress in the development of high affinity guests for CB[7], factors affecting the stability of complexes, theoretical insights, and the utility of these high affinity pairs in different challenging applications.

  15. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  16. Assessing Efficiency of D-Vine Copula ARMA-GARCH Method in Value at Risk Forecasting: Evidence from PSE Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Klepáč

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out the possibilities of using static D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model for estimation of 1 day ahead market Value at Risk. For the illustration we use data of the four companies listed on Prague Stock Exchange in range from 2010 to 2014. Vine copula approach allows us to construct high-dimensional copula from both elliptical and Archimedean bivariate copulas, i.e. multivariate probability distribution, created from process innovations. Due to a deeper shortage of existing domestic results or comparison studies with advanced volatility governed VaR forecasts we backtested D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model against the VaR rolling out of sample forecast from October 2012 to April 2014 of chosen benchmark models, e.g. multivariate VAR-GO-GARCH, VAR-DCC-GARCH and univariate ARMA-GARCH type models. Common backtesting via Kupiec and Christoffersen procedures offer generalization that technological superiority of model supports accuracy only in case of an univariate modeling – working with non-basic GARCH models and innovations with leptokurtic distributions. Multivariate VAR governed type models and static Copula Vines performed in stated backtesting comparison worse than selected univariate ARMA-GARCH, i.e. it have overestimated the level of actual market risk, probably due to hardly tractable time-varying dependence structure.

  17. Effects of different P-sources in soil on increasing growth and mineral uptake of mycorrhizal Vitis vinifera L. (cv Victoria vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Nikolaou

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different P-sources on growth, leaf chemical composition, and fruit soluble solids and acid content was evaluated in mycorrhizal Victoria grapevine variety gralted onto the rootstocks 3309C or 11 OR. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal plants were grown in 20 L pots containing 20 kg soil supplemented with different P-forms: (Calcium bis-dihydrogen-phosphate, tri-calcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate, iron (III phosphate with different solubility, equivalent to 90 kg P.ha-1. The percent of mycorrhizal root colonization was higher in insoluble P-form treatments compared to control or to soluble P-form treatment (CaDP, ranging from 66 to 84 % in treatments receiving insoluble P, from 36.67 to 38.33 % in control and from 25.33 to 27.33 % in soluble P-form treatments. The roots of 110R rootstock showed higher colonization rate compared to the 3309C. Mycorrhizal colonization increased both the pruning weight and number of nodes of the vines, up to 9 and 1.9 times respectively, according to the rootstock- P form combination. Mycorrhizal vines showed increased leaf concentrations in N, P, K, Ca. Fruit total soluble solids of mycorrhizal vines were about 30 % lower compared with those of the non mycorrhizal vines. Both factors, mycorrhizal colonization and P-forms had no significant effect in fruit titratable acidity.

  18. Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; De Rosso, Mirko; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Maoz, Itay; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Grape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60-70% RH. The findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Carbon-13 composition of bulk dry wines by irm-EA/MS and irm-13C NMR: An indicator of vine water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Francois

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements performed on a set of 32 authentic wines (not submitted to any oenological treatment and their ethanol, recovered by distillation, show high correlation between δ13C of bulk wine and its ethanol. These measurements were performed by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyzer (irm-EA/MS. Then a series of wines produced by vines of which water status was assessed during the growing season with predawn leaf water potential measurements, was studied by irm-EA/MS. As expected δ13C is correlated to vine water status conditions, as a result of stomatal closure. The ethanol of these specific wines was also analyzed by isotope ratio monitoring and by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-13C NMR to determine carbon-13 composition on the two specific sites of the ethanol skeleton. If these measurements confirm the correlation between 13C composition and vine growth conditions, the 13C stereospecific information does not make vine water status assessment more precise.

  20. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  1. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  2. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on corn cob and vine trimming shoots for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; García-Bernet, D; Domínguez, J M

    2016-12-01

    Due to their lignocellulosic nature, corn cob and vine trimming shoots (VTS) could be valorized by anaerobic digestion for biogas production. To enhance the digestibility of substrates, pretreatments of lignocellulosic materials are recommended. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasounds pretreatments (US) and the combination of both was assayed in lignocellulosic composition, methane, and biogas yields. The pretreatments leaded to a reduction in lignin and an increase in neutral detergent soluble compounds making corn cob and VTS more amendable for biogas conversion. The US were negative for biogas production from both substrates and in particular strongly detrimental for VTS. On the opposite side, the enzymatic hydrolysis was certainly beneficial increasing 59.8% and 14.6% the methane production from VTS and corn cob, respectively. The prior application of US did not potentiate (or not sufficiently) the improvement in the methane production reflected by the enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of VTS and corn cob. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-10-30

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψ stem ). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500-800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψ stem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R²) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψ stem were between 0.56-0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψ stem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of -9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26-0.27 MPa, 0.32-0.34 MPa and -24.2-25.6%, respectively.

  4. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψstem. However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI that use information between 500–800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψstem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R2 obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψstem were between 0.56–0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψstem with a mean absolute error (MAE of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE of −9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26–0.27 MPa, 0.32–0.34 MPa and −24.2–25.6%, respectively.

  5. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  6. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  7. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  8. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  9. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35-120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs' analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between the

  10. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  12. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  13. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  14. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  15. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  16. Molecular detection and characterisation of Horsegram Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific sets of primers (HYMV-A1500F & HYMV-A1500R and D-HYMV-B2200F & D-HYMV-B2200R) for the amplification of the complete DNA-A and DNA-B components of lima bean isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV-Lb).

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  18. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  19. Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines that differed ...

  20. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  1. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  2. Controlling the root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, using resistance cultivars and grafting onto the cucurbit rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber damping off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is the most important root and stem rot that limits greenhouse cultivations. In this study, relative susceptibility of grafting commercial cucumber cultivars including Alpha, Caspian 340, Storm 5910, Shalim 616, Delta scar, Janette 810, Festibal C5, Royal, Negyn, Soltan and Fadia on two Cucurbita rootstocks were evaluated against P. aphanidermatum . Disease severity, survival and seedling growth were used for the evaluation. The results showed significant differences between the studied cultivars (p≤0.01. Caspian 340 and Alpha with 15.7% and 100% disease severity had more and less tolerant to P. aphanidermatum, respectively. Cucurbita maxima rootstock was more resistant than Cucurbita pepo to P. aphanidermatum. C. pepo had less compatibility with the cucumber and showed little resistance to the pathogen. The study revealed that grafting Caspian340 on the resistant cucurbit rootstock i.e. Cucurbita maxima could be used as disease control strategies in greenhouses.

  3. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  4. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  5. A Nexus between Theory and Experiment: Non-Empirical Quantum Mechanical Computational Methodology Applied to Cucurbit[n]uril⋅Guest Binding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostaš, Jiří; Sigwalt, David; Šekutor, Marina; Ajani, Haresh; Dubecký, Matúš; Řezáč, Jan; Zavalij, Peter Y; Cao, Liping; Wohlschlager, Christian; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Isaacs, Lyle; Glaser, Robert; Hobza, Pavel

    2016-11-21

    A training set of eleven X-ray structures determined for biomimetic complexes between cucurbit[n]uril (CB[7 or 8]) hosts and adamantane-/diamantane ammonium/aminium guests were studied with DFT-D3 quantum mechanical computational methods to afford ΔG calcd binding energies. A novel feature of this work is that the fidelity of the BLYP-D3/def2-TZVPP choice of DFT functional was proven by comparison with more accurate methods. For the first time, the CB[n]⋅guest complex binding energy subcomponents [for example, ΔE dispersion , ΔE electrostatic , ΔG solvation , binding entropy (-TΔS), and induced fit E deformation(host) , E deformation(guest) ] were calculated. Only a few weeks of computation time per complex were required by using this protocol. The deformation (stiffness) and solvation properties (with emphasis on cavity desolvation) of cucurbit[n]uril (n=5, 6, 7, 8) isolated host molecules were also explored by means of the DFT-D3 method. A high ρ 2 =0.84 correlation coefficient between ΔG exptl and ΔG calcd was achieved without any scaling of the calculated terms (at 298 K). This linear dependence was utilized for ΔG calcd predictions of new complexes. The nature of binding, including the role of high energy water molecules, was also studied. The utility of introduction of tethered [-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ] + amino loops attached to N,N-dimethyl-adamantane-1-amine and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl diamantane-4,9-diamine skeletons (both from an experimental and a theoretical perspective) is presented here as a promising tool for the achievement of new ultra-high binding guests to CB[7] hosts. Predictions of not yet measured equilibrium constants are presented herein. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  7. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  8. Chemical composition, nitrogen degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in vines harvested from four tropical sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R; Mlambo, V; Mangwe, M C; Dlamini, B J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of vines from four sweet potato varieties (Tia Nong 57, Tia Nong 66, Ligwalagwala and Kenya) as alternative feed resources for ruminant livestock. The chemical composition [neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN)], in vitro ruminal nitrogen (N) degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in the vines, harvested at 70 and 110 days after planting (DAP), were determined. Variety and harvesting stage did not (p > 0.05) influence CP and NDF content of the vines. Concentration of CP ranged from 104.9 to 212.2 g/kg DM, while NDF ranged from 439.4 to 529.2 g/kg DM across harvesting stages and varieties. Nitrogen degradability (ND) at 70 and 110 DAP was highest (p ruminal cumulative gas production parameters (a, b and c). The in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins, as measured by increment in gas production parameters upon PEG inclusion, had a maximum value of 18.2%, suggesting low to moderate antinutritional tannin activity. Ligwalagwala vines, with highly degradable N, would be the best protein supplement to use during the dry season when ruminant animals consume low N basal diets and maintenance is an acceptable production objective. Tia Nong 66 and Kenya varieties, with less degradable N, may be more suitable for use as supplements for high-producing animals such as dairy goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Monitored results from the Yellow House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.B.; Nielsen, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the monitoring program for The Yellow House, which consists of a four-storey high building with eight apartments. The monitoring started after the completion of the renovation in December 1996 and will continue until July 2000. Not all components have been measured during the whole period. The monitoring contains data for each apartment for space heating, electricity, cold water, hot water and gas. Also long-term measurements of the relative air humidity and room temperatures in two apartments have been made together with short-term measurements of daylight levels. For The Yellow House data has been registered for the PV-panels and solar collectors and also the climatic data have been measured. A questionnaire has been evaluated and a user survey will be carried out during summer 2000. (au)

  10. Bleeding sap and old wood are the two main sources of contamination of merging organs of vine plants by Xylophilus ampelinus, the causal agent of bacterial necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, S; Roulland, C; Guillaumès, J; Manceau, C

    2005-12-01

    The spatial distribution of vine plants contaminated by Xylophilus ampelinus, the agent responsible for bacterial necrosis, was studied over a 5-year period within two vineyards in the Cognac area. Both vineyards were planted with Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc but were different in age and agronomic location. The emission of X. ampelinus in contaminated bleeding sap was observed during vine sprouting. Contaminated bleeding sap is an important source of inoculum for external contamination due to the high susceptibility of young merging shoots to the pathogen. X. ampelinus emission by bleeding sap was not affected by the age of the plants or the location of the vineyards. However, its emission was irregular with time, and it varied between two fruit canes from individual plants and between plants as well as between years. Moreover, the two vineyards appeared to be entirely contaminated. Consequently, the behavior of the pathogen is not predictable. The distribution of the pathogen inside vine plant organs was analyzed through the four growing seasons. The old wood was contaminated throughout the year and constituted a stock inoculum for endophytic contamination of crude sap during the winter and the spring. Despite the fact that most of the young green shoots were contaminated in May, X.ampelinus was not found in green shoots in June and September, refuting the hypothesis of an epiphytic life of the pathogen under natural conditions. Although all plants were entirely contaminated in both vineyards, symptoms were rare and were observed on different plants each year.

  11. Gelatinous fibers and variant secondary growth related to stem undulation and contraction in a monkey ladder vine, Bauhinia glabra (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jack B; Blanco, Mario A

    2014-04-01

    Some of the most striking stem shapes occur in species of Bauhinia (Fabaceae) known as monkey ladder vines. Their mature stems are flattened and develop regular undulations. Although stems have variant (anomalous) secondary growth, the mechanism causing the undulations is unknown. We measured stem segments over time (20 mo), described stem development using light microscopy, and correlated the changes in stem shape with anatomy. Growing stems are initially straight and bear tendrils on short axillary branches. The inner secondary xylem has narrow vessels and lignified fibers. As stems age, they become flattened and increasingly undulated with the production of two lobes of outer secondary xylem (OX) with wide vessels and only gelatinous fibers (G-fibers). Similar G-fibers are present in the secondary phloem and the cortical sclerified layer. In transverse sections, the concave side of each undulation has a greater area and quantity of G-fibers than the opposite convex side. Some older stems are not undulated and have less lobing of OX. Undulation causes a shortening of the stem segments: up to 28% of the original length. Uneven distribution of G-fibers produces tensions that are involved in the protracted development of undulations. While young extending shoots attach by lateral branch tendrils, older stems may maintain their position in the canopy using undulations and persistent branch bases as gripping devices. Flattened and undulated stems with G-fibers produce flexible woody stems.

  12. Copper bioavailability and extractability as related to chemical properties of contaminated soils from a vine-growing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaignon, V.; Sanchez-Neira, I.; Herrmann, P.; Jaillard, B.; Hinsinger, P.

    2003-01-01

    Root Cu concentration is a good indicator of soil Cu bioavailability. - Vineyard soils have been contaminated by Cu as a consequence of the long-term use of Cu salts as fungicides against mildew. This work aimed at identifying which soil parameters were the best related to Cu bioavailability, as assessed by measuring the concentrations of Cu in shoots and roots of tomato cropped (in lab conditions) over a range of 29 (24 calcareous and five acidic) Cu-contaminated topsoils from a vine-growing area (22-398 mg Cu kg -1 ). Copper concentrations in tomato shoots remained in the adequate range and were independent of soil properties and soil Cu content. Conversely, strong, positive correlations were found between root Cu concentration, total soil Cu, EDTA- or K-pyrophosphate-extractable Cu and organic C contents in the 24 calcareous soils, suggesting a prominent role of organic matter in the retention and bioavailability of Cu. Such relations were not observed when including the five acidic soils in the investigated population, suggesting a major pH effect. Root Cu concentration appeared as a much more sensitive indicator of soil Cu bioavailability than shoot Cu concentration. Simple extractions routinely used in soil testing procedures (total and EDTA-extractable Cu) were adequate indicators of Cu bioavailability for the investigated calcareous soils, but not when different soil types were considered (e.g. acidic versus calcareous soils)

  13. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  14. Optimization of NIR Spectral Data Management for Quality Control of Grape Bunches during On-Vine Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380–1,700 nm. The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC, reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r2 = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r2 ranging between 0.73 and 0.87 for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content.

  15. Monitoramento de umidade do solo em videira utilizando tensiômetria | Soil moisture monitoring using vine tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucicléia Soares da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the factors related to the development of the vine is very important because it has implications for the production. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the moisture, using the monitoring technique tensiometry fingerstick. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural area of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Pernambucano Hinterland on the campus located in Petrolina Rural Zone - PE and a privately owned table grape. They were carried out in the areas of collecting undisturbed soil samples to obtain the retention curve of water through the soil. Three batteries tensiometers were installed at depths of 0-0.3 and 0.3-0.6 m in the IF field and 0-0, 2, 0.2-0.4 and 0.4-0.6 m the privately owned area for table grapes and three batteries in the depth of 0-0.3 and 0.3-0.6 m in the IF area for wine grape. It was concluded that the moisture in the upper layers in the table grape and wine IF always stood above the field capacity, indicating problems of surface leaching. The moisture in the lower layers in the table grape on private property stood close and slightly above the field capacity, indicating deep leaching problems.

  16. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  17. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  18. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  19. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  20. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  1. 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Mise-à-la-Masse Method as Tools for the Characterization of Vine Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, J.; Mary, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Schmutz, M.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Cassiani, G.

    2017-12-01

    The interest on non-invasive geophysical monitoring of soil properties and root architecture is rapidly growing. Despite this, few case studies exist concerning vineyards, which are economically one of the leading sectors of agriculture. In this study, we integrate different geophysical methods in order to gain a better imaging of the vine root system, with the aim of quantifying root development, a key factor to understand roots-soil interaction and water balance. Our test site is a vineyard located in Bordeaux (France), where we adopted the Mise-a-la-Masse method (MALM) and micro-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) on the same 3D electrode configuration. While ERT is a well-established technique to image changes in soil moisture content by root activity, MALM is a relatively new approach in this field of research. The idea is to inject current directly in the plant trunk and verify the resulting voltage distribution in the soil, as an effect of current distribution through the root system. In order to distinguish the root effect from other phenomena linked to the soil heterogeneities, we conducted and compared MALM measurements acquired through injecting current into the stem and into the soil near the stem. Moreover, the MALM data measured in the field were compared with numerical simulations to improve the confidence in the interpretation. Differences obtained between the stem and soil injection clearly validated the assumption that the whole root system is acting as a current pathway, thus highlighting the locations at depth where current is entering the soil from the fine roots. The simulation results indicated that the best fit is obtained through considering distributed sources with depth, reflecting a probable root zone area. The root location and volume estimated using this procedure are in agreement with vineyard experimental evidence. This work suggests the promising application of electrical methods to locate and monitor root systems. Further

  2. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  3. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  4. Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

    2009-07-01

    Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

  5. The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus C to 45 (graus C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo particles forming unit (pfu/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus C; (iii there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.

  6. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  7. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant foods are naturally present some bioactive compounds, that are compounds having or not nutritional value and with biological activity that is expressed in reducing the risk of developing many chronic diseases, therefore leading a key protective effect on our health. Within this group of compounds the antioxidants are included. The importance of antioxidants contained in food is associated with their ability to exert in vivo, in the human body, beneficial effects against chronical- degenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress and age. It has been attributed a positive role to grape polyphenols in terms of increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses, thanks to regulation of genes coding for key enzymes of antioxidant system. For the polyphenols it has also been recognized a specific action of tumor growth inhibition, linked to the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis or to the inhibition of growth factors and cell proliferation activation. After carbohydrates and acids, the phenolic compounds represent the largest group among grape constituents. The synthesis of these secondary metabolites takes place in two distinct phases of vine growth cycle: fruit set and maturation. The polyphenolic composition contributes to grapes and wine sensory properties, such as color, flavor, astringency, and determines the antioxidant capacity of the extract. These metabolites are mainly related to the variety and their content is influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Among the polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxicinnamiltartaric acids, flavonols, flavans, stilbene and resveratrol are of particular interest. Despite numerous studies in the vine-wine industry on polyphenols quantification and qualification, we don't know much about the environmental conditions that affect their synthesis in grapes and how they are extracted from it in wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the study of antioxidant property and

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  9. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Duguay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.

  10. Interactions between photoacidic 3-hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium and cucurbit[7]uril: Influence on acidity in the ground and excited state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Becher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium was synthesized by cyclodehydration route and its optical properties in different media were investigated. The absorption and emission spectra of this compound depend on the pH of the solution. Thus, at higher pH values the deprotonation yields a merocyanine-type dye that exhibits significantly red-shifted absorption bands and causes a dual emisson, i.e., a combination of emission bands of the hydroxyquinolizinium and its deprotonated form. Whereas this compound is a weak acid in the ground state (pKa = 7.9, it has a strongly increased acidity in the excited state (pKa* = 0.4. As a result, the blue-shifted fluorescence of the hydroxyquinolizinium becomes dominant only under strongly acidic conditions. In addition, it is shown that 3-hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium binds to cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7] with moderate affinity (Kb = 1.8 × 104 M−1, pH 5 and that the pKa and pKa* values of this ligand increase by about two to three orders of magnitude, respectively, when bound to CB[7].

  11. Theoretical investigation of inclusion complex formation of Gold (III – Dimethyldithiocarbamate anticancer agents with cucurbit[n = 5,6]urils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiollah Mahdavifar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold (III-N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate [DMDT(AuX2] complexes have recently gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents because of their strong tumor cell growth–inhibitory effects, generally achieved by exploiting non-cisplatin-like mechanisms of action. The goal of our research work is to encapsulate the gold(III dimethyldithiocarbamate complexes as anticancer with cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n = 5, 6] by accurate calculations, to predict the inclusion complex formation of gold(III species with cucurbiturils (CB[n = 5, 6]. The calculations were carried out just for the 1:1 stoichiometric complexes. Upon encapsulation, binding energy, thermodynamic parameters, structural parameters and electronic structures of complexes are investigated. The results of the thermodynamic calculations and the binding energy show that the inclusion process is exothermic and the CB[6]/[DMDT(AuBr2] complex is more stable than other complexes. The final geometry of CB[n]/drugs indicates that the drugs were expelled from the cavity of CB[n]. NBO calculations reveal that the hydrogen bonding between CB[n] and drugs and electrostatic interactions are the major factors contributing to the overall stabilities of the complexes.

  12. Excited-state proton transfer in confined medium. 4-methyl-7-hydroxyflavylium and β-naphthol incorporated in cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Nuno; Laia, César A T; Pina, Fernando

    2015-02-12

    Excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) was studied by fluorescent emission using a mathematical model recast from the Weller theory. The titration curves can be fitted with three parameters: pK(a) (acidity constant of the ground sate), pK(ap)* (apparent acidity constant of the excited state), and η(A*), the efficiency of excited base formation from the excited acid. β-Naphthol and 4-metyhl-7-hydroxyflavylium were studied in aqueous solution and upon incorporation in cucurbit[7]uril. For all the compounds studied the interaction with the host leads to 1:1 adducts and the ground-state pK(a) increases upon incorporation. Whereas the ESPT of 4-methyl-7-hydroxyflavylium practically does not change in the presence of the host, in the case of β-naphthol it is prevented and the fluorescence emission titration curves are coincident with those taken by absorption. The position of the guest inside the host was investigated by NMR experiments and seems to determine the efficiency of the ESPT. The ESPT decreases for the guest, exhibiting a great protection of the phenol to the bulk water interaction.

  13. Cell Adhesion on RGD-Displaying Knottins with Varying Numbers of Tryptophan Amino Acids to Tune the Affinity for Assembly on Cucurbit[8]uril Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan; Cavatorta, Emanuela; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2017-09-05

    Cell adhesion is studied on multivalent knottins, displaying RGD ligands with a high affinity for integrin receptors, that are assembled on CB[8]-methylviologen-modified surfaces. The multivalency in the knottins stems from the number of tryptophan amino acid moieties, between 0 and 4, that can form a heteroternary complex with cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) and surface-tethered methylviologen (MV 2+ ). The binding affinity of the knottins with CB[8] and MV 2+ surfaces was evaluated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Specific binding occurred, and the affinity increased with the valency of tryptophans on the knottin. Additionally, increased multilayer formation was observed, attributed to homoternary complex formation between tryptophan residues of different knottins and CB[8]. Thus, we were able to control the surface coverage of the knottins by valency and concentration. Cell experiments with mouse myoblast (C2C12) cells on the self-assembled knottin surfaces showed specific integrin recognition by the RGD-displaying knottins. Moreover, cells were observed to elongate more on the supramolecular knottin surfaces with a higher valency, and in addition, more pronounced focal adhesion formation was observed on the higher-valency knottin surfaces. We attribute this effect to the enhanced coverage and the enhanced affinity of the knottins in their interaction with the CB[8] surface. Collectively, these results are promising for the development of biomaterials including knottins via CB[8] ternary complexes for tunable interactions with cells.

  14. pH Responsive Self-Assembly of Cucurbit[7]urils and Polystyrene-Block-Polyvinylpyridine Micelles for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem A. Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7] were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH+ pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8, P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  15. Traveling Abroad: Latest Yellow Fever Vaccine Update | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier this month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its list of clinics that are administering the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which has been made available to address the total depletion of the United States’ primary yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX. These clinics will provide the vaccine to individuals preparing for international travel,

  16. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  17. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  18. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  19. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    effect of yellow sand with that of silica and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a ... [Ca2+]i was measured using the method previously des- cribed by Yang et ... particle activity as a Fenton catalyst). The capability of a particle to support transitional metal- dependent .... TNF-α production was increased in silica-treated cells and yellow ...

  20. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  1. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  2. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  5. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  6. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  7. Molecular Identification of Weed hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in southeast of Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Salari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV belongs to the family Geminiviridae and Begomovirus genus (27. In recent years, extensive damage to tomatoes and cucurbits plants in the south and the southeast of Iran has arrived (23. This virus family have circular, and single-stranded DNA genome and are widespread in tropical and subtropical areas (30. They are infected several plant species with economic importance. Begomoviruses are dicot-infecting, whitefly-transmitted viruses with a genome comprised of one or two molecules DNA (5. Up to now, studies have been performed to evaluate the status of distribution, and identification of natural host and assess the genetic diversity, but there is not a comprehensive review about its weed hosts yet. Materials and Methods In this research, The weeds from margins and inside greenhouses and farms of tomato and cucurbit in severely infected areas including Manoojan, Kahnooj, Faryab, Anbrabad and Jiroft to identify weed hosts of the virus in nature, were collected. Identification of collected samples were conducted by botanical specialists. Total DNAs were extracted from leaves according to the method of zhang et al. (1998 and stored at -20 oC. Identification of infected samples were carried out by PCR using degenerate primer pairs PCRv 181/Bc that direct the amplification of˷ 550 bp fragment of mono – and bipartite begomoviruses genome comprising the C-terminal portion of the intergenic region (IR N-terminal portion of the CPgene. PCR were performed in 25 µl reaction volumes containing 1 µl of template DNA, o.5 µl of Taq DNA polymerase Sinaclon (IRAN, 1.2 µl MgCl2, 0.5 µl dNTPs. 1 µM of each forward and reverse primers, 4.3 µl of 10× reaction buffer and 15.5 distilled water. The amplification were performed using a peqSTAR 96x Termal Cycler (Peqlabe, Germany. PCR conditions consisted of initial denaturing 94 oC for 3 min followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94 oC for 50s, annealing at

  8. Lysimeter experiments on root uptake of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from soil into vine and apple trees and on the transfer into grapes and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Foerstel, H.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1993-01-01

    In lysimeters filled with two different soil types (Parabraunerde and Podzol) the transfer of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from soil into vine and apple trees was investigated over a time period of 5 years (1988-1992). The soil was contaminated in 1978, so that at the beginning of the experiment the radionuclides were already aged. Due to the low availability for root uptake, the transfer of 60 Co and 137 Cs into vine and apple trees was very low. 90 Sr was fairly available for root uptake which caused a considerable uptake and translocation into vegetative plant parts. The physiological behaviour of the radionuclides investigated determined generally a low transfer into must and apples. This was confirmed by the transfer factors variing between 0.001 and 0.029 for 60 Co, 0.01 and 0.036 for 90 Sr and 0.001 and 0.109 for 137 Cs, respectively. The corresponding values in apples were in the same order of magnitude. The influence of the soil type is shown by the higher incorporation of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs into the single plant organs and by the higher transfer factors in must and apples grown on the podzolic soil. (orig.) [de

  9. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  11. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  12. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  14. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  15. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  17. Grapevine yellows diseases in Spain: eight year survey of disease spread and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Ester

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Among grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases in Europe, flavescence dorée (FD is the most devastating and in the last decade has reached Spanish vineyards, mainly in Catalonia. An eight-year survey was carried out in the areas where the disease has spread (Alt Empordà, Catalonia, Northern Spain and in the remaining vine-growing areas of Catalonia. Sequence analyses of a portion of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA cistron, from selected grapevine samples from Catalonia, showed that the phytoplasmas involved in grapevine yellows belong to 16S ribosomal subgroups V-D (flavescence dorée, FD and XII-A (bois noir, BN. A set of Spanish FD isolates collected during these years were further studied by RFLP analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA fragment, as well as the rpS3 and SecY genes. All the FD phytoplasma strains studied were related to phytoplasmas belonging to ribosomal protein subgroup rp-E.La flavescencia dorada (FD es la enfermedad más agresiva de entre todas las enfermedades de fitoplasmas que causan amarilleos de vid en Europa, y que en la última década ha alcanzado también a los viñedos de España, principalmente en Cataluña. Se ha realizado un seguimiento durante ocho años en las zonas donde la enfermedad se había difundido (Alt Empordà, Cataluña y en el resto de zonas con cultivo de vid de Cataluña. El análisis del fragmento del gen DNA ribosomal 16S-23S, de una selección de muestras de vides de Cataluña, indica que los fitoplasmas que están implicados en los amarilleos de vid pertenecen a los subgrupos ribosomales 16S V-D (flavescencia dorada, FD y XII-A (bois noir, BN. Una selección de aislados españoles de FD obtenidos durante estos años se ha examinado mediante análisis RFLP del fragmento del gen ribosomal 16S-23S, y de los genes rpS3 y SecY. Todos los aislamientos de fitoplasmas FD estudiados están relacionados con fitoplasmas pertenecientes al subgrupo de proteína ribosomal rp-E.

  18. Investigation of the effect of cucurbit[7]uril complexation on the photophysical and acid-base properties of the antimalarial drug quinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Suman; Pal, Kaushik; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-11-09

    Host-guest complexation of mono and dicationic quinine with cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), a water-soluble macrocyclic host molecule, has been investigated. Job's plot, time-resolved anisotropy as well as concentration dependent NMR titration confirm the binding of two CB7 macrocycles with one quinine molecule. The binding affinity of dicationic quinine with CB7 is one order of magnitude higher than the binding constant of mono-cationic quinine. Such preferential binding results in one unit pK a shift in the ground-state of the quinoline ring. However, using fluorescence spectroscopy we have obtained two acid-dissociation constants, one for quinoline ring nitrogen and the other for the nitrogen of the quinuclidine moiety. In the excited state, CB7 complexation causes one unit pK a shift for the quinoline ring and 1.9 unit shift for the quinuclidine moiety. Interestingly, a large enhancement of fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy of quinine at pH 2.7 and pH 9.0 upon CB7 complexation was observed due to the restriction of conformational flexibility. Moreover, at pH 3.0, a large fluorescence enhancement of quinine due to CB7 complexation was observed and it was quite significant as compared to that of quinine in 0.1 (M) HCl without CB7. We believe that this study of quinine complexation with CB7 will reduce phototoxicity, increase bioavailability and offer an alternative standard for quantum yield measurements in an amiable condition.

  19. Seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil para cucurbitáceas Selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl for cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil nas doses de 0, 94, 188, 376 e 752 g i.a. ha-1 para cinco espécies de cucurbitáceas (abobrinha, melancia, melão, moranga e pepino. Foi determinada a fitotoxicidade aos 14 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Aos 20 DAT foram avaliadas a estatura, área foliar e matéria seca. O melão e o pepino mostraram sensibilidade ao fluazifop-p-butil na maior dose estudada, com maior intensidade no melão. Os resultados demonstraram que existe resposta a estes herbicidas mesmo dentro da classe Dicotiledoneae. Especula-se que essas respostas possam auxiliar no entendimento do completo mecanismo de ação desse herbicida.Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl at rates of 0, 94, 188 and 752 g a.i. ha-1 for five cucurbitaceous species (summer squash, watermelon, melon, pumpkin and cucumber. Plant injury at 14 days after treatments (DAT and plant size, leaf area and dry weight at 20 DAT were determined. Melon and cucumber were susceptible to fluazifop-p-buthyl at the highest rate with highest herbicide effect being observed on melon. These results indicated that responses to these herbicides occur, even in the Dicotiledonae class. These responses are thought to help understand the overall mechanism of action of this herbicide.

  20. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  1. Effects of Salinity Stress on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of some Local Landrace and Inter specific Hybrids of Cucurbits Seedlings as Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farhadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity stress is regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors in plant limiting growth, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The reduction of plant growth by salinity stress has been well documented. When water supply is limited, plant structure is modified by increasing the root: shoot ratio. To reduce of losses in vegetative growth and production of plant and to improve water use efficiency under saline conditions in high-yielding genotypes grafting them onto rootstocks could bereduced the effect of saline stress on plant shoot. Grafting is a routine technique in continuous cropping systems. Most of the species of cucurbits are distributed in the dry regions. The objective of this studywas investigated the effectiveness of salinity stress on accessions of cucurbita and hybrid inter specific which enter from another country to Iran. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse at the Research Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Isfahan during 2013-2014 growing season. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted for rootstock and irrigation water salinity.. In the first experiment 25 seeds of rootstocks were sown in petri dishes with 10 cm diameter and irrigated by 10 ml of saline water. Rootstocks included 20 different local landraces and interspecific hybrids (C.moschata cv. Isfahan and Koshk, C.pepo cv. Alvar, Tiran, Koshk and Asgharabad, C. maxima cv. Kermanshah, Shahreza, Mohamadiyeh and Alvar, Lagenaria Siceraria, Luffa cylindrica, Trichosanthes cucumerina, RZ-Ferro, Es113, Ews910, Ews909, Ews913, 426 and Es152. Salinity stress was 6 levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ds/m of NaCl. Germination, diameter of stem, height of root and stem, shoot and root fresh mass, vigor index and root: shoot ratio were evaluated. In the second experiment seeds were sown in plastic pot by soil media. Seedlings were irrigated daily

  2. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safe, potent, and pure yellow fever vaccine. Medical facilities of Federal agencies are authorized to obtain yellow fever vaccine without being designated as a yellow fever vaccination center by the Director..., storage, and administration of yellow fever vaccine. If a designated center fails to comply with such...

  3. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  4. Is it time for a new yellow fever vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2010-11-29

    An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of red and yellow tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were ... The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. ... Conclusion: Moisture, fat and fibre values were similar in the samples.

  6. Yellow fever vectors' surveillance in three satellite communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of yellow fever have continued to occur in various parts of Nigeria. ... easily render themselves to vector and environmental management strategies. ... vectors, while locally adapted CDC (Centre for Disease Control) ovitraps were ...

  7. Study on silk yellowing induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-01-01

    The changes in the yellow color of silk threads with total dose of irradiation applied were described and studied by a colorimetric method and by monochrome photography. The change into a yellow color of the specimen in the course of irradiation was clearly detected in photographs using filters, 2B and SC 56 under light conditions at the wavelength of 366 nm. The b/L value measured by colorimetry in undegummed and degummed silk fibers sharply increased in the early stage of irradiation. Yellow color indices (b/L) of the specimen subjected to gamma-irradiation continued to increase and the yellow color of the silk threads became more pronounced above a total dose of irradiation of 21 Mrad. The b/L value of the undegummed silk fiber which had deen irradiated was about 2 times that of the degummed silk fiber. (author)

  8. EVALUATION OF COLOUR IN WHITE AND YELLOW TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    2010-03-20

    Mar 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate ... Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four.

  9. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  10. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  11. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  12. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vučurović; Aleksandra Bulajić; Ivana Đekić; Danijela Ristić; Janoš Berenji; Branka Krstić

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring and collecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other s...

  13. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  14. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Robert H.; Hernandez, Camellia L.; Petersen, Maureen M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  15. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Robert H; Hernandez, Camellia L; Petersen, Maureen M

    2017-09-19

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  16. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  17. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  18. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  19. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  20. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metal in perennials parts of vine in five local varieties (Riling, Smederevka, Hamburg, Kratoshija and Afus-Ali ) from Ovche Pole (R. Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakasheva, Elizabeta; Jovanova, Sonja; Boev, Blazho

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted in vineyards located in Ovče Pole, near the village of Krivi dol , in the eastern part of Macedonia, in order to assess the bio-accumulation and distribution of trace elements in perennial part of grape, in five local varieties (Rizling, Smederevka, Hamburg, Kratošia and Afus-Ali). For this purpose, the content of trace elements in soil and in the perennials parts of the vine: leaves, branches and grapefruit were measured, in all five local varieties.The content of Zn in soils varied from 75.7- 96.33 mg/kg, Ni from 1.69 to 4.45 mg/ kg, Cu from 34.1- 53.6 mg/ kg, Ba from 65.8- 140.5 mg/kg, Sr from 56,3-150,9 mg/kg, As from 5.48 -13.59 mg/kg, Mo from 1.99 to 3.1 mg/kg, Pb from 14.19-26.9 mg/kg, Ti from 119-239 mg/kg, Fe from 2482-3080 mg/kg, Mn from 722-1081 mg/kg and Al from 2646-4012 mg/kg, respectively. The content of Zn in plant varied from 154.8- 188.5 mg/kg, Ni from 145.1 to 191.8 mg/kg, Cu from 31.1 to 51.5 mg/kg, Ba from 15.7 to 24.2 mg/kg, Sr from 186.5 to 287.8 mg/kg, As from 9.78-27.7 mg/kg, Mo from 0.28 to 1.44 mg/kg, Pb from 5.25 to 13.56 mg/kg, Ti from 3.73 to 7.38 mg/kg, Fe from 345 to 464.5 mg/kg, Mn from 352.3 to 400.2 mg/kg and Al from 130.8 to 256.5 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of Zn,Ba, As, Mo, and Pb not exceeded the maximum allowable content (MAC) in all soil (The Now Dutch list). The highest content of Cu and Ni (The Now Dutch list) were founded in all vineyard soil from Ovče pole. Considering the value for bioaccumulation factor (BAF), grape vine for Zn, Sr, Cu and As possessed the characteristics of hyper accumulator. Most of the accumulated metals are mainly concentrated in the leaves of the vine, with the exception of As, which are concentrated in the fruit of the vine. (Author)

  1. The impact of soil erosion on soil fertility and vine vigor. A multidisciplinary approach based on field, laboratory and remote sensing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Pisciotta, Antonino; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Cerdà, Artemi; Gristina, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards, beyond surface runoff and sediment transport, have a strong effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss and redistribution along the slope. Variation in SOC across the landscape can determine differences in soil fertility and vine vigor. The goal of this research was to analyze the interactions among vines vigor, sediment delivery and SOC in a sloping vineyard located in Sicily. Six pedons were studied along the slope by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled every 10cm and SOC, water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were analyzed. Erosion rates, detachment and deposition areas were measured by the pole height method which allowed mapping of the soil redistribution. The vigor of vegetation, expressed as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from high-resolution satellite multispectral data, was compared with measured pruning weight. Results confirmed that soil erosion, sediment redistribution and SOC across the slope was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 16Mgha -1 y -1 since the time of planting (6years). SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition areas as highlighted by pole height measurements. The off-farm SOC loss over six years amounted to 1.2MgCha -1 . SUVA 254 values, which indicate hydrophobic material rich in aromatic constituents of WEOC, decreased significantly along the slope, demonstrating that WEOC in the detachment site is more stable in comparison to deposition sites. The plant vigor was strongly correlated with WEOC constituents. Results demonstrated that high resolution passive remote sensing data combined with soil and plant analyses can survey areas with contrasting SOC, soil fertility, soil erosion and plant vigor. This will allow monitoring of soil erosion and degradation risk areas and support decision-makers in developing measures for friendly

  2. Comparison of water soil erosion on Spanish Mediterannean abandoned land and agricultural fields under vine, almond, olives and citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands is considered as a global dynamic with on- and off-site consequences on the soil mostly ignored (Vanmaercke et al., 2011), which enhance land degradation processes by increasing water soil erosion (Cammeraat et al., 2010; Keesstra et al., 2012) and by decreasing biodiversity (Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of information at pedon scale about the assessment and quantification of which environmental elements activate or avoid water soil erosion after its respective abandonment. Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as useful tool for measuring interrelated soil erosion processes such as splash, initial rainfall-runoff processes, infiltration, sediment yield, water turbidity or nutrient suspensions (Cerdà, 1999; Iserloh et al., 2013; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). 105 experiments were conducted with a small portable rainfall simulator (rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1 in 30 minutes) in four different land uses and their respective abandoned land: i) citrus and olives (Valencia), almonds (Murcia) and vines (Málaga). We studied the main environmental factors that may determine water soil erosion during the performed experiments: slope, vegetation cover, rock fragment cover, soil properties (texture) and hydrological responses (time to runoff and infiltration generation). REFERENCES Brevik, E.C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., Van Oost, K., 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL 1, 117-129. doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015 Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrology 3, 421-430. doi:10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A., 1999. Simuladores de lluvia y su aplicación a la Geomorfología: Estado de la cuestión. Cuad. Investig. Geográfica 45-84. Iserloh, T., Ries, J.B., Arnáez, J., Boix-Fayos, C., Butzen, V., Cerdà, A., Echeverría, M.T., Fern

  3. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  4. Uranyl complexes as scaffolding or spacers for cucurbit[6]uril molecules in homo- and heterometallic species, including a uranyl-lanthanide complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuery, Pierre [NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-06-16

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) and carboxylic or sulfonic ligands under hydrothermal conditions and in the presence of additional metal cations (K{sup I} or Ce{sup III}) or cosolvents provided four complexes, which were crystallographically characterized. The compound [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(adc){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (1), where H{sub 2}adc is 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid, crystallizes in the form of a central K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} column surrounded by two one-dimensional (1D) polymeric UO{sub 2}(adc)(NO{sub 3}){sup -} chains attached to the column by nitrate bridges, with a perfect match of the repeat lengths in the two subunits. The longer 1,3-adamantanediacetic acid (H{sub 2}adac) gives the complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(adac){sub 2}(HCOOH){sub 2}].CB6.6H{sub 2}O (2), in which the 1D uranyl-containing polymer and columns of CB6 molecules form a layered arrangement held by weak CH..O hydrogen bonds. The complex formed with the dipotassium salt of methanedisulfonic acid (K{sub 2}mds), [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(mds){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}].4H{sub 2}O (3), is a 1D polymer, in which K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} units are connected to one another by doubly hydroxide-bridged uranyl dimers in which the disulfonates are terminal, chelating ligands; connection between the two subunits is solely through potassium oxo-bonding to uranyl. The complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}(CB6)(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (4) is a 1D polymer containing bridging oxalate ligands formed in situ, in which CB6 is coordinated to the lanthanide cations only; one nitrate ligand and one water ligand, hydrogen-bonded to each other, are included in the CB6 cavity, with the possible occurrence of interactions between nitrate oxygen atoms and ureido carbon atoms. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43% in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39% in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  6. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  7. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  8. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  10. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  12. Control biológico de enfermedades mediante el tratamiento de semillas de cucurbitáceas con rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento de las plantas (PGPR./Biological control of diseases by cucurbits seeds treatment with rhizobacteria plant growth promoting (PGPR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Las regulaciones sobre la producción de alimentos sanos limitan actualmente el uso de fungicidas sintéticos para el tratamiento de semillas y, por otra parte, no se dispone de bactericidas efectivos. Se condujeron experimentos en condiciones controladas para evaluar el efecto de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis F16/95, B. subtilis Xph y Pseudomonas putida 14A en el control biológico de la Mancha bacteriana de las cucurbitáceas, la Mancha bacteriana del fruto de melón y la pudrición de la raíz, provocadas por Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli y Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente. Se realizó el tratamiento de semillas de pepino (C. sativus, L. var. Poinsett, calabaza (Cucurbita moschata, Duch. var. INIVIT C-88, y melón de Castilla (Cucumis melo, L. var. Hale’s Best. Los tratamientos biológicos mostraron una reducción en la incidencia de las enfermedades e incrementos de longitud del tallo y peso fresco de hojas y raíces, en todas las interacciones planta-patógeno-antagonista. La colonización de raíces alcanzó rangos de 8,9-8,0 y 7,8-7,0 log (ufc cm-1 de raíz a los 4 y 15 días después de la siembra. Estos resultados caracterizaron las cepas aplicadas como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR y aconsejan la realización de ensayos de campo./Abstract:Nowadays the regulations about the production of healthy foods limit the use of synthetic fungicides for seeds treatment and, on the other hand, effective bactericides are not available. Experiments under controlled conditions were conducted to evaluate the effect of rhizobacterial antagonistic strains Bacillus subtilis F16/95, B. subtilis Xph and Pseudomonas putida 14A on the biological control of Cucurbits bacterial spot, Watermelon bacterial fruit blotch and Fusarium root rot caused by Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

  13. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  14. Application of isostatic gravity anomaly in the Yellow Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Qin, J.; Huang, W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Yellow Sea area, we used the Airy-Heiskanen model to calculate the isostatic gravity anomaly of this area. Based on the Bouguer gravity anomaly and water depth data of this area, we chose the calculating parameters as standard crustal thickness 30 km, crust-mantle density difference 0.6g/cm3and grid spacing 0.1°×0.1°. This study reveals that there are six faults and four isostatic negative anomalies in the study area. The isostatic anomalies in much of Yellow Sea areas give priority to those with positive anomalies. The isostatic anomalies in North Yellow Sea are higher than South Yellow Sea with Jiashan-Xiangshui fault as the boundary. In the north of the study area, isostatic anomalies are characterized by large areas of positive anomaly. The change is relatively slow, and the trends give priority to the trend NE or NEE. In the middle of the north Yellow Sea basin, there is a local negative anomaly, arranged as a string of beads in NE to discontinuous distribution. Negative anomaly range is small, basically corresponds to the region's former Cenozoic sedimentary basin position. To the south of Jiashan-Xiangshui fault and west of Yellow Sea eastern margin fault, including most of the south Yellow Sea and Jiangsu province, the isostatic anomalies are lower. And the positive and negative anomalies are alternative distribution, and negative anomaly trap in extensive development. The trends give priority to NE, NEE, both to the NW. On the basis of the characteristics of isostatic gravity anomalies, it is concluded that the Yellow Sea belongs to continental crustal isostatic area whose isostatic anomalies is smooth and slow. ReferencesHeiskanen, W. A., F. A. V. Meinesz, and S. A. Korff (1958), The Earth and Its Gravity Field, McGraw-Hill, New York. Meng, X. J., X. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Yang (2014), Geophysical survey in eastern China seas and the characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields, Marine Geoglogy

  15. Is Red Heavier Than Yellow Even for Blind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilari, Marco; de Heering, Adélaïde; Crollen, Virginie; Collignon, Olivier; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do.

  16. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  17. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  18. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  19. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  20. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  1. Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in ...

  2. Amniogenesis in the African yellow bat, Scotophilus dinganii | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African yellow house bat, Scotophilus dinganii, was found to be seasonally monestrus, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns of the bicornuate uterus. Implantation was superficial, with amniogenesis initiated early during embryogenesis. The amnion in S. dinganii was a schizamnion, and it is deduced ...

  3. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  4. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  5. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  6. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  7. Facing up to re-emergence of urban yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    1999-05-08

    Transmitted from person to person by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever was eliminated in the first half of this century, with the eradication of its mosquito vector from most of South America. However, reinfestation began in the 1970s is now almost complete, and vector control is considerably more difficult now than before. The threat of urban yellow fever is greatest in towns such as Santa Cruz, Bolivia, near the forest, but improved transport links increase the likelihood of spread by viremic people to nonendemic areas. Van der Stuyft et al. have reported the first instance of urban transmission of yellow fever in the Americas in 44 years. Since residents of the densely populated cities and much visited areas in coastal South America have never been vaccinated, an outbreak there would facilitate widespread dissemination of the disease, even to other continents. While urban yellow fever is a significant threat, carrying a case-fatality rate of about 20%, the constrained dynamics of transmission, early recognition of the striking clinical presentation, and efforts to control the infection should limit the impact of the disease. Laboratory-based surveillance, together with the prevention and control strategies outlined by van der Stuyft et al. are the key defensive measures against the future threat of urban epidemics.

  8. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  9. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  10. Predicting Driver Behavior during the Yellow Interval Using Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a signalized intersection, drivers must make a stop/go decision at the onset of the yellow signal. Incorrect decisions would lead to red light running (RLR violations or crashes. This study aims to predict drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations during yellow intervals. Traffic data such as vehicle approaching speed, acceleration, distance to the intersection, and occurrence of RLR violations are gathered by a Vehicle Data Collection System (VDCS. An enhanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM is used to extract moving vehicles from target lanes, and the Kalman Filter (KF algorithm is utilized to acquire vehicle trajectories. The data collected from the VDCS are further analyzed by a sequential logit model, and the relationship between drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations is identified. The results indicate that the distance of vehicles to the stop line at the onset of the yellow signal is an important predictor for both drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations. In addition, vehicle approaching speed is a contributing factor for stop/go decisions. Furthermore, the accelerations of vehicles after the onset of the yellow signal are positively related to RLR violations. The findings of this study can be used to predict the probability of drivers’ RLR violations and improve traffic safety at signalized intersections.

  11. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Yellow Ribbon Program and the student maintains satisfactory progress, conduct, and attendance according...) Based on student status (i.e. , undergraduate, graduate, doctoral), or (ii) For each subelement of the institution (i.e., college or professional school). The maximum amount specified for each subelement of the...

  13. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  14. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  15. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  16. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  17. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  18. Invisible Connections : Why Migrating Shorebirds Need the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kam, Jan; Battley, Phil; McCaffery, Brian; Rogers, Danny; Hong, Jae-Sang; Moores, Nial; Yong-ki, Yu; Lewis, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Each year, invisible to the naked eye, millions of migrating shorebirds fly from Australasia towards the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea bordering China and Korea. Each flock is made up of individuals using whatever strategies they can muster to endure the flights, weather the storms and find safe

  19. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  20. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  1. Initial photoinduced dynamics of the photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Grondelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is the photoreceptor protein responsible for initiating the blue-light repellent response of the Halorhodospira halophila bacterium. Optical excitation of the intrinsic chromophore in PYP, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises

  2. Biology and biological control of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Wilson; Sharlene E. Sing; Gary L. Piper; Richard W. Hansen; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Daniel K. MacKinnon; Carol Bell Randall

    2005-01-01

    Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. ssp. dalmatica (Fig. 1a), and yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (L.) P. Mill. (Fig. 1b), are exotic [see Glossary] weeds of rangeland, forests and cropland. Although several species of weedy toadflax have been intentionally or accidentally introduced to North America, these two species are by far the most common and...

  3. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  4. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  5. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  6. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the ...... Eng. 39 680–687 (in Chinese). Wu B S and Zhang Y F 2007 Law of along-course chang- ... load in the Lower Yellow River; Geomorphology 100(3–4). 366–376.

  7. Proline 68 enhances photoisomerization yield in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  8. Proline 68 Enhances Photoisomerization Yield in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  9. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  11. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  12. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  13. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  14. Yellow nail syndrome – report of a rare disorder | Ikuabe | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Yellow Nail Syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by the trail of yellow and thickened nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestation. We have no record of any case report of yellow nail syndrome in our setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of an 80 year old woman ...

  15. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  16. 29-34 Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rust pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines ...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listing the color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine. The label shall bear a statement such as “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine).” The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling...

  18. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.

  19. Quantitating Volatile Phenols in Cabernet Franc Berries and Wine after On-Vine Exposure to Smoke from a Simulated Forest Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-01-24

    Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity. An increase in total VPs after primary fermentation suggested the existence of VP-conjugates other than the acid-labile VP-glycosides already reported. This conclusion was supported with base hydrolysis on the same samples. Relative to published results, the data suggested a multifactorial regional identity for smoke-taint and they inform efforts to produce a predictive model for perceptible smoke-taint in wine based on the chemical composition of smoke-exposed berries.

  20. Development and application of triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for begomovirus detection using monoclonal antibodies against Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Warin, Nuchnard; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Phironrit, Namthip; Phuangrat, Bencharong; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Attathom, Supat; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2017-05-30

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus, TYLCTHV, is a begomovirus that causes severe losses of tomato crops in Thailand as well as several countries in Southeast and East Asia. The development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and serological methods for detecting TYLCTHV is essential for epidemiological studies and screening for virus-resistant cultivars. The recombinant coat protein (CP) of TYLCTHV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate MAbs against TYLCTHV through hybridoma technology. The MAbs were characterized and optimized to develop triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (TAS-ELISAs) for begomovirus detection. The efficiency of TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection was evaluated with tomato, pepper, eggplant, okra and cucurbit plants collected from several provinces in Thailand. Molecular identification of begomoviruses in these samples was also performed through PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the CP gene. Two MAbs (M1 and D2) were generated and used to develop TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection. The results of begomovirus detection in 147 field samples indicated that MAb M1 reacted with 2 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV and Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYnV), whereas MAb D2 reacted with 4 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV, TbLCYnV, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCNV). Phylogenetic analyses of CP amino acid sequences from these begomoviruses revealed that the CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the narrow-spectrum MAb M1 were highly conserved, sharing 93% identity with each other but only 72-81% identity with MAb M1-negative begomoviruses. The CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the broad-spectrum MAb D2 demonstrated a wider range of amino acid sequence identity, sharing 78-96% identity with each other and 72-91% identity with those that were not detected by MAb D2. TAS-ELISAs using the narrow-specificity MAb M1 proved highly efficient for the detection of

  1. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  2. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were no adverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. More research is needed on possible adverse effects of concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate to determine the potential of this method for more frequent use.

  3. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

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    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  4. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

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    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  6. Activitie of polyphenoloxidase in yellow and purple onion

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    Joeliton Alves Calado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the onion may limit the shelf life of the bulbs, mainly by the biochemical transformations. The objective of this work is to determine and compare polyphenoloxidase activity (PPO in yellow and purple onions and their functional body. The raw material was purchased in the local market , where they were transported to the Food Analysis Laboratory of the, Center for Agro-Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal, being selected, cleaned, sorted, peeled processed and carried out chemical and physico- chemical analysis and determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO. The statistical design was completely randomized with two treatments (purple and yellow onion with six repetitions. The purple onion presented levels of soluble solids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, more significant than the white onion. Both onions showed enzymatic activity, without significant differences.

  7. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  8. Designing Yellow Intervals for Rainy and Wet Roadway Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper quantifies and models the impact of wet pavement surface and rainy weather conditions on driver perception-reaction times (PRTs, deceleration levels, and traffic signal change interval durations. A total of 648 stop-run records were collected as part of the research effort for a 72 km/h (45 mi/h approach speed where participant drivers encountered a yellow indication initiation at different distances from the intersection. The participant drivers were randomly selected in different age groups (under 40 years old, 40 to 59 years old, and 60 years of age or older and genders (female and male. Using the gathered data, statistical models for driver PRT and deceleration levels were developed, considering roadway surface and environmental parameters, driver attributes (age and gender, roadway grade, approaching speed, and time and distance to the intersection at the onset of yellow. Inclement weather yellow timings were then developed and summarized in lookup tables as a function of different factors (driver age/gender, roadway grade, speed limit, precipitation level, and roadway surface condition to provide practical guidelines for the design of yellow signal timings in wet and rainy weather conditions. The results indicate that wet roadway surface conditions require a 5 percent increase in the change interval and that rainy conditions require a 10 percent or more increase in the duration of the change interval. These recommended change durations can also be integrated within the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII initiative to provide customizable driver warnings prior to a transition to a red indication.

  9. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and r...

  10. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  12. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  15. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  16. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  17. Narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ewald Rosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the paediatric age-group probably linked to the use of the Pandremix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can ‘trigger’ narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population.Here we describe the case of a 13 year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow-fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM latency of 47 minutes, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 minutes with sleep onset REM in 4 out of 4 nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder.

  18. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycosylated yellow laccases of the basidiomycete Stropharia aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Houghton, Catharine A; Moore, Jonathan K; Wilkinson, Mark C; Carnell, Andrew J; Bates, Andrew D; Iwanejko, Lesley A

    2014-05-10

    Here we describe the identification, purification and characterisation of glycosylated yellow laccase proteins from the basidiomycete fungus Stropharia aeruginosa. Biochemical characterisation of two yellow laccases, Yel1p and Yel3p, show that they are both secreted, monomeric, N-glycosylated proteins of molecular weight around 55kDa with substrate specificities typical of laccases, but lacking the absorption band at 612nm typical of the blue laccase proteins. Low coverage, high throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing in combination with inverse-PCR was used to identify cDNA sequences. One of the cDNA sequences has been assigned to the Yel1p protein on the basis of identity between the translated protein sequence and the peptide data from the purified protein, and the full length gene sequence has been obtained. Biochemical properties, substrate specificities and protein sequence data have been used to discuss the unusual spectroscopic properties of S. aeruginosa proteins in the context of recent theories about the differences between yellow and blue laccases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Durigan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  1. Hummingbird Ecstasy footprint and cultural guide for vine and wine. The case of "Marqués of Villa de Leyva"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article reflecting on viticulture in Boyacá, is analyzed from the project and its product Ain Karim wine Marqués de Villa de Leyva, located in the Valley of Zaquencipá, a structured system of meanings that this type of agriculture does unite in place where it is installed. Historically, viticultural practices have managed to involve substantial elements of cultural dynamics: belief systems, identity, health and disease, and ways to socialize economy ingesting fermented beverages. The wine "Marquis of Villa de Leyva" emerges in a context of climate, soil and subsoil, with potential for development characteristics, which however must be certified with specialized studies of tropical modern winemaking. In this Zaquencipá Valley, as it was called ancestrally, the religious geosmbólica was irradiated by Iguaquemountains, sacred space Muiscas. The conquest and colonization transformed it by the Christian geosimbólica, economic (production of wheat and military. Currently the town of Villa de Leyva and his environment is attractive to tourists, middle-class residents and significant capital, in this context arises the Vineyard founded in the early eighties by Mr. Pablo Toro, originally imported strains Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. This replicates the culture of the vine and wine, which is also supported by a constant of aesthetics, hygiene and ethno-specific technical. its process leaves substantial perceive elements of cultural globalization, internationalization and localities need to analyze the ethno-regional production techniques.

  2. Metabolomics reveals that vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata prevents high-fat-diet-induced metabolism disorder by improving glucose homeostasis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wan

    Full Text Available Vine tea (VT, derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz. W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved.Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups: a group given normal rat chow and water (control group; a group given an HFD and water (HFD group; a group given an HFD and Pioglitazone (PIO group, 5 mg /kg; and groups given an HFD and one of two doses of VT: 500 mg/L or 2000 mg/L. After 8 weeks, changes in food intake, tea consumption, body weight, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were determined. Moreover, liver samples were isolated for pathology histology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based metabolomic research.VT reduced the serum levels of glucose and total cholesterol, decreased glucose area under the curve in the insulin tolerance test and visibly impaired hepatic lipid accumulation. Metabolomics showed that VT treatment modulated the contents of metabolic intermediates linked to glucose metabolism (including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, the TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism.The current results demonstrate that VT may prevent metabolic impairments induced by the consumption of an HFD. These effects may be caused by improved energy-related metabolism (including gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and reduced lipid levels in the HFD-fed rats.

  3. Assessing the impacts of climate change on future water resources: a methodological approach based on equiratio CDF-matching and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the impacts of climate change on future river discharge are evaluated using equiratio CDF-matching and a stochastic copula-based evapotranspiration generator. In recent years, much effort has been dedicated to improve the performances of RCMs outputs, i.e. the downscaled precipitation and temperature, to use in regional studies. However, these outputs usually suffer from bias due to the fact that many important small-scale processes, e.g. the representations of clouds and convection, are not represented explicitly within the models. To solve this problem, several bias correction techniques are developed. In this study, an advanced quantile bias approach called equiratio cumulative distribution function matching (EQCDF) is applied for the outputs from three RCMs for central Belgium, i.e. daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration, for the current (1961-1990) and future climate (2071-2100). The rescaled precipitation and temperature are then used to simulate evapotranspiration via a stochastic copula-based model in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by a three-dimensional vine copula. The simulated precipitation and stochastic evapotranspiration are then used to model discharge under present and future climate. To validate, the observations of daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration during 1961 - 1990 in Uccle, Belgium are used. It is found that under current climate, the basic properties of discharge, e.g. mean and frequency distribution, are well modelled; however there is an overestimation of the extreme discharges with return periods higher than 10 years. For the future climate change, compared with historical events, a considerable increase of the discharge magnitude and the number of extreme events is estimated for the studied area in the time period of 2071-2100.

  4. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  5. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  6. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  7. Molecular and Ultrastructural Mechanisms Underlying Yellow Dwarf Symptom Formation in Wheat after Infection of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Wang, Xindong; Wang, Xifeng; Massart, Sebastien; Zhang, Zengyan

    2018-04-13

    Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection. TEM images indicated that chloroplasts in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601 leaf cells were fragmentized. Where thylakoids were not well developed, starch granules and plastoglobules were rare. Compared with mock-inoculated Zhong8601, chlorophyll content was markedly reduced, but the virus and H₂O₂ contents were significantly higher in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. The transcriptomic analyses revealed that chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast related transcripts, encoding chlorophyll a/b binding protein, glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 2, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase 1, were down-regulated in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. Some phytohormone signaling-related transcripts, including abscisic acid (ABA) signaling factors (phospholipase D alpha 1 and calcineurin B-like protein 9) and nine ethylene response factors, were up-regulated. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes were transcriptionally regulated in BYDV-GAV infected Zhong8601, including three up-regulated transcripts encoding germin-like proteins (promoting ROS accumulation) and four down-regulated transcripts encoding peroxides (scavenging ROS). These results clearly suggest that the yellow dwarf symptom formation is mainly attributed to reduced chlorophyll content and fragmentized chloroplasts caused by down-regulation of the chlorophyll and chloroplast biosynthesis

  8. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  9. Multiple yellow plaques assessed by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Shigenobu; Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Waxman, Sergio; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Seimiya, Koji; Takano, Masamichi; Uemura, Ryota; Sano, Junko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-03-01

    Multiple angioscopic yellow plaques are associated with diffuse atherosclerotic plaque, and may be prevalent in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), so in the present study the yellow plaques in the coronary arteries of patients with MI was evaluated using quantitative colorimetry, and compared with those of patients with stable angina (SA). In the recorded angioscopic images of 3 coronary vessels in 29 patients (15 patients with MI, 14 with SA), yellow plaques were determined as visually yellow regions with b* value >0 (yellow color intensity) measured by the quantitative colorimetric method. A total of 90 yellow plaques were identified (b* =19.35+/-8.3, 3.05-45.35). Yellow plaques were significantly more prevalent in 14 (93%) of 15 culprit lesions of MI as compared with 8 (57%) of 14 of SA (p=0.03). In non-culprit segments, yellow plaques were similarly prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI and 11 (79%) with SA (p=0.65). Overall, multiple (> or =2) yellow plaques were prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI, similar to the 10 (71%) with SA (p=0.38). The number of yellow plaques was significantly higher in patients with MI (3.8+/-1.9) than in those with SA (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.03). The present study suggests that patients with MI tend to have diffuse atherosclerotic plaque in their coronary arteries.

  10. Influence of Background Genome on Enzymatic Characteristics of Yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George L.; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.—Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome.—The ratio of malic enzyme activity to citrate-cleavage enzyme activity, possibly related to the altered fat metabolism of yellow mice, was influenced by background genome as well as by the yellow genotype.——Significant deviations of enzyme activities from mid-parent values among F1 hybrids were associated with particular background genomes; the number of such deviations was larger among yellow mice than among non-yellows and this difference was greater among C3H F1 hybrids than among C57BL/6 F1 hybrids. PMID:4405752

  11. Pest risk analysis for Conogethes punctiferalis (Yellow peach moth or castor capsule borer)

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Environment Research Agency

    2012-01-01

    This is a highly polyphagous pest, the larvae boring into fruit, seeds and stems of plants in many different families. Economic hosts grown in the UK include Allium cepa (onion), Malus (apple), Prunus (plum, cherry), Pyrus (pear), Vitis vinifera (grape vine), and Zea mays (maize). Other recorded hosts include Castanea (chestnut), Citrus, Curcuma longa (tumeric), Durio zibethinus (durian), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Punica granatum (po...

  12. Red-yellow electroluminescence, yellow-green photoluminescence of novel N, O donor ligands-chelated zirconium (IV) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem, E-mail: shahroos@znu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasouti, Fahimeh [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, eight new zirconium complexes with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen), were prepared and used as light emitting material in fabricated OLEDs. The structures of these complexes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H-NMR, CHN and ICP-AES. A yellow-green photoluminescence (PL) emission with a red shift compared to the PVK:PBD blend was observed. Devices with Zr complexes with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:PBD/zirconium complex/Al emitted a yellow-red light originating from the Zr complexes. We believe that electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complex interface is responsible for the red emission in the EL of the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel photoluminescence zirconium (IV) complexes with hole transport ligands are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yellow-green photoluminescence emission is shown red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the emission properties of OLED devices is explored by adding of {pi}-extended ligands such as Bphen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer El spectra are shown a red shift of the emission bands in respond to the addition of {Pi}-conjugated ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplex emission at PVK-Zr complex is proposed.

  13. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  14. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  16. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  17. Dengue-yellow fever sera cross-reactivity; challenges for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton-Triviño, Natalia; Montaña, Diana; Castellanos, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Flavivirus genera share epitopes inducing cross-reactive antibodies leading to great difficulty in differentially diagnosing flaviviral infections. This work was aimed at evaluating the complexity of dengue and yellow fever serological differential diagnosis. Material and methods Dengue antibody capture ELISA and a yellow fever neutralisation test were carried out on 13 serum samples obtained from yellow fever patients, 20 acute serum samples from dengue patients and 19 voluntan...

  18. Existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Freya M; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Marinho, Fatima; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Fullman, Nancy; Ray, Sarah E; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Background: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity t...

  19. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  20. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  1. Yellow pages advertising by physicians. Are doctors providing the information consumers want most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D D; Abernethy, A M

    1996-01-01

    Yellow pages listing are the most widely used form of physician advertising. Every month, approximately 21.6 million adults in the United States refer to the yellow pages before obtaining medical care. Mobile consumers--approximately 17% of the U.S. population who move each year--are heavy users of yellow pages. Consumers desire information on a physician's experience, but it is included in less than 1% of all physician display ads.

  2. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  3. Preferência da broca-das-cucurbitáceas [Diaphania nitidalis Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] por cultivares de pepineiro em ambiente protegido Pickleworm [Diaphania nitidalis Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae]preference for cucumber cultivars in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Greigh de Brito

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca-das-cucurbitáceas (Diaphania nitidalis é uma praga de grande importância em diversas culturas, principalmente do pepineiro. Esta espécie pode apresentar preferência em relação a determinadas cultivares quanto à sua alimentação e até mesmo oviposição. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar a ocorrência desta praga em frutos de seis cultivares de pepineiro, em ambiente protegido. As cultivares Patton, Victoria, Premier, Vlaspik e Napoleon apresentaram, respectivamente, 50%, 43,75%, 37,50%, 34,37% e 25,87% dos frutos brocados. A cultivar Marinda apresentou resultado promissor, com apenas 10,37% dos frutos com presença de larvas de D. nitidalis.The pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis is a major pest on different crops, particulary on cucumber. This species has shown a preference for determined cultivars to its feeding and oviposition habits. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of D. nitidalis larvae in fruits of six cucumber cultivars in greenhouse. The cultivars Patton, Victoria, Premier, Vlaspik and Napoleon showed, respectively, 50%, 43.75%, 37.50%, 34.37% and 25.87% of bored fruits. Promising results were obtained with the cultivar Marinda, which showed only 10.37% of bored fruits.

  4. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  5. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  6. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation

  7. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  8. An inactivated cell-culture vaccine against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Fowler, Elizabeth; Johnson, Casey T; Balser, John; Morin, Merribeth J; Sisti, Maggie; Trent, Dennis W

    2011-04-07

    Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, β-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 μg or 4.8 μg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 μg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 μg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-μg formulation than with the 0.48-μg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; Pvaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 μg of vaccine. A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).

  9. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  10. Crystallization Kinetics of Precipitating Calcium from Yellow Phosphorus Slag Lixivium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, G. -B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization dynamic parameters of calcium sulphate were determined in the course of the precipitation conversion process of calcium in lixivium. The crystallization dynamic equations of calcium sulphate were achieved by multiple linear regression. The study results indicate that CaSO4 · 2 H2O crystal nucleation-growth kinetics equation in nitric acid leaching liquid of yellow phosphorus slag at room temperature is expressed by B0 = 2.904 · 1011 · G0.83 · MT 0.167.

  11. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  12. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  13. Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %. Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti were present in a small percentage (2-6 %. These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.

  14. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  15. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  16. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host

  17. The results of the vine varieties reconversion measures in the North-Eastern Romania / Résultats de la mesure de reconversion des cépages dans le Nord-Est de la Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enia Florin-Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vine varieties reconversion measure is one of the many benefits that the Romania's integration to the European Union brings to the wine sector. This study aims to analyze the results of this measure during 2007–2015 in the Romania's North-East Region. From the Vineyard Plantation Register, the plots noble vine parcels of each department were divided into two groups: those who existed in the field in before and those converted during the period. The surface of each group was classified first, based on the color of the grapes and secondarily, based on the pair international varieties – non international varieties. The conversion affected 3 of 6 departments. In Iaşi, where the proportion of the surface of white grapes approach to 90% in 2006, the conversion was made whit white grapes (81.3% of the surface, and particularly whit 4 local varieties corresponding to the traditional assortment of the Cotnari vineyard. In Vaslui, the conversion was made particularly with white grape varieties, but below the proportion held in 2006, because the conversion was made whit a large area of rosé varieties (19.2% of the surface following the consumer demand. With the exception of Bacău, in the other two departments, the non-international and local varieties were used for the conversion.

  18. The geography of vine and wine industry in Brazil: Territory, culture and heritage / Géographie de la vigne et du vin Brésilien : territoire, culture et patrimoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcade Ivanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese started in the sixteenth century, but the colonial system did encourage neither their growth nor the establishment of territories. The organization of regions where the grape and wine formed the economic dynamic is related to the nineteenth century colonization projects, especially Italians from 1875. These regions including the Serra Gaúcha of Rio Grande do Sul and other small areas. In the twentieth century, most of these regions have had important territorial transformations, however, viticulture elements remain in culture and regional identity. In recent years, the growing of vines expanded to other regions and also in other States. The cultivation of the vine and winemaking built a brand, both for the actors and for the regional society, whose viticultural landscape distinguishes and identifies regions, and the cultural expression of the grape and wine is present in numerous material and intangible elements. The material and the intangible cultural complex of the wine-growing regions are a diverse and dynamic heritage, more concentrated in Rio Grande do Sul, which contributes to the enhancement and preservation of cultural heritage and territorial wine in this State. The wine culture valued in the actions of patrimonialization depends on the importance that give them the actors involved.

  19. What Does the Future Hold for Yellow Fever Virus? (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Klitting

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s and vertebrate host(s. Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015–2016 and Brazil (since late 2016, reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions about the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at individual, local and global levels.

  20. Impact of yellow fever on the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, O

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) has remained a disease of public health importance since it was first described in the fifteenth century. At different periods in human history, YF has caused untold hardship and indescribable misery among populations in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. It brought economic disaster in its wake, constituting a stumbling block to development. Yellow fever is an arboviral infection with three epidemiological transmission cycles between monkeys, mosquitoes, and humans. It is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden onset, with two phases of development separated by a short period of remission. The clinical spectrum of YF varies from a very mild, nonspecific, febrile illness to a fulminating, sometimes fatal disease with pathognomonic features. In severe cases, jaundice and bleeding diathesis with hepatorenal involvement are common. The fatality rate of severe YF is 50% or higher. Despite landmark achievements in the understanding of the epidemiology of YF and the availability of a safe, efficacious vaccine, YF remains a major public health problem in both Africa and South America, where annually the disease affects an estimated 200,000 persons, causing an estimated 30,000 deaths. Since the 1980s epidemics of YF in Africa have affected predominantly children under the age of 15 years. The failure to control YF arises from a misapplication of public health strategies and insufficient political commitment by governments in YF endemic areas, especially in Africa, to control the disease.