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Sample records for cucurbit yellow stunting

  1. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  2. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  3. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  4. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  5. Assessing the movement of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in susceptible and tolerant cucumber germplasms using serological and nucleic acid based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is an emerging virus causing significant yield losses in cucurbits. Simple but reliable detection and quantification methods constitute an important support to disease management. In a susceptible germplasm CYSDV was detected 5 days post-inoculation (D...

  6. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn A.; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A.; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A.; Coutts, Robert H. A.; Livieratos, Ioannis C.

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants. PMID:27314380

  7. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

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    Carolyn A. Owen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants.

  8. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn A; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A; Coutts, Robert H A; Livieratos, Ioannis C

    2016-06-14

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5'- and 3'-UTRs plus the 3'-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants.

  9. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Gug-Seoun

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  10. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

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    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  11. Occurrence, Distribution and Biological variability of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in cucurbits of Khuzestan province, South west of Iran

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    Somayeh Safara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ZYMV is one of the most important plant viruses that cause economical damage in cucurbits. The symptoms of ZYMV in different cucurbits include stunting, yellowing, mottling, severe mosaic, leaf and fruit deformation, blistering and shoe string. Investigation on occurrence of this virus, in Khuzestan province was carried out in November 2009, April and May 2010 by collecting cucurbits samples from different cucurbits fields. After DAS-ELISA test, ZYMV was maintained in squash. Then total RNA were extracted and were tested by RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR, fragments belonging to N-terminal of coat protein and C-terminal of nuclear inclusion bodies were replicated. PCR product for investigation of replication was loaded in 1% agarose gel. From seven regions in Khuzestan, 175 leaf samples showing different symptoms (yellowing, mosaic, deformation and blistering were collected. Seventy one samples out of total samples (175 samples showed ZYMV infection. Occurrence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Khuzestan province was confirmed, using serological and RT-PCR tests. Infection of ZYMV in Khuzestan province (40.5% is higher than the average of Iran’s infection (38%. This article is first report of occurrence ZYMV in different regions of Khuzestan province except Dezful.

  12. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

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    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  13. Molecular identification of Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus in Hainan and Henan province%海南省和河南省发生甜瓜褪绿黄化病的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 彭斌; 吴会杰; 柳唐镜; 孔祥义; 施艳; 古勤生

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the pathogenic virus causing muskmelon yellowing in Hainan and Henan province, [Methods]the total RNA was extracted from samples collected from infected plants in Sanya, Hainan province and Zhengzhou, Henan province and the coat protein genes(cp) were amplified using Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus (CCYV) specific primers and cloned. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of those cp genes and all the sequences of cp genes within same species and same genus submitted in the GenBank. [Results]The results showed that the fragments of about 880 bp in size produced by RT-PCR were as expected. The phylogenetic tree showed that the samples belonged to the same branch with Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus whereas Cucuibit yellow stunting disorder virus(CYSDV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BPYV) were in other branches. [Conclusions] Our investigation suggested that the yellowing of muskmelon in Hainan and Henan province was caused by Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus.%[目的]为了探明引起海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化的病因,[方法]提取从海南三亚和河南郑州采集的甜瓜叶片的RNA,用CCYV特异性引物进行外壳蛋白基因的克隆、测序,并与GenBank中同属或同种病毒的cp基因核苷酸序列构建系统进化树.[结果]结果显示,RT-PCR产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳,所得条带在880 bp左右,与预期的一致;构建cp基因的系统进化树发现,样品与瓜类褪绿黄化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus,CCYV)的亲缘关系很近,属于同一个分枝,而与该病毒同属不同种的南瓜黄矮失调病毒(Cuc urb it yellow stunting disorder virus,CYSDV)和大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的亲缘关系较远,属于不同的分枝.[结论]证实海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化病是由瓜类褪绿黄化病毒引起.

  14. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

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    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  15. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several common cucurbit weed reservoirs for Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) were compared with watermelons as sources of inoculum. Weed susceptibility to SqVYV was also analyzed. In addition, behavior of the whitefly vector of SqVYV was studied on infected and non-infected plants. This report...

  16. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  17. Genetic Resistance in Melon PI 313970 to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a fresh vegetable and dessert fruit that may also be cooked or dried, processed for juice and flavoring, and the seeds of which are a source of high quality cooking oil and high protein seed meal. Melon production throughout many parts of the world is now threatened by Cuc...

  18. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

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    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  19. Establishment of a Simple and Rapid Gene Delivery System for Cucurbits by Using Engineered of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hoseong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    The infectious full-length cDNA clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) isolate PA (pZYMV-PA), which was isolated from pumpkin, was constructed by utilizing viral transcription and processing signals to produce infectious in vivo transcripts. Simple rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of pZYMV-PA was successful to cause infection of zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). We further engineered this infectious cDNA clone of ZYMV as a viral vector for systemic expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits. We successfully expressed two reporter genes including gfp and bar in zucchini plants by simple rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of the ZYMV-based expression constructs. Our method of the ZYMV-based viral vector in association with the simple rub-inoculation provides an easy and rapid approach for introduction and evaluation of heterologous genes in cucurbits.

  20. Molecular identification of Candidatus Phytoplasma spp. associated with Sophora yellow stunt in Iran

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    Allahverdi Touhid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, sophora (Sophora alopecuroides L. plants showing symptoms of leaf yellowing, little leaves and stunting were observed in Firooz-kuh (Tehran province, Sari (Mazandaran province and Urmia (West Azerbaijan province in Iran. Symptomatic plants from the three locations were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify 16SrRNA using primer pair P1/P7 followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2. The amplicons were purified, sequenced and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed by virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. The phytoplasmas associated with the yellows disease were identified as members of the 16SrIX group (Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium and the 16SrXII group (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani. The two phytoplasmas were placed in 16SrIX-C and 16SrXII-A subgroups, respectively, in constructed phylogenetic trees. This is the first report on sophora yellows associated with Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium.

  1. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

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    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem.

  2. Sequence analysis of leader and trailer regions of rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus and characterization of their in vivo transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 陈晓英; 罗宗礼; 方荣祥

    1999-01-01

    The 3’ leader and the 5’ trailer of the rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus (RYSV) genomic RNA have been cloned and sequenced. Sequence data indicate that the RYSV leader region is composed of 203 nucleotides (nt) and the trailer region 191 nt. The terminal 9 nt of the two regions are complementary and capable of forming a putative panhandle structure common to rhabdovirus genomes. In comparison with the leader or trailer sequences of other rhab-doviruses reported so far, both the leader and trailer of RYSV are the longest and there is no obvious sequence homolo-gy between the counterparts except for a few terminal nt and the UGUU motif in the leader sequences. Polyadenylated plus-strand leader RNA has been detected in RYSV-infected rice plants by 3’ RACE. This is the second example in rhabdoviruses following the report for sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) for existence of a polyadenylated leader RNA. No polyadenylated plus-strand transcripts of the RYSV trailer have been found using the similar method.

  3. Detection and quantitation of two cucurbit criniviruses in mixed infection by real-time RT-PCR.

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    Abrahamian, Peter E; Seblani, Rewa; Sobh, Hana; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2013-11-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) are whitefly-transmitted criniviruses infecting cucurbit crops inducing similar symptoms. Single and multiplex RT-PCR protocols were developed and evaluated on cucurbit samples collected from commercial greenhouses. Primers and probes were designed from the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 homolog (Hsp70h) gene. Conventional RT-PCR and multiplex RT-PCR assays showed high specificity and suitability for routine screening. TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols were also developed for the detection and quantitation of both viruses occurring in single or mixed infection. The assays proved to be highly specific with no cross amplification. RT-qPCR assays showed a 100-1000 times improved sensitivity over conventional RT-PCR. Virus titers in mixed infections were compared to singly infected plants by RT-qPCR. CYSDV and CCYV titers decreased in double infected plants. This paper reports highly specific conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection, quantitation and differentiation between two closely related cucurbit-infecting criniviruses.

  4. Identification, distribution and incidence of viruses in field-grown cucurbit crops of Iran

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    K. Bananej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of viruses in the major cucurbit-growing areas of 17 provinces in Iran was conducted in 2005 and 2006. A total of 1699 leaf samples were collected from melon, squash, cucumber and watermelon plants showing various virus-like symptoms. Screening for 11 cucurbit viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR, found that 71% of the samples were infected by at least one virus, of which Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV was the most common overall, occurring in 49, 47, 40, and 33% of cucumber, squash, melon, and watermelon samples respectively. The second most common virus on melon and watermelon was Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (incidence 30–33%; on cucumber, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV(33%; and on squash, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV(38%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and Zucchini yellow fl eck virus (ZYFV in Iran. Mixed infections occurred in 49% of symptomatic samples. Mixed infections were relatively frequent in squash (58% and melon (55%. The most frequent double infections were WMV+CABYV and ZYMV+CABYV in melon, squash and cucumber, followed by WMV+ZYMV. In watermelon, the most frequent double infection was WMV+ZYMV, followed by WMV+CABYV. The high frequency of CABYV, WMV and ZYMV in the samples assayed on all four cucurbit crops and in all areas surveyed, as well as the detection of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV in northern and southern Iran, suggest that these viruses represent a potential threat to cucurbit crops in Iran.

  5. Identification of viruses infecting cucurbits and determination of genetic diversity of Cucumber mosaic virus in Lorestan province, Iran

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    Hasanvand Vahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viral pathogens infect Cucurbitaceae and cause economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect plant viral pathogens including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV in Lorestan province, in western Iran, and also to determine CMV genetic diversity in Iranian populations. A total of 569 symptomatic leaf samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 from cucurbits growing regions in Lorestan province. The collected samples were assessed for viral diseases by ELISA. The results showed virus incidences in most regions. Then, the infection of 40 samples to CMV was confirmed by RT-PCR. Moreover, to distinguish between the two groups (I and II of CMV, PCR products were digested by two restriction enzymes XhoI and EcoRI. Results of the digestion showed that the isolates of Lorestan belonged to group I. The CMV-coat protein gene of eight isolates from different regions and hosts was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Subsequent analyses showed even more genetic variation among Lorestan isolates. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Lorestan province isolates belonged to two IA and IB subgroups and could be classified together with East Azerbaijan province isolates. The results of the present study indicate a wide distribution of CMV, ZYMV, CGMMV, CYSDV and CCYV viruses in cucurbits fields of Lorestan province and for the first time subgroup IB of CMV was reported on melon from Iran.

  6. Occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in Guilan province, Iran.

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    Gholamalizadeh, R; Vahdat, A; Keshavarz, T; Elahinia, A; Bananej, K

    2008-01-01

    During the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus L.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of Guilan province in Iran. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR to detect Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W), Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), and Ourmia melon virus (OuMV). The majority of tested samples (73.7%) were infected by at least one of the viruses considered. OuMV, ZYMV, WMV, and WmCSV were the most prevalent viruses and were detected in tested cucurbit plants. The incidence of multiple infections with 2 or more viruses was also relatively high, 63.3, 48.6, 42.7, and 26.7% of the infected samples of melon, cucumber, squash, and watermelon, respectively. The high incidence of OuMV and WmCSV suggested that these viruses might turn out to be an important threat for the melon and cucumber crops in the province.

  7. Exogenously applied dsRNA molecules deriving from the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) genome move systemically and protect cucurbits against ZYMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Athanasios; Berbati, Margarita; Melita, Ourania; Reppa, Chrysavgi; Holeva, Maria; Otten, Patricia; Voloudakis, Andreas

    2017-06-16

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes serious damage in a large number of cucurbits, and control measures are necessary. Transgenic cucurbits expressing parts of the ZYMV genome have been shown to be resistant to the cognate virus. A non-transgenic approach involving the exogenous application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has also been shown to induce resistance in tobacco against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In the present study, dsRNA molecules derived from the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and coat protein (CP) genes of the ZYMV_DE_2014 isolate were produced in vitro. On exogenous dsRNA application in cucumber, watermelon and squash plants, dsRNA HC-Pro conferred resistance of 82%, 50% and 18%, and dsRNA CP molecules of 70%, 43% and 16%, respectively. On deep sequencing analysis of ZYMV-infected watermelon, hot-spot regions for viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the genome of ZYMV were identified. Stem-loop reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of selected 21-nucleotide-long vsiRNAs in plants that received only dsRNA molecules suggested that the dsRNAs exogenously applied onto plants were successfully diced, thus initiating RNA silencing. dsRNA molecules were found to be progressively degraded in planta, and strongly detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for at least 9 days after exogenous application. Moreover, dsRNA molecules were detected in systemic tissue of watermelon and squash, showing that dsRNA is transported long distances in these plants. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  9. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  10. Squash vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  12. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  13. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  14. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    to the existing Integrated Disease Management strategy for ZYMV in vegetable cucurbits in WA, but necessitated modification of its recommendations over deployment of cultivars with resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Severe stunting in blackgram caused by the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) KA27 DNA B component is ameliorated by co-infection or post-infection with the KA22 DNA B: MYMV nuclear shuttle protein is the symptom determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Nagrani; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2011-04-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, has five variable and infective DNA B components of which KA22 and KA27 DNA Bs share only 72% nucleotide sequence identity between them. Agroinoculation of blackgram with partial dimers of DNA A and KA27 DNA B caused severe stunting and an inordinate delay in flowering. Interestingly, co-agroinoculation of KA27+KA22 DNA B components along with DNA A ameliorated severe stunting, rescued from the delay in flowering and caused the appearance of yellow mosaic symptom characteristic of KA22 DNA B. Post-agroinoculation of KA27 DNA B-infected blackgram plants with KA22 DNA B also resulted in the amelioration from severe stunting and in the alleviation from the delay in flowering. Alleviation from KA27 DNA B-type of symptom by co-infection or post-infection with KA22 DNA B did not result in a corresponding reduction in KA27 DNA B levels. Swapping of KA27 DNA B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA B abolished severe stunting and caused the appearance of mild yellow symptom, suggesting that the NSP is the major symptom determinant in MYMV DNA B.

  16. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  17. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  18. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  19. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  20. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  1. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  2. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  3. Switching of emission of a styryl dye in cucurbit[7]uril: A comprehensive experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anamika; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2015-04-01

    Intriguing colour change and change in fluorescence band of 2-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide from nonpolar to polar protic solvent, and also from molecular container cucurbit[7]uril environment to polar protic solvent has been reported here. This interesting colour change of this dye with respect to the medium makes this dye useful as a sensor. Change in spectral characteristics of DASPMI along with change of colour from orange to yellow with increasing polarity of medium is interpreted as due to negative solvatochromatism. Complexations of probe-cucurbit[7]uril (1:1 and 2:1) cause structural change of the probe molecule due to hydrogen bond interaction of cationic part of the dye with Cdbnd O group of cucurbit[7]uril and the colour change of the solution ensued. On addition of sodium chloride to the inclusion complex the dye is released from cucurbit[7]uril interior with colour of the solution reverted back. Theoretical results show that one carbon atom in the styryl part containing the positive charge gets too close to a carbon atom of cucurbit[7]uril to cause a phenomenal increase of dipole moment by 10X.

  4. Childhood stunting: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Onis, Mercedes; Branca, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Childhood stunting is the best overall indicator of children's well-being and an accurate reflection of social inequalities. Stunting is the most prevalent form of child malnutrition with an estimated 161 million children worldwide in 2013 falling below -2 SD from the length-for-age/height-for-age World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. Many more millions suffer from some degree of growth faltering as the entire length-for-age/height-for-age z-score distribution is shifted to the left indicating that all children, and not only those falling below a specific cutoff, are affected. Despite global consensus on how to define and measure it, stunting often goes unrecognized in communities where short stature is the norm as linear growth is not routinely assessed in primary health care settings and it is difficult to visually recognize it. Growth faltering often begins in utero and continues for at least the first 2 years of post-natal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of multiple pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality, loss of physical growth potential, reduced neurodevelopmental and cognitive function and an elevated risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The severe irreversible physical and neurocognitive damage that accompanies stunted growth poses a major threat to human development. Increased awareness of stunting's magnitude and devastating consequences has resulted in its being identified as a major global health priority and the focus of international attention at the highest levels with global targets set for 2025 and beyond. The challenge is to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight and obesity at bay. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  6. Detection, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from cucurbits in the northwest region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Kalhor, Mohammad Rasaei; Zarghani, Shaheen Nourinejhad

    2006-06-01

    One hundred and twenty three cucurbit samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, leaf distortion, fruit mosaic, stunting, mottling and yellowing were collected from several locations in the northwest region of Iran. Screening by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with a cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) polyclonal antibody, produced positive reactions from 13 samples. However, none of these positive samples reacted with a CMV subgroup-II (S-II)-specific monoclonal antibody in a triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELSIA. When total RNA from the CMV-infected samples was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a pair of primers corresponding to the flanking regions of the virus coat protein (CP) gene, an expected DNA fragment of about 872 bp was amplified from 10 of the 13 isolates. This fragment covered the CP open reading frame (ORF) plus 92 and 123 bp of the 5' and 3' flanking regions, respectively. Restriction analysis with MspI (HpaII) was done on 9 of the PCR products and revealed a previously described CMV subgroup I (S-I) specific profile (537 and 335 bp fragments) for the isolates B13, B23, B5, SH5, SH17, S342 and S337, and an additional fragment, suggestive of combined profiles, was present for B13, SH5 and S342. Two other isolates, SH12 and B7 had a CMV S-II MspI profile (four visible fragments and a predicted non-visible 28-bp fragment on 2% agarose). Also, BsuRI (HaeIII) did not cut the PCR products characteristic of the CMV S-I specific MspI profile, whereas for the S-II isolates, BsuRI gave two fragments with sizes of approximately 559 and 313 bp. Nucleotide (nt) sequences of clones from the isolates B13, B23, SH5, SH17, S337 and SH12 were determined and aligned with those of previously published CMV strains and isolates. Consensus parsimonious trees constructed on the basis of the whole amplified region (841 nt excluding the primer sequences), CP ORF (nt or deduced amino acid data), or

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCURBIT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND DISEASE PREVALENCE IN MUNICIPALITIES IN PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERFFESON THIAGO MOTA DE ALMEIDA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits have great economic, nutritional and social importance in the Brazilian semiarid region. In this region, many factors can result in reduced productivity of these crops, especially fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, knowledge of cucurbits is crucial for proper disease management. The objective of this work was to identify the major diseases of cucurbits grown in some municipalities in the Hinterland of the state of Pernambuco. Thus, plant samples were collected with symptoms in crops in the municipalities of Salgueiro, Serra Talhada, Floresta, Petrolândia, Ibimirim, Custódia and Inajá. A questionnaire was also applied to gather information about the production profile of producers. Seven fungal pathogens infecting cucurbits were identified: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Colletotrichum sp., Podosphaera xanthii, Rhizoctonia solani, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium sp. e Alternaria sp., and three viruses as well: Papaya ringspot virus - watermelon strain (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. It was found that in small crops, there is limited search for technical information om cropping, and these crops originate mostly from native seeds, in contrast to medium and large producers, who use improved cultivars. The melon and watermelon crops are the most commercially exploited, while pumpkins are used in subsistence agriculture. As for plant health problems, most respondents reported knowing the main diseases that occur in crops and perform disease control based on personal experience and / or through the help of the technical assistance provided by agricultural stores. In a few cases, in large farms, there was an agronomist to assist in this type of control.

  8. Relationship between gene responses and symptoms induced by Rice grassy stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji eSatoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. The results indicated that 1 many genes related to cell wall synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were predominantly suppressed by RGSV infection; 2 RGSV infection induced genes associated with tillering process; 3 RGSV activated genes involved in inactivation of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid ; and 4 the genes for strigolactone signaling were suppressed by RGSV. These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis.

  9. The stunting syndrome in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-11-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a 'stunting syndrome' in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated.

  10. Characterization and ecological aspects of rice yellow mottle virus in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.

    1974-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus(RYMV)is the causal pathogen of yellow mottle of rice in the area around Kisumu near Lake Victoria in Kenya. Affected plants show a yellow or orange discolouration of the leaves, reduced tillering and stunting of the plants, and sterility of the flowers. The results

  11. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting...... and stunting are both associated with increased mortality, especially when both are present in the same child. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these two different forms of malnutrition is needed to design efficient programs. A greatly reduced muscle mass is characteristic of severe wasting...... that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...

  12. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting ...... in the absence of wasting and even in overweight children. Thus, food supplementation should be used with caution in populations where stunting is not associated with wasting and low fat stores....

  13. NMR study on self-assembled cage complex of hexamethylenetetramine and cucurbit[n]urils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongqiang; XUE Saifeng; ZHAO Yunjie; ZHU Qianjiang; TAO Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled complexes between cage compounds cucurbit[n = 5-8]urils and hexamethylenetetramine were studied by using NMR techniques. Experimental results reveal that hexamethylenetetramine can lid cucurbit[5]uril to forming self-assembled capsules in which nothing is encapsulated yet; the cavity of the cucurbit[7]uril can accommodate a hexamethylenetetramine molecule to form a self- assembled host-guest inclusion. Moreover, both the cavity interaction of the cucurbit[7]uril with hexamethylenetetramine·HCl and the portal interaction of the dipole carbonyl of the cucurbit[7]uril with hexamethylenetetramine·HCl lead to form self-assembled capsules in which the hexamethylenetetramine·HCl are encapsulated in the hexamethylenetetramine·HCl "lidded" cucurbit[7]uril. Although the structures of the portal and cavity to cucurbit[5]uril are similar, there is no obvious interaction between decamethylcucurbit[5]uril and hexamethylenetetramine, and also between cucurbit [6]uril or cucurbit[8]uril and hexamethylenetetramine.

  14. FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J; Lucas, William J

    2007-05-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)-treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits.

  15. Complexation behavior of cucurbit[6]uril with short polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Hans-Juergen [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: buschmann@dtnw.de; Mutihac, Lucia [University of Bucharest, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 4-12 Blvd. Regina Elisabeta, 703461 Bucharest (Romania); Mutihac, Radu-Cristian [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany); Schollmeyer, Eckhard [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Adlerstrasse 1, D-47798 Krefeld (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    The binding properties of cucurbit[6]uril towards various peptides have been investigated in acidic aqueous solution. Stability constants and thermodynamic values of the complex formation between following peptides: glycyl-L-alanine, L-leucyl-L-valine, glycyl-L-asparagine, L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine, L-leucyl-L-tryptophan, glycyl-L-histidine, L-glutathione reduced ({gamma}-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH), and DL-leucyl-glycyl-DL-phenylalanine) with cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous formic acid (50%, v/v) have been calculated from calorimetric titrations. From these results it can be seen that the peptides form exclusion complexes with cucurbit[6]uril. Due to the polar peptide bond they are not included within the hydrophobic cavity of cucurbit[6]uril. The complex formation is favoured by entropic contributions. The release of water molecules from the polar amino groups of the peptides and the carbonyl groups of cucurbituril are responsible.

  16. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  17. prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children ... effective nutrition programs for primary school children especially those in rural schools within the ..... Factors associated with stunting among school-age.

  18. Implications of stunting on morphology of freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, C.J.; Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Strauss, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess morphological differences between stunted and non-stunted white perch Morone americana and green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus. Few female M. americana were captured; thus, morphological differences between adult males and juveniles were assessed for M. americana. Similarly, few immature (juvenile) L. cyanellus were captured for the stunted morphotype; thus, male and female morphological differences were assessed for L. cyanellus. Features of the head tended to be relatively larger in stunted fish of both species, whereas the mid-body tended to be relatively larger in non-stunted M. americana, but not in non-stunted L. cyanellus. Adult and juvenile morphology overlapped considerably in non-stunted M. americana, but there was a clear distinction between adult and juvenile morphology of stunted M. americana. There was little sexual dimorphism in shape in stunted L. cyanellus, whereas sexual dimorphism was evident in non-stunted L. cyanellus. It appears that selective forces imposed by predation and food limitation may contribute to morphological diversification between stunted and non-stunted fishes. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  20. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of some dietary cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara; Rawat, Indu; Goel, H C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated few dietary cucurbits for anticancer activity by monitoring cytotoxic (MTT and LDH assays), apoptotic (caspase-3 and annexin-V assays), and also their anti-inflammatory effects by IL-8 cytokine assay. Aqua-alcoholic (50:50) whole extracts of cucurbits [Lagenaria siceraria (Ls), Luffa cylindrica (Lc) and Cucurbita pepo (Cp)] were evaluated in colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT-15) and were compared with isolated biomolecule, cucurbitacin-B (Cbit-B). MTT and LDH assays revealed that the cucurbit extracts and Cbit-B, in a concentration dependent manner, decreased the viability of HT-29 and HCT-15 cells substantially. The viability of lymphocytes was, however, only marginally decreased, yielding a potential advantage over the tumor cells. Caspase-3 assay revealed maximum apoptosis with Ls while annexin V assay demonstrated maximum efficacy of Lc in this context. These cucurbits have also shown decreased secretion of IL-8, thereby revealing their anti-inflammatory capability. The results have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of dietary cucurbits in inhibiting cancer and inflammatory cytokine.

  1. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  2. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

  3. Yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  4. New Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many physiological races of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen (CPM) Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff have been reported on melon (Cucumis melo L.). Melon accession PI 313970 is the only reported source of host plant resistance to race S, which first appeared in Imperial Valley, CA...

  5. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lif......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights....... Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels....

  6. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  7. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits Origem e evolução de cucurbitáceas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae are among the most important plant families supplying humans with edible products and useful fibers. Plants of this family are very similar in above ground development, but they have high genetic diversity for fruit shape and other fruit characteristics, resulting in a variety of uses. The objective of this review was to discuss the origin and evolution of the most important cultivated cucurbits. Understanding the evolutionary history and domestication process increase the possibility for better exploiting the genetic diversity for cultivar development. The domestication selection in cucurbits was for shape, less bitter flesh, larger and fewer seeds, and larger fruit size, resulting in high genetic diversity within and among cultivated species. This variation can be associated with the wide range of uses that require different shape, size and a constant ratio between fruit length and fruit diameter. The discussion of the breeding history indicates how artificial selection could speed up changes in fruit characteristics to attend specific uses and increase adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions in which cucurbits are growing worldwide. Although interspecific hybridization has been employed in cucurbit breeding more than in any other family, there is still a high potential for increasing its application for germplasm and cultivar development.As cucurbitáceas (Cucurbitaceae são uma das mais importantes famílias de plantas utilizadas para produção de alimentos e fibras. Apesar de a parte aérea das plantas desta família ser muito similar em seu desenvolvimento, grande variabilidade genética tem sido mantida para formato e outras características de fruto, o que aumenta o seu potencial de uso. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir a origem e a evolução das cucurbitáceas cultivadas. A história da evolução e o conhecimento das alterações ocorridas durante este processo podem facilitar a utiliza

  8. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  9. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  10. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  11. Differential Colonization Dynamics of Cucurbit Hosts by Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrisman, Cláudio M; Deblais, Loïc; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Miller, Sally A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of cucurbits in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States. Although the disease has been studied since 1900, host colonization dynamics remain unclear. Cucumis- and Cucurbita-derived strains exhibit host preference for the cucurbit genus from which they were isolated. We constructed a bioluminescent strain of Erwinia tracheiphila (TedCu10-BL#9) and colonization of different cucurbit hosts was monitored. At the second-true-leaf stage, Cucumis melo plants were inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 via wounded leaves, stems, and roots. Daily monitoring of colonization showed bioluminescent bacteria in the inoculated leaf and petiole beginning 1 day postinoculation (DPI). The bacteria spread to roots via the stem by 2 DPI, reached the plant extremities 4 DPI, and the plant wilted 6 DPI. However, Cucurbita plants inoculated with TedCu10-BL#9 did not wilt, even at 35 DPI. Bioluminescent bacteria were detected 6 DPI in the main stem of squash and pumpkin plants, which harbored approximately 10(4) and 10(1) CFU/g, respectively, of TedCu10-BL#9 without symptoms. Although significantly less systemic plant colonization was observed in nonpreferred host Cucurbita plants compared with preferred hosts, the mechanism of tolerance of Cucurbita plants to E. tracheiphila strains from Cucumis remains unknown.

  12. Aster yellows group (16SrI), subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-B, phytoplasmas associated with lettuce yellows in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, an epidemic of lettuce yellows occurred in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The infected plants were stunted with blanching and chlorosis in young heart leaves. A total of thirteen samples, including three apparently asymptomatic, from Romaine and leaf lettuce cultivars, on two different...

  13. Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2017-03-01

    More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context. Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as Java, Indonesia. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between dietary diversity and child stunting. The prevalence of child stunting was 39.4%, and the percentage of households consuming food groups high in protein and calcium, like dairy products (41%), and meat/poultry, (65%) was lower compared with other food groups. The unadjusted model revealed that higher dietary diversity scores were associated with lower likelihood of child stunting (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.98). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for family size, maternal literacy, food expenditure, breastfeeding, energy, and protein intake (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.99). The dietary diversity score was moderate, with consumption of dairy products and meat/poultry lowest among 12 food groups. Hence, population interventions should focus on promoting food groups currently lacking in maternal and child diet, including those rich in growth-promoting nutrients like dairy, meat/poultry. These results, from an Indonesian context, confirm the widely observed protective relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting.

  14. Cucurbit powdery mildews: Methodology for objective determination and denomination of races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM), a disease on field and greenhouse cucurbit crops worldwide, is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites (Golovinomyces orontii s.l., Podosphaera xanthii) that are highly variable in their pathogenicity and virulence. Various, independent syste...

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  16. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  17. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire,1 Tefera Darge Delbiso,1 Srijana Pandey,2 Debarati Guha-Sapir,1 1Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED, Institute of Health and Society (IRSS, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Nursing, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH, Institute of Medicine (IOM, Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal.Method: A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders.Result: Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately. The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively. Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively. However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted.Conclusion: This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further

  18. POLA KONSUMSI PANGAN DAN ASUPAN ENERGI DAN ZAT GIZI ANAK STUNTING DAN TIDAK STUNTING 0—23 BULAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslis Wirda Hayati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyze food consumption, energy, and nutrients intake patterns between stunting and non-stunting in young children of 0—23 months old, using the data from BHR (Basic Health Research2010. The data sub-set from BHR 2010 was obtained into e-files form. From 6 634 under-two children 3 539 were screened out due to incompleteness, outlier, and unusual food consumption during data collect-ion. Nutritional status data were processed using the WHO AnthroPlus 2007, while the other data/statistics were processed using the Excel and SPSS for windows. The different on food consumption pattern was performedwith Man-Whitney U test. Food consumption, energy and nutrients intake patterns which measured were type number of food consumption, group number of food consumption, frequency of food consumption, nutrient adequacy, nutrient quality, and nutrients density. The results of study showed that analyze food consumption, and energy and nutrients intake patterns were different between stunting and non-stunting YC according to their age group; the higher the age, the higher their difference. There was no difference in food consumption, and energy and nutrients intake patterns between stunting and non-stunting children 0—5 months. Meanwhile, there was difference in children 6—11 and 12—23 months. The average of protein adequacy and protein density was difference between stunting and non-stunting children 6—11 months. In children 12—23 months, the differences not only in the average of protein adequacy and protein density but also in average of energy and calcium adequacy and calcium density, phosphor, vitamin A, and C adequacy, nutrient quality, and type number of food. Implications for Indonesia that is necessary to study the efficacy of nutritional interventions to achieving optimal linear growth in young children.Key words: children 0—23 months old, food pattern, stuntingABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan

  19. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  20. Cucurbit[8]uril/cucurbit[7]uril controlled off/on fluorescence of the acridizinium and 9-aminoacridizinium cations in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibing; Yuan, Lina; Ihmels, Heiko; Macartney, Donal H

    2007-01-01

    The blue fluorescence of acridizinium bromide (ADZ+) and the green fluorescence of 9-aminoacridizinium bromide (AADZ+) in aqueous solutions can be almost entirely switched off upon the double inclusion of these guests in the cavity of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) owing to the formation of a nonfluorescent, noncovalent dimer complex, and then fluorescence can be effectively restored by adding cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) to the complex because it competitively extracts the fluorophores out of the CB[8] cavity.

  1. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  2. Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

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    Erna Kusumawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6% di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat, dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%, riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%, riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%, riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%. Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years Old Stunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors

  3. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  4. A novel fluorometric determination of melamine using cucurbit[7]uril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yunyou, E-mail: zy161299@mail.ahnu.edu.c [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Yang Juan; Liu Min; Wang Sufan; Lu Qin [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Melamine is a toxic compound to both animals and human beings, and is connected to various diseases, such as kidney stones and bladder cancer. For the efficient detection of melamine, we have developed a novel sensitive cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) sensor with a detection limit at 0.20 mug mL{sup -1}, and applied it to detect melamine in tainted milk. Fluorescence studies indicate that CB7 forms complex with melamine in a 1:1 mole ratio. The binding constant at various temperatures has been calculated and the interaction mechanism has been discussed based on molecular modeling result.

  5. The association between wasting and stunting: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G

    1992-05-01

    Wasting and stunting are widely used indices for describing the prevalence of malnutrition in childhood. Studies from Latin America, however, consistently show low prevalences of wasting in the presence of other indicators of poor health. A data base assembled by the World Health Organization, including 175 studies with information on wasting and stunting among 1-y-old children from four regions (Africa, Americas, Asia and Eastern Mediterranean), was used for examining the prevalences of the two indices and their associations. Whereas there was little variation in the median prevalences of stunting among the four regions, those of wasting showed a sevenfold differential. In Africa and Latin America, the correlations between the two prevalences were low; nevertheless, wasting was about three times higher in Africa, for any given level of stunting, than in Latin America. In Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean, there were strong positive correlations between stunting and wasting, but wasting was about twice as common in Asia for any given level of stunting. To interpret low prevalences of wasting as being indicative of a low intensity of malnutrition may be misleading; weight-for-height standards and cut-offs may have to be re-examined for use in different populations.

  6. Virus symptoms and viruses associated with two cucurbit crops grown in a derived savannah agro-ecology in Nigeria

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    AYO-JOHN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five watermelon varieties, Sugar Baby, Charleston Grey, Kaolak, Crimson Sweet and Oranaise and three cucumber varieties, Poinsett, Ashley and Royal hybrid were grown on the field in two trials (i late season between August and October 2008 and (ii early season between April and June 2012 in Abeokuta, Ogun State to evaluate the cultivars for virus symptoms and viruses under natural tropical conditions. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from each crop variety and indexed for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The disease incidence was 100.0% at 6 weeks after planting (WAP for all the cucurbits crops for both seasons while the highest symptom severity score at 10 WAP was 4 and 5 for watermelon and 3.6 and 4 for cucumber in the 1st and 2nd trials. The viruses detected in late season were CMV, CGMMV and MNSV which occurred in all the cucumber and watermelon varieties. In addition PRSV, WMV and ZYMV occurred in mixed infection in the cucumber varieties Pointsett and Royal Hybrid. In the early season, PRSV was the most prevalent virus infection in the cucumber and watermelon varieties. Also CMV+PRSV, PRSV+WMV, and MNSV+PRSV occurred in mixed infection in Charleston Grey, Oranaise and Sugar Baby respectively. The viruses detected are among the viruses reported to limit the production of cucurbit crops world-wide.

  7. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  8. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

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    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  9. Biological and molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

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    David Marques de Almeida Spadotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV causes substantial economic losses in cucurbit crops. Although ZYMV has been present in Brazil for more than 20 years, there is little information about the biological and molecular characteristics of the isolates found in the country. This study aimed to characterize the experimental hosts, pathotypes and genetic diversity of a collection of eleven Brazilian ZYMV isolates within the coat protein gene. For biological analysis, plant species from Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Pedaliaceae were mechanically inoculated and pathotypes were identified based on the reaction of a resistant Cucumis melo, accession PI414723. All of the cucurbit species/varieties and Sesamum indicum were systemically infected with all isolates. The nucleotide sequence variability of the coat protein gene ranged from 82 % to 99 % compared to the corresponding sequences of ZYMV isolates from different geographical locations. No recombination event was detected in the coat protein gene of the isolates.

  10. Natural Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Iranian Cucurbit Crops

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    Sara Yazdani-Khameneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main areas for field-grown vegetable production in Iran were surveyed during the years of 2012–2014 to determine the occurrence of begomoviruses infecting these crops. A total of 787 leaf samples were collected from vegetables and some other host plants showing virus-like symptoms and tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using polyclonal antibodies produced against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. According to the ELISA results, 81 samples (10.3% positively reacted with the virus antibodies. Begomovirus infections were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using previously described TYLCV-specific primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr or universal primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R. The PCR tests using the primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr resulted in the amplification of the expected fragments of ca. 0.67-kb in size for ELISA-positive samples tested from alfalfa, pepper, spinach and tomato plants, confirming the presence of TYLCV. For one melon sample, having a week reaction in ELISA and no reaction in PCR using TYLCV-specific primers, the PCR reaction using the primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R resulted in the amplification fragments of the expected size of ca. 2.8 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA amplicons derived from the isolate, Kz-Me198, were determined and compared with other sequences available in GenBank. BLASTN analysis confirmed the begomovirus infection of the sample and showed 99% identities with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV; phylogenetic analysis supported the results of the database searches. This study reports the natural occurrence of TYLCV in different hosts in Iran. Our results also reveal the emergence of ToLCNDV in Iranian cucurbit crops.

  11. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  12. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

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    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  13. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowe Steven J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate nutrition is needed to ensure optimum growth and development of infants and young children. Understanding of the risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province is important to guide Indonesian government public health planners to develop nutrition programs and interventions in a post conflict area. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province of Indonesia. Methods The health and nutritional status of children aged less than five years was assessed in North Maluku province of Indonesia in 2004 using a cross-sectional multi-stage survey conducted on 750 households from each of the four island groups in North Maluku province. A total of 2168 children aged 0-59 months were used in the analysis. Results Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% (95%CI: 26.0-32.2 and 14.1% (95%CI: 11.7-17.0 for children aged 0-23 months and 38.4% (95%CI: 35.9-41.0 and 18.4% (95%CI: 16.1-20.9 for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for stunted children were child's age in months, male sex and number of family meals per day (≤2 times, for children aged 0-23 months, and income (poorest and middle-class family, child's age in months and male sex for children aged 0-59 months. The risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months were income (poorest family, male sex and child's age in months and for children aged 0-59 months were income (poorest family, father's occupation (not working, male sex and child's age in months. Conclusion Programmes aimed at improving stunting in North Maluku province of Indonesia should focus on children under two years of age, of male sex and from families of low socioeconomic

  15. A study of the Fenton-mediated oxidation of methylene blue-cucurbit[n]uril complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Tomás; Fuentealba, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Cucurbit[n]urils efficiently decreased the Fenton-mediated oxidation of encapsulated dyes, providing a mechanism for some control and selectivity over the degradation. The encapsulation of methylene blue into cucurbit[7]uril made it highly refractory against Fenton oxidation in the dark or under UVA light irradiation. However, the oxidation of the encapsulated dye was significantly enhanced under visible light irradiation. This behavior was selective for the cucurbit[7]uril complex and not for the cucurbit[8]uril complex, which achieved the same degree of protection irrespective of the irradiation conditions. This different reactivity of the complexes was further discussed in terms of their excited state properties. The main mechanism for protection was the seclusion of the dye into cucurbit[n]urils as shown by the fact that the non-encapsulated dye safranin was protected much less than methylene blue. Additionally, cucurbit[n]urils efficiently trapped hydroxyl radicals, which contributed significantly to the protection of the dyes from Fenton-mediated oxidation.

  16. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  17. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  18. Initiative for international cooperation of researchers and breeders related to determination and denomination of cucurbit powdery mildew races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites, Golovinomyces orontii s.l. and Podosphaera xanthii, that are highly variable in virulence. Various independent systems of CPM race determination and denomination cause a chaotic situation in cucurbit...

  19. Thiol accumulation and cysteine desulfhydrase activity in H2S-fumigated leaves and leaf homogenates of cucurbit plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, Bärbel; De Kok, Luit J.; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    Fumigation of both, cucurbit plants and cucurbit leaf homogenates with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) resulted in an increase in soluble thiol, mainly glutathione and cysteine. In leaf homogenates this increase was counteracted or prevented by the addition at 1 mM of inhibitors of pyridoxalphosphate depende

  20. Potential Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in US Plant Introductions (PI) of Lagenaria Siceraria (bottle gourd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in grafting watermelon plants onto various cucurbit rootstocks. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being use...

  1. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  2. Cucurbit[6]uril-Promoted Click Chemistry for Protein Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finbloom, Joel A; Han, Kenneth; Slack, Clancy C; Furst, Ariel L; Francis, Matthew B

    2017-07-19

    Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is a powerful reaction for the formation of bioconjugates. When catalyzed by Cu(I) or strain promotion, this cycloaddition is considered to be a "click" reaction with many applications in chemical biology and materials science. We report a new type of azide-alkyne click chemistry for the synthesis of protein conjugates using cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) supramolecular chemistry. CB6-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition has been previously used for the synthesis of rotaxanes but has not been applied to the development of complex bioconjugates. By developing new substrates for CB6 click that do not contain any cross-reactive functional groups and by optimizing reaction conditions, we converted CB6 click chemistry from a rotaxane synthesis tool into a useful bioconjugation technique. Using these new parameters, we synthesized a series of protein conjugates including protein-peptide, protein-DNA, protein-polymer, and protein-drug conjugates. We further demonstrated that CB6 click can be used in conjunction with strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition to generate distinct bioconjugates in protein mixtures. CB6 click is a promising new reaction for the development of protein conjugates and can be applied toward the synthesis of complex biomaterials for a wide range of applications.

  3. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Binuclear Gadolinium(Ⅲ) Complex Bridged by Cucurbit[6]uril

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Ling ZHANG; Zhi Yong WU; Yan Tuan LI; Da Qi WANG; Jian Min DOU

    2006-01-01

    A new cucurbit[6]uril bridged binuclear complex {[Gd(H2O)6]2[Q6(H2O)]}Cl6·4H2O,where Q6 represents cucurbit[6]uril, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction.The crystal structure shows that the complex has an extended cucurbit[6]uril-bridged structure consisting of two gadolinium(Ⅲ) ions, in which each gadolinium(Ⅲ) ion is coordinated with two neighboring carbonylic oxygen atoms of Q6 and six oxygen atoms of water molecules that leans toward one side of the portal. One disordered guest water molecule resides in the Q6 molecule cavity and occupies two different positions. Hydrogen bonds assemble the complex to three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  5. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  6. The influence of antibiotics on the appearance of magnolia stunting symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kamińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of diseased magnolia plants with oxytetracycline, baytril and tylan did not reduce the number of symptomatic plants. However, the sprays with antibiotics promoted the shoot growth, development of symptomless leaves and flower buds. The most efficient were baytril at the concentration of 500 ppm, tylan 200 ppm and oxytetracycline at the concentration of 500 or 1000 ppm. Lower concentrations of baytril and oxytetracycline were not so much effective; higher concentration of tylan decreased the magnolia shoot growth. The effect of antibiotics lasted one season. All the antibiotic treated and control plants, randomly tested by PCR-RFLP, showed the presence of AY(16SrI phytoplasma and some of them were affected with phytoplasma related with apple proliferation phytoplasma group (16SrX. The obtained results indicated that l. magnolia is a natural host plant of phytoplasmas belonging to aster yellows phytoplasma group and apple proliferation group and 2. they support the suggestion that phytoplasmas are the casual agents of magnolia stunting disease.

  7. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Prevalensi pendek (stunting pada balita masih 36,6 persen. Tingginya prevalensi stunting pada anak balita merupakan refleksi masalah gizi ibu selama kehamilan dan erat kaitannya dengan kemiskinan. Secara agregat, IPKM (Indeks Pembangunan Kesehatan Masyarakat merupakan indikator kemajuan pembangunan kesehatan dan IPM (Indeks Pembangunan Manusia termasuk salah satu dari 24 indikator dalam IPKM. Tujuan analisis: mempelajari determinan faktor yang menjadi pembeda terhadap tinggi rendahnya prevalensi stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Metode: analisis ini merupakan studi populasi. Data yang dianalisis adalah data agregat dari variabel IPKM, KEK pada ibu hamil dan rumah tangga defisit energi dari data Riskesdas 2007. Sementara variabel IPM dan kemiskinan tahun 2007 dari data BPS. Dalam analisis ini, stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun merupakan variabel terikat, sedangkan variabel lainnya merupakan variabel bebas. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji korelasi dan uji diskriminan. Hasil Analisis: Secara bivariat tidak ditemukan korelasi antara KEK pada bumil dengan stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun, namun ditemukan korelasi antara stunting dengan IPKM (r=-0,67; p=0,000, IPM (r=-0,52; p=0,002 dan kemiskinan (r=0,58;p=0,003. Hasil uji diskriminan menunjukkan bahwa IPKM adalah faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting rendah dan stunting tinggi pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Kontribusi varian IPKM terhadap perbedaan kedua kelompok stunting sebesar 34 persen. Fungsi diskriminan yang dihasilkan Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM dengan kemampuan prediksi sebesar 78,8 persen. Kesimpulan: IPKM merupakan faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting tinggi dan rendah pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi.     ABSTRACT Background: Stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age is still 36.6 percent, the high stunting in the age group shows that nutrition problem in mother during pregnancy is highly

  8. [Stunting in Brazilian children: relationship with social-environmental conditions and maternal nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, E M; Anjos, L A

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between stunting in Brazilian children with their mother's nutritional status and their social-environmental situation was assessed in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population in 1989. Data from 12644 mother-son pairs were analyzed. Maternal nutritional status was classified based on the body mass index and stunting was identified in children with stature or length for age Z relationship between the level of stunting and maternal education, income and house living conditions. Children of illiterate mothers showed more stunting (OR = 17.2) than children whose mothers had had at least 9 years of formal education. Stunting was more frequently observed in children whose mothers were underweight (OR = 2.5), and who were from the first quartile of family income in comparison to the fourth quartile (OR = 11.0) and lived in the poorest living conditions (OR = 7.6). These results suggest a positive association between stunted children and underweight mothers.

  9. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  10. Evidence for cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen races based on watermelon differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii occurs in open fields and greenhouses and can severely limit cucurbit production. Presently seven races of P. xanthii have been identified using melon (Cucumis melo) differentials. Physiological races of this pathogen have not been classified for ot...

  11. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  12. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  13. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  14. Supramolecular Controlled Cargo Release via Near Infrared Tunable Cucurbit[7]uril-Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanwei; Yang, Xiran; Liu, Yingzhu; Ai, Qiushuang; Liu, Simin; Sun, Chunyan; Liang, Feng

    2016-02-26

    The near infrared (NIR) absorption and average particle size of gold nanostars (GNSs) can be precisely controlled by varying the molar ratios of cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) and GNSs in aqueous solution. GNSs modified with CB[7] achieved high cargo loading with thermally activated release upon the NIR laser irradiation.

  15. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  16. Size-tunable supramolecular nanoparticles mediated by ternary cucurbit (8)uril host-guest interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffelen, C.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    The formation of size-tunable, supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs), employing cucurbit[8]uril-assisted naphthol–viologen charge-transfer complexes, is strongly time and temperature dependent. Yet, the ternary complex formation is fast at all temperatures employed. This indicates that SNP formation

  17. The cucurbits of mediterranean antiquity: identification of taxa from ancient images and descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janick, Jules; Paris, Harry S; Parrish, David C

    2007-12-01

    A critical analysis was made of cucurbit descriptions in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica, Columella's De Re Rustica and Pliny's Historia Naturalis, works on medicine, agriculture and natural science of the 1st century ce, as well as the Mishna and Tosefta, compilations of rabbinic law derived from the same time period together with cucurbit images dating from antiquity including paintings, mosaics and sculpture. The goal was to identify taxonomically the Mediterranean cucurbits at the time of the Roman Empire. By ancient times, long-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melon) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) were selected, cultivated and used as vegetables around the Mediterranean and, in addition, bottle-shaped fruits of L. siceraria were employed as vessels. Citrullus lanatus (watermelons) and round-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melons) were also consumed, but less commonly. A number of cucurbit species, including Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocynthis and Ecballium elaterium, were employed for medicinal purposes. No unequivocal evidence was found to suggest the presence of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in the Mediterranean area during this era. The cucumis of Columella and Pliny was not cucumber, as commonly translated, but Cucumis melo subsp. melo Flexuosus Group (snake melon or vegetable melon).

  18. Tolerance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in USDA Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plant Introductions (PI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being used throughout the world as rootstocks for grafting watermelon. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in...

  19. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

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    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also

  20. Cucurbit[6]uril: A Possible Host for Noble Gas Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2015-08-27

    Density functional and ab initio molecular dynamics studies are carried out to investigate the stability of noble gas encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) systems. Interaction energy, dissociation energy and dissociation enthalpy are calculated to understand the efficacy of CB[6] in encapsulating noble gas atoms. CB[6] could encapsulate up to three Ne atoms having dissociation energy (zero-point energy corrected) in the range of 3.4-4.1 kcal/mol, whereas due to larger size, only one Ar or Kr atom encapsulated analogues would be viable. The dissociation energy value for the second Ar atom is only 1.0 kcal/mol. On the other hand, the same for the second Kr is -0.5 kcal/mol, implying the instability of the system. The noble gas dissociation processes are endothermic in nature, which increases gradually along Ne to Kr. Kr encapsulated analogue is found to be viable at room temperature. However, low temperature is needed for Ne and Ar encapsulated analogues. The temperature-pressure phase diagram highlights the region in which association and dissociation processes of Kr@CB[6] would be favorable. At ambient temperature and pressure, CB[6] may be used as an effective noble gas carrier. Wiberg bond indices, noncovalent interaction indices, electron density, and energy decomposition analyses are used to explore the nature of interaction between noble gas atoms and CB[6]. Dispersion interaction is found to be the most important term in the attraction energy. Ne and Ar atoms in one Ng entrapped analogue are found to stay inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation at 298 K. However, during simulation Ng2 units in Ng2@CB[6] flip toward the open faces of CB[6]. After 1 ps, one Ne atom of Ne3@CB[6] almost reaches the open face keeping other two Ne atoms inside. At lower temperature (77 K), all the Ng atoms in Ngn@CB[6] remain well inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation time (1 ps).

  1. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  2. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  3. Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, S; Svoboda, J; Glasa, M

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Slovak Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (ZYMV-H and ZYMV-SE04T) were determined. These isolates differ significantly in their pathogenicity, producing either severe or very mild symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts. The viral genome of both isolates consisted of 9593 nucleotides in size, and contained an open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3080 amino acids. Despite their different biological properties, an extremely high nucleotide identity could be noted (99.8%), resulting in differences of only 5 aa, located in the HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, respectively. In silico analysis including 5 additional fully-sequenced and phylogenetically closely-related isolates known to induce different symptoms in cucurbits was performed. This suggested that the key single mutation responsible for virus pathogenicity is likely located in the N-terminal part of P3, adjacent to the PIPO.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Macrocyclic Cavitand Cucurbit[5]uril and Its Supramolecular Adduct with Cu(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Si-Min(刘思敏); HUANG,Zi-Xiang(黄子祥); WU,Xiao-Jun(吴晓军); LIANG,Feng(梁峰); WU,Cheng-Tai(吴成泰)

    2004-01-01

    The first supramolecular adduct (H3O)2[Cu(H2O)4](SO4)2·2(C30H30N20O10)·24(H2O) based on cucurbit[5]uril was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the adduct, copper ion is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from H2O. The latter links two cucurbit[5]uril molecules due to a complicated hydrogen bonding containing lattice water molecules.

  5. Enhanced resistance to CYSDV in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of significant reservoir hosts for virus transmission in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), which is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) biotype B, emerged in the Southwest US in 2006. CYSDV can infect diverse regional weed and crop species, some of which serve as sources for virus transmission to melon. To de...

  6. New sources of resistance to CYSDV in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a whitefly-transmitted closterovirus that reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit yield and quality in greenhouse and open-field production systems in the Middle East, the Mediterranean Basin, the Americas, and Asia. Resistance to CYSDV has been repor...

  7. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  8. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  9. First report of hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple apple fruit symptoms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), the type member of the genus Hostuviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first described from hops with stunt disease in Japan. HSVd has a wide host range that includes hop, cucumber, citrus, grapevine, plum, pear, peach, apricot and almond and is the causal agent of serious dis...

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic

  11. Status stunted dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan anak balita di wilayah pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon

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    Alina Hizni

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: There was no association between stunted status and child development; however stunted status had greater risk for delay in language development, and risk factors dominantly affecting child development were occupation and education of mothers.

  12. Determinants of stunting in children under five in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Santana, Sandra Cristina da Silva; Sequeira, Leopoldina Augusta de Souza; Rissin, Anete; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of stunting in children under five and identify factors associated. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 1991, 1997 and 2006 in the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. The following variables associated with the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age child characteristics, and health care provided. A hierarchical model was used in the multiple logistic regression to assess the impact of explanatory variables on children's stunting. The prevalence of child malnutrition (height-for-age) was reduced by 65% from 1991 to 2006. Socioeconomic variables (per capita family income, maternal education, number of people living in the household and access to consumer goods), maternal height and birth weight were associated with stunting in children under five. All the determinants studied improved over the study period though not consistently. Despite significant reduction of child malnutrition in Pernambuco there remain differences regarding stunting, and children with better socioeconomic conditions have more favorable outcomes.

  13. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  14. Yellow nail syndrome

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    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  15. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

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    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  16. Cucurbit[7]uril disrupts aggregate formation between rhodamine B dyes covalently attached to glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Ronald L; Moore, Jason L; Yip, Wai Tak

    2011-07-01

    Dye aggregation is detrimental to the performance of high optical density dye-doped photonic materials. To overcome this challenge, the ability of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) as a molecular host to disrupt aggregate formation on glass substrates was examined. Rhodamine B was covalently attached to glass slides by initially coating the surface with azidohexylsiloxane followed by copper-catalyzed "click" triazole formation with rhodamine B propargyl ester. The absorption and emission spectra of rhodamine B coated slides in water indicated diverse heterogeneous properties as surface dye density varied. Fluorescence quenching due to dye aggregation was evident at high surface dye density. Addition of aqueous cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) to the surface-tethered dyes perturbed the spectra to reveal a considerable reduction in heterogeneity, which suggested that the presence of a surface in close proximity does not significantly impair CB7's ability to complex with tethered rhodamine B.

  17. Triple emission from p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile-cucurbit[8]uril triggers the elusive excimer emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Biedermann, Frank; Uzunova, Vanya D; Assaf, Khaleel I; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas; Nau, Werner M; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The intriguing dual-emission behavior of p- dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) and the identity of the associated excited states is, arguably, the most extensively investigated and also controversially discussed molecule- specific phenomenon of modern photochemistry. We have now found a new, third fluorescence band when DMABN is encapsulated within the water-soluble molecular container cucurbit[8]uril (CB8). It is centered between the previously observed emissions and assigned to the elusive excimer emission from DMABN through 1:2 CB8:DMABN complex formation. Heating of the CB8⋅(DMABN)2 complex from 0 to 100 °C results in the dissociation of the ternary complex and restoration of the dual-emission properties of the monomer. Alternatively, monomer emission can be obtained by selecting cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), a host homologue that is too small to accommodate two DMABN molecules, or by introducing ethyl instead of methyl groups at the amino terminus of the aminobenzonitrile guest.

  18. Cucurbit[7]uril as a tool in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Thathan; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2010-12-03

    A simple, green, one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles was achieved through the reaction of an aqueous mixture of potassium tetrachloroaurate(III) and the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril in the presence of sodium hydroxide at room temperature without introducing any kind of traditional reducing agents and/or external energy. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles showed catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH(4), which has been established by visual inspection and UV/Vis spectroscopy. This report is the first for the preparation of gold nanoparticles using cucurbit[7]uril in aqueous media through chemical reduction without employing conventional reducing agents and/or external energy.

  19. Binding Studies of Cucurbit[7]uril with Gold Nanoparticles Bearing Different Surface Functionalities‡

    OpenAIRE

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ziwen; Hou, Singyuk; Das, Riddha; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Host-guest interactions between a synthetic receptor, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been quantified using isothermal titration calorimetry. AuNPs were functionalized with ligands containing tertiary or quaternary benzylamine derivatives, with electron donating or withdrawing groups at the para position of the benzene ring. Analysis of binding interactions reveals that functional groups at the para position have no significant effect on binding constant. However,...

  20. Determination of nevirapine in the presence of cucurbit(7uril with a gold electrode

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    ELÍAS BLANCO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, at a gold electrode was studied by voltammetric techniques. Nevirapine showed a signal that interfered with a working electrode wave. This interference was solved by the use of cucurbit(7uril allowing nevirapine to be determined in tablets (80.4 % recovery, presence of stavudine and lamivudine and urine (98.4 %.

  1. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  2. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  3. Application of Multiplex RT-PCR for Detection of Cucurbit-infecting Tobamovirus

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    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV are seed borne viruses and they are also transmitted mechanically during agricultural practice and through water. Hence, these viruses have potential diseases widely distributed throughout the world. To detect different strains of CGMMV and KGMMV, several specific primers for each virus were designed for single and multiplex RT-PCR. The results of single and multiplex RT-PCR showed that CGMMV was detected in zucchini isolated in Bali-Indonesia, while KGMMV was detected both in zucchini isolated in Bali-Indonesia and Cucumis metuliferus isolated in Thailand. Furthermore, artificial co-infection of these two viruses was prepared and carried out using two different ways of viral RNAs extraction. Based on the results, it could be reported that viral RNAs for cDNA amplification by multiplex RT-PCR could be extracted from a mixture of infected leaves or separate extraction of each viruses infected leaves. In addition, results presented in this study demonstrated the application of multiplex RT-PCR to simultaneously detect CGMMV and KGMMV from cucurbit leaves using a mixture of four primers and its feasibility as a sensitive and rapid laboratory assay. Since, no multiplex RT-PCR technique has been described for the detection of CGMMV and KGMMV, this technique can be a good option for sensitive and reliable tool for detection of two major cucurbit infecting Tobamoviruses.Keywords : Cucurbit infecting Tobamovirus, multiplex RT-PCR, seed borne viruses

  4. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  5. Stunting rates in infants and toddlers born in metropolitan Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reurings, Marieke; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-04-01

    Guatemala has the highest prevalence of stunting (54% of children under age 5 years) in the Americas and the fifth highest in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the stunting prevalence and the association with early feeding practices, morbidity patterns, and socioeconomic status (SES) in a sample of infants and toddlers from urban Quetzaltenango. We recruited 299 children (149 boys), ages 6-23 mo from two public health clinics in metropolitan Quetzaltenango. Data on SES, early feeding practices, and morbidity were collected by means of a single face-to-face interview. Recumbent spine length was measured according to standardized procedures and height-for-age (HAZ) z-scores were calculated. HAZ <-2 SD of the World Health Organization's 2006 Growth Standards was considered stunting. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine determinants of stunting. The overall mean HAZ z-score was -1.89 ± 1.11 and 135 (45%) children were stunted. The results of the crude odds ratios showed that place of interview (suburban), being male, being ages 13-18 mo, being born at home, having a mother with a low level of education, being of Mayan (indigenous) ethnicity, having a mother with short stature, and having ever received iron supplementation were strongly and significantly (P < 0.05) associated with stunting. None of the other variables, such as supplement use and morbidity rates, contributed to the predictive model. We did not observe an association between early feeding practices or morbidity and stunting. The stunting prevalence exceeds the cut-off of 40% stunting, indicating a community with a high level of malnutrition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Riwayat Berat Badan Lahir dengan Kejadian Stunting pada Anak Usia Bawah Dua Tahun

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    Atikah Rahayu

    2015-11-01

    cross-sectional design. The population was mothers having children under two years old and samples amounted to 117 consisted of children under two years old. This study was conducted within three months on September – November 2014. Category of LBW was if birth weight records < 2,500 gram. Bivariate data analysis used chi-square test and multivariate data analysis used logistic regression test. The result of bivariate analysis showed a significant relation between LBW status records (p value = 0.015 with stunting incidence among children under two years old. Based on the result of multivariate analysis, LBW was the most dominating risk factor related to stunting incidence. Children with LBW had 5.87 times risk of suffering from stunting. LBW records take an important role in stunting incidence among children under two years old around Sungai Karias Primary Health Care area in North Hulu Sungai.

  7. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK

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    Lina Nurbaiti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Community Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas in Sengkol, District of Central Lombok. This article concludes that there are diatery habit in Sasak people which became predisposing factors to the occurrence of stunting to the children in Sasak. Those are the lack of animal protein intake, mistreatment of breast milk pattern giving which causes failure to fulfill nutrition standard, and there are myth-related belief that opposes the principal of nutrition fulfillment in children.

  8. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  9. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

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    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  10. Infectivity analysis of a blackgram isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus and genetic assortment with MYMIV in selective hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Q M I; Rouhibakhsh, A; Ali, Arif; Malathi, V G

    2011-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease in grain legumes in Indian subcontinent is caused by two important virus species viz. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. The genomic components of a begomovirus causing yellow mosaic disease in blackgram in southern India were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison of DNA A component shows the virus isolate to be a variant of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus:-(MYMV-[IN:Vam:05]). However, DNA B component of the present virus isolate has greater similarity (92%) to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. Agroinoculations of the viral clones produced typical yellow mosaic symptoms in blackgram and mungbean, severe leaf curl and stunting in French bean, similar to blackgram isolate of MYMIV. Blackgram isolates of both the virus species were only mildly infectious on cowpea, produced atypical leaf curl symptoms and not yellow or golden mosaic. In agroinoculations done by exchanging genomic components, symptom expression was seen only in French bean. In cowpea, blackgram and mungbean there was no visible symptoms though viral DNA could be detected by PCR.

  11. Overweight with concurrent stunting in very young children from rural Mexico: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L C; Neufeld, L M

    2007-05-01

    To document the prevalence of overweight or obesity concurrent with stunting in rural low-income Mexican children and to identify demographic and socio-economic characteristics that could help identify families at risk of having an overweight/obese and stunted young child in this population. Cross-sectional analysis of the nutritional status of very young children, using primary data from a rural community-based survey conducted in 2003. Overweight, obesity and stunting were documented along with several maternal, household and community characteristics. Impoverished areas of rural Mexico. Pre-school children (n=7555), aged 24-72 months. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was equal to or greater than 20% in all children, as was the prevalence of stunting. The prevalence of concurrent overweight or obesity and stunting was approximately 5% in non-indigenous children, and over 10% in indigenous children 24-60 months. A multinomial logistic analysis revealed that the factors associated with coexisting stunting and overweight/obesity were lower socio-economic status (SES), lower maternal age, education, intelligence (vocabulary) and perceived social status, shorter maternal height, and larger household size. Among only stunted children, the risk of also being overweight or obese was associated with younger maternal age (relative risk ratios (RRR): 0.98, P=0.05), lower maternal perceived social status (RRR: 0.95, Pobesity (RRR: 2.93, Pobesity and stunting is an important public health issue in low-income areas of rural Mexico beginning in early childhood. Even within this impoverished population, children living in households with low relative SES are the most vulnerable. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, the Fogarty International Center at NIH, the John D and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation 'Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health' and the Mexican Government.

  12. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference.

  13. Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Bonilha; Ricardo Gioria; Rômulo Fujito Kobori; Paulo Tarcísio Della Vecchia; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown...

  14. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: biological properties, detection procedures and comparison of coat protein gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Webster, C G; Wylie, S J; Jones, R A C

    2011-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, 5324 samples from at least 34 weed, two cultivated legume and 11 native species were collected from three cucurbit-growing areas in tropical or subtropical Western Australia. Two new alternative hosts of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were identified, the Australian native cucurbit Cucumis maderaspatanus, and the naturalised legume species Rhyncosia minima. Low-level (0.7%) seed transmission of ZYMV was found in seedlings grown from seed collected from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) fruit infected with isolate Cvn-1. Seed transmission was absent in >9500 pumpkin (C. maxima and C. moschata) seedlings from fruit infected with isolate Knx-1. Leaf samples from symptomatic cucurbit plants collected from fields in five cucurbit-growing areas in four Australian states were tested for the presence of ZYMV. When 42 complete coat protein (CP) nucleotide (nt) sequences from the new ZYMV isolates obtained were compared to those of 101 complete CP nt sequences from five other continents, phylogenetic analysis of the 143 ZYMV sequences revealed three distinct groups (A, B and C), with four subgroups in A (I-IV) and two in B (I-II). The new Australian sequences grouped according to collection location, fitting within A-I, A-II and B-II. The 16 new sequences from one isolated location in tropical northern Western Australia all grouped into subgroup B-II, which contained no other isolates. In contrast, the three sequences from the Northern Territory fitted into A-II with 94.6-99.0% nt identities with isolates from the United States, Iran, China and Japan. The 23 new sequences from the central west coast and two east coast locations all fitted into A-I, with 95.9-98.9% nt identities to sequences from Europe and Japan. These findings suggest that (i) there have been at least three separate ZYMV introductions into Australia and (ii) there are few changes to local isolate CP sequences following their establishment in remote growing areas. Isolates from A-I and B

  15. Fat free mass explains the relationship between stunting and energy expenditure in urban Mexican Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Hoffman, Daniel J; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2012-09-01

    Childhood stunting has been associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, but the causes are unclear. This study hypothesizes that stunting significantly reduces both resting and activity energy expenditure. To assess and describe energy expenditure of low socio-economic Maya children and to determine whether stunting is independently related to energy expenditure after controlling for lean mass. Thirty-three urban Maya children, 17 boys, aged 7-9 years, living in Merida, Mexico, were measured for height, weight and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body composition was estimated from BIA. Energy expenditure was measured for one week using the Actiheart (combined heart rate and accelerometer). Stunting (height-for-age below the 5(th) percentile of NHANES III based references) affected 35% of these physically active children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, greater lean body mass predicted higher resting and activity energy expenditure. Stature was not a significant predictor of resting energy expenditure. A lower height-for-age z-score, but not stunting as a categorical variable, significantly predicted lower activity energy expenditure. The hypothesis that stunting reduces total energy expenditure (resting + active) in children is not supported. Rather, children with shorter stature and less lean body mass have lower total energy expenditure. Complex interactions between body size, body composition, and metabolic activity appear to elevate the risk for later life obesity in these Maya children.

  16. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

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    Carla Danusa da Luz Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1 or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geo-statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Seifu; Hailemariam, Damen; WoldeHanna, Tasew; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district) scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted to measure the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0–59 months. Additionally, we collected relevant information on anthropometric measures, dietary habits, parent and child-related demographic and socio-economic status. Latitude and longitude of surveyed households were also recorded. Local Anselin Moran's I was calculated to investigate the spatial variation of stunting prevalence and identify potential local pockets (hotspots) of high prevalence. Finally, we employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model, which accounted for spatial dependency structure in the data, to identify potential risk factors for stunting in the study area. Results Overall, the prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in the district was 43.7% [95%CI: 40.9, 46.4] and 21.3% [95%CI: 19.5, 23.3] respectively. We identified statistically significant clusters of high prevalence of stunting (hotspots) in the eastern part of the district and clusters of low prevalence (cold spots) in the western. We found out that the inclusion of spatial structure of the data into the Bayesian model has shown to improve the fit for stunting model. The Bayesian geo-statistical model indicated that the risk of stunting increased as the child’s age increased (OR 4.74; 95% Bayesian credible

  18. Analisis determinan stunting pada baduta di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas tahun 2016

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    Basri Aramico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackgrounds: Stunting remains a problem that still needs to be considered by the government, because children with stunting decreased of intelligence (IQ than children who are not stunting. Optimal growth can only be achieved by the intake of nutritious food and a healthy environment. In 2013, the prevalence of stunting in Aceh amounted to 37.2% consisted of 18% very short and 19.2% short. Based on the results of monitoring nutritional status report from Public Health Office in Pidie Jaya, the prevalence of stunting increased in the last two years. That percentage increased from 14.8% in 2014 and become 17% in 2015.Objectives: This study aims to determine of stunting of BADUTA in Puskesmas Ulim, Pidie Jaya district in the year of 2016.Methods: This research design is descriptive analytic by cross-sectional. The population in this study is all mothers who have BADUTA in Puskesmas Ulim in total of 75 respondents. The sampling method used is cluster sampling with total samples taken by 20% of the entire population from every six villagers from 30 villages. The primary data obtained directly by measuring the length of the child's body and through questionnaires by interview. The statistical test used is Chi-Square Test.Results: The study showed that 66.7% children experienced stunting, 70.7% children has less nutrition, 85.3% children does not received exclusive breastfeeding, 8.0% children with low birth weight babies, and 80.0% having infectious diseases.  From the statistical analysis it can be concluded that there is a relationship between nutrient intake (p-value= 0.000, breastfeeding (p-value= 0.000, and infectious diseases (p-value= 0.029 with stunting. However, there is no relation between low birth weight (LBW (p-value= 0.079 with stunting for BADUTA.Conclusions: There is significant correlation between nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding, infection disease with stunting of BADUTA meanwhile there is no significant correlation

  19. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  20. Binding Studies of Cucurbit[7]uril with Gold Nanoparticles Bearing Different Surface Functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ziwen; Hou, Singyuk; Das, Riddha; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-06-03

    Host-guest interactions between a synthetic receptor, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been quantified using isothermal titration calorimetry. AuNPs were functionalized with ligands containing tertiary or quaternary benzylamine derivatives, with electron donating or withdrawing groups at the para position of the benzene ring. Analysis of binding interactions reveals that functional groups at the para position have no significant effect on binding constant. However, headgroups bearing a permanent positive charge increased the binding of AuNPs to CB[7] ten-fold compared to monomethyl counterparts.

  1. Survey on The Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Cucurbits in Yogyakarta and Central Java

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    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are grown throughout the Java Island as dry season crops. Plants having mosaic, mottling, chlorosis and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently found in most of the cucurbit fields during the survey which conducted in Central Java including Sleman, Kulon Progo, and Klaten during July–September 2000 and 2001. Using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA; Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV were found infecting cucurbits. CMV was widespread, infecting 48.9% of the samples tested followed by CGMMV (12.8% and KGMMV (6.4%, while others samples (31.9% were not tested, double infections were common with 8.5 % of the samples being infected with two viruses (CGMMV and KGMMV and 34% with three viruses (CMV, CGMMV, and KGMMV. Severe mosaic and mottle symptoms were associated most often with single infection of CGMMV and KGMMV respectively. In addition, these are the first detections of CGMMV and KGMMV infecting cucurbit plants in Indonesia. Tanaman labu-labuan umumnya tumbuh sepanjang musim kemarau diPulau Jawa. Tanaman labu-labuan dengan gejala mosaik, klorosis, mottling dan bentuk daun serta buah yang berubah banyak dijumpai selama survei yang dilakukan di Kulon Progo, Sleman dan Klaten pada bulan Juli sampai September tahun 2000 dan 2001. Deteksi menggunakan metode double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA telah berhasil mengetahui keberadaan dan infeksiCucumber mosaic virus(CMV,Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV dan Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV pada tanaman labu-labuan di tiga kabupaten tersebut. CMV menginfeksi tanaman labu-labuan tinggi yaitu 48,9% dari jumlah sampel tanaman yang dikoleksi, kemudian CGMMV (12,8% dan KGMMV(6,4%, sedangkan sebanyak 14 sampel tanaman (31,9%tidak dideteksi.Infeksi ganda banyak ditemukan dan 8,5 % sampel tanaman terinfeksi oleh dua jenis virus (CGMMV dan

  2. Taxonomic and functional diversity of cultured seed associated microbes of the cucurbit family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Eman M; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-06-27

    Endophytes are microbes that colonize plant internal tissues without causing disease. In particular, seed-associated endophytes may be vectors for founder microbes that establish the plant microbiome, which may subsequently contribute beneficial functions to their host plants including nutrient acquisition and promotion of plant growth. The Cucurbitaceae family of gourds (e.g., cucumbers, melons, pumpkin, squash), including its fruits and seeds, is widely consumed by humans. However, there is limited data concerning the taxonomy and functions of seed-associated endophytes across the Cucurbitaceae family. Here, bacteria from surface-sterilized seeds of 21 curcurbit varieties belonging to seven economically important species were cultured, classified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and subjected to eight in vitro functional tests. In total, 169 unique seed-associated bacterial strains were cultured from selected cucurbit seeds. Interestingly, nearly all strains belonged to only two phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria) and only one class within each phyla (Bacilli, γ-proteobacteria, respectively). Bacillus constituted 50 % of all strains and spanned all tested cucurbit species. Paenibacillus was the next most common genus, while strains of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were also cultured. Phylogenetic trees showed limited taxonomic clustering of strains by host species. Surprisingly, 33 % of strains produced the plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (auxin), known to stimulate the growth of fruits/gourds and nutrient-acquiring roots. The next most common nutrient acquisition traits in vitro were (in rank order): nitrogen fixation/N-scavenging, phosphate solubilisation, siderophore secretion, and production of ACC deaminase. Secretion of extracellular enzymes required for nutrient acquisition, endophyte colonization and/or community establishment were observed. Bacillus strains had the potential to contribute all tested functional traits to their hosts

  3. Interaction of host-guest complexes of cucurbit[n]urils with double probe guests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Peihua; DONG; Jun; XIANG; Shuangchun; XUE; Saifeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    [1]Freeman, W. A., Mock, W. L., Shih, N. Y., Cucurbituril, J. Am.Chem. Soc., 1981, 103: 7367-7368.[2]Day, A. I., Arnold, A. P., Method for synthesis cucurbiturils, WO 0068232, 2000, 8.[3]Kim, J., Jung, I. S., Kim, S. Y. et al., New cucurbituril homologues: syntheses, isolation, characterization, and X-ray crystal structures of cucurbit[n]uril (n = 5, 7 and 8), J. Am. Chem. Soc.,2000, 122(3): 540-541.[4]Day, A. I., Blanck, R. J, Amold, A. P., A cucurbituril-based gyroscane: a new supramolecular form, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2002,41(2): 275-277.[5]Blanck, R. J., Sleeman, A. J. White, T. J. et al., Cucurbit[7]uril and o-carborane self-assemble to form a molecular ball bearing,Nano. Lett., 2002, 2(2), 147-149.[6]Liu, J. X., Tao, Z., Xue, S. F. et al., Investigation of host-guest compounds of cucurbit[n = 5-8]uril with some piperazine derivatives, Chin. J. Inorg. Chem., 2004, 20(2): 139-147[7]Zhou, Y. L., Liu, Y., Inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin and α-aminopyridine and its assembling behavior, Science in China,Ser. B, 2004, 34(1): 68-74.[8]Ong, W., Kaifer, A. E., Molecular encapsulation by cucurbit[7]uril of the apical 4,4'-bipyridinium residuein newkome-type dendrime,Angew. Chem. Inter. Ed., 2003, 42: 2164-2167.[9]Samsonenko, D. G., Gerasko, O. A., Mitkina, T. V. et al., Synthesis and crystal structure of supramolecular adducts of macrocyclic cavitand cucurbituril with chromium (Ⅲ) and nickel (Ⅱ) aqua complexes, Russian J. Coord. Chem. (Translation of Koordinatsionnaya Khimiya), 2003, 29(3): 166-174.[10]He, X. Y., Li, G., Chen, H. L., A new cucurbituril-based metallo-rotaxane, Inorg. Chem. Commun., 2002, (5): 633-641.[11]Fedin, V. P., Sokolov, M. N., Dybtsev, D. N. et al., Supramolecular assemblies of [Mo3Se4Clx(H2O)9-x](4-x)+ with cucurbituril;complementarity control through the variation of x, Inorg. Chim.Acta., 2002, 331(1): 31-38.[12]Lorenzo, S., Day, A., Craig, D. et al., The first endoannular metal halide

  4. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelsey M; Valeri, Linda; Shankar, A H; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-11-04

    Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored. The association between lead exposure and stunting has been previously established, yet limited data are available on susceptibility windows. Whole blood lead samples were collected from rural Bangladeshi children at delivery (umbilical cord blood) and at age 20-40 months (fingerstick blood). Stunting was determined using the Child Growth Standards developed from the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Children with height for age lead levels were 3.1 (1.6-6.3) μg/dl and 4.2 (1.7-7.6) μg/dl, respectively. In adjusted multivariable regression models, the odds of stunting at 20-40 months increased by 1.12 per μg/dl increase in blood lead level (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.22). No association was found between cord blood lead level and risk of stunting (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-1.00). There is a significant association between stunting and concurrent lead exposure at age 20-40 months. This association is slightly attenuated after controlling for study clinic site. Additional research including more precise timing of lead exposure during these critical 20-40 months is needed.

  5. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  6. Eat Healthy, Eat Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy Gu

    2011-01-01

    What comes to mind when you think of yellow? Sunflowers, the school bus or the smiley face? As a food-junkie and a health nut, when I hear the word yellow, savory soy beans, munchy bananas and sweet corn are things that pop into my mind. That's how much I love food. Hopeless? Perhaps.

  7. The yellow Light Offensive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Arevised traffic regulation, seen as the harshest ever by many, took effect on January 1. Accordingly, drivers who run yellow lights will have six points deducted from the 12 allocated on their licenses. Those who have any part of their vehicles crossing the line at the time of change will not be punished.

  8. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  9. POLA ASUH MAKAN, PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA, DAN KOGNITIF ANAK BALITA STUNTED DAN NORMAL DI KELURAHAN SUMUR BATU, BANTAR GEBANG BEKASI

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    Nur Latifah Hanum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to identify the association between nutritional status, language and cognitive development and also differences of language and cognitive development between normal and stunted underfiveschildren. The study design was a cross-sectional. Sample size was 70 children consisted of 35 normal and 35 stunted children. The highest percentage level of education of fathers and mothers only primary school and more than half of children came from poor families. There was significant difference (pKey words: cognitive development, language development, stunting, underfives childrenABSTRAKTujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk mengetahui kaitan status gizi dengan perkembangan bahasa dan kognitif pada anak yang berstatus gizi normal dan stunted. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional. Total subjek pada penelitian ini sebanyak 70 anak balita, terdiri dari 35 anak balita berstatus gizi stunted dan 35 anak berstatus gizi normal. Sebagian besar pendidikan orang tua adalah SD dan berasal dari keluarga miskin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan signifikan (pdan besar keluarga. Kelompok balita normal memiliki pencapaian perkembangan bahasa dan kognitif yang lebih tinggi daripada kelompok anak balita stunted. Tidak terdapat perbedaan pola asuh makan anak balita normal dan stunted (p>0.05, namun skor pola asuh makan ibu anak balita normal lebih tinggi daripada anak balita stunted. Berdasarkan uji korelasi terdapat hubungan signifikan (pKata kunci: perkembangan kognitif, perkembangan bahasa, stunting, anak balita

  10. Supramolecular interaction of methotrexate with cucurbit[7]uril and analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Xia; Zhang, Xiang-Mei; Duan, Xue-Chao; Liu, Fan; Du, Li-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The supramolecular interaction between cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as the host and the anti-cancer drug methotrexate (MTX) as the guest was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, 1H NMR, 2D NOESY, and theoretical calculations. The experimental results confirmed the formation of 1:2 inclusion complex with CB[7] and indicated a simple and sensitive competitive method for the fluorescence detection of MTX. It was found that the fluorescence intensities of CB[7]-palmatine, CB[7]-berberine and CB[7]-coptisine were quenched linearly upon the addition of MTX. The linear ranges obtained in the detection of MTX were 0.1-15 μg mL- 1, 0.2-15 μg mL- 1, and 0.4-15 μg mL- 1 with detection limits of 0.03 μg mL-1, 0.06 μg mL-1, and 0.13 μg mL-1, respectively. This method can be used for the determination of MTX in biological fluids. These results suggested that cucurbit[7]uril is a promising drug carrier for targeted MTX delivery and monitoring, with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity in normal tissues.

  11. MODULATION OF GROWTH AND PROTON PUMPING ATPase ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTIC Lactobacilli BY DIETARY CUCURBITS

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    Irfan Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract predominantly harbor probiotic Lactobacilli which exert beneficial effects on human health. Aqueous extracts from fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Ls, Luffa cylindrica (Lc and Cucurbita maxima (Cm were prepared and lyophilized. Fruit extracts were investigated for their effects on Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus. Extracts were found to enhance growth of Lactobacilli without any toxic effect (up to 1000µg/mL concentration. Minimum concentration of extracts at which growth of probiotic strains were found to be enhanced significantly were determined (103.67 µg/mL-118µg/mL and considered as effective concentration (EC or growth stimulatory concentration (GSC. Proton pumping ATPase activity of Lactobacilli were examined and found to be enhanced significantly (29.89- 61.96% in extracts treated probiotics (Lactobacilli as compared to the normal control. Inulin used as positive control and found to enhance the proton efflux activity (28.06-37.72% with respect to the control. These dietary cucurbits enhance metabolic activity of probiotic Lactobacilli by modulating their proton pumping ATPase mechanism. This study suggested that the consumption of cucurbit fruits might be a natural source of enhancing the activities of probiotic Lactobacilli in the gut.

  12. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  13. Competition and Facilitation between a Disease and a Predator in a Stunted Prey Population.

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    Maarten C Boerlijst

    Full Text Available The role of diseases and parasites has received relatively little attention in modelling ecological dynamics despite mounting evidence of their importance in structuring communities. In contrast to predators, parasites do not necessarily kill their host but instead they may change host life history. Here, we study the impact of a parasite that selectively infects juvenile prey individuals and prevents them from maturing into adults. The model is inspired by the Ligula intestinalis tape worm and its cyprinid fish host Rutilis rutilis. We demonstrate that the parasite can promote as well as demote the so-called stunting in its host population, that is, the accumulation of juvenile prey, which leads to strong exploitation competition and consequently to a bottleneck in maturation. If competition between infected and uninfected individuals is strong, stunting will be enhanced and bistability between a stunted and non-stunted prey population occurs. In this case, the disease competes with the predator of its host species, possibly leading to predator extinction. In contrast, if the competition between infected and uninfected individuals is weak, the stunting is relieved, and epi-zoonotic cycles will occur, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks. Here, the disease facilitates the predator, and predator density will be substantially increased. We discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics and structure of the natural Ligula-Roach system.

  14. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  15. Stunting syndrome in broilers: physical, physiological, and behavioral aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-01-01

    The effect of stunting syndrome (SS) on young broilers induced by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of SS-affected broiler chicks was studied in two experiments. Depression of growth, feed intake, and feed utilization, respectively, was negatively related to the age of inoculation, i.e., highest at posthatch inoculation (63, 57, and 61%), and intermediate at the ages of 3 (42, 45, and 50%) and 7 d (29, 34, and 53%), whereas at the age of 14 d inoculation was ineffectual and the inoculated chicks performed similarly to the naive controls. Eating behavior was determined by periodically recording the number of chicks in each treatment group exhibiting this behavior, i.e., pecking mash in the feeder or pecking the litter. Eating activity was much higher in inoculated chicks (about 20 to 24%) than in the naive controls (6 to 12%) and as with performance negatively related to the age of inoculation. In chicks inoculated at the age of 14 d, eating activity was quite similar to that of the naive control chicks. Noninoculated chickens raised in the same room as their inoculated counterparts were infected by the disease agents. In some respects the consequences of horizontal infection were similar to those observed in inoculated chicks, i.e., depressed feed intake, growth, and feed utilization and a heavier heart, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, and gastrointestinal contents. In contrast, the activities of the pancreatic digestive enzymes were more similar to those of the naive controls than to those of the inoculated groups. At the age of 14 d, activities of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase in the pancreas were lower in the inoculated than in the naive control birds. At the age of 21 d, the results were reversed and activity in the inoculated birds was higher than in the naive control birds. During both periods, the activity of pancreatic lipase was higher in the naive controls than in the inoculated birds. The hyperactivity

  16. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits inedible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS-NL, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in radish; a second application from the company Syngenta AGRO S.A.S to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in cucurbits, inedible peel was submitted to France (EMS-FR. In order to accommodate the intended uses of cyprodinil, EMSs proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification to 0.07 mg/kg for radish and to 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits inedible peel. EMS-NL and EMS-FR drafted two evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.08 mg/kg for radish and of 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits, inedible peel. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of cyprodinil on radish and cucurbits inedible peel under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  17. Characterization of Canna yellow mottle virus in a New Host, Alpinia purpurata, in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Dey, Kishore K; Lin, Birun; Borth, Wayne B; Melzer, Michael J; Sether, Diane; Wang, Yanan; Wang, I-Chin; Shen, Huifang; Pu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dayuan; Hu, John S

    2017-06-01

    Canna yellow mottle virus (CaYMV) is an important badnavirus infecting Canna spp. worldwide. This is the first report of CaYMV in flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) in Hawaii, where it is associated with yellow mottling and necrosis of leaves, vein streaking, and stunted plants. We have sequenced CaYMV in A. purpurata (CaYMV-Ap) using a combination of next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing techniques. The complete genome of CaYMV-Ap was 7,120 bp with an organization typical of other Badnavirus species. Our results indicated that CaYMV-Ap was present in the episomal form in infected flowering ginger. We determined that this virus disease is prevalent in Hawaii and could potentially have significant economic impact on the marketing of A. purpurata as cut flowers. There is a potential concern that the host range of CaYMV-Ap may expand to include other important tropical plants.

  18. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-10-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p appetite and growth of stunted young children.

  19. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention.

  20. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc tests. Categorical variables were analysed using chi-square tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight + obesity varied between the countries from 8.6% to 30.6% and 5.9% to 26.5%, respectively, depending on the reference...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain....

  1. Dicer-Like 4 Is Involved in Restricting the Systemic Movement of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Teresa; Cerdán, Lidia; Carbonell, Alberto; Katsarou, Konstantina; Kalantidis, Kriton; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) induces serious diseases in cucurbits. To create a tool to screen for resistance genes, we cloned a wild ZYMV isolate and inserted the visual marker Rosea1 to obtain recombinant clone ZYMV-Ros1. While in some plant-virus combinations Rosea1 induces accumulation of anthocyanins in infected tissues, ZYMV-Ros1 infection of cucurbits did not lead to detectable anthocyanin accumulation. However, the recombinant virus did induce dark red pigmentation in infected tissues of the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. In this species, ZYMV-Ros1 multiplied efficiently in local inoculated tissue but only a few progeny particles established infection foci in upper leaves. We used this system to analyze the roles of Dicer-like (DCL) genes, core components of plant antiviral RNA silencing pathways, in ZYMV infection. ZYMV-Ros1 local replication was not significantly affected in single DCL knockdown lines nor in double DCL2/4 and triple DCL2/3/4 knockdown lines. ZYMV-Ros1 systemic accumulation was not affected in knockdown lines DCL1, DCL2, and DCL3. However in DCL4 and also in DCL2/4 and DCL2/3/4 knockdown lines, ZYMV-Ros1 systemic accumulation dramatically increased, which highlights the key role of DCL4 in restricting virus systemic movement. The effect of DCL4 on ZYMV systemic movement was confirmed with a wild-type version of the virus.

  2. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the ... serious cases) 2 How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow ...

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND EFFECTS OF MIXED INFECTION OF Potyvirus ISOLATES WITH Cucumber mosaic virus IN CUCURBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAZIELA DA SILVA BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed infections in cucurbits are frequently observed in natural conditions between viruses from the Potyvirus genus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, which significantly decreases productivity. The objectives of the present study was to compare the host range of PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV isolates and evaluate the effects of mixed infections with CMV in zucchini plants ( Cucurbita pepo L.. Host range studies comprising 23 plant species confirmed some similarities and biological differences among the isolates of PRSV - W, ZYMV, and WMV. RT - PCR confirmed the amplification of DNA fragments of the PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV coat protein gene ( cp and cytoplasm inclusion gene ( ci . The virus interaction studies in zucchini Caserta plants indicated synergistic interactions, particularly among species from the Potyvirus genus, and some CMV interference with some virus combinations.

  4. Spectroscopy and laser characterization of synthesized supramolecular host cucurbit[7]uril using aqueous Rhodamine B dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak R Boraste; Monika Gupta; Ganapati Shankarling; Alok K Ray; Sandip K Nayak

    2014-02-01

    Recent demonstration in augmenting the efficiency of aqueous Rhodamine dye lasers using cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), a deaggregating and photostabilizing host, has drawn interest in the synthesis and characterization of spectroscopic grade CB[7] in larger quantities. Synthesis of cucurbituril group of macrocycles always leads to the formation of various homologues of CB[n]s (n=5–7) with CB[7] as the minor product. The literature procedure has been optimized to get pure CB[7] in 12–14% yield by fractional crystallization and the purity was checked by NMR, MS and spectrophotometric titration. Laser performances of the synthesized and commercial CB[7] sample as an additive were evaluated using Nd-YAG (532 nm) pumped Rhodamine B aqueous dye lasers and comparable results were obtained.

  5. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  6. Electrostatic repulsion between cucurbit[7]urils can be overcome in [3]pseudorotaxane without adding salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessêgo, M; Moreira, J A; Rosa da Costa, A M; Corrochano, P; Poblete, F J; Garcia-Rio, L

    2013-04-19

    The host-guest chemistry between cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and a series of bolaform (Bn) surfactants with different chain lengths, n = 12-22, was the target of our study. [3]Pseudorotaxanes are formed when the alkyl chain of the bolaform has more than 14 carbon atoms. In these cases, two CB7 molecules can be accommodated between the two head groups of the bolaform without addition of electrolytes to the medium. In the case of a bolaform with 12 carbon atoms, the electrostatic repulsion between the carbonyl groups of the CB7 molecules avoids the threading of a second CB7 molecule yielding a mixed structure formed by a [2]pseudorotaxane and an external host-guest complex. The assembly behavior was investigated using NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and kinetic measurements.

  7. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions.

  8. Determination of L-phenylalanine by cucurbit[7]uril sensitized fluorescence quenching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Feng Li; Li Ming Du; Hao Wu; Ying Xia Chang

    2011-01-01

    The determination method of L-phenylalanine (LPA) by fluorescence quenching was developed. The assay was based on the combination of the cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) with palmatine hydrochloride (PAL) reaction. In the presence of CB[7], the fluorescence of PAL was quenched by LPA which can be employed to detect LPA. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range 3.63 × 10-8-9.68 × 10-6 mol/L and a detection limit 1.27 × 10-8 mol/L of LPA were obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D) was 1.8% obtained from a series of11 standards each containing 6.05 × 10-6 mol/L oLPA. This paper also discusses the mechanism of fluorescence indicator probe.

  9. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  10. Timing of Glyphosate Applications to Wheat Cover Crops to Reduce Onion Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  11. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  12. Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea-Stunting Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Department of Parasitology , U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6 (NAMRU-6), Lima, Peru, 5 School of Public Health and Management, Universidad...Gilman RH, Lopez SL, Black MM (2002) Effects of stunting, diarrhoeal disease, and parasitic infection during infancy on cognition in late childhood

  13. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of

  14. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may pla

  15. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may

  16. Geophagy is associated with environmental enteropathy and stunting in children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Lee, Gwenyth O; Kosek, Margaret; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A; Mohammad, Shahnaij; Faruque, Abu G

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 children under 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. Geophagy was assessed at baseline using 5 hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (all three combined to form an EE disease activity score), and calprotectin. Eighteen percent of children had observed geophagy events by structured observation and 28% had caregiver reported events in the past week. Nearly all households had Escherichia coli (97%) in soil, and 14% had diarrheagenic E. coli. Children with caregiver-reported geophagy had significantly higher EE scores (0.72 point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 1.42) and calprotectin concentrations (237.38 μg/g, 95% CI: 12.77, 462.00). Furthermore, at the 9-month follow-up the odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2) was double for children with caregiver-reported geophagy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.51). These findings suggest that geophagy in young children may be an important unrecognized risk factor for EE and stunting. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Geophagy Is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy and Stunting in Children in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Kosek, Margaret; Sack, R. Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Mohammad, Shahnaij; Faruque, Abu G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 children under 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. Geophagy was assessed at baseline using 5 hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (all three combined to form an EE disease activity score), and calprotectin. Eighteen percent of children had observed geophagy events by structured observation and 28% had caregiver reported events in the past week. Nearly all households had Escherichia coli (97%) in soil, and 14% had diarrheagenic E. coli. Children with caregiver-reported geophagy had significantly higher EE scores (0.72 point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 1.42) and calprotectin concentrations (237.38 μg/g, 95% CI: 12.77, 462.00). Furthermore, at the 9-month follow-up the odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2) was double for children with caregiver-reported geophagy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.51). These findings suggest that geophagy in young children may be an important unrecognized risk factor for EE and stunting. PMID:25918214

  18. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of...

  19. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio JD; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time. Setting Nationally representative household surveys from 25 low and middle income countries. Design We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries which had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 or more years, totaling 87 surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated, and time trends were obtained by regression. Results National prevalence declined significantly in 22 of the 25 countries. In 18 out of 25 countries, relative reductions among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percent points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply, and Brazil where stunting fell by 6·7 percent points and inequalities were all but eliminated. Conclusions Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25521530

  20. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia. Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud -  National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1. Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age. Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considerin

  1. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Onis, Mercedes; Dewey, Kathryn G; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; Blössner, Monika; Daelmans, Bernadette; Piwoz, Ellen; Branca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization adopted a resolution on maternal, infant and young child nutrition that included a global target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted under-five children by 2025. The target was based on analyses of time series data from 148 countries and national success stories in tackling undernutrition. The global target translates to a 3.9% reduction per year and implies decreasing the number of stunted children from 171 million in 2010 to about 100 million in 2025. However, at current rates of progress, there will be 127 million stunted children by 2025, that is, 27 million more than the target or a reduction of only 26%. The translation of the global target into national targets needs to consider nutrition profiles, risk factor trends, demographic changes, experience with developing and implementing nutrition policies, and health system development. This paper presents a methodology to set individual country targets, without precluding the use of others. Any method applied will be influenced by country-specific population growth rates. A key question is what countries should do to meet the target. Nutrition interventions alone are almost certainly insufficient, hence the importance of ongoing efforts to foster nutrition-sensitive development and encourage development of evidence-based, multisectoral plans to address stunting at national scale, combining direct nutrition interventions with strategies concerning health, family planning, water and sanitation, and other factors that affect the risk of stunting. In addition, an accountability framework needs to be developed and surveillance systems strengthened to monitor the achievement of commitments and targets.

  2. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  3. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Huanran; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-10-01

    Several tomato production regions in China were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD), and 31 tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected. The partial or full-length genomes of these isolates were sequenced and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was detected in Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu Shandong and Hebei provinces of China. The TYLCV isolates found in China share high sequence identity ([98%) and have more than 97% sequence identity with TYLCVIL[ IL:Reo] (X15656). Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that although with little genetic variability, they can form two groups and all the TYLCV isolates in China belong to the group I. An infectious clone of TYLCV-[CN:SH2] (AM282874) was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum, Petunia hybrida, Cucumis sativus, Gossypium hirsutum, S. melongena, and Capsicum annuum. TYLCV-[CN:SH2] can induce severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants except C. sativus, G. hirsutum, S. melongena and C. annuum.We verified that TYLCV can trans-replicate tomato yellow leaf curl China virus DNA-b in N. benthamiana and S. lycopersicum and induced more severe symptoms with distortion and yellow vein.

  4. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  5. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

  6. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for proquinazid in tomatoes, aubergines and cucurbits with edible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received two applications from Pflanzenschutzdienst der Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance proquinazid in tomatoes and aubergines and in cucurbits (edible peel, respectively. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of proquinazid, Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.15 mg/kg in tomatoes and aubergines and to 0.04 mg/kg in cucurbits with edible peel. Germany drafted two separate evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. For reasons of efficiency EFSA combined both applications in one reasoned opinion. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.15 mg/kg for the intended use on tomatoes and aubergines and of 0.05 mg/kg for the intended use on the whole group of cucurbits (edible peel. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of proquinazid in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of proquinazid on tomatoes, aubergines and cucurbits with edible peel will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  7. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in raspberries, blackberries and cucurbits (edible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from TSGE Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in raspberries and blackberries. Germany also received an application from Landwirtschaftskammer NRW Pflanzenschutzdienst to modify the existing MRLs for difenoconazole in cucurbits with (edible peel. In order to accommodate the intended NEU outdoor use on raspberries and blackberries and the intended indoor use on cucurbits (edible peel, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs in these berries from 0.3 mg/kg to 1.5 mg/kg and in cucurbits (edible peel from 0.1 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg. The EMS drafted two evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the applications are sufficiently supported by data and EFSA confirmed the MRL proposals made by the EMS. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of difenoconazole in the crops under consideration. The risk assessment demonstrated that the intended use of difenoconazole on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  9. Why is my alfalfa yellow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, many parts of the Midwest experienced far wetter than normal summer weather and by August or September, many growers were asking, “Why is my alfalfa yellow?” When all or part of an alfalfa field is yellow, it is a certain sign that something has gone wrong. In this case the problem in most ...

  10. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  11. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  12. Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Masrin Masrin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Food is one of human basic needs. If it is not fullfilled, both in their number and quality in the individual and household level will disturb the achievement of the life quality that are health, active, and sustainable and able to rise various health and nutrition problems. Stunting in children 6-23 monthswas one of chronical nutrition problems that was caused by access and afford to the food still low.Objectives: To analyze the correlation between food security of the household and stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was an observational study with case-control design. The samples of the study were 126 children aged 6-23 months, each for case, and control group. The samples were chosen by total sampling method. Data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate. Statistic test in bivariate analysis used chi-square test and in multivariate analysis used logistic regression test.Results: Bivariate analysis showed that food security of the household had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months (p=0.04, OR=2.70, 95% CI:0.94-8.77. The confounding variable which had significant correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months were mother height (p=0.00, OR=2.03, 95% CI:1.14-3.65 and low birth weigth history (p=0.03, OR=3.02, 95% CI:0.98-11.04. Multivariate analysis by controlling mother height and low birth weigth history in children aged 6-23 months,showed that household food security had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged their 6-23 months (p=0.05, OR=2.62, 95% CI:0.97-7.12.Conclusions: There was significant correlation between household food security and stunting incidence in children aged at their 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.KEYWORDS: household food security, stunting, children aged in 6-23 monthsABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pangan merupakan salah satu

  13. On the stunted Mocambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (PIsces: Cichlidae of the Matiovila hot spring, Kruger National Park

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    T Hecht

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A stunted population of Oreochromis mossambicus occurs in the Matiovila Hot Sulphur Spring in the Kruger National Park. The growth of the fishes can best be described by the Von Bertalanffy equation L, = ^^(l-e0154^028^ mm SL. Breeding occurs throughout the year and the smallest sexually mature female was 35 mm SL. The fish from this locality were morphometrically compared to another stunted population and to a population of 0. mossambicus from a large impoundment. Speculative reasons for and advantages of stunting are presented.

  14. Hubungan Stunting dengan Prestasi Belajar Anak Sekolah Dasar di Daerah Kumuh, Kotamadya Jakarta Pusat

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    Prisca Petty Arfines

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProblems on nutrition deficiencies can occur in all age groups, including in school-aged children (6-12 years old. Families who live in slums were more likely to fail to meet the nutritional needs as well as unhygienic practice may increase the risk of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between stunting and learning achievement of primary school children in slum areas in Central Jakarta. This study was an observational study with cross sectional design. Data were collected between June to November 2012 from students in six elementary schools of Kramat and Tanah Tinggi Sub-districts. Data collected were basic characteristics, hemoglobin (Hb level, anthropometry, concentration score, learning achievement and food recall 1x24 hours. Respondents were 141 children consist of 86 girls (61% and 55 boys (39%. Stunting proportion was 21.5% based on the screening measurement. Bivariate analysis revealed there was a relationship between HAZ (stunting indicator and learning achievement of school-aged children.Keywords: stunting, learning achievements, school-aged children, slum area, learning concentrationAbstrakMasalah kekurangan gizi dapat terjadi pada semua kelompok umur, demikian pula pada anak umur sekolah (6–12 tahun. Keluarga yang hidup di daerah kumuh memiliki kecenderungan kurang dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan gizi beserta sanitasi lingkungan yang tidak sehat dapat meningkatkan risiko penyakit infeksi pada anak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status gizi pendek (stunting dengan prestasi anak sekolah dasar di daerah kumuh di Kotamadya Jakarta Pusat. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada bulan Juni hingga November 2012 dari siswa/i dari 6 sekolah dasar di Kelurahan Kramat dan Tanah Tinggi. Data yang diambil meliputi karakteristik dasar, kadar hemoglobin (Hb, antropometri, skor konsentrasi

  15. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1922-01-01

    Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

  16. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  17. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  18. Concomitant prevalence of severe wasting, stunting and underweight amongst under five children in Meerut district, India

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    Rahul Bansal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey (NFHS documented that nearly 5.8 million children (6.4% are undernourished in India which is 1/3rd of the world’s share. Objective: i To assess the concomitant prevalence of severe wasting, severe stunting and severe underweight among children 6-59 months in a rural population of Northern India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 blocks of district Meerut, Uttar Pradesh during 2013-2015. A total of 70 villages were included and all children in the age group of 6–59 months were covered by house to house visits. Data on socio-demographic profile and anthropometry was collected utilizing standards methods and equipment’s. The Z-scores for weight-for-height (WFH, height-for-age (HFA, and weight-for-age (WFA were calculated using WHO child growth standards. Results: A total of 19449 children in the age group of 6-59 months from house to house survey were approached. Out of 19449 children, 464 children were excluded due to erroneous age estimation; knock knees; physically handicapped and spinal deformities. Thus, 18985 children were enrolled for the present study. The weight, height and age were available for 18474, 18595 and 18983 children. The prevalence of severe wasting, severe stunting and severe underweight was found to be 2.2%, 16.2% and 12.2%, respectively. Concomitant presence of severe wasting, severe stunting and severe underweight was found in 0.9% (171/18,463 children. Conclusion: High prevalence of severe wasting, severe stunting and severe underweight was found in children from district Meerut indicating poor nutritional status.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  20. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  2. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  3. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural communities of Sidama, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Masresha; Belachew, Tefera; Ersino, Getahun

    2013-01-01

    The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study that involved 575 participants from rural Sidama was conducted from February to March 2011. A two-stage stratified sampling procedure was employed to select the required households. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare stunting by feeding patterns and other characteristics. Only 14.4% of mothers fed their children optimally. Prevalence of stunting was higher for infants aged 6 to 8 months (43%) than for those in 0-5 months (26.6%) or 9-23 months (39%) category. Women who did not receive antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy were 1.5 times more likely to practice pre-lacteal feeding and 2.8 and 1.9 times more likely to feed their children below minimum dietary diversity and minimum meal frequency, respectively (P=0.01). Mothers older than 18 years during the birth of index child were 86% less likely to feed their child below minimum meal frequency than their younger counterparts (P=0.01). Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ANC attendance should be strengthened through extensive use of the Health Extension Workers to reduce the level of child stunting in the study area.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  5. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  6. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  7. Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, Federica; Siekmans, Kendra; Kouanda, Seni; Druetz, Thomas; Ly, Antarou; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2017-04-01

    Stunting affects 165 million children worldwide, with repercussions on their survival and development. A contaminated environment is likely to contribute to stunting: frequent faecal-oral transmission possibly causes environmental enteropathy, a chronic inflammatory disorder that may contribute to faltering growth in children. This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Panel study of children aged 1-5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011-2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a 'contaminated environment' index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. Analysis was performed using a generalised structural equation model (SEM), adjusting for repeat observations and hierarchical data. Stunting (Environment contamination was widespread, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas, and was associated with stunting (prevalence ratio 1.30; p=0.008), controlling for sex, age, survey year, setting, mother's education, father's occupation, household food security and wealth. This association was significant for children of all ages (1-5 years) and settings. Lower contamination and higher food security had effects of comparable magnitude. Environment contamination can be at least as influential as nutritional components in the pathway to stunting. There is a rationale for including interventions to reduce environment contamination in stunting prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Identification of Hop stunt viroid infecting Citrus limon in China using small RNAs deep sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2015-07-07

    The advent of next generation sequencing technology has allowed for significant advances in plant virus discovery, particularly for identification of covert viruses and previously undescribed viruses. The Citrus limon Burm. f. (C. limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and . China is the world's top lemon-producing nation. In this work, lemon samples were collected from southwestern of China, where an unknown disease outbreak had caused huge losses in the lemon production industry. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing and the assembly of small RNAs, we showed that the Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) was present in C. limon leaf sample. The majority of it is a main lemon producing agricultural cultivarHop stunt viroid derived siRNAs (HSVd-siRNAs) in C. limon were 21 nucleotides in length, and nearly equal amount of HSVd-siRNAs originated from the plus-genomic RNA strand as from the complementary strand. A bias of HSVd-siRNAs toward sequences beginning with a 5'-Guanine was observed. Furthermore, hotspot analysis showed that a large amount of HSVd-siRNAs derived from the central and variant domains of the HSVd genome. Our results suggest that C. limon could set up a small RNA-mediated gene silencing response to Hop stunt viroid, Interestingly, based on bioinformatics analysis, our results also suggest that the large amounts of HSVd-siRNAs from central and variant domains might be involved in interference with host gene expression and affect symptom development.

  9. Assessment of the WHO Stunting Framework using Ethiopia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Rohner, Fabian; Petry, Nicolai; Onyango, Adelheid W; Matji, Joan; Bailes, Adam; de Onis, Mercedes; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    Poor linear growth in children framework on the Context, Causes and Consequences of Childhood Stunting (the 'WHO framework') that identifies specific and general factors associated with stunting. The framework is based upon a global review of data, and we have applied it to a country-level analysis where health and nutrition policies are made and public health and nutrition data are collected. We reviewed the literature related to sub-optimal linear growth, stunting and birth outcomes in Ethiopia as a case study. We found consistent associations between poor linear growth and indicators of birth size, recent illness (e.g. diarrhoea and fever), maternal height and education. Other factors listed as causes in the framework such as inflammation, exposure to mycotoxins and inadequate feeding during and after illness have not been examined in Ethiopia, and the existing literature suggests that these are clear data gaps. Some factors associated with poor linear growth in Ethiopia are missing in the framework, such as household characteristics (e.g. exposure to indoor smoke). Examination of the factors included in the WHO framework in a country setting helps identifying data gaps helping to target further data collection and research efforts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother's education, toilet and tap water availability, children's medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children's nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  11. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  12. Global, regional and country trends in underweight and stunting as indicators of nutrition and health of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, L M; Osendarp, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Stunting and wasting provide indicators of different nutritional deficiency problems, the causes of which are well established. Underweight based on weight-for-age cannot distinguish between these two and is therefore not useful to target programs and has limited value for tracking progress. Stunting reduces later school attainment and income as adults and increases the risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in later life. Globally, the estimated number of stunted children is decreasing, but is not on track to meet the goal of 100 million by 2025 (165 million), and there has been little change in the number of children suffering from wasting since 2004. Stunting and wasting provide excellent indicators of inequity. For example, from 1990 to 2010, the number of stunted children in Asia declined from 188.7 to 98.4 million, while in sub-Saharan Africa there was essentially no change in prevalence, and the number of stunted children increased from 45.7 to 55.8 million. Recent global development movements are recognizing the need for robust measures of trends in nutritional status of children, particularly during the critical first years of life. Such measures are needed to track progress and improve accountability, and should be aspirational to mobilize sufficient investment in nutrition.

  13. Cucurbit[7]uril⋅guest pair with an attomolar dissociation constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Śekutor, Marina; Zavalij, Peter Y; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Glaser, Robert; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-01-20

    Host⋅guest complexes between cucurbit[7] (CB[7]) or CB[8] and diamantane diammonium ion guests 3 or 6 were studied by (1) H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. (1) H NMR competition experiments revealed that CB[7]⋅6 is among the tightest monovalent non-covalent complexes ever reported in water with Ka =7.2×10(17)  M(-1) in pure D2 O and 1.9×10(15)  M(-1) in D2 O buffered with NaO2 CCD3 (50 mM). The crystal structure of CB[7]⋅6 allowed us to identify some of the structural features responsible for the ultratight binding, including the distance between the NMe3 (+) groups of 6 (7.78 Å), which allows it to establish 14 optimal ion-dipole interactions with CB[7], the complementarity of the convex van der Waals surface contours of 6 with the corresponding concave surfaces of CB[7], desolvation of the CO portals within the CB[7]⋅6 complex, and the co-linearity of the C7  axis of CB[7] with the N(+) ⋅⋅⋅N(+) line in 6. This work further blurs the lines of distinction between natural and synthetic receptors.

  14. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3% followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9% was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  15. Biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LJ02 induces systemic resistance against cucurbits powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Gu, Yilin; Li, Juan; Xu, Mingzhu; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuanhong

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease found in a wide range of plants and can significantly reduce crop yields. Bacterial strain LJ02 is a biocontrol agent (BCA) isolated from a greenhouse in Tianjin, China. In combination of morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, strain LJ02 was classified as a new member of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Greenhouse trials showed that LJ02 fermentation broth (LJ02FB) can effectively diminish the occurrence of cucurbits powdery mildew. When treated with LJ02FB, cucumber seedlings produced significantly elevated production of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as compared to that of the control. We further confirmed that the production of free salicylic acid (SA) and expression of one pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 in cucumber leaves were markedly elevated after treating with LJ02FB, suggesting that SA-mediated defense response was stimulated. Moreover, LJ02FB-treated cucumber leaves could secrete resistance-related substances into rhizosphere that inhibit the germination of fungi spores and the growth of pathogens. Finally, we separated bacterium and its fermented substances to test their respective effects and found that both components have SA-inducing activity and bacterium plays major roles. Altogether, we identified a BCA against powdery mildew and its mode of action by inducing systemic resistance such as SA signaling pathway.

  16. Transformation of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Jesús; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    The obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew in cucurbit crops all over the world. A major limitation of molecular studies of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) is their genetic intractability. In this work, we describe a robust method based on the promiscuous transformation ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for reliable transformation of P. xanthii. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system yielded transformants of P. xanthii with diverse transferred DNA (T-DNA) constructs. Analysis of the resultant transformants showed the random integration of T-DNA into the P. xanthii genome. The integrations were maintained in successive generations in the presence of selection pressure. Transformation was found to be transient, because in the absence of selection agent, the introduced genetic markers were lost due to excision of T-DNA from the genome. The ATMT system represents a potent tool for genetic manipulation of P. xanthii and will likely be useful for studying other biotrophic fungi. We hope that this method will contribute to the development of detailed molecular studies of the intimate interaction established between powdery mildew fungi and their host plants.

  17. Chemical composition of Apodanthera biflora, a Cucurbit of the dry forest in northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clark

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dry forest of northwestern Peru is the habitat of numerous native species that have received little attention beyond taxonomic purposes. Here we report the chemical composition of the roots and seeds of a set of accessions of Apondanthera biflora, a wild Cucurbit with potentialities as a food resource. The roots show features that are comparable to those from cassava roots and potato tubers: a high content of carbohydrates on a dry matter basis (77.5 – 84.9%, with starch representing around 20% of the total dry matter. The seeds’ fat content on a dry matter basis (22.22 – 39.37% falls within the percentages found in oily seeds such as safflower, whereas the protein content (21.37 – 29.06% is similar to that of flax and sunflower. The fatty acid profile of the seed’s oil shows a predominance of polyunsaturated acids, in particular linoleic acid (43.81%, making it comparable to that of cotton oil. Our results confirm the nutritional value of Apodanthera biflora and set the ground for its use in domestication and food security programs.

  18. Study on the inclusion interactions of berberine hydrochloride and cucurbit[7] by spectrofluorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ping Li; Hao Wu; Li Ming Du

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion interaction between berberine hydrochloride (BRH) and cucurbit[7] (CB[7]) has been studied by spectro-fluorimetry. The result showed that CB[7] interaction with BRH to form a stable inclusion complex with an association constant of 9.57 x 104 L/tool and the fluorescence intensity of the complex was enhanced in 17 times higher than that of the studied drug itself.Based on the significant enhancement of fluorescence intensity of BRH in inclusion complex, a spetrofluodmetric method with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed for the determination of BRH in aqueous solution. The linear range of the method was 3.2-2 x 103 ng]mL with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/mL. The proposed procedure could be applied successfully to determination of BRH remained in pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma and urine with satisfactory results.(C) 2008 Li Ming Du. Published by Elsevier B.V. On behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Supramolecular Adducts of Cucurbit[7]uril and Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ekaterina; Vilaseca, Marta; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Masliy, A. N.; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2016-02-01

    The complexation of the macrocyclic cavitand cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) with a series of amino acids (AA) with different side chains (Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) is investigated by ESI-MS techniques. The 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ adducts are observed as the base peak when equimolar Q7:AA solutions are electrosprayed, whereas the 1:2 [Q7 + 2AA + 2H]2+ dications are dominant when an excess of the amino acid is used. A combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and DFT calculations of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ (AA = Tyr, Val, and Ser) adducts is also reported and proven to be unsuccessful at discriminating between exclusion or inclusion-type conformations in the gas phase. Collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that the preferred dissociation pathways of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ dications are strongly influenced by the identity of the amino acid side chain, whereas ion molecule reactions towards N-butylmethylamine displayed a common reactivity pattern comprising AA displacement. Special emphasis is given on the differences between the gas-phase behavior of the supramolecular adducts with amino acids (AA = Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) and those featuring basic (Lys and Arg) and aromatic (Tyr and Phe) side chains.

  20. Encapsulation of the ethylene inhibitor 1-Methylcyclopropene by cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhen, Zeng; Jiang, Hong; Li, Xue-Gang; Liu, Jun-An

    2011-10-12

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is an excellent safe and commercially available ethylene antagonist for the preservation of horticultural products. However 1-MCP has to be stored in absorbents due to its gaseous and unstable characteristics. In this paper cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) was used as the absorbent to encapsulate 1-MCP, and the resultant inclusion complex was characterized by IR, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and fluorescent spectra. The effects of encapsulation conditions on the formation of inclusion complex were also investigated. The amount of 1-MCP encapsulated by CB[6] was about 4.5% by weight when the initial concentration of 1-MCP, encapsulation temperature, CB[6] concentration, and encapsulation time were set at 75 mL/L, 20 °C, 30 mM, and 8 h, respectively. Furthermore, the release of 1-MCP from the complex can be realized with different solutions such as sodium bicarbonate, benzoic acid, and distilled water. CB[6] can be used as an excellent absorbent for encapsulation of 1-MCP.

  1. Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10-10 M-2.5 × 10-4 M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.

  2. Cucurbit[7]uril host-guest complexes of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibing; Macartney, Donal H

    2008-06-07

    The macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril forms very stable complexes with the diprotonated (K(CB[7])(1) = 1.8 x 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1)), monoprotonated (K(CB[7])(2) = 1.0 x 10(7) dm(3) mol(-1)), and neutral (K(CB[7])(3) = 1.2 x 10(3) dm(3) mol(-1)) forms of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine in aqueous solution. The complexation behaviour was investigated using (1)H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy as a function of pH and the pK(a) values of the guest were observed to increase (DeltapK(a1) = 1.5 and DeltapK(a2) = 1.6) upon host-guest complex formation. The energy-minimized structures of the host-guest complexes with the cationic guests were determined and provide agreement with the NMR results indicating the location of the CB[7] over the central portion of the guest. The inclusion of the monoprotonated form of ranitidine slows the normally rapid (E)-(Z) exchange process and generates a preference for the (Z) isomer. The formation of the CB[7] host-guest complex greatly increases the thermal stability of ranitidine in acidic aqueous solution at 50 degrees C, but has no effect on its photochemical reactivity.

  3. Ketoprofen encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril nanoparticles: a new exploration of macrocycles for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Tuyen Thi Dao, Phuong; Phu, Quoc Nam; Dam Le, Duy; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Tai Chi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is (i) to fabricate a nanoparticle formulation of ketoprofen (Keto) using a relatively new family of macrocycles as the carrier for drug delivery: cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]), (ii) to evaluate its in vitro dissolution and (iii) to investigate its in vivo pharmaceutical property. The CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Morphology and size of the successfully prepared nanoparticles were then confirmed using a transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. It was shown that they are spherical with hydrodynamic diameter of 200-300 nm. The in vitro dissolution studies of CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles were conducted at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The results indicated that there is a significant increase in Keto concentration at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. For the in vivo assessment, CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles and referential profenid were administered by oral gavages to rabbits. The results implied that CB[6]-Keto nanoparticles remarkably increased area under the curve compared to profenid.

  4. Cucurbit[6]uril nanocavity as an enhanced spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueldo Occello, Valeria N. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Veglia, Alicia V., E-mail: aveglia@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-03-09

    The effect of the addition of macrocyclic host cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) on the photophysical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene (PYR) was analyzed. The fluorescence emission spectra of the aromatic compound were determined at 25.0 {sup o}C in different acidic media (HCl 18%, w/v, or HCOOH 55%, w/v) with and without CB6. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence signals in the presence of CB6 was observed. The average values of the association constant (K{sub A}) for the 1:1 stoichiometry complex and the relative fluorescence quantum yield ratio between the complexed and free PYR ({phi}{sup PYR-CB6}/{phi}{sup PYR}) in acidic media were (4.0 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 2} M{sup -1} and (5.7 {+-} 0.2), respectively. The analytical parameters improved in the presence of CB6. The relative decrease in the limit of detection was 92%. The matrix effect was evaluated in fortified samples of tap water and tea extracts. Apparent recoveries obtained by the proposed method in tap water and tea extracts were (82-103)% and (89-99)%, respectively. Selectivity studies with inorganic and organic species were performed. The method is rapid, direct, selective and simple.

  5. Host-guest complexes and pseudorotaxanes of cucurbit[7]uril with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Ian W; Macartney, Donal H

    2009-11-06

    Pseudorotaxanes may be assembled in aqueous solution using dicationic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as succinylcholine, BW284c51, and alpha,omega-bis(trialkylammonium)alkane dications (or their phosphonium analogues), as bolaform axles and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as the wheel. With the exceptions of the shorter [(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(n)N(CH(3))(3)](2+) (n = 6, 8) dications, the addition of a second CB[7] results in the translocation of the first CB[7], such that the hydrophobic -NR(3)(+) and -PR(3)(+) end groups (R = Me or Et) are located in the cavities of the wheels, while the central portion of the axles extend through the CB[7] portals into the bulk solvent. In the case of the [Quin(CH(2))(10)Quin](2+) (Quin = quinuclidinium) dication, the CB[7] host(s) resides only on the quinuclidinium end group(s). The 1:1 host-guest stability constants range from 8 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(10) M(-1) and are dependent on both the nature of the end group as well as the length and hydrophobicity of the central linker. The magnitude of the stability constants for the 2:1 complexes closely follow the trend observed previously for CB[7] binding with the NR(4)(+) and PR(4)(+) cations.

  6. Macrocyclic cavitands cucurbit[n]urils: prospects for application in biochemistry, medicine and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasko, O. A.; Kovalenko, E. A.; Fedin, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The prospects of using the organic macrocyclic cavitands cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]) and their derivatives in biochemistry, medicine and nanotechnology are considered. A combination of CB[n] characteristics, such as a rigid highly symmetrical structure, polarized hydrophilic portals, a rather large intramolecular hydrophobic cavity, as well as high resistance to thermolysis and corrosive media and low toxicity, account for a wide range of unique opportunities for the deliberate design of new functional materials, which may find application in various areas of modern chemistry and new technologies. Inclusion compounds of CB[n] with biologically active molecules demonstrate a high potential for the design of a new generation of prolonged action pharmaceuticals. The review presents the prospects for the application of CB[n] to manufacture unique materials, such as CB[n]-containing vesicles, films and surfaces, suitable for immobilization of various molecules and nanoparticles on their surface and for the separation of complex mixtures. Potential applications of CB[n]-modified electrodes and hydrogels are analyzed, and the use of CB[n] in proton-conducting materials and materials for the gas sorption and separation are discussed. The bibliography includes 164 references.

  7. Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Cryptolepine in the Nanocavity of Cucurbit[7]uril and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninti, Raj Kumar; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Hazra, Partha

    2016-02-16

    Herein, we explored the photophysical properties of the antimalarial, anticancer drug cryptolepine (CRYP) in the presence of the macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and DNA with the help of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Ground-state and excited-state calculations based on density functional theory were also performed to obtain insight into the shape, electron density distribution, and energetics of the molecular orbitals of CRYP. CRYP exists in two forms depending on the pH of the medium, namely, a cationic (charge transfer) form and a neutral form, which emit at λ=540 and 420 nm, respectively. In a buffer solution of pH 7, the drug exists in the cationic form, and upon encapsulation with CB7, it exhibits a huge enhancement in fluorescence intensity due to a decrement in nonradiative decay pathways of the emitting cryptolepine species. Furthermore, docking and quantum chemical calculations were employed to decipher the molecular orientation of the drug in the inclusion complex. Studies with natural DNA indicate that CRYP molecules intercalate into DNA, which leads to a huge quenching of the fluorescence of CRYP. Keeping this in mind, we studied the DNA-assisted release of CRYP molecules from the nanocavity of CB7. Strikingly, DNA alone could not remove the drug from the nanocavity of CB7. However, an external stimulus such as acetylcholine chloride was able to displace CRYP from the nanocavity, and subsequently, the displaced drug could bind to DNA.

  8. Ankeny - Yellow Flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project aims to inventory and map all existing stands of yellow flag iris within wetland habitats at Ankeny NWR, treat them with herbicide in late spring and...

  9. Fontes de resistência em melancia aos principais potyvírus isolados de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Vanuzia B. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A melancia, Citrullus spp., pode ser infetada por várias espécies de vírus, dentre as quais se destacam as pertencentes à família Potyviridae. Visando identificar fontes de resistência a potyvírus, foi iniciado na UFC um programa de indexação do banco de germoplasma de melancia da Embrapa Semi-Árido. Foram utilizadas as espécies de potyvírus, isoladas de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste: Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W; Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2 e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. Dos 50 acessos de melancia avaliados, 37 pertencem a Citrullus lanatus, 9 a C. lanatus var. citroides e 4 a C. colocynthis. Em casa-de-vegetação foram inoculadas 4 plantas envasadas de cada acesso com PRSV-W, 4 com WMV-2 e 4 com ZYMV, ficando 4 sem inoculação. As inoculações foram efetuadas 8 dias após o plantio, e 15 dias depois. As plantas assintomáticas foram reinoculadas. As plantas que persistiram sem sintomas, após um período de 25 dias após a primeira inoculação, foram testadas por ELISA contra os anti-soros correspondentes. Dentre os acessos avaliados, 5 mostraram-se resistentes aos 3 vírus, um resistente somente ao PRSV-W, 21 resistentes somente ao ZYMV e nenhum com resistência isolada ao WMV-2. No entanto, 45 acessos apresentaram resistência ao ZYMV isoladamente ou em combinação com outro potyvírus. Os acessos suscetíveis, apresentaram sintomas 10 dias após a primeira inoculação enquanto que os resistentes permaneceram sem sintomas após a segunda inoculação e com resultados negativos em ELISA. Alguns acessos poderão ser cruzados visando obter populações segregantes para a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos recessivos e, juntamente com os acessos com resistência tripla identificados, ampliar a variabilidade genética de fontes quanto a características de planta e fruto.

  10. Yellow mosaic symptom caused by the nuclear shuttle protein gene of mungbean yellow mosaic virus is associated with single-stranded DNA accumulation and mesophyll spread of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruba, B L; Buvani, A P; Veluthambi, K

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram and mungbean. Two variable DNA-B components, KA22 and KA27, cause distinct symptoms in blackgram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] with the same DNA-A component. KA22 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed yellow mosaic symptom and accumulated high levels of viral single-stranded (ss) DNA. KA27 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed severe stunting symptom and accumulated very low levels of viral ssDNA. However, in mungbean [V. radiata (L.) Wilczek], KA27 + DNA-A caused yellow mosaic symptom and a high level of viral ssDNA accumulated. Swapping of KA27 DNA-B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA-B (KA27xKA22 NSP) caused yellow mosaic symptom in blackgram, suggesting that KA22 NSP is the determinant of yellow mosaic symptom. Interestingly, KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram plants accumulated high levels of viral ssDNA, comparable to that of KA22 DNA-B infection, suggesting that the KA22 NSP is responsible for accumulation of high levels of viral ssDNA. MYMV distribution was studied in blackgram and mungbean plants by leaf tissue hybridization, which showed mesophyll spread of the virus in KA22-infected blackgram leaflets and in KA27-infected mungbean leaflets, both of which displayed yellow mosaic symptom. However, the virus did not accumulate in the mesophyll in the case of KA27-infected blackgram leaflets. Interestingly, the swapped KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram leaflets showed mesophyll accumulation of the virus, suggesting that KA22 NSP determines its mesophyll spread.

  11. Serological and molecular identification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Khuzestan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh MALEKZADEH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted from 2006 to 2007 to identify the causal agent of leaf curling of tomato in eight major tomato-growing areas of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. Tomato leaf samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and stunting were collected and screened for the presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by TAS-ELISA. Further confi rmation was completed using graft transmission onto healthy tomato plants and PCR. Results confi rmed that TYLCV is a causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD and is widely distributed in all the major tomato growing areas in southwest of Iran. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP gene of four isolates (Dezfoul, Shoush, Behbahan, and Ramhormoz were determined and deposited in GenBank (EF199814-7. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP gene further showed that all four Iranian isolates have very close relationship and formed a Compact cluster together with previously sequenced Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  12. Faktor sosiodemografi dan tinggi badan orang tua serta hubungannya dengan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afia Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is linear growth disturbance indicated by the value of the z-score of TB/U less than -2 SD. There are various factors associated with the incidence of stunting. Social demographics such as low income, low parental education and the number of members in the household, also indirectly related to the incidence of stunting. Parental height is also associated with the incidence of stunting. Short mothers have the possibility of having short baby. The results of the study in Egypt showed that children born from mothers with the height of <150 cm have a higher risk to be stunted.Objectives: To determine whether sociodemographic factors and parental height were risk factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: The design used case-control study. The research was conducted in April-June 2014 in the Sedayu Subdistrict. Number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. The instruments were a questionnaire to determine the identity of children, the identity of respondents, nutritional status, and sociodemographic data. Infantometer used to measure the length of the children body and microtoise to measure the height of parents. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of children stunting was 16.20%. Bivariate test showed that the height of mothers significantly associated with the incidence of stunting. Multivariate analysis showed that the most influential factors to the was maternal height, while variables of employment, education, income, expenditure, number of family members, and height of father did not show significant results.Conclusions: Maternal height were the risk factor for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, but sociodemographic were not.KEYWORDS: stunting, sociodemographic, parental heightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting

  13. Complexation of Eu(III) with cucurbit[n]uril, n = 5 and 7: a thermodynamic and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neetika; Kar, Aishwarya; Bhattacharyya, A; Rao, Ankita; Nayak, S K; Nayak, C; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Tomar, B S

    2015-03-07

    Cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) are a new class of macrocyclic cage compounds capable of binding organic and inorganic species, owing to their unique pumpkin like structure comprising of both a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic portal. The thermodynamics of the complexation of Eu(III) with CBn of a different cavity size viz. cucurbit[5]uril (CB5) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and calorimetry at 25 °C whereas the structure of the complexes was investigated using time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in a formic acid-water mixture (50 wt%). This is the first report on the structural investigation of Eu-CBn complexes in solution. The thermodynamic data (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) for Eu(III) complexation with CBn reveal the formation of a 1 : 1 complex with CB5, while both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes are observed with CB7. The signatures of these species are observed in ESI-MS measurements, which corroborates with the species postulated in thermodynamic studies. The complexation reactions are found to be driven by ΔS as ΔH is either small negative or positive indicating the formation of inner sphere complexes, which is in line with TRFS and EXAFS results. These studies show that Eu(III) caps one of the CB5 portals by binding with all the carbonyl groups in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB5 complex, whereas in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB7 complex, Eu(III) interacts with only a few of the carbonyl groups of CB7. The computational studies (DFT calculations) on Eu-CB5 and Eu-CB7 complexes further support the experimental data.

  14. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  15. Factors associated with stunting among children of age 24 to 59 months in Meskan district, Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fikadu, Teshale; Assegid, Sahilu; Dube, Lamessa

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting is one of the major causes of morbidity among under-five children Knowledge about risk factors of stunting is an important precondition for developing and strengthening nutritional intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with stunting among children of age 24 to 59 months in Meskan District of Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods Community based case-control study was conducted among children of age 24 to 59 months. A multistage ...

  16. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  17. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor...

  18. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods: The study was based on a cohort organized to monit...

  19. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF COPOLYMERS CONTAINING CUCURBIT[6]URIL-BASED PSEUDOROTAXANE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Ma; Hui Yang; Kimoon Kim; Ye-bang Tan

    2012-01-01

    Novel copolymers based on acrylamide (AM) and complex pseudorotaxane monomer N'-(3-vinylbenzyl)-l,4-diaminobutane dihydrochloride with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) (3VBCB) were prepared via free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution,and characterized by 1H-NMR,FT-IR,elemental analysis and static light scattering.The compositions of the copolymers (PAM3VBCB) with pseudorotaxane units were determined by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis.Thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by TGA,and the effects of the copolymer concentration and pH on the average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the copolymer molecules were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS).The experiment data show that CB[6] beads are localized on 1,4-diaminobutane units in side chains of the copolymers.TGA results show that thermal stability of the copolymer increases with increasing the content of pseudorotaxane unit because of the enhanced rigidity and the bulky steric hindrance of 3VBCB in side chains of PAM3VBCB.DLS data show that the average hydrodynamic radius of copolymer molecules increases with the increase in the copolymer concentration,and both the pH and electrical conductivity of PAM3VBCB solutions demonstrate an acute change with addition of NaOH because of CB[6]dethreading from the side chains of PAM3VBCB.CB[6] threading and dethreading of PAM3VBCB could be controlled by addition of BaCl2 and Na2SO4.

  20. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  1. U-shaped conformation of alkyl chains bound to a synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Youngkook; Kim, Hyunuk; Kim, Kimoon

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of a series of alkanes bound to the molecular host cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) has been systematically studied by 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). CB[8] and alkyltrimethylammonium (C(m) TA(+), (CH(3))(3)N(+)C(m)H(2m+1), m=6-16) form 1:1 host-guest complexes with a high binding constant (K≈10(6) m(-1)). The shortest hexyl chain of C(6)TA(+) can be fully encapsulated in an extended conformation inside the CB[8] cavity, which is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. However, for the longer aliphatic chains, C(8)-C(16), the long alkyl tails take a U-shaped conformation inside the cavity, and their complexation is dominantly or almost exclusively enthalpy-driven, owing to the increased van der Waals contact between the folded aliphatic chain and the inner wall of the host cavity. As the chain length increases from C(8) to C(16), the ammonium head group of the guests moves away from the portal of CB[8] while the long aliphatic tails maintain the U-shaped conformation inside the cavity. The complexation of C(m)TA(+) with CB[8] follows the enthalpy-entropy compensation rule commonly observed in molecular recognition systems. For example, among the guest molecules, C(12)TA(+) shows the highest enthalpic gain (most favorable), owing to the large van der Waals contact between the guest and the host cavity, and at the same time the most unfavorable entropic contribution, owing to the severe conformational restriction of the U-shaped alkyl chain inside the host. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plot for the complexation suggests large conformational changes of the long alkyl chains and extensive dehydration associated with the inclusion complex formation.

  2. Examination of cucurbit[7]uril and its host-guest complexes by diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheate, Nial J; Kumar, P G Anil; Torres, Allan M; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R; Price, William S

    2008-02-28

    The self-diffusion of cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and its host-guest complexes in D2O has been examined using pulsed gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. CB[7] diffuses freely at a concentration of 2 mM with a diffusion coefficient (D) of 3.07 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1). At saturation (3.7 mM), CB[7] diffuses more slowly (D = 2.82 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) indicating that it partially self-associates. At concentrations between 2 and 200 mM, CsCl has no effect on the diffusion coefficient of CB[7] (1 mM). Conversely, CB[7] (2 mM) significantly affects the diffusion of 133Cs+ (1 mM), decreasing its diffusion coefficient from 1.86 to 0.83 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). Similar changes in the rate of diffusion of other alkali earth metal cations are observed upon the addition of CB[7]. The diffusion coefficient of 23Na+ changes from 1.26 to 0.90 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) and 7Li+ changes from 3.40 to 3.07 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). In most cases, encapsulation of a variety of inorganic and organic guests within CB[7] decreases their rates of diffusion in D2O. For instance, the diffusion coefficient of the dinuclear platinum complex trans-[[PtCl(NH3)2}2mu-dpzm](2+) (where dpzm is 4,4'-dipyrazolylmethane) decreases from 4.88 to 2.95 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1) upon encapsulation with an equimolar concentration of CB[7].

  3. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  4. Socioeconomic disparities and the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight in guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2013-01-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined here as households with a stunted child and an overweight mother (SCOM), is a growing problem in Guatemala. We explored the magnitude of SCOM and the identification of socio-economic factors associated with this malnutrition duality. From the 2000 Living Standards Measurement Study from Guatemala, we obtained a sample of 2492 households with pairs of children 6–60 months and their mothers (18–49 years) and estimated the prevalence of SCOM. Economic characteristics of this sample were assessed with the Concentration Index (CI). Results revealed higher prevalence of child stunting, but a lower prevalence of maternal overweight among the poor compared to the rich households. Economic inequality in child stunting was greater than economic inequality in maternal overweight (CI = −0.22 vs. +0.14). SCOM pairs were more prevalent among the poor and middle SES groups as compared to the rich households. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that SCOM was more likely to occur in households from the middle consumption quintile than in those from the first quintile (odds ratio = 1.7). The findings reported here add new insights into the complex phenomenon observed in households with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum, and support the need for the identification of economic, social and biological interventions aimed at, on the one hand, the prevention of this duality of the malnutrition in those households where it is still non-existent, and on the other hand, to deter or correct the economic, social and biological environments where those mother-child dyads are already affected by such phenomena. PMID:21889428

  5. Selección de rizobacterias por su antagonismo frente a microorganismos patógenos de cucurbitáceas /Screening of rhizobacteria for their antagonism against microbial pathogens of cucurbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El desarrollo de inoculantes microbianos a partir de aislamientos de rizobacterias con potencial para el control biológico de enfermedades de los cultivos agrícolas requiere de una rigurosa selección. Se obtuvieron aislamientos bacterianos de la rizosfera de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y de maíz (Zea mays L. y de semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Las colonias que mostraron in vitro halos de inhibición de los patógenos de cucurbitáceas: Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrull y Fusarium oxysporum, se seleccionaron como antagonistas. A partir de las características morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas las cepas antagonistas F16/95 y Xph se identificaron con la especie Bacillus subtilis y la cepa 14A como Pseudomonas putida. Las pruebas presuntivas de producción de antibiocinas in vitro sugirieron modos de acción de las rizobacterias relacionados con antibiosis y competencia por el hierro mediante la producción de sideróforos. Los resultados indicaron el potencial de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis (F16/95, Xph y Pesudomonas putida 14A para el control biológico de enfermedades de las cucurbitáceas./Abstract:

  6. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24-35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days' period of vulnerability that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries.We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million-12.6 million of stunting (out of 44.1 million were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million-8.2 million, and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million-9.2 million. FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and country-level exposure data

  7. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar......) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation...

  8. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under five. Methods: We use a Big Data design, including cross-sectional data for 368,450 children from 33 SSA countries. Logistic regression analysis is used with control factors at child, mother, househol...

  9. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

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    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  10. The prevalence and factors associated with stunting among infants aged 6 months in a peri-urban South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Kruger, Herculina S; Faber, Mieke; Rothman, Marinel; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-09-07

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in 6-month-old South African infants. This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline of a randomized controlled trial. Weight-for-length, length-for-age and weight-for-age Z-scores were based on the WHO classification. Blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Socio-economic, breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices were assessed by questionnaire. Setting/Subjects Infants aged 6 months (n 750) from a peri-urban area of Matlosana Municipality, North West Province of South Africa. Stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight affected 28·5, 11·1, 1·7 and 10·1 % of infants, respectively. Exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months of age was reported in 5·9 % of the infants. Multivariable binary logistic regression showed that birth weight (OR=0·12; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·21, P8·3 mg/l) concentrations. The association between stunting and lower birth weight, shorter maternal height and male sex reflects possibly the intergenerational origins of stunting. Therefore, interventions that focus on improving preconceptual and maternal nutritional status, combined with strategies to promote appropriate infant feeding practices, may be an important strategy to prevent stunting in vulnerable settings.

  11. Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaphachoat, Parawee; Wei, Bi-Yin; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Wang, I-Wen; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Yu, Su-May; Yen, Ming-Liang; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2012-04-01

    A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth, low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library. This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes, TDC-1 and TDC-3, were activated. Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine, which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5' hydroxylase (T5H) in rice plants. Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth, darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286. The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer, but not tryptamine. These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth, low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin, which when converted to serotonin dimer, leads to a dark brown plant color.

  12. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest.

  13. Aniline-containing guests recognized by α,α’,δ,δ’-tetramethyl-cucurbit[6]uril host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Lian; Fang, Guo-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Qi; Liu, Jing-Xin

    2016-12-01

    The host-guest complexation of symmetrical α,α’,δ,δ’-tetramethyl-cucurbit[6]uril (TMeQ[6]) and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7]) with a series of aniline-containing guests has been investigated by various experimental techniques including NMR, ITC, and X-ray crystallography. Experimental results indicate that both TMeQ[6] and Q[7] hosts can encapsulate aniline-containing guests to form stable inclusion complexes. However, the oval cavity of TMeQ[6] is more complementary in size and shape to the aromatic ring of the guests than the spherical cavity of Q[7]. Shielding and deshielding effects of the aromatic ring on guests lead to the remarkable chemical shifts of the TMeQ[6] host protons. The rotational restriction of the guests in the oval cavity of TMeQ[6] results in the large negative values of entropy. The X-ray crystal structure of the 1:1 inclusion complex between TMeQ[6] and N,N‧-diethyl-benzene-1,4-diamine unambiguously reveals that the aromatic ring of the guest resides in the oval cavity of TMeQ[6].

  14. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  15. Does childhood diarrhea influence cognition beyond the diarrhea-stunting pathway?

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    Christa L Fischer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet the additional effects and sequelae, such as cognitive impairment associated with diarrhea, have not been quantified. METHODS: We quantified the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognitive outcomes while controlling for linear growth in 4 study populations. Cognition was assessed using different methods across sites and was expressed in standardized units. We built linear regression models for each study with standardized cognitive score as the outcome and diarrhea prevalence as the main predictor variable. We then conducted meta-analyses of the regression coefficients to generate pooled estimates of the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognition whilst controlling for anthropometric status and other covariates. RESULTS: Diarrhea was not a significant predictor of cognitive score in any site in the regression models or in the meta-analyses (Coefficient = 0.07; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.2. The length for age Z- score was negatively related to cognition in all sites (0.18; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.21, with coefficients remarkably similar across sites (Coefficient Range: 0.168-0.186. CONCLUSIONS: We did not demonstrate an association between diarrhea and cognition with stunting included in the model. The links between diarrhea, stunting, and cognition provide additional rationale for accelerating interventions to reduce diarrhea.

  16. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D; Moore, Sean R; Scharf, Rebecca J; Lima, Aldo A M

    2013-04-01

    More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.

  17. Stunting and weight statuses of adolescents differ between public and private schools in urban Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwara, Alimatou; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the disparity in nutritional status of adolescents between public and private schools in urban Gambia. This is a school-based cross-sectional study in six private and six public upper basic schools in urban Gambia. This study recruited 491 students from public and 469 students from private schools (13-15 years of age). The prevalence of stunting (WHO height-for-age Z school students and 4.5 % for private schools. After adjustment for children's sex, age, and family socioeconomic status, the differences in prevalence of stunting and underweight were significant between public and private schools. Private school students are more likely to be overweight/obese (WHO BMI-for-age Z > +1SD) (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.55-5.22), but less likely to be thin (BMI-for-age Z school students. Children from lower income families had lower odds for overweight/obese than normal weight, compared to those from higher income families (OR = 0.34 [0.15-0.76]). Public and private schools in urban regions of the Gambia may face different nutritional challenges due to differences in school environment and resources.

  18. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, S S; Mandal, B; Ali, A; Varma, A

    2010-06-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) an important vegetable crop in India was observed to be affected by a chlorotic curly stunt disease (CCSD) during 2003-2006 in the vegetable growing areas of Delhi and adjoining state of Haryana. The affected plants are severely stunted and bear very small chlorotic and mildly curled leaves. Incidence of the disease varied from 4.7 to 36%. The disease could be easily transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci but not by sap. The causal virus was found to be a Begomovirus on the basis of whitefly transmission and sequence identity of putative coat protein (CP) and replication initiator protein (Rep) genes. The virus was transmitted to Cucumis sativus, Luffa acutangula, L. cylndrica, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Praecitrullus fistulosus but not to Citrullus lunatus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita moschata and Vigna unguiculata. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of CP of the virus had 100% sequence identity with all the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and two isolates of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV). The full length amino acid sequence of the CP and Rep genes had 100% similarity with ToLCNDV-Svr and -Luffa isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus associated with CCSD of bottle gourd belongs to ToLCNDV cluster of the begomoviruses. This is the first record of emergence of a Begomovirus associated severe disease in bottle gourd in India.

  19. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

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    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  20. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  1. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

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    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  2. Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses: ménage à trois between the virus complex, the plant and the whitefly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Cañizares, M Carmen; Moriones, Enrique; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Czosnek, Henryk; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting tomato crops in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Here, we focus on the interactions through recombination between the different begomovirus species causing TYLCD, provide an overview of the interactions with the cellular genes involved in viral replication, and highlight recent progress on the relationships between these viruses and their vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The tomato yellow leaf curl virus-like viruses (TYLCVs) are a complex of begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) including 10 accepted species: Tomato yellow leaf curl Axarquia virus (TYLCAxV), Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Guangdong virus (TYLCGuV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (TYLCIDV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLVKaV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus (TYLCMalV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus (TYLCMLV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Vietnam virus (TYLCVNV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV). We follow the species demarcation criteria of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the most important of which is an 89% nucleotide identity threshold between full-length DNA-A component nucleotide sequences for begomovirus species. Strains of a species are defined by a 93% nucleotide identity threshold. The primary host of TYLCVs is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), but they can also naturally infect other crops [common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), chilli pepper (C. chinense) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)], a number of ornamentals [petunia (Petuniaxhybrida) and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)], as well as common weeds (Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium). TYLCVs also infect the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana. Infected tomato

  3. Yellow River, Cradle of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Yellow River is the Mother River of China. In the hearts of the Chinese people, it is not just an ancient river measuring 4,845 kilometers long that passes through nine provinces and regions, but also a symbol. The poets say that the waterway is the image of ancient China. Thephilosophers say the river is the shadow of a dragon. The river

  4. Praktik pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MP-ASI bukan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Hildagardis M.E Nai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting reflects a process of failure to reach linear growth potential as a result of suboptimal health or nutrition conditions. One of causal factors of stunting is inadequate of quality and quantity of complementary foods.Objectives: To identify complementary feeding practices such as introduction age of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency as risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: Study design was case-control with ratio (1:1. The study used both quantitative methods as well as case control design and qualitative through interview. Cases were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score <-2SD. Controls were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score ≥-2SD who live adjacent to the case. Data were analyzed by using univariable (descriptive, bivariable (chi-square test, and multivariable analysis (multiple logistic regression.Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that introduction age of complementary foods (OR=1.07, dietary diversity (OR=1.17, and meal frequency (OR=1.69 were not risk factors of stunting. However, compared with high dietary diversity score, low dietary diversity score (≤2, 3, 4 food groups associated with increased odds of being stunted among children aged 6-23 months (OR=2.24, 95% CI:1.00-5.01, OR=1.82, 95% CI:0.96-3.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI:0.81-3.46 respectively. The result of multivariate analysis showed that mother’s height (OR=1.86 and story of low birth weight (OR=3.23 were risk factors of stunting.Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices such as age introduction of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were not risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months. Mother’s height and story of low birth weight were risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months.KEYWORDS: stunting, nutritional intake, nutritional

  5. Grid inhomogeneous solvation theory: hydration structure and thermodynamics of the miniature receptor cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Crystal N; Young, Tom Kurtzman; Gilson, Michael K

    2012-07-28

    The displacement of perturbed water upon binding is believed to play a critical role in the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition, but it is nontrivial to unambiguously define and answer questions about this process. We address this issue by introducing grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST), which discretizes the equations of inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) onto a three-dimensional grid situated in the region of interest around a solute molecule or complex. Snapshots from explicit solvent simulations are used to estimate localized solvation entropies, energies, and free energies associated with the grid boxes, or voxels, and properly summing these thermodynamic quantities over voxels yields information about hydration thermodynamics. GIST thus provides a smoothly varying representation of water properties as a function of position, rather than focusing on hydration sites where solvent is present at high density. It therefore accounts for full or partial displacement of water from sites that are highly occupied by water, as well as for partly occupied and water-depleted regions around the solute. GIST can also provide a well-defined estimate of the solvation free energy and therefore enables a rigorous end-states analysis of binding. For example, one may not only use a first GIST calculation to project the thermodynamic consequences of displacing water from the surface of a receptor by a ligand, but also account, in a second GIST calculation, for the thermodynamics of subsequent solvent reorganization around the bound complex. In the present study, a first GIST analysis of the molecular host cucurbit[7]uril is found to yield a rich picture of hydration structure and thermodynamics in and around this miniature receptor. One of the most striking results is the observation of a toroidal region of high water density at the center of the host's nonpolar cavity. Despite its high density, the water in this toroidal region is disfavored energetically and

  6. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  7. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  8. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

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    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  9. Contribuição das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento de plântulas de cucurbitáceas Cotyledonary leaf contribution for growth and establishment of cucurbit seedlings

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    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As cucurbitáceas apresentam germinação epigeal, cujos cotilédones têm a dupla função de fornecer substâncias de reserva e fotoassimilados para o crescimento e o estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nível de dependência de plântulas de abóbora híbrida (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, pepino (Cucumis sativus e porongo (Lagenaria siceraria em relação às folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento inicial. Foi efetuada a remoção de um ou dois cotilédones aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a emergência (DAE, comparando-se o crescimento das plântulas com o de plântulas controle (sem remoção. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado a cada três dias, da emergência até 21 DAE, determinando-se a taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o período de tempo até a equivalência entre área foliar e cotiledonar e a produção de matéria seca. A abóbora apresentou a maior taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o menor período até a emissão e expansão das folhas verdadeiras e a maior produção de matéria seca. As plântulas de abóbora e pepino apresentaram a maior dependência em relação às folhas cotiledonares. Os resultados obtidos mostram que danos às folhas cotiledonares, dependendo da espécie, da intensidade e da idade da plântula, podem afetar drasticamente o crescimento inicial e o estabelecimento das plântulas, com reflexos evidentes no rendimento de frutos em cucurbitáceas.Cucurbit species have epigeal cotyledons adapted for both storage and photoassimilation functions. Seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for initial growth and establishment was quantified for hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria. One or both cotyledons were excised at 3; 6; 9; and 12 days after emergence (DAE and initial growth was compared to control

  10. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  11. Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there an externality effect of high fertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child's chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of the impact of aggregate fertility on the local economy, but this issue has not been addressed in earlier investigations. In this study we estimate the independent effect of the child dependency ratio in the province (or governorate, region, or larger geopolitical zone within a country, using DHS data on up to 145,000 children in 152 provinces in 23 countries with at least two such surveys. The data design allows inclusion of lagged province variables and province fixed effects (to control for constant unobserved province characteristics. Three types of regression models for a child's chance of being stunted are estimated. Some estimates suggest an adverse effect of the current child dependency ratio, net of the child's number of siblings, while others do not point in this direction. When the child dependency ratio measured in an earlier survey is included instead, no significant effects appear. Thus, we conclude that there is only weak support for the idea that a child's stunting risk may be raised by high fertility in the community.

  12. Association of Urban Slum Residency with Infant Mortality and Child Stunting in Low and Middle Income Countries

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    Hmwe Hmwe Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (i examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15–49 years and their children (0–59 months. Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15–1.57 irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63–0.99. Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16–1.23. The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

  13. Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but

  14. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  15. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsgehana Gebregyorgis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03], mother’s educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention.

  16. The effect of fallow on Longidorus americanus, a nematode associated with stunting of loblolly pine seedlings in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Michelle M. Cram; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Stunting of loblolly pine (Pinue taeda L.) seedlings, caused by Longidorus americanus, has been a problem at a Georgia (USA) nursery. Field and growth chamber studies were conducted to determine the survivability of the nematode in a fallow nursery soil. The population density of L. americanus decreased rapidly...

  17. Stagnant stunting rate despite rapid economic growth in Papua New Guinea - factors correlated with malnutrition among children under five

    OpenAIRE

    Hou,Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition is a pervasive and detrimental condition in Papua New Guinea. Despite rapid economic growth during the past decade, the stunting rate for children under 5, one of the primary indicators for child undernutrition, was estimated at 46 percent in Papua New Guinea in 2010, stagnant from 44 percent in 2005. This paper analyzes the association between the demogra...

  18. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and

  19. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  20. The Empidemiology of Wheat Rosette Stunt in Hulunbeir District of Inner—Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangMinghou; LuJun; 等

    1995-01-01

    The virus disease threatening wheat production in Hulunbeir District of Inner-Mongolia was identified as NCMV(Northern Cereal Mosaic Virus)or WRSV(Wheat Rosette Stunt Virus)by test of host range,transmission,virus particle and serology.The main vector for spreading the virus is planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallen),Which overwinters in the stubbles of wheat underground.The overwintered viruliferous nymphs emerged in late Pril is responsible for the early infection of the disease.Agropyron repens,an important perennial weed in cultivated regions,is also an important wild host of the virus and its vector.Severe loss is induced when wheat is infected before 3-leaf stage.The disease incidence could be predicted by a model with the population and viruliferous rate of overwintered vectors as independent variables.

  1. Is overweight in stunted preschool children in Cameroon related to reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure and physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Ndzana, Anne-Christine; Pasquet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that early modifications in metabolic pathways and behaviour, leading to energy conservation and reduced linear growth, could represent adaptations to nutritional constraints during foetal life and infancy. Impaired fat oxidation, low resting energy expenditure and reduced physical activity, resulting from these adaptations, could facilitate fat storage and development of overweight in growth-retarded children that consume more energy-dense food. This study aims at assessing whether: (1) dual-burden preschool children (simultaneously stunted and overweight) of Yaounde (Cameroon) have low birth-weight (indicator of foetal undernutrition) and reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity, (2) fat oxidation, REE and physical activity are associated with foetal growth. 162 children (24-72 months) were considered: 22 stunted-overweight (SO), 40 stunted (S), 41 overweight (O), and 59 non stunted-non overweight (NSNO). Nutritional status and body composition were assessed using anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) and REE were measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity was determined using accelerometers, food questionnaires were used for diet assessment and birth-weight was noted. Mean RQs and REE (weight adjusted) did not differ between stunted children (SO and S) and non-stunted children (O and NSNO). SO and S children spent more time in sedentary activities than O children (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous activities than NSNO children (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). SO children's diet was less diverse (p = 0.01) with less animal products (p = 0.006). Multiple linear regressions model revealed that birth-weight is predictive of RQ (β = 0.237, poverweight children could be associated with postnatal nutritional deficiencies. Overweight in stunted children could be

  2. Suppression of cell wall-related genes associated with stunting of Oryza glaberrima infected with Rice tungro spherical virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard O. Budot

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice tungro disease is a complex disease caused by the interaction between Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV. RTSV alone does not cause recognizable symptoms in most Asian rice (Oryza sativa plants, whereas some African rice (O. glaberrima plants were found to become stunted by RTSV. Stunting of rice plants by virus infections usually accompanies the suppression of various cell wall-related genes. The expression of cell wall-related genes was examined in O. glaberrima and O. sativa infected with RTSV to see the relationship between the severity of stunting and the suppression of cell wall-related genes by RTSV. The heights of four accessions of O. glaberrima were found to decline by 14 to 34% at 28 days post-inoculation (dpi with RTSV, whereas the height reduction of O. sativa plants by RTSV was not significant. RTSV accumulated more in O. glaberrima plants than in O. sativa plants, but the level of RTSV accumulation was not correlated with the degree of height reduction among the four accessions of O. glaberrima. Examination for expression of genes for cellulose synthase A5 (CESA5 and A6 (CESA6, cellulose synthase-like A9 (CSLA9 and C7, and -expansin 1 (expansin 1 and 15 precursors in O. glaberrima and O. sativa plants between 7 and 28 dpi with RTSV showed that the genes such as those for CESA5, CESA6, CSLA9, and expansin 1were more significantly suppressed in stunted plants of O. glaberrima at 14 dpi with RTSV than in O. sativa, suggesting that stunting of O. glaberrima might be associated with these cell wall-related genes suppressed by RTSV. Examination for expression of these genes in O. sativa plants infected with other rice viruses in previous studies indicated that the suppression of the expansin 1 gene is likely to be a signature response commonly associated with virus-induced stunting of Oryza species. These results suggest that stunting of O. glaberrima by RTSV infection might be associated with

  3. A highly luminescent tetramer from a weakly emitting monomer: acid- and redox-controlled multiple complexation by cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Giacomo; Fermi, Andrea; Marchini, Marianna; Locritani, Mirko; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita; Negri, Fabrizia; Ceroni, Paola; Baroncini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    The tetrahedral, shape-persistent molecule 1(4+), containing four pyridylpyridinium units connected through a central carbon atom, exhibits unexpected photophysical properties including a substantially redshifted absorption (2350 cm(-1)) and a very strong fluorescence (Φem = 40 %), compared with the monomer 2(+) (Φem = 0.4 %). Density functional theory calculations on the structure and spectroscopic properties of 1(4+) and 2(+) show that exciton interactions, homoconjugation, and orbital nature account for the observed differences in their photophysical properties. The protonated tetramer binds four cucurbit[7]uril molecules and the host/guest interactions can be controlled by chemical (acid/base) as well as redox stimuli.

  4. TaqMan real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of squash leaf curl virus in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Che; Lu, Yi-Lin

    2012-02-01

    A real-time PCR assay based on the TaqMan chemistry was developed for reliable detection and quantitation of the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in melon and squash plants. This method was highly specific to SLCV and it was about one thousand times more sensitive than the conventional PCR method. The protocol of the real-time PCR established in this study enabled detection of as little as 10(2) copies of SLCV DNA with CP gene as the target. This TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of SLCV would be a useful tool for application in quarantine and certification of SLCV in cucurbits as well as in the research of disease resistance and epidemiology.

  5. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  6. Patterns of species richness and diversity of insects associated with cucurbit fruits in the southern part of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokam, Didi Gaëlle; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Bilong Bilong, Charles-Félix

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure of insects associated with fruits of domesticated cucurbits were investigated from January 2009 to 2011 in three localities from two agroecological zones in the southern part of Cameroon. Rarefaction curves combined with nonparametric estimators of species richness were used to extrapolate species richness beyond our own data. Sampling efforts of over 92% were reached in each of the three study localities. Data collected revealed a total of 66 insect morphospecies belonging to 37 families and five orders, identified from a set of 57,510 insects. The orders Diptera (especially Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and Hymenoptera (mainly Braconidae and Eulophidae) were the most important, in terms of both abundance and species richness on the one hand, and effects on agronomic performance on the other. Values for both the species diversity (Shannon and Simpson) and the species richness indices (Margalef and Berger-Parker) calculated showed that the insect communities were species-rich but dominated, all to a similar extent, by five main species (including four fruit fly species and one parasitoid). Species abundance distributions in these communities ranged from the Zipf-Mandelbrot to Mandelbrot models. The communities are structured as tritrophic networks, including cucurbit fruits, fruit-feeding species (fruit flies) and carnivorous species (parasitoids). Within the guild of the parasitoids, about 30% of species, despite their low abundance, may potentially be of use in biological control of important pests. Our field data contribute in important ways to basic knowledge of biodiversity patterns in agrosystems and constitute baseline data for the planned implementation of biological control in Integrated Pest Management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. An evaluation of an operations research project to reduce childhood stunting in a food-insecure area in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Bridget; Bulti, Assaye T; Nduna, Themba; Duffield, Arabella; Watson, Fiona

    2012-09-01

    To determine which interventions can reduce linear growth retardation (stunting) in children aged 6-36 months over a 5-year period in a food-insecure population in Ethiopia. We used data collected through an operations research project run by Save the Children UK: the Child Caring Practices (CCP) project. Eleven neighbouring villages were purposefully selected to receive one of four interventions: (i) health; (iii) nutrition education; (iii) water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); or (iv) integrated comprising all interventions. A comparison group of three villages did not receive any interventions. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline (2004) and for impact evaluation (2009) using the same quantitative and qualitative tools. The primary outcome was stunted growth in children aged 6-36 months measured as height (or length)-for-age Z-scores (mean and prevalence). Secondary outcomes were knowledge of health seeking, infant and young child feeding and preventive practices. Amhara, Ethiopia. Children aged 6-36 months. The WASH intervention group was the only group to show a significant increase in mean height-for-age Z-score (+0·33, P = 0·02), with a 12·1 % decrease in the prevalence of stunting, compared with the baseline group. This group also showed significant improvements in mothers' knowledge of causes of diarrhoea and hygiene practices. The other intervention groups saw non-significant impacts for childhood stunting but improvements in knowledge relating to specific intervention education messages given. The study suggests that an improvement in hygiene practices had a significant impact on stunting levels. However, there may be alternative explanations for this and further evidence is required.

  8. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ <-2 using WHO growth standards. Eight rural, indigenous Mam-Mayan villages (n 200, 100% of Mayan indigenous origin) and an urban clinic of Quetzaltenango (n 106, 27% of Mayan indigenous origin), Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  9. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  10. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Mosites

    Full Text Available Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS datasets from Ethiopia (2011, Kenya (2008-2009, and Uganda (2010 among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98 and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07. The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  11. Effects of early childhood psychosocial stimulation and nutritional supplementation on cognition and education in growth-stunted Jamaican children: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2005-11-19

    Growth retardation affects about a third of children younger than age 5 years in developing countries and is associated with poor development. Previously, we did a trial of nutritional supplementation and psychosocial stimulation in stunted children aged 9-24 months. Non-stunted children were also assessed. Both types of intervention improved development. We now present the effects of early interventions on cognition and education in 103 of the 129 stunted children and compare them with 64 of the 84 non-stunted children now aged 17-18 years. We recorded no significant effects of nutritional supplementation. Compared with no intervention, stimulation resulted in higher full scale IQ scores (coefficient 0.38, 95% CI 0.06-0.71, p=0.02) and higher scores on the verbal subscale (0.37, 0.07-0.68, p=0.02), Peabody picture vocabulary test (7.84, 0.73-14.95, p=0.03), verbal analogies (0.26, 0.03-0.49, p=0.03), and reading tests (4.73, 1.31-8.14, p=0.007, and 2.7, 1.12-4.37, p=0.001). Overall, stunted non-stimulated participants had significantly poorer scores than the non-stunted group on 11 of 12 cognitive and educational tests. Stunting in early childhood is associated with cognitive and educational deficits in late adolescence, which are reduced by stimulation at a young age.

  12. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  13. The Scientific Challenges of Yellow River Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Sun Yangbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Yellow River is famous for its complex and unique physical conditions which give great challenges to the river management. Based on the study and analysis of the existing problems and research progress, this paper indicated that the most significant challenges of Yellow River studies are: long term hydrological and morphological changes; the optimized hydrology and sediment conditions to maintain the healthy life of the River; and simulation of Yellow River through mathematical model and physical models.

  14. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  15. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  16. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  17. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  18. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  19. Thoracic surgical implications of the yellow nail syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, I; Crawford, F A; Hendrix, G H; Harley, R A; Tucker, T

    1986-05-01

    Idiopathic lymphedema associated with yellow discoloration of the nail beds constitutes the yellow nail syndrome. Pleural effusions and chronic sinusitis are also frequently present. This report describes a case of yellow nail syndrome in a 65-year-old woman.

  20. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  1. A plant derived multifunctional tool for nanobiotechnology based on Tomato bushy stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Simone; Lico, Chiara; Imperatori, Francesca; Santi, Luca

    2013-06-01

    Structure, size, physicochemical properties and production strategies make many plant viruses ideal protein based nanoscaffolds, nanocontainers and nano-building blocks expected to deliver a multitude of applications in different fields such as biomedicine, pharmaceutical chemistry, separation science, catalytic chemistry, crop pest control and biomaterials science. Functionalization of viral nanoparticles through modification by design of their external and internal surfaces is essential to fully exploit the potentiality of these objects. In the present paper we describe the development of a plant derived multifunctional tool for nanobiotechnology based on Tomato bushy stunt virus. We demonstrate the ability of this system to remarkably sustain genetic modifications and in vitro chemical derivatizations of its outer surface, which resulted in the successful display of large chimeric peptides fusions and small chemical molecules, respectively. Moreover, we have defined physicochemical conditions for viral swelling and reversible viral pore gating that we have successfully employed for foreign molecules loading and retention in the inner cavity of this plant virus nanoparticles system. Finally, a production and purification strategy from Nicotiana benthamiana plants has been addressed and optimized.

  2. Interaction of replicase components between Cucumber mosaic virus and Peanut stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yoshida, Megumi; Yoshinuma, Toshio; Hibi, Tadaaki

    2003-07-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Peanut stunt virus (PSV) each have genomes consisting of three single-stranded RNA molecules: RNA 1, 2 and 3. RNAs 1 and 2 encode the 1a and 2a proteins, respectively, which are necessary for replication of the viral genome. Although RNA 3 is exchangeable between CMV and PSV, exchange of RNA 1 and 2 between the two viruses has been unsuccessful. In this study, reassortants containing PSV RNA 1 and CMV RNA 2 together with RNA 3 of CMV or PSV were shown to be able to replicate their genomic RNA, but not to transcribe subgenomic RNA 4 in tobacco protoplasts. Conversely, the reassortant consisting of CMV RNA 1 and PSV RNA 2 together with RNA 3 of CMV or PSV could not replicate. Subsequently, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to analyse the in vivo interaction between the 1a and 2a proteins. The C-terminal half of PSV-1a protein interacted with the N-terminal region of 2a protein of both PSV and CMV, but the C-terminal half of CMV-1a and the N-terminal region of PSV-2a did not interact. These results suggest that RNA replication in the interspecific reassortant between CMV and PSV requires compatibility between the C-terminal half of the 1a protein and the N-terminal region of the 2a protein, and this compatibility is insufficient for transcription of subgenomic RNA 4.

  3. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  4. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  5. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Isabel; Miranda, Teresa; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Napol, Marta

    2012-09-01

    Stunting, overweight and child development impairment are key problems affecting early infancy and have short and long-term consequences on academic performance, social competence and adult health. The aim of this paper is to identify linkages and factors that may simultaneously contribute to these problems. A cross sectional study. 2,046 children under 5 years in Canelones, Uruguay. For simultaneous assessment of the relationship between stunting, overweight and child development impairment we used multiple logistic regression analyses. We included children, household, maternal and paternal variables as confounder factors. To give the strength of association we performed odds ratios (OR). A significant OR was defined as upper and lower 95% confidence limits not containing the value of one. Significance level was 160 cm and maternal smoking increased chance of overweight. Some maternal behaviors, such as mother not used to singing songs and maternal smoking increased the likelihood of delaying psychomotor development. The close linkages between stunting, being overweight and child development impairment suggest they should be targeted together: they coexist in the same infants and predict each other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%).

  7. Comparative molecular epidemiology provides new insights into Zucchini yellow mosaic virus occurrence in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Nozeran, K; Millot, P; Desbiez, C

    2014-06-24

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, genus Potyvirus) causes important crop losses in cucurbits worldwide. In France, ZYMV epidemics are sporadic but occasionally very severe. This contrasts with Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, genus Potyvirus) which causes regular and early epidemics. Factors influencing ZYMV epidemiology are still poorly understood. In order to gain new insights on the ecology and epidemiology of this virus, a 5-year multilocation trial was conducted in which ZYMV spread and populations were studied in each of the 20 plot/year combinations and compared with WMV. Search for ZYMV alternative hosts was conducted by testing weeds growing naturally around one plot and also by checking ZYMV natural infections in selected ornamental species. Although similar ZYMV populations were observed occasionally in the same plot in two successive years suggesting the occurrence of overwintering hosts nearby, only two Lamium amplexicaule plants were found to be infected by ZYMV of 3459 weed samples that were tested. The scarcity of ZYMV reservoirs contrasts with the frequent detection of WMV in the same samples. Since ZYMV and WMV have many aphid vectors in common and are transmitted with similar efficiencies, the differences observed in ZYMV and WMV reservoir abundances could be a major explanatory factor for the differences observed in the typology of ZYMV and WMV epidemics in France. Other potential ZYMV alternative hosts have been identified in ornamental species including begonia. Although possible in a few cases, exchanges of populations between different plots located from 500 m to 4 km apart seem uncommon. Therefore, the potential dissemination range of ZYMV by its aphid vectors seems to be rather limited in a fragmented landscape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation performance of cucurbit[8]uril and its coordination complex with cadmium (II) in capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Ji, Ningning; Qi, Meiling; Tao, Zhu; Fu, Ruonong

    2014-05-23

    Here we report the investigation of using cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) and its coordination complex with cadmium (II) (CB8-Cd) as stationary phases for capillary gas chromatography (GC). The prepared capillary columns of CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases achieved column efficiency of 2200plates/m and 1508plates/m, respectively, and showed weak polarity based on the measured McReynolds constants. Their separation performance was investigated by GC separation of mixtures of different types while a commercial column was used for comparison. The CB8 stationary phase achieved high resolution for a wide range of analytes from nonpolar to polar while the CB8-Cd stationary phase exhibited good separation mainly for nonpolar to weak polar analytes. The CB stationary phases differ from the commercial one in terms of retention behaviors and resolving ability due to their different molecular interactions with analytes. Moreover, energy effect on the retention of analytes on CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases was examined, showing that retention on CB8 column was determined mainly by enthalpy change for polar analytes and by both enthalpy change and entropy change for weak polar analytes whereas retention on CB8-Cd column was mainly controlled by entropy change. This work demonstrates the great potential of CB8 and CB8-Cd stationary phases as a new type of GC stationary phases in GC analysis.

  9. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of antitumor camptothecin with cucurbit[n=7,8]urils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The slightly water-soluble anticancer drug camptothecin(CPT) and its inclusion complexes with cucurbit[n = 7,8]uril(Q[n](n = 7,8)) were investigated.The formation of 1:2 complexes with Q[n](n = 7,8) in aqueous solution was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the apparent stability constants were determined to be higher than 3.01 × 1012 L2/mol2.The solid inclusion complexes of CPT and Q[n](n = 7,8) were also prepared by the co-evaporation method and characterized by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy,differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.Aqueous solubility and dissolution studies indicate that the complexes exhibited significantly increased dissolution rates compared with the pure drug and physical mixtures.The potential of Q[7] or Q[8] for stabilizing lactone modality of CPT was investigated by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) method.The results reveal more than 63% CPT lactone form(active form) in CPT-Q[7] or Q[8] complexes compared to only 36% CPT lactone form in the absence of Q[7] or Q[8] after being incubated in the phosphate buffer solution(pH 7.4 at 37 °C) for 5h.

  10. A Binary Bivalent Supramolecular Assembly Platform Based on Cucurbit[8]uril and Dimeric Adapter Protein 14-3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vink, Pim J; Briels, Jeroen M; Schrader, Thomas; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2017-07-24

    Interactions between proteins frequently involve recognition sequences based on multivalent binding events. Dimeric 14-3-3 adapter proteins are a prominent example and typically bind partner proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent mono- or bivalent manner. Herein we describe the development of a cucurbit[8]uril (Q8)-based supramolecular system, which in conjunction with the 14-3-3 protein dimer acts as a binary and bivalent protein assembly platform. We fused the phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (FGG) tripeptide motif to the N-terminus of the 14-3-3-binding epitope of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) for selective binding to Q8. Q8-induced dimerization of the ERα epitope augmented its affinity towards 14-3-3 through a binary bivalent binding mode. The crystal structure of the Q8-induced ternary complex revealed molecular insight into the multiple supramolecular interactions between the protein, the peptide, and Q8. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. A competitive strategy based on cucurbit[7]uril supramolecular interaction for simple and sensitive detection of dibucaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Chang-Feng; Du, Li-Ming; Feng, Jian-Xia; Liu, Hai-Long; Fu, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the competitive interaction between dibucaine and three fluorescent probes (i.e., berberine, palmatine, and coptisine) for occupancy of the cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) cavity was studied by fluorescence spectra, UV-visible absorption spectra, (1)H NMR spectra, and theoretical calculations in acidic aqueous solution. Based on the fluorescence enhancement of berberine, palmatine, and coptisine upon binding with CB[7], respectively, a series of fluorescence detection methods for dibucaine were proposed. At the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of berberine-CB[7], palmatine-CB[7], and coptisine-CB[7] complexes showed negative correlation to the concentration of dibucaine, which led to a series of simple and sensitive fluorescence methods for the determination of dibucaine for the first time. Linear ranges obtained in the detection of the dibucaine were 0.018-3.34 μmol L(-1), 0.032-4.47 μmol L(-1), and 0.079-4.42 μmol L(-1) with detection limits of 6.0 nmol L(-1), 12.0 nmol L(-1), and 25.0 nmol L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the drug in biological fluids. The competitive mode based on CB[7] superstructure provided a promising assay strategy for fluorescence detection in various potential applications.

  12. Controlled gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels with competing guest molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Hou, Shengzhen; Ma, Haili; Li, Xu; Tan, Yebang

    2016-02-01

    Gelation kinetics of hydrogels is closely linked to many applications such as the development of injectable and printable hydrogels. However, the control of gelation kinetics without compromising the structure and other properties of the hydrogels, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a method to control the gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane (CB[7]-AD) cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels by using competing guest molecules. The association between CB[7] and AD moieties on the polymer backbone was impeded by pre-occupying the CB[7] cavity with competing guest molecules. By using various guest molecules and concentrations, the gelation of the hydrogels could be varied from seconds to hours. The strong interaction of CB[7]-AD pair endue the hydrogels good mechanical properties and stability. Moreover, the binding of functionalized guest molecules of CB[7] moieties offers a facile approach for tailoring of the hydrogels’ scaffold. Combined with hydrogel injection and printing technology, this method offers an approach for the development of hydrogels with advanced temporal and spatial complexity.

  13. Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy: A rapid tool for the identification and quantification of minerals in cucurbit seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsana; Kumar, Rohit; Awasthi, Shikha; Singh, Vinti; Rai, A K

    2017-04-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated to estimate the viability as a simple and rapid method for analysis of nutrient elements in seed kernels of cucurbits. LIBS spectra were recorded in the range of 200-975nm by using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532nm (4ns, 10Hz) attached to echelle spectrometer with intensified charged coupled device (ICCD). The spectral analysis revealed the presence of several elements like C, O, N, Mg, Ca, Na and K in seeds. The quantification of elements (Mg, Ca, Na and K) through LIBS was done using calibration curve method in which all calibration curve shows good linearity (r>0.95). The result obtained through LIBS was in reasonable agreement with that obtained through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to the LIBS data for rapid categorization of seed samples belonging to same species although samples have similar nutrient elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PH responsive self-assembly of cucurbit[7]urils and polystyrene-block- polyvinylpyridine micelles for hydrophobic drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7]) were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH +) pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8), P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  15. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides.

  16. Relation of ratio indices of anthropometric measures to obesity in a stunted population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2008-01-01

    The ratios of anthropometric measures are used to estimate obesity while controlling for allometric scaling. A good index should be uncorrelated with its denominator; this often requires exponentiation of the denominator. The stability of the derived exponents across populations is not known. We obtained subscapular (SUBS) and triceps (TRI) skinfolds, weight (WT), height (HT), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of Guatemalan adults [height 1.63 +/- 0.06 m (868 males); 1.51 +/- 0.06 m (1047 females)]. We derived exponents for the indices WT/HT(P), SUBS/TRI(P), TRI/SUBS(P), WC/HT(P), FM/WT(P), and FM/FFM(P) such that the ratios were free from association with their denominators. The derived exponents were (Men: SUBS/TRI(0.88), FM/WT(2.69), FM/FFM(2.86), WC/HT(0.68), and WT/HT(2.17); Women: SUBS/TRI(0.93), FM/WT(2.01), FM/FFM(3.37), WC/HT(0.47), WT/HT(2.03)). For all examined indices the derived exponents differed (P Victora [2005]: Int J Obes 29:483-489). The derived indices were not more strongly correlated with adiposity than were simple unexponentiated ratios. Although exponentiation of the denominator eliminates the association of index with its denominator, the resulting exponents lack generalizability across populations, especially those where stunting remains prevalent.

  17. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba.

  18. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  19. Faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak umur 6-36 bulan di Wilayah Pedalaman Kecamatan Silat Hulu, Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wahdah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting in children under five is an indicator of nutritional status that can reflect problem of overall social economic condition in the past. Stunting that occurs in childhood is a risk factor of increasing in mortality rate, low cognitive capability and motoric development, and improper physical function. The incidence of stunting is associated with many factors such as family environment (education, occupation, income, rearing pattern, eating pattern, and number of family members, nutritional factors (exclusivebreastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding, genetic factor, infection disease, and the incidence of low birth weight. The scope of stunting in 2010 were 35,6% and 39,7% in Indonesia and Province of Kalimantan Barat.Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in children of 6-36 months in Silat Hulu District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat.Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design. Population of the study were all of underfi ves children at remote area of Subdistrict of Silat Hulu, District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify themost dominantly determinant stunting variable.Results: The incidence of stunting was significantly associated with occupation of mother, height of father, height of mother, income, number of family members, rearing pattern, and exclusive breastfeeding supplementation (p<0.05. The incidence of stunting was not associated with occupation of father, eating pattern, duration of breastfeeding, infection disease, and education of mother (p>0.05.Conclusions: Factors associated with the incidence of stunting were the work of mothers, rearing pattern, family income, number of household members, father’s height, maternal height, and exclusive breastfeeding. The most dominant determinant of risk factors on the

  20. 江苏省葫芦科作物6种病毒的多重 RT-PCR方法及应用%Establishment and application of multiplex RT-PCR assays for simultane-ous detection of six viruses on Cucurbit crops in Jiangsu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春梅; 程兆榜; 杨柳; 缪倩; 周益军

    2015-01-01

    江苏省葫芦科作物上的病毒主要有小西葫芦黄花叶病毒( ZYMV)、西瓜花叶病毒( WMV)、黄瓜花叶病毒( CMV)、黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒( CGMMV)、烟草花叶病毒( TMV)和番木瓜环斑病毒( PRSV),通常发生复合侵染。基于GenBank中这6种病毒的核苷酸序列保守区设计特异性引物,在单重RT-PCR技术的基础上,通过对影响2种多重RT-PCR扩增的DNA聚合酶浓度、dNTPs及镁离子浓度、退火温度、延伸时间、循环次数等因素进行优化,对检测灵敏度进行测定,建立了2种PCR反应同时检测葫芦科作物上6种病毒的多重RT-PCR方法。结果显示:2种多重RT-PCR体系均能同时扩增出各自特异性片段,测序分析结果表明序列同源性在97%以上;优化的2种多重RT-PC体系检测灵敏度为总RNA稀释102~103倍,应用于江苏省210份样品的检测结果与单重RT-PCR一致,体现了检测的可靠性;检测结果表明近年来江苏省葫芦科作物以种子传播的ZYMV和CGMMV侵染为主,病毒的复合侵染率达75.24%。%Cucurbit crops are frequently co-infected by zucchini yellow mosaic virus ( ZYMV) , watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), tobacco mosaic virus ( TMV) and papaya ringspot virus ( PRSV) in Jiangsu province. Based on the RT-PCR for the detection of single virus, the two multiplex RT-PCR ( mRT-PCR) systems were established for simultaneous detection of the six viruses by using six sets of specific primers designed on the basis of conserved sequences of the viruses in GenBank. The main factors suches con-centrations of DNA polymerase, Mg2+ and dNTPs, PCR conditions of annealing temperature, extension time and amplifica-tion cycles, sensitivity of the detection were examined and optimized. The results showed that expected fragments of the six viruses were amplified in the two mRT-PCR systems and the sequences shared above 97 percent

  1. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Dombrovsky

    Full Text Available We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV. PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV (both poleroviruses. The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs, which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93% and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%. Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP, may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2 were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5 and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3 with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s, resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  2. Riwayat KEK dan anemia pada ibu hamil tidak berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan di Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiana Tri Warsini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Quality of human resource was built since human being was in the womb. Pregnant mother’s health had signifi cant impact on fetus. Pregnant mother’s with anemia and CED would surely have significant impact on the fetus in their womb because it would make low birth weight. If a child with low birth weight can not catch up grow, it was highly possible that they would suffer from stunting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between nutritional status of pregnant mother with stunting in children 6-23 age month in Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: It was observational study with case-control design. The number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. All of stunting children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu subdistrict were selected as samples. Cases and controls samples were matching based on age. Data were collected using structured questionnaire to fi nd out the identity of the children aged 6-23 month, identity of respondents, the nutritional status of the children aged 6-23 month, the history of nutritional status of the pregnant mothers’ and sociodemographic. Anthropometric measurement used microtoise to fi nd out parent’s height, infantometer to find out children length, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ and food models were used as instrument. The data was analyzed using univariate analysis, bivariate analysis with chisquaretest, and multivariate analysis with multiple logistic regression.Results: The bivariate analysis showed that anemic history during pregnancy was the risk factor of stunting, but it was not statistically signifi cant (p=0.13, OR:1.5, 95% CI:0.85-2.73. The CED history during pregnancy was not the risk factor of the stunting incident (p=0.23, OR:0.7, 95% CI:0.37-1.31. Other factors related to the stunting incidence were mother’s height (p=0.01, OR:2.04, 95% CI:1.14-3.65, the history of low birth weight (p=0.03, OR:3.03, 95% CI:1.09-8.33, and

  3. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  4. Johnston Atoll - Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or yellow...

  5. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-13

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.

  6. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  7. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  8. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  9. Synthesis of honeycomb-like palladium nanostructures by using cucurbit[7]uril and their catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Thathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); The University College/Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Geckeler, Kurt E., E-mail: keg@gist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics (WCU), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    An eco-friendly one-pot method to synthesize self-assembled palladium nanoclusters using a macrocycle, namely cucurbit[7]uril, in the alkaline medium without employing any special reducing or capping agents and/or external energy at room temperature is described. This greener approach, which utilizes water as a benign solvent and biocompatible cucurbit[7]uril as both reducing and protecting agents, can be applied to synthesize other noble metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver, and platinum. Owing to unique structural arrangement of cucurbit[7]uril, it was possible to prepare palladium nanoclusters of honeycomb-like structure irrespective of the reaction conditions. The honeycomb-like palladium nanoclusters were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), higher-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Significantly, the synthesized palladium nanoclusters exhibited catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature. The approach launched here is easy, green, and user-friendly in contrast to the conventional techniques using polymers or surfactants and harsh reductants. - Highlights: • A simple and one-pot method to synthesis palladium nanostructures with honey-comb like structure. • The strategy established here does not require any harsh and toxic reducing agents. • It has a potential to be a general method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in water medium. • Palladium nanoclusters can be used as catalyst for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol. • This system makes a novel platform for industrial and biomedical applications.

  10. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-05

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇(2)ρ(r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2ns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermomechanical behavior of comercial yellow gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš G. Djordjević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, in the late 19th century, began the research and application of new alloys for making jewelry. By adding different amounts of Cu and Ag alloy of Au, as well as adding some new elements (Zn, alloys were obtained with different color spectrum (from red to yellow and different technological and metallurgical characteristics. This paper aims to show thermomechanical behavior of commercial yellow Au alloys for making jewelry.

  12. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  13. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  14. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted) tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Tobianus Hasan; Mohammad Djuffrie; Indiria L. Gamayanti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%). Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants) had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank ...

  15. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  17. How useful is BMI in predicting adiposity indicators in a sample of Maya children and women with high levels of stunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Griffiths, Paula L; Azcorra, Hugo; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2011-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used frequently to estimate adiposity levels in children and adults. However, the applicability of BMI to populations with high levels of stunting has been questioned. Stunted people can have disproportionately short legs, which may increase BMI without increasing body fat because of the relatively larger trunk compared with the legs. A sample of 57 urban Maya schoolchildren, aged 7-9 years (31 boys), and 53 adult women underwent anthropometric assessments and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine whether the ability of BMI to predict adiposity indicators is altered by stunting and sitting height ratio (SHR). The adiposity indicators were waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, upper arm muscle area, upper arm fat area, and arm fat index. BMI was the strongest predictor of all adiposity indicators and in most cases, explained more of the variance in adiposity of Maya children than Maya women. Abdominal adiposity was better predicted by BMI than peripheral adiposity in Maya women and Maya children. Stunting was significant in predicting adiposity in some models but never substantially changed the variance explained. SHR was never a significant predictor. The relationship between BMI and adiposity indicators is not changed by stunting status or body proportions in this short population of urban Maya children and women. BMI can be used as an indicator of adiposity for these children but not the women. It is recommended that BMI is used in conjunction with other estimates of body composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  19. Sequence-specific, nanomolar peptide binding via cucurbit[8]uril-induced folding and inclusion of neighboring side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren C; Leach, David G; Blaylock, Brittney E; Ali, Omar A; Urbach, Adam R

    2015-03-18

    This paper describes the molecular recognition of the tripeptide Tyr-Leu-Ala by the synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril (Q8) in aqueous buffer with nanomolar affinity and exceptional specificity. This combination of characteristics, which also applies to antibodies, is desirable for applications in biochemistry and biotechnology but has eluded supramolecular chemists for decades. Building on prior knowledge that Q8 binds to peptides with N-terminal aromatic residues, a library screen of 105 peptides was designed to test the effects of residues adjacent to N-terminal Trp, Phe, or Tyr. The screen used tetramethylbenzobis(imidazolium) (MBBI) as a fluorescent indicator and resulted in the unexpected discovery that MBBI can serve not only as a turn-off sensor via the simultaneous inclusion of a Trp residue but also as a turn-on sensor via the competitive displacement of MBBI upon binding of Phe- or Tyr-terminated peptides. The unusual fluorescence response of the Tyr series prompted further investigation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. From these studies, a novel binding motif was discovered in which only 1 equiv of peptide binds to Q8, and the side chains of both the N-terminal Tyr residue and its immediate neighbor bind within the Q8 cavity. For the peptide Tyr-Leu-Ala, the equilibrium dissociation constant value is 7.2 nM, whereas that of its sequence isomer Tyr-Ala-Leu is 34 μM. The high stability, recyclability, and low cost of Q8 combined with the straightforward incorporation of Tyr-Leu-Ala into recombinant proteins should make this system attractive for the development of biological applications.

  20. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  1. Drosophila gypsy insulator and yellow enhancers regulate activity of yellow promoter through the same regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Larisa; Kostuchenko, Margarita; Silicheva, Margarita; Georgiev, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    There is ample evidence that the enhancers of a promoterless yellow locus in one homologous chromosome can activate the yellow promoter in the other chromosome where the enhancers are inactive or deleted, which is indicative of a high specificity of the enhancer-promoter interaction in yellow. In this paper, we have found that the yellow sequence from -100 to -69 is essential for stimulation of the heterologous eve (TATA-containing) and white (TATA-less) promoters by the yellow enhancers from a distance. However, the presence of this sequence is not required when the yellow enhancers are directly fused to the heterologous promoters or are activated by the yeast GAL4 activator. Unexpectedly, the same promoter proximal region defines previously described promoter-specific, long-distance repression of the yellow promoter by the gypsy insulator on the mod(mdg4) ( u1 ) background. These finding suggest that proteins bound to the -100 to -69 sequence are essential for communication between the yellow promoter and upstream regulatory elements.

  2. Prevalence of Thinness, Stunting and Anemia Among Rural School-aged Sudanese Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  4. P19 of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Suppresses RNA Silencing Induced by Short Hairpin RNA in Mammal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xian CHEN; Juan CHEN; Zhen-zhen ZHANG; Ai-long HUANG

    2007-01-01

    To counteract the immune system in parasitic hosts, some viruses encode proteins to suppress the RNA interference (RNAi) effect. In this report, we established two RNAi systems to be easily observed with strong and obvious effect. The function of the P19 of tomato bushy stunt virus, which suppresses RNAi in mammal cells, was then studied using these two systems. Short hairpin RNAs targeting green fluorescence protein (pshRNA-GFP) and firefly luciferase (pshRNA-luc) were designed and inserted into a eukaryotic transcriptional vector pTZU6+1, respectively. The shRNA expressing vectors were co-transfected with plasmids containing the target gene with or without P19. The GFP expression level was assayed by fluorescence microscopy, Western blotting and RT-PCR. The luciferase expression level was analyzed by the dual-luciferase assay system. pshRNA designed in this study down-regulated the target gene specifically and efficiently, with a decrease of expression of both genes of about 70%, respectively. When P19 was introduced into the RNAi systems, the expression of both GFP and the luciferase were mostly recovered compared with the control groups. The RNAi systems of GFP and luciferase were constructed successfully, demonstrating that P19 of tomato bushy stunt virus has the ability to counteract the RNAi effect induced by shRNA in mammal cells.

  5. The Property and Subject Classification of China Cucurbits and Vegetables%《中国瓜菜》性质及学科分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 朱安; 房威; 张志转; 朱永和

    2012-01-01

    Classify China Cucurbits and Vegetables according to property and subject of journal based on quantity of literatures. 61.24% of itspapers in 2010 are relate to academic research and the literatures about horticulture account for 75. 13% of summation. The literatures of othersubject failed to obtain adequate influence as a result of small quantity. So China Cucurbits and Vegetables belongs to scholarly journal abouthorticulture.%根据期刊性质和学科分类方法,以文献数量为依据对《中国瓜菜》进行分类结果发现,《中国瓜菜》2010年刊登的论文61.24%属研究性论文,园艺类文献占当年发表文献总量的75.13%,其余学科文献均较少,不能划入相应学科,因此应将该刊归类为园艺类专业学术期刊.

  6. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  7. A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Gado, Justin; Close, Kelly; Wallace, Dennis; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a cereal made from caterpillars, a micronutrient-rich, locally available alternative animal-source food, on reducing stunting and anaemia in infants in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Six-month-old infants were cluster randomized to receive either caterpillar cereal daily until 18 months of age or the usual diet. At 18 months of age, anthropometric measurements and biological samples were collected. The rural Equateur Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. One hundred and seventy-five infants followed from 6 to 18 months of age. Stunting was common at 6 months (35%) and the prevalence increased until 18 months (69%). There was no difference in stunting prevalence at 18 months between the intervention and control groups (67% v. 71%, P = 0.69). Infants in the cereal group had higher Hb concentration than infants in the control group (10.7 v. 10.1 g/dl, P = 0.03) and fewer were anaemic (26 v. 50%, P = 0.006), although there was no difference in estimates of body Fe stores (6.7 v. 7.2 mg/kg body weight, P = 0.44). Supplementation of complementary foods with caterpillar cereal did not reduce the prevalence of stunting at 18 months of age. However, infants who consumed caterpillar cereal had higher Hb concentration and fewer were anaemic, suggesting that caterpillar cereal might have some beneficial effect. The high prevalence of stunting at 6 months and the lack of response to this micronutrient-rich supplement suggest that factors other than dietary deficiencies also contribute to stunting.

  8. PENGARUH ASUPAN PROTEIN IBU HAMIL DAN PANJANG BADAN BAYI LAHIR TERHADAP KEJADIAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 12 BULAN DI KABUPATEN BOGOR (EFFECT OF THE PREGNANT WOMEN’S PROTEIN INTAKE AND THEIR BABY LENGTH AT BIRTH TO THE INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Ernawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nutritional adequacy of pregnant women will affect the nutritional status of their children, especially in their “golden age”. The objective of this study was to determine the associated factors that influence the incidence of stunting in children of 12 months old, to compare the hazard ratio of the occurrence of stunting, and to determine the most important factors that associated the incidence of stunting in children aged 12 months old. This was a longitudinal study. The samples include 262 pregnant women with gestational age between 12-16 weeks who were subsequently followed-up until their babies were 12 months old. Data were collected from March 2011 until December 2012. Data included maternal education, food consumption recall of pregnant women, and the nutritional status of children aged 12 months old. The statistical analysis used was descriptive analysis, Kaplan Meier, and COX Regression. Babies born from mothers who had less than 58 percent RDA protein intake in their second trimester of pregnancy had 1.6 times more risk to develop stunting at 12 months old compared to those born from mothers who had 58 % RDA or more protein intake during their second trimester of pregnancy. Also, children who were born with body length < 48 cm had 5.9 times more risk to develop stunting at 12 months old compared to those born with body length ≥ 48 cm. The protein intake of pregnant mothers at second trimester and body length of child at birth could influence the occurrence of stunting in their children at 12 months old.   Keywords: child stunting, food consumption, pregnant women     ABSTRAK Kecukupan gizi ibu hamil sangat mempengaruhi status gizi anak dalam kandungan yang selanjutnya akan menentukan perkembangan anak, khususnya pada masa pertumbuhan (golden age. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan faktor yang diduga mempengaruhi kejadian postur tubuh pendek (stunting pada anak usia 12 bulan, membandingkan rasio hazard kejadian

  9. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  10. Phylogenetic analysis identifies a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae'-related strain associated with yellow leaf disease of areca palm (Areca catechu L.) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Manimekalai; Nair, Smita; Soumya, V P; Thomas, George V

    2013-04-01

    Yellow leaf disease (YLD) with phytoplasmal aetiology is a serious disease of arecanut palm in India. The present study was undertaken to characterize the 16S rRNA and secA gene sequences of the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma for 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species assignment and 16Sr group/subgroup classification. Phytoplasma 16S rRNA genes were amplified using three sets of semi-nested/nested primers, 1F7/7R3-1F7/7R2, 4Fwd/3Rev-4Fwd/5Rev and P1/P7-R16F2n/R16R2, producing amplicons of 491, 1150 and 1250 bp, respectively, from diseased samples. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced. A blast search showed that the sequences had 99 % similarity with sugar cane white leaf phytoplasma (16SrXI) and Napier grass stunt phytoplasma (16SrXI). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed the clustering of YLD phytoplasma with the rice yellow dwarf and Bermuda grass white leaf groups. The YLD phytoplasma F2nR2 sequence shared 97.5 % identity with that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae' and 97.8 % identity with that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis'. Hence, for finer differentiation, we examined the secA gene-based phylogeny, where the YLD phytoplasma clustered with Napier grass stunt and sugar cane grassy shoot phytoplasmas, both belonging to the rice yellow dwarf group. Hence, we are assigning the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma as a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae'-related strain. Virtual RFLP analysis of a 1.2 kb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (F2nR2 region) identified the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma as a member of 16SrXI-B subgroup. We name the phytoplasma Indian yellow leaf disease phytoplasma, to differentiate it from the Hainan YLD phytoplasma, which belongs to group 16SrI.

  11. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  12. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  13. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature.

  14. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  15. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  16. Nucleotide sequence analyses of genomic RNAs of peanut stunt virus Mi, the type strain representative of a novel PSV subgroup from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.; Goldbach, R.W.; Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Peanut stunt virus strain Mi (PSV-Mi) from China was determined and compared to other viruses of the genus Cucumovirus. The tripartite genome of PSV-Mi encoded five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of cucumoviruses. Distance analyses of four ORFs indicated that

  17. Infant and young child feeding practices in urban Philippines and their associations with stunting, anemia, and deficiencies of iron and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Woodruff, Bradley A; Aaron, Grant J; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Lebanan, May Antonnette O; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Saniel, Ofelia P

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and micronutrient deficiencies are persistently high in young children in the Philippines, and among other factors, suboptimal infant and young child feeding behavior may contribute to these forms of malnutrition. To improve the understanding of contributors associated with the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age living in urban areas of the Philippines. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering five urban centers in the Philippines. Data on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status (including wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency) were collected for 1,784 children. Among children from urban and predominantly poor and very poor households, 26% were stunted, 18% were underweight, and 5% were wasted. Forty-two percent were anemic, 28% were iron deficient, and 3% were vitamin A deficient. About half of the children were breastfed within an hour after birth, were breastfed at the time of the survey, and had been continuously breastfed up to 1 year of age. Of the factors investigated, low socioeconomic status, use of cheaper cooking fuel, and nonuse of multivitamins were all independently associated with stunting. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency were independently associated with the same factors and poorer sanitation facilities, lower maternal education, current unemployment, and inflammation. These factors merit attention in future programming and interventions may include promotion of the timely introduction of appropriate fortified complementary foods, the use of affordable multiple micronutrient preparations, and measures to reduce infections.

  18. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers) be

  19. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  20. A Hopi tradition: Yellow firing ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canouts, Veletta; Bishop, Ronald

    1995-09-01

    The famed Hopi yellow-ware vessels of the American southwest were not the product of any single technological variable, firing technique, clay, or temper Instead, all of these factors worked together in a technological system affected by the desires, knowledge, and effectualness of the people producing the pottery.

  1. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  2. First Findings in the Route of the Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Within Its Vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J García; Ossamu Tanaka, F A; Spotti Lopes, J R

    2016-04-01

    In the pathosystem of Dalbulus madis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP), the interactions occurring during the passage, invasion, and multiplication of the phytoplasma inside the vector body have been generalized from other pathosystems, with a poor understanding of the specific interactions. With the aim to understand MBSP movement and potential specific interactions with its vector, D. maidis adults were dissected to obtain the intestine and salivary gland of both infected (acquisition access period=4 d; latent period=23 d) and noninfected individuals. The organs were processed for visualization with transmission electronic microscopy. Images of phytoplasma cells were observed in the alimentary canal, epithelium of the mesenteron, hemocele, and salivary gland of the vector, and were confirmed through observation of similar cells in maize roots with advanced disease symptoms. The study of the MBSP movement within its vector shows novel findings between the synergy of the MBSP phytoplasma and D. maidis.

  3. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  4. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color....

  6. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for... pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures; or (2) Steel drums (1A1) not over 250 L (66...

  7. Host-Mediated Effects of Semipersistently Transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Deepak; McAuslane, Heather J; Adkins, Scott T; Smith, Hugh A; Dufault, Nicholas; Colee, James; Webb, Susan E

    2017-08-01

    Plant viruses may indirectly affect insect vector behavior and fitness via a shared host plant. Here, we evaluated the host-mediated effects of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) on the behavior and fitness of its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Middle East-Asia Minor 1, formerly biotype B. Alighting, settling, and oviposition behavioral assays were conducted on infected and mock-inoculated squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum and Nakai] plants. Developmental time of immature stages, adult longevity, and fecundity were measured on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants. For adult longevity and fecundity, whiteflies were reared on infected and mock-inoculated squash plants to determine the effects of nymphal rearing host on the adult stage. More whiteflies alighted and remained settled on infected squash than on mock-inoculated squash 0.25, 1, 8, and 24 h after release. No such initial preference was observed on watermelon plants, but by 8 h after release, more whiteflies were found on mock-inoculated watermelon plants than on infected plants. Whiteflies laid approximately six times more eggs on mock-inoculated watermelon than on infected watermelon; however, no differences were observed on squash. Development from egg to adult emergence was 3 d shorter on infected than mock-inoculated squash plants. Females lived 25% longer and had higher fecundity on infected squash plants than on mock-inoculated plants, regardless of infection status of the rearing host. The host-mediated effects of SqVYV infection on whitefly behavior differ on two cucurbit host plants, suggesting the potential for more rapid spread of the virus within watermelon fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Simulated acute central Mycoplasma infections in rats induce fever, anorexia, body mass stunting and lethargy but spare memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Tanya; Sabbar, Mariam; Baartman, Tamzyn L; Laburn, Helen P; Mitchell, Duncan; Dukhan, Tanusha; Harden, Lois M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the documented post-infectious neurological complications of a central nervous system (CNS) Mycoplasma infection in humans, very few studies have investigated the acute inflammatory responses and sickness behaviours induced by CNS Mycoplasma infections. We therefore determined the effect of acute central administration of fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), derived from Mycoplasma salivarium, and FAM-20 from a more pathogenic species, namely Mycoplasma pneumoniae, on behavioural and inflammatory responses in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had radiotransmitters implanted, intra-abdominally, to measure body temperature and cage activity continuously. After recovery from surgery, rats were conditioned in a fear conditioning task and then immediately received an intra-cisterna magna (i.c.m.) injection of either: (1) FSL-1 (10 or 100μg/5μl) or its vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline, 5μl), or (2) FAM-20 (10 or 100μg/5μl) or its vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide, 5μl). Body mass and food intake were measured daily. Memory was assessed seven days after injection using fear conditioning tests. A single, i.c.m. injection of either FSL-1 or FAM-20 induced profound, dose-dependent fever, anorexia, lethargy and body mass stunting in rats. Moreover, rats that received an i.c.m. injection of 100μg/5μl FAM-20 had a significant increase in the concentration of IL-1β in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus for ~27h after injection. Seven days after FSL-1 or FAM-20 injection, when body mass of rats still was stunted, they maintained their memory for fear of the context and for fear of the tone, despite the increase in hippocampal IL-1β concentration after FAM-20 administration. Thus, acute simulated CNS Mycoplasma infections caused pronounced sickness responses and brain inflammation in rats, but spared fear memory.

  9. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-05-01

    Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient-rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post-natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post-natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post-natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post-natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation.

  10. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences.

  11. Structural determination of unknown subsidiary colors in food yellow no. 5 (Sunset yellow FCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Nakamura, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T; Goda, Y

    1996-08-01

    Major unknown subsidiary colors A (Sub A) and B (Sub B) in commercial Sunset Yellow FCF (Food Yellow No. 5 in Japan) have been isolated by preparative HPLC. Spectroscopic analyses of Sub A and Sub B revealed that their structures are trisodium salt of 6-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfophenyl)-5-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthale nesulfonic acid, and disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, respectively.

  12. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  13. [Evolution process and related driving mechanisms of Yellow River Delta since the diversion of Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Xuan; Li, Yun-Zhao; Yu, Jun-Bao; Xu, Jing-Wei; Wang, Guang-Mei; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Mao, Pei-Li; Liu, Yu-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 23 sheets of remote sensing images from 1976 to 2009, in combining with the water and sediment data from Lijin station and the annual precipitation data of Yellow River Basin from 1976 to 2008, this paper quantitatively analyzed the features of water and sediment discharge from Yellow River, and the evolution process of Yellow River Delta and related driving mechanisms. In 1976-2008, the annual runoff and the annual sediment discharge into sea changed largely and frequently, but overall, presented a decreasing trend. Since the course of the Yellow River changed its direction to Qingshui channel in 1976, the Delta coastline and area were generally in a silting-up state. The evolution process of the Delta could be approximately divided into three stages, i.e., 1976-1985, 1986-1995, and 1996-2009, and the increasing rate of the Delta decreased with the stages. The coastline and area of the Delta were significantly exponentially correlated to the sediment accumulated at Lijin station, and the inter-annual variation of the precipitation of the Yellow River Basin had a strong correlation with that of the sediment at Lijin station, suggesting that the annual variation of the precipitation in Yellow River Basin was the main factor affecting the runoff and sediment discharge into sea.

  14. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  15. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH GIZI UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTED, DAN WASTED DI INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN EKOLOGI GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Hani Ulfani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Malnutrition is an ecological problem in the sense influenced by various aspects, as explained in the framework of UNICEF (1988. Indonesia as developing country at present still faced such a problem. Eco-nutrition is important to understand related factors affecting malnutrition in Indonesia to find out more effective programs. Eco-nutrition have three key areas : public health (access to quality water, sanitation and health services, socio economic (livelihood assets and malnutrition. The purpose of this research was to study the linkages between socioeconomic and public health factors with the problem of underweight, stunted, and wasted in Indonesia.This research was conducted using cross-sectional study design, analyzed the 424 districts/cities in Indonesia. Data prevalence of underweight, stunted, wasted, level of education and public health factors (access to quality water, hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu, complete immunization coverage, incidence of diarrhea, and the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI obtained from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Socio-economic data (level of poverty and GDP/capita obtained from the Central Statistic Agency (BPS. Statistical test of Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression method were implemented to understand factors affecting underweight, stunted, wasted and correlation among variables. The study shows that factors affecting underweight were educational level, poverty level, hygiene behavior and use of Posyandu. While factors affecting stunted were GDP/capita, education level, poverty level, hygiene behavior, and utilization of Posyandu. Factors affecting wasted were hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu and complete immunization. Key words: underweight,   stunted,   wasted,   socioeconomic   factors,   public   health,                   eco-nutrition

  16. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  17. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shafii Bafti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activity of 178 soil actinomycete isolates was assayed against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyde and Hansen cause of root rot and fusarium wilt of greenhouse cucurbits in Kerman Province, southeast of Iran. From tested isolates, Streptomyces olivaceus (strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity revealed through screening and bioassays by agar disk and well-diffusion methods. The active strain was grown in submerged cultures for determination of growth curve and preparation of crude extract for further biological characterizations. Antifungal activity was fungistatic type on the pathogen mycelia. It is prominent that amending greenhouse soil mix with the S. olivaceus (strain 115 will reduce crop losses by the pathogen.

  18. The effect of cucurbit[7]uril on photophysical properties of aqueous solution of 3,3‧-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N. Kh.; Ivanov, D. A.; Golubkov, D. V.; Gromov, S. P.; Alfimov, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    Photophysical properties of aqueous solutions of 3,3'-diethyl-thiacarbocyanine iodide (DTCI) was studied in the presence of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) by means of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The addition of CB7 decreases the 550 nm peak of the DTCI absorption spectrum and concomitantly transforms the familiar shoulder at 510 nm into a pronounced peak; fluorescence was found to decay monoexponentially with a lifetime of 0.12 ns in aqueous DTCI solution without CB7 and 1.07 ns in the presence of CB7. The association constant of 1:1 complexes of DTCI with CB7 has been determined to be K = (2.8 ± 0.2) × 10 4 M -1. The Rullière model of photoisoomerisation of cyanines was used for explaining the main features of the effect observed.

  19. Unusual Complex Formation and Chemical Reaction of Haloacetate Anion on the Exterior Surface of Cucurbit[6]uril in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Su; Ko, Jae Yoon; Heo, Sung Woo; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Hugh I.

    2012-10-01

    Noncovalent interactions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with haloacetate and halide anions are investigated in the gas phase using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. Strong noncovalent interactions of monoiodoacetate, monobromoacetate, monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate on the exterior surface of CB[6] are observed in the negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectra. The strong binding energy of the complex allows intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which yields externally bound CB[6]-halide complex, by collisional activation. Utilizing ion mobility technique, structures of exteriorly bound CB[6] complexes of haloacetate and halide anions are confirmed. Theoretically determined low energy structures using density functional theory (DFT) further support results from ion mobility studies. The DFT calculation reveals that the binding energy and conformation of haloacetate on the CB[6] surface affect the efficiency of the intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which correlate well with the experimental observation.

  20. Cucurbit[n]uril-Based Microcapsules Self-Assembled within Microfluidic Droplets: A Versatile Approach for Supramolecular Architectures and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Lan, Yang; Yu, Ziyi; Tan, Cindy S Y; Parker, Richard M; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-02-21

    of development in the field of monodisperse supramolecular microcapsules, fabricated through the integration of traditional microfluidic techniques and interfacial host-guest chemistry, specifically cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-mediated host-guest interactions. Three different strategies, colloidal particle-driven assembly, interfacial condensation-driven assembly and electrostatic interaction-driven assembly, are classified and discussed in detail, presenting the methodology involved in each microcapsule formation process. We highlight the state-of-the-art in design and control over structural complexity with desirable functionality, as well as promising applications, such as cargo delivery stemming from the assembled microcapsules. On account of its dynamic nature, the CB[n]-mediated host-guest complexation has demonstrated efficient response toward various external stimuli such as UV light, pH change, redox chemistry, and competitive guests. Herein, we also demonstrate different microcapsule modalities, which are engineered with CB[n] host-guest chemistry and also can be disrupted with the aid of external stimuli, for triggered release of payloads. In addition to the overview of recent achievements and current limitations of these microcapsules, we finally summarize several perspectives on tunable cargo loading and triggered release, directions, and challenges for this technology, as well as possible strategies for further improvement, which will lead to substainitial progress of host-guest chemistry in supramolecular architectures and materials.

  1. Hubungan sosial ekonomi, pola asuh, pola makan dengan stunting pada siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Lut Tawar, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Aramico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: High prevalence of stunted children that indicates nutrition problem in Indonesia is a chronic problem associated with poverty, low education, and lack of service and environmental health. The low birth weight infant will have an impact on growth disorders in children.      Objectives: To identify association between social economic aspect of the family, rearing pattern, eating pattern and stunting in elementary school children in Lut Tawar Subditrict Central Aceh Regency.Methods: The study were analytic observational with cross sectional design and qualitative method. Data were obtained through observation and interview using questionnaire. Samples were 378 children from 11 elementary school in Lut Tawar Subdistrict Central Aceh Regency. Samples were selected by proportional random sampling. Analysis used chi-square at confi dence interval 95%. Number of samples were 378 children.Results: There were association between maternal education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=4.06; father education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=3.37; number of underfi ves with nutritional status (p=0.007 OR=2.71; income of parent and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=7.8; rearing pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=8.07; eating pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=6.01. There were dominant association between rearing pattern and nutritional status with OR 8, between eating patern,income of parent and nutritional status with OR of 6.01 There were no association between acces and utilization of health service and nutritional status (p=0,78 OR=0,93.Conclusions: There were signifi cant association between rearing pattern, eating pattern, and nutritional status.KEYWORDS: stunting, rearing pattern, eating patternABSTRAKLatar belakang: Tingginya prevalensi anak pendek yang menunjukkan masalah gizi di Indonesia merupakan masalah kronis yang berkaitan dengan kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, dan kurang memadainya pelayanan

  2. Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasne É.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (≤ 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

  3. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  4. 瓜菜类病原细菌耐药外排泵RND研究进展%Advances in RND-type multi-drug efflux pumps from cucurbit and veg-etable pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真; 赵廷昌; 杨玉文; 关巍; 胡俊

    2016-01-01

    近年来,瓜菜类作物病原细菌的耐药性日益增强,增加了瓜菜相关病害防治的难度。存在于瓜菜作物病原细菌中的外排泵耐药结节分化家族(RND)与细菌的耐药性及细菌/植物互作关系密切。笔者根据有关文献综述了RND外排泵的结构与功能、细菌/植物互作过程中外排泵的作用以及外排泵抑制剂(EPIS)的相关研究进展,为瓜类和蔬菜类作物病原细菌耐药性的研究提供参考。%In recent years, drug resistance of bacteria causing diseases on cucurbits and vegetables has been increasingly re⁃ported which caused huge difficluties in cucurbit and vegetable prevention. Resistance-nodulation-division family (RND) is one of the most important efflux pump family in cucurbit and vegetable pathogenic bacteria, which is closely related to bacte⁃ria multidrug resistance and interactions between pathogenic bacteria and plants. We describe structures and functions of RND efflux pumps, relationships between efflux pumps and bacterial/plant interactions as well as the relevant research of ef⁃flux pump inhibitors (EPIS). This review will provide references for further studies on drug resistance of cucurbit and vegeta⁃ble pathogenic bacteria.

  5. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y H Kim; K S Kim; N J Kwak; K H Lee; S A Kweon; Y Lim

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01 ± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.

  6. Zinc-iron, but not zinc-alone supplementation, increased linear growth of stunted infants with low haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Rumawas, Johanna S P; Utomo, Budi; Patmonodewo, Soemiarti; Schultink, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to benefit linear growth. However the effect may depend on whether zinc is the most limiting nutrient. This study aims to investigate the effect of supplementation with zinc-given alone or with iron and vitamin-A in improving infantsf micronutrient status and linear growth. The study was a double-blind-community-intervention study involving 800 infants aged 3-6 months in rural East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. Syrup consisting of zinc-alone, Zn (10 mg/d), zinc+iron, Zn+Fe (10 mg/d of each), zinc+iron+vitamin-A, Zn+Fe+vit.A (10 mg/d of each zinc and iron plus 1,000 IU vitamin-A), or placebo were given daily for six months. Outcomes measured were length, weight, and micronutrient status (haemoglobin, se-rum zinc, ferritin and retinol). Zn+Fe and Zn+Fe+vit.A supplementations benefit zinc and iron status of the sub-jects, while Zn-alone supplementation disadvantaged haemoglobin and iron status. The highest increment in vi-tamin A and haemoglobin status was shown in Zn+Fe+vit.A group. An effect on linear growth was observed among initially-stunted subjects in Zn+Fe and Zn+Fe+vit.A groups who grew 1.1-1.5 cm longer than placebo. On the other hand, in the Zn-alone group, mean height-for-age Z-score decreased to a greater extent than placebo. The between-group difference in HAZ among initially-stunted subjects was significant after four months sup-plementation. While the difference was not significant in follow-up after 6 months, the pattern remained the same where means height-for-age Z-score in Zn+Fe+vit.A and Zn+Fe groups were higher than placebo and Zn-alone groups. Given the low haemoglobin/iron status of the subjects, zinc supplementation would have positive effect on growth if the low haemoglobin/iron status is also addressed and corrected.

  7. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent.

  8. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  9. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low, poverty reduction must be accompanied by effective behavior change communication to prevent child stunting and to protect women from unhealthy weight gain.

  10. Stunting Is Associated with Food Diversity while Wasting with Food Insecurity among Underfive Children in East and West Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Motbainor

    Full Text Available Food insecurity has detrimental effects in protecting child undernutrition.This study sought to determine the level of child undernutrition and its association with food insecurity.A community based comparative cross-sectional study design involving multistage sampling technique was implemented from 24th of May to 20th of July 2013. Using two population proportion formula, a total of 4110 randomly selected households were included in the study. Availability of the productive safety net programme was used for grouping the study areas. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between food insecurity and child malnutrition. Clustering effects of localities were controlled during analysis.Stunting (37.5%, underweight (22.0% and wasting (17.1% were observed in East Gojjam zone, while 38.3% stunting, 22.5% underweight, and 18.6% wasting for the West Gojjam zone. Food insecurity was significantly associated with wasting (β = - 0.108, P < 0.05.Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day significantly associated with stunting (β = 0.039, P < 0.01 and underweight (β = 0.035, P < 0.05 respectively. Residential area was the significant predictor of all indices.The magnitude of child undernutrition was found to be very high in the study areas. Food insecurity was the significant determinant of wasting. Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day were the significant determinants of stunting and underweight respectively. Child nutrition intervention strategies should take into account food security, dietary diversity, and carefully specified with regard to residential locations. Addressing food insecurity is of paramount importance.

  11. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of meat compared with multimicronutrient-fortified cereal in infants and toddlers with high stunting rates in diverse settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F; Mazariegos, Manolo; Chomba, Elwyn; Sami, Neelofar; Pasha, Omrana; Tshefu, Antoinette; Carlo, Waldemar A; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bose, Carl L; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; McClure, Elizabeth M; Westcott, Jamie; Garces, Ana; Lokangaka, Adrien; Manasyan, Albert; Imenda, Edna; Hartwell, Tyler D; Hambidge, K Michael

    2012-10-01

    Improved complementary feeding is cited as a critical factor for reducing stunting. Consumption of meats has been advocated, but its efficacy in low-resource settings has not been tested. The objective was to test the hypothesis that daily intake of 30 to 45 g meat from 6 to 18 mo of age would result in greater linear growth velocity and improved micronutrient status in comparison with an equicaloric multimicronutrient-fortified cereal. This was a cluster randomized efficacy trial conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Guatemala, and Pakistan. Individual daily portions of study foods and education messages to enhance complementary feeding were delivered to participants. Blood tests were obtained at trial completion. A total of 532 (86.1%) and 530 (85.8%) participants from the meat and cereal arms, respectively, completed the study. Linear growth velocity did not differ between treatment groups: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.04) cm/mo for the meat and cereal groups, respectively (P = 0.39). From baseline to 18 mo, stunting [length-for-age z score (LAZ) deficiency was significantly lower in the cereal group. The high rate of stunting at baseline and the lack of effect of either the meat or multiple micronutrient-fortified cereal intervention to reverse its progression argue for multifaceted interventions beginning in the pre- and early postnatal periods.

  13. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Wasserman; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Poh Lian Lim

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivi...

  14. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano; Zouraide Guerra Antunes Costa; Daniel Garkauskas Ramos; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme; Marco Antônio Barreto de Almeida; Kátia Campomar Vettorello; Melissa Mascheretti; Brendan Flannery

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Yellow fever is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by mosquitos, endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. Large urban outbreaks of yellow fever have been eliminated in the Americas, where most yellow fever cases result from human exposure to jungle or forested environments. Vaccination is effective but carries a risk of potentially fatal adverse events in a small number of vaccinees. In a large country such as Brazil, vaccination is recommended only in area...

  15. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  16. Yellow nail syndrome following thoracic surgery: A new association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banta D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old man presented with the characteristic triad of yellow nail syndrome (chronic respiratory disorders, primary lymphedema and yellow nails in association with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Treatment with mechanical pleurodesis and vitamin E resulted in near complete resolution of the yellow nails, pleural effusions, and lower extremity edema. The etiology of the yellow nail syndrome has been described as an anatomical or functional lymphatic abnormality. Several conditions have previously been described as associated with this disease. This is the first report of the association of this syndrome with thoracic surgery.

  17. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  18. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  19. Breakdown of resistance in sweet pepper against Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Brazil Quebra da resistência em pimentão contra o Pepper yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gioria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Capsicum annuum cv. Magali R, resistant to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV, which showed severe yellow mosaic, leaf malformation and stunting were observed during the 2003/04 growing season in Lins, São Paulo State, Brazil. Potyvirus-like particles observed in leaf sap from infected plants under the electron microscope reacted with an antiserum against PepYMV in PTA-ELISA. In addition to C. annuum cv. Magali R, this potyvirus also infected systemically the resistant C. annuum cv. Rubia R. The nucleotide sequence of part of the CP gene of this potyvirus shared 96-98% identity with that of other PepYMV isolates. The partial nucleotide sequence of the 3' NTR showed 94-96% identity with that of PepYMV. These data indicate that this potyvirus is a resistance-breaking isolate of PepYMV.Plantas de Capsicum annuum cv. Magali R, resistentes ao Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV, exibindo sintomas severos de mosaico amarelo, malformação foliar e subdesenvolvimento foram encontradas em plantios na região de Lins, SP, Brasil, em 2003/04. Partículas semelhantes àquelas do gênero Potyvirus foram observadas em extrato foliar de planta infectada examinado em microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. O extrato foliar também reagiu com anti-soro contra o PepYMV em PTA-ELISA. Além de C. annuum cv. Magali R, esse potyvirus também infectou sistemicamente C. annuum cv. Rubia R, que é resistente ao PepYMV. A seqüência de nucleotídeos de parte do gene da proteína capsidial (CP desse potyvirus apresentou 96-98% de identidade com a de outros isolados do PepYMV. A seqüência parcial de nucleotídeos da região 3' não traduzida (3' NTR apresentou 94-96% de identidade com a do PepYMV. Esses resultados são indicativos de que o potyvirus que quebrou a resistência em pimentão é um isolado do PepYMV.

  20. Earlier introduction of aguitas is associated with higher risk of stunting in infants and toddlers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; van der Starre, Robine E; van Beusekom, Ilse; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-03-01

    In many cultures, simple herbal infusions, thin gruels, or sweetened water (agüitas in Guatemalan parlance) are given to infants and toddlers. Formative research has shown that the use of agüitas in early child feeding is deeply embedded in Guatemalan culture. We examined the prevalence and timing of the introduction of agüitas during early life in a low-income population of metropolitan Quetzaltenango in relation to stunting in children. Responses from 456 mothers of children aged 5-23 mo were analyzed by using logistic regression to explore relations between linear growth (stunting), diarrhea, and age at the first introduction of agüitas. A total of 358 of 456 infants (79%) were agüita users independent of sex or ethnicity. Of infants given agüitas, one-fourth of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 2.9 wk of age, and one-half of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 9 wk of age. Subjects introduced to agüitas before 2.9 wk of age were 1.8 times more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8; P = 0.03) irrespective of ethnicity. Children who had ever been given agüitas were twice as likely to have also had diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) and more likely to have needed medical attention for diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2), but diarrheal experience was independent of stunting. Because of the early introduction of agüitas and the high prevalence of stunting in Guatemala, longitudinal studies are urgently needed to clarify the causal relations. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial register as NTR3273 for 5-mo-olds and Nederlands Trial register as NTR3292 for infants ≥6 mo.

  1. Dot-Blot Hybridization for Detection of Five Cucurbit Viruses by Digoxigenin-Labelled cDNA Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan; GU Qin-sheng; LIN Shi-ming; PENG Bin; LIU Li-feng; TIAN Yan-ping; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    Dot-blot hybridization was applied in this paper to detect five viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops,Zuccini yellow mosaic virus(ZYMV),Watermelon mosaic virus(WMV),Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV),Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain(PRSV-W)and Squash mosaic virus(SqMV),as a good alternative assay in seed health test and epidemiological and transgenic research.Digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes of the five viruses were synthesized by PCR with the specific primers and applied in dot-blot hybridization to detect five viruses in crude extraction of the infected leaves.And three SqMV probes of different lengths(0.55,1.6,and 2.7 kb,respectively)were designed to investigate the effect of hybridization.The results showed that the sensitivity for detecting the crude extraction of infected leaves by ZYMV,WMV,CMV,PRSV-W,and SqMV was down to 1:160,1:160,1:320,1:160,and 1:320,respectively.Three SqMV probes of different length showed no differences on the sensitivity and specificity.The digoxigenin-labelled probes prepared by PCR could be used for accurate and rapid identification of 5 viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops with good stabilities,sensitivities,specificity,and reproducibilities.

  2. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  3. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  4. Aspergillus asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are differentially affected by transcriptional and translational mechanisms regulating stunted gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Miller, B L

    1997-10-01

    The Stunted protein (StuAp) is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate fungal development and cell cycle progression. Regulated stuA gene expression is required for correct cell pattern formation during asexual reproduction (conidiation) and for initiation of the sexual reproductive cycle in Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional initiation from two different promoters yields overlapping mRNAs (stuA alpha and stuAbeta) that upon translation yield the same protein. Here we show that multiple regulatory mechanisms interact to control (i) developmental competence-dependent expression of both transcripts and (ii) induction-dependent expression of stuA alpha, but not stuAbeta, by the conidiation-specific Bristle (BrlAp) transcriptional activator. Quantitative levels of both mRNAs are further modulated by (i) an activator(s) located at a far-upstream upstream activation sequence, (ii) feedback regulation by StuAp, and (iii) positive translational regulation that requires the peptide product of a micro-open reading frame unique to the stuA alpha mRNA 5' untranslated region. Gradients in stuA alpha expression were most important for correct cell and tissue type development. Threshold requirements were as follows: metula-phialide differentiation < ascosporogenesis < cleistothecial shell-Hülle cell differentiation. Altered stuA expression affected conidiophore morphology and conidial yields quantitatively but did not alter the temporal development of cell types or conidiophore density. By contrast, the sexual cycle showed both temporal delay and quantitative reduction in the number of cleistothecial initials but normal morphogenesis of tissue types.

  5. Biofortified yellow cassava and Vitamin A status of Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, Hans; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Maziya-Dixon, B.; Boy, Erick; Zimmermann, M.B.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas conventional white cassava roots are devoid of provitamin A, biofortified yellow varieties are naturally rich in b-carotene, the primary provitamin A carotenoid. Objective: We assessed the effect of consuming yellow cassava on serum retinol concentration in Kenyan schoolchildr

  6. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1973 Beeswax (yellow and white). (a) Beeswax (CAS.... Beeswax is prepared from honeycombs after removal of the honey by draining or centrifuging. The combs...

  7. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. below color grade cotton...

  8. Ups and Downs of the Yellow Phosphorus Market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Surplus capacity The rapid growth of the economy in China promoted drastic development of the yellow phosphorus sector from 1985 to 2004. The capacity of yellow phosphorus expanded rapidly from 100 000 t/a in 1985 to 1.2 million t/a in 2004 with an average annual growth of around 14.0%.

  9. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel....

  10. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph).

  11. pH Responsive Self-Assembly of Cucurbit[7]urils and Polystyrene-Block-Polyvinylpyridine Micelles for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem A. Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP polypseudorotaxanes with cucurbit[7]urils (CB[7] were prepared from water soluble PS-b-P4VPH+ polymer and CB[7] in aqueous solution at room temperature. At acidic and neutral pH, the pyridinium block of PS-b-P4VP is protonated (PS-b-P4VPH+ pushing CB[7] to preferably host the P4VP block. At basic pH (pH 8, P4VP is not charged and thus is not able to strongly complex CB[7]. This phenomenon was verified further by monitoring the release of pyrene, a hydrophobic cargo model, from a PS-b-P4VPH+/CB[7] micellar membrane. Release study of UV active pyrene from the membrane at different pH values revealed that the system is only operational under basic conditions and that the host-guest interaction of CB[7] with P4VPH+ significantly slows down cargo release.

  12. New dendrimers containing a single cobaltocenium unit covalently attached to the apical position of Newkome dendrons: electrochemistry and guest binding interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobransingh, David; Kaifer, Angel E

    2006-12-05

    Two new dendrimer series were prepared and characterized. These dendrimers contain a single bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) (cobaltocenium, Cob+) unit covalently attached to the apical (focal) position of Newkome-type dendrons, ranging in size from first to third generation. The dendrimers in the first series (1ECob+-3ECob+) are hydrophobic and have 3, 9, and 27 tert-butyl esters on their peripheries, whereas the dendrimers in the second series (1Cob+-3Cob+) are hydrophilic with 3, 9, and 27 carboxylic acid groups on their surfaces, respectively. In voltammetric experiments, all dendrimers showed the expected one-electron reversible reduction of the cobaltocenium center, and the heterogeneous rate of electron transfer decreased with generation in both dendrimer series. The host-guest binding interactions between water-soluble dendrimers 1Cob+-3Cob+ and the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) host were investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and electrochemical techniques. The association equilibrium constants (K) for all dendrimer guests were significantly lower than that measured for the inclusion complex between underivatized Cob+ and CB7 (K = 5.7 x 10(9) M(-1)). Nonetheless, among the three dendrimers surveyed, the second-generation dendrimer, 2Cob+, afforded optimum stabilization for the CB7 inclusion complex.

  13. Study of the counter anions in the host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril and 1-ethyl-1'-benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hailong; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Shiguo

    2013-01-01

    A series of 1-ethyl-1'-benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium compounds with different counter anions (BEV-X2, where the X is Cl, Br, I, PF6, ClO4) were synthesized. By using of NMR, MS, electrochemistry, Na2S2O4-induced redox chemistry, and UV-Vis, the role of the different counter anions in the host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) was studied for the first time. The result demonstrated that BEV-X2 can form a 1 : 1 host-guest complex with CB[8] in water. Theoretical calculation further suggested that the viologen region was threaded through the cavity of CB[8], while the corresponding counter anions were located outside the cavity. Some difference can be observed on UV-Vis titration and Na2S2O4-induced redox chemistry, which showed that the counter anions have some effect on the host-guest chemistry. All these provide new insights into CB[8] host-guest system.

  14. Preferential molecular encapsulation of an ICT fluorescence probe in the supramolecular cage of cucurbit[7]uril and β-cyclodextrin: an experimental and theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Anuva; Guchhait, Nikhil; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2014-11-20

    Supramolecular interaction between an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe, N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl-(acrylo)-nitrile (DMANAN), and two well-recognized macrocyclic hosts, cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), has been studied in aqueous medium by absorption, emission, time-resolved measurements, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods. The changes in the profiles of the fluorescence spectra illustrate significant modifications in fluorescence intensity, decay time, and quantum yield upon confinement of probe within the hydrophobic cavity of the hosts. Using the Benesi-Hildebrand relationship, the stoichiometric ratio as well as the binding constant of the host-guest complexation has been estimated. The stable inclusion complexes of the probe with different hosts have been supported by DFT and ONIOM based quantum chemical calculations. These methods of measurement establish that the acceptor group of the probe resides inside the hydrophobic cavity of the macrocycle. The competitive binding of metal ions and cationic surfactants to CB7 has been excellently mapped with this guest fluorosensor.

  15. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria.

  16. Cell Adhesion on RGD-Displaying Knottins with Varying Numbers of Tryptophan Amino Acids to Tune the Affinity for Assembly on Cucurbit[8]uril Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan; Cavatorta, Emanuela; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2017-09-05

    Cell adhesion is studied on multivalent knottins, displaying RGD ligands with a high affinity for integrin receptors, that are assembled on CB[8]-methylviologen-modified surfaces. The multivalency in the knottins stems from the number of tryptophan amino acid moieties, between 0 and 4, that can form a heteroternary complex with cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) and surface-tethered methylviologen (MV(2+)). The binding affinity of the knottins with CB[8] and MV(2+) surfaces was evaluated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Specific binding occurred, and the affinity increased with the valency of tryptophans on the knottin. Additionally, increased multilayer formation was observed, attributed to homoternary complex formation between tryptophan residues of different knottins and CB[8]. Thus, we were able to control the surface coverage of the knottins by valency and concentration. Cell experiments with mouse myoblast (C2C12) cells on the self-assembled knottin surfaces showed specific integrin recognition by the RGD-displaying knottins. Moreover, cells were observed to elongate more on the supramolecular knottin surfaces with a higher valency, and in addition, more pronounced focal adhesion formation was observed on the higher-valency knottin surfaces. We attribute this effect to the enhanced coverage and the enhanced affinity of the knottins in their interaction with the CB[8] surface. Collectively, these results are promising for the development of biomaterials including knottins via CB[8] ternary complexes for tunable interactions with cells.

  17. Host-guest complexes of a water soluble cucurbit[6]uril derivative with some dications of 1,ω-alkyldipyridines:~1H NMR and X-ray structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between a symmetrical tetramethyl-substituted cucurbit[6]uril (host:TMeQ[6]) and 1,ω-alkylenedipyridine (ω = 2,4,6,8,10) dicationic guests were investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. In these inclusion complexes,combined cavity and portal binding in TMeQ[6] were observed,and the length of the bridged alkylene was found to play an important role not only in balancing the overall hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction between the host and the guest,but also in defining the structure of the resulting inclusion complexes. For the guest 1,2-ethylenedipyridine (Edpy),TMeQ[6] includes a positively charged pyridine ring of Edpy to form an unsymmetrical inclusion complex; for the guest 1,4-butylenedipyridine (Bdpy),TMeQ[6] includes a positively charged pyridine ring of Bdpy,but the different competitive interactions in and between the related inclusion complexes could lead to a fast exchange between the hosts and guests. For the guests with longer bridge chains,such as 1,6-hexamethylenedipyridine (Hdpy) or 1,8-octylenedipyridine (Odpy),a stable pseudorotaxane inclusion complex is formed by combining the hydrophobic cavity and the outer portal dipoleion interactions. However,for 1,10-decatylenedipyridine (Ddpy),the two TMeQ[6] host molecules include the two end pyridine rings of Ddpy and form a dumbbell inclusion complex.

  18. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations.

  19. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  20. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  1. Increase in Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Symptom Severity in Tolerant Zucchini Cultivars Is Related to a Point Mutation in P3 Protein and Is Associated with a Loss of Relative Fitness on Susceptible Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Gal-On, A; Girard, M; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Lecoq, H

    2003-12-01

    ABSTRACT Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) is a very damaging cucurbit virus worldwide. Interspecific crosses with resistant Cucurbita moschata have led to the release of "resistant" zucchini squash (C. pepo) F(1) hybrids. However, although the resistance is almost complete in C. moschata, the commercial C. pepo hybrids are only tolerant. ZYMV evolution toward increased aggressiveness on tolerant hybrids was observed in the field and was obtained experimentally. Sequence comparisons and recombination experiments revealed that a point mutation in the P3 protein of ZYMV was enough to induce tolerance breaking. Competition experiments were performed between quasi-isogenic wild-type, and aggressive variants of ZYMV distinguished by monoclonal antibodies. The aggressive mutants were more fit than wild-type strains in mixed infections of tolerant zucchini, but they presented a drastic fitness loss in mixed infections of susceptible zucchini or melon. Thus, the ability to induce severe symptoms in tolerant zucchini is related to a genetic load in susceptible zucchini, but also on other susceptible hosts. This represents the first quantitative study of the fitness cost associated with tolerance breaking for a plant virus. Thus, although easily broken, the tolerance might prove durable in some conditions if the aggressive variants are counterselected in susceptible crops.

  2. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  3. Subchronic oral toxicity and analytical studies on nickel rutile yellow and chrome rutile yellow with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, E; Löser, E; Dornemann, A; Schilde, B

    1982-12-01

    The inorganic pigments nickel rutile yellow and chrome rutile yellow were fed to groups of 15 male and 15 female rats each for 3 months at dietary levels of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 ppm, respectively. On an additional 5 animals each, levels of nickel and antimony or chromium and antimony in liver and kidneys, respectively, were measured after 1 and 2 months. Appearance, behaviour, food consumption, growth, mortality, haematological and clinical chemical data, organ weights, and gross and micromorphology of organs were not affected in any dose group. In livers and kidneys antimony median levels below 30 ppb were detectable only in the group of rats fed the highest level of 10000 ppm of the two pigments.

  4. Biological pretreatment of Yellow River water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; TANG Xiao-yan; WU Wei-zhong; WEN Dong-hui; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-ceramic filter(BF) and moving-bed biofilm reactor(MBBR) were used for biological pretreatment of Yellow River water in this study. The BF only had slight advantage over MBBR for TOC and ammonia removal. However, like UV254, the average removal rate of THMFP in the BF was much higher than that in the MBBR. UV254 removal did not show obvious correlation with trihalomethane formation potential(THMFP) removal. Hexachlorocyclohexane could be effectively removed in both BF and MBBR. As for diatom and cyanobateria removal the MBBR had better performance than the BF, which was contrary to the average chlorophyll-a (Chi-a) removal rate. The proposal was made in this study that biological flocculation and sedimentation of sloughed biofilm should play a more important role on algae removal in the MBBR than in the BF. The BF and MBBR could effectively remove microcystins. Moreover, MBBR could be a promising technology for biological pretreatment.

  5. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  6. Yellow pseudochromhidrosis in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Surti, Nishit K; Diwan, Nilofar G; Gandhi, Shailee S

    2017-01-01

    Chromhidrosis is a rare disorder in which there is pigmentation of sweat in a variety of colors. It can be classified into apocrine, pseudoeccrine, and true eccrine chromhidrosis. Pseudochromhidrosis is a condition in which the excreted sweat is colorless, but later acquires color due to contact with chromogenic chemicals. Systemic and topical antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Although it does not constitute a major health issue, it causes psychological stress and social embarrassment. A 20-year-old female presented to us with yellow-colored sweat and discoloration of clothes since 1 month. Routine laboratory investigations were normal. Skin scrapings were negative for fungus and bacteria. Skin biopsy was also normal. She was labelled as a case of pseudochromhidrosis, and oral and topical antibiotics were prescribed, to which she responded well.

  7. The yellow-red-black bladder diary: red-yellow-black is not just for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Nancy Ann

    2009-12-01

    The Red-Yellow-Black (RYB) wound classification system was introduced to the US in the late 1980s for the purpose of simplifying wound assessment and guiding treatment. Although the color system was found to have limitations for wound care, the colors (in revised order) may be useful for a bladder diary. Colored pencils are used to record fluid intake and voided output. For fluid intake, yellow signifies nonirritants (water); red, low bladder irritants (alcoholic, artificially sweetened, carbonated, or citrus beverages); and black, high bladder irritants (caffeinated beverages). For voided output, yellow denotes continent voids and red, incontinent voids. Output quantity is measured using a commode "hat". The completed diary allows the practitioner to tabulate the colored daily rows and quickly assess progress weekly or monthly and provide appropriate treatment/advice. The YRB diary was used successfully by a 78-year old woman with urge incontinence without evidence of stress incontinence. Modifications to the YRB diary can be made when additional data need to be collected. Studies to evaluate optimal usage criteria of bladder diaries are needed.

  8. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  9. High-resolution mapping of zym, a recessive gene for Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masashi; Mochizuki, Akira; Kawagoe, Yumi; Iwahori, Keisuke; Niwa, Kaori; Svoboda, Jiri; Maeda, Takanori; Imura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Using a high-resolution mapping approach, we identified a candidate gene for ZYMV resistance in cucumber. Our findings should assist the development of high-versatility molecular markers for MAS for ZYMV resistance. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes significant disease, which leads to fruit yield loss in cucurbit crops. Since ZYMV resistance is often inherited recessively in cucumber, marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a useful tool for the development of resistant cucumber cultivars. Using 128 families of an F2:3 population derived from a cross between susceptible 'CS-PMR1' and resistant 'A192-18' cucumber inbred lines, we confirmed that ZYMV resistance is conferred by a single recessive locus: zym (A192-18) . We constructed a cucumber genetic linkage map that included 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into 7 linkage groups (chromosomes). The zym (A192-18) locus was mapped to chromosome 6, at genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.3 cM from two closely linked SSR markers. For high-resolution genetic mapping, we identified new molecular markers cosegregating with the zym (A192-18) locus; using cucumber genomic and molecular marker resources and screening an F2 population of 2,429 plants, we narrowed down the zym (A192-18) locus to a <50-kb genomic region flanked by two SSR markers, which included six candidate genes. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes' coding regions revealed that the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4-like (VPS4-like) gene had two SNPs between the parental lines. Based on SNPs of the VPS-4-like gene, we developed zym (A192-18) -linked DNA markers and found that genotypes associated with these markers were correlated with the ZYMV resistance phenotype in 48 cucumber inbred lines. According to our data, the gene encoding VPS4-like protein is a candidate for the zym (A192-18) locus. These results may be valuable for MAS for ZYMV resistance in cucumber.

  10. Cucurbit[6]uril Modified Silver on the Catalytic Oxidation Property of Dyes%六元瓜环修饰的银对染料的催化氧化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵安婷; 高丽; 罗娟

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit[6]uril modified silver was prepared by chemical reduction method using cucurbit[6] uril as the modifier and ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. And its catalytic performance in the oxidation of methylene blue and rhodamine B were studied. The results showed that the silver following the modification had special of clocklike morphology with a diameter of 2 µm when 0.4 mmol cucurbit[6]uril was used. Catalyzed by 0.02 g/L clocklike silver, more than 74.0% of rhodamine-B and 78.0%of methylene blue could be oxidized in 300 min with H2O2.%以六元瓜环(Q[6])为怱饰剂,抗坏血酸为还原剂,采用化学还原法制备了 Q[6]怱饰的银。用X射线粉末衍射、扫描电镜对产物进行结构和形貌表征,并研究了银催化氧化染料次甲基蓝和罗丹明B的性能。结果表明,怱饰剂Q[6]用量为0.4 mmol时,获得的银呈直径为2µm花团状结构,并且对罗丹明B和次甲基蓝具有较好的催化氧化效果,0.02 g/L花团状银在300 min内对罗丹明B和次甲基蓝的脱色率超过74.0%和78.0%。

  11. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  12. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  13. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  14. Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick; Roberfroid, Dominique; Tatala, Simon; Opsomer, Ann S; Van Camp, John H

    2005-09-01

    Infants in Tanzania are particularly vulnerable to under-nutrition during transition from breastmilk (as the only source of nourishment) to solid foods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Kilosa district in Tanzania to determine the feeding practices and the extent of wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia. The study was done in two stages: in the first stage, a 24-hour dietary assessment was conducted to identify the type of complementary foods given and the eating habits according to age for 378 children aged 3-23 months. In the second stage, a progressive recruitment of 309 infants aged six months was made to measure weight, length, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin concentration, and malaria parasitaemia. Birth-weight, the potential contributing factor to under-nutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia, was obtained from the children's clinic cards. The 24-hour dietary assessment revealed that children consumed mainly a thin porridge prepared from maize flour as complementary food. Carbohydrates contributed most energy (on average 69%), followed by fats (18.6%) and protein (on average 12.1%). The complementary food co-vered only 15%, 20%, and 27% of the recommended iron intake for children aged 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months respectively. The mean Hb concentration was 9.3 +/- 1.9 g/dL, 68% of the infants were moderately anaemic (7 or =11 g/dL). Equally, the mean zinc protoporphyrin concentration was 10.0 +/- 6.2 microg/g Hb, and 76% of the infants were iron-deficient (>5 microg/g Hb). The prevalence of stunting was 35%, while wasting was only 1.3%. Low birth-weight and low body mass index of mothers were the strong predictors of stunting, whereas low birth-weight and iron-deficiency were the strong predictors of anaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was high, affecting 50% of the infants. Having malaria was the only independent predictor associated with stunting, anaemia, and iron-deficiency. There is an urgent need to improve

  15. Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase.

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    Daniel Barajas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation.

  16. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: Solvent Yellow 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    10 in skin, and consequently, a decrease in its allergic potential. The USFDA has approved D&C Yellow No. 10 for use in a wider variety of products...perivascular lymphocyte aggregates (p < 0.001), alveolitis (p < 0.05), and mild rnd severe foreign-b,’dy reaction charac- torized by the presence of alveoli...No. 11 and simultaneous reaction to Quinoline Yellow. C Bj8rkner, B. and B. Niklasson. 1983. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and

  17. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

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    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  18. Fifty shades of yellow: a review of the xanthodermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John W; Murrell, Dédée F; Haber, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    The xanthodermatoses consist of a heterogeneous group of cutaneous disorders characterized by the macroscopic yellow hue seen on examination. This hue is attributable to the chemical structure of the accumulating substances within the skin or surrounding tissues. The most common culprits are lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), elastin, and bilirubin. Exogenous sources of yellow pigment include yellow dyes (including hennas) and metal salts. This article will focus on recognition of these entities, classified in terms of morphology and the site of initial eruption, in order to support the recognition and diagnosis of these widely variable conditions.

  19. In Vitro selectivity of an acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular container towards neuromuscular blocking agents relative to commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Shweta; Zavalij, Peter Y; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-01-28

    An acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) based molecular container (2, a.k.a. Calabadion 2) binds to both amino-steroidal and benzylisoquinolinium type neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in vitro, and reverses the effect of these drugs in vivo displaying faster recovery times than placebo and the γ-cyclodextrin (CD) based and clinically used reversal agent Sugammadex. In this study we have assessed the potential for other drugs commonly used during and after surgery (e.g. antibiotics, antihistamines, and antiarrhythmics) to interfere with the ability of 2 to bind NMBAs rocuronium and cisatracurium in vitro. We measured the binding affinities (Ka, M(-1)) of twenty seven commonly used drugs towards 2 and simulated the equilibrium between 2, NMBA, and drug based on their standard clinical dosages to calculate the equilibrium concentration of 2·NMBA in the presence of the various drugs. We found that none of the 27 drugs studied possess the combination of a high enough binding affinity with 2 and a high enough standard dosage to be able to promote the competitive dissociation (a.k.a. displacement interactions) of the 2·NMBA complex with the formation of the 2·drug complex. Finally, we used the simulations to explore how the potential for displacement interactions is affected by a number of factors including the Ka of the 2·NMBA complex, the Ka of the AChR·NMBA complex, the Ka of the 2·drug complex, and the dosage of the drug.

  20. A solid-phase microextraction coating of sol-gel-derived perhydroxy cucurbit[6]uril and its application on to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nan; Li, Tao; Luo, Yujie; Shao, Lin; Tao, Zhu; Zhu, Chun

    2016-10-28

    A novel solid-phase microextraction coating that contains perhydroxy cucurbit[6]uril((OH)12Q[6]) was prepared by a sol-gel method. (OH)12Q[6] was used as a starting coating material with hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (OH-PDMS) to bond chemically to a fused-silica substrate using 3-(2-cyclooxypropoxyl)propyltrimethoxysilane as cross-linking agent; hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions then led to the formation of a (OH)12Q[6]/PDMS-coating. The coating has a high thermal stability (360°C), long lifetime and can withstand organic and inorganic solvent rinsing because of the chemical binding between the coating and silica substrate. Its performance was tested by headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled with gas chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) compounds in water samples. The (OH)12Q[6]/PDMS-coated fiber exhibited higher enrichment factors from fourfold for naphthalene to tenfold for pyrene compared with commercial PDMS fiber, and the enrichment factors increased with the number of condensed PAH rings. The strong adsorption affinity is believed to be attributed to hydrogen bonding and CH⋯π interactions between PAHs and (OH)12Q[6], according to the results of quantum chemical calculations. In the PAH analysis, the (OH)12Q[6]-coated fiber showed a good repeatability (<4.7%) and reproducibility between fibers (<9.4%), low detection limits (0.03-0.15μgL(-1)), and a wide linearity (0.1-1000μgL(-1)) under optimized conditions. This method was used for the simultaneous determination of seven PAHs with satisfactory recoveries of 90.56%-107.4% for Huaxi river water samples and 90.23%-109.5% for local wastewater samples, respectively.

  1. Seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil para cucurbitáceas Selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl for cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida fluazifop-p-butil nas doses de 0, 94, 188, 376 e 752 g i.a. ha-1 para cinco espécies de cucurbitáceas (abobrinha, melancia, melão, moranga e pepino. Foi determinada a fitotoxicidade aos 14 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Aos 20 DAT foram avaliadas a estatura, área foliar e matéria seca. O melão e o pepino mostraram sensibilidade ao fluazifop-p-butil na maior dose estudada, com maior intensidade no melão. Os resultados demonstraram que existe resposta a estes herbicidas mesmo dentro da classe Dicotiledoneae. Especula-se que essas respostas possam auxiliar no entendimento do completo mecanismo de ação desse herbicida.Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide fluazifop-p-buthyl at rates of 0, 94, 188 and 752 g a.i. ha-1 for five cucurbitaceous species (summer squash, watermelon, melon, pumpkin and cucumber. Plant injury at 14 days after treatments (DAT and plant size, leaf area and dry weight at 20 DAT were determined. Melon and cucumber were susceptible to fluazifop-p-buthyl at the highest rate with highest herbicide effect being observed on melon. These results indicated that responses to these herbicides occur, even in the Dicotiledonae class. These responses are thought to help understand the overall mechanism of action of this herbicide.

  2. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  3. Separation performance of cucurbit[7]uril in ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating as stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong

    2014-12-05

    Here we report the separation performance of a new stationary phase of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) incorporated into an ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating (CB7-SG) for capillary gas chromatography (GC). The CB7-SG stationary phase showed an average polarity of 455, suggesting its polar nature. Abraham system constants revealed that its major interactions with analytes include H-bond basicity (a), dipole-dipole (s) and dispersive (l) interactions. The CB7-SG stationary phase achieved baseline separation for a wide range of analytes with symmetrical peak shapes and showed advantages over the conventional polar stationary phase that failed to resolve some critical analytes. Also, it exhibited different retention behaviors from the conventional stationary phase in terms of retention times and elution order. Most interestingly, in contrast to the conventional polar phase, the CB7-SG stationary phase exhibited longer retentions for analytes of lower polarity but relatively comparable retentions for polar analytes such as alcohols and phenols. The high resolving ability and unique retention behaviors of the CB7-SG stationary phase may stem from the comprehensive interactions of the aforementioned interactions and shape selectivity. Moreover, the CB7-SG column showed good peak shapes for analytes prone to peak tailing, good thermal stability up to 280°C and separation repeatability with RSD values in the range of 0.01-0.11% for intra-day, 0.04-0.41% for inter-day and 2.5-6.0% for column-to-column, respectively. As demonstrated, the proposed coating method can simultaneously address the solubility problem with CBs for the intended purpose and achieve outstanding GC separation performance.

  4. One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers of Lanthanide Cations to Cucurbit[7]uril Built Using a Range of Tetrachloride Transition-Metal Dianion Structure Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Feng Xue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of linear coordination polymers have been assembled from lanthanide cations (Ln3+ and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7] in the presence of [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions acting as inorganic structure inducers in HCl solution. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that they form three groups of isomorphous structures. Generally, the complexes of Q[7] with light lanthanide cations (those with atomic number below that of neodymium (Nd3+ are in one group. The other two groups, in which the lanthanide cation has atomic number greater than that of europium (Eu3+, seem to follow no obvious rule. For example, the complexes of Q[7] with Eu3+ and Gd3+cations are in the second group in the presence of [CuCl4]2− anions, while they are in the third group in the presence of [CoCl4]2− anions. However, whatever group a given complex belongs to, they all show a common honeycomb-patterned supramolecular assembly, in which [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions form a honeycomb structure. The Ln3+ cations then coordinate to neighboring Q[7] molecules to form 1D coordination polymers that are inserted into the channels of the honeycomb framework, such that each individual coordination polymer is surrounded by [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions.

  5. Population genomic analyses from low-coverage RAD-Seq data: a case study on the non-model cucurbit bottle gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Xu, Shizhong; Wu, Xiaohua; Tao, Ye; Wang, Baogen; Wang, Sha; Qin, Dehui; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2014-02-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq), a next-generation sequencing-based genome 'complexity reduction' protocol, has been useful in population genomics in species with a reference genome. However, the application of this protocol to natural populations of genomically underinvestigated species, particularly under low-to-medium sequencing depth, has not been well justified. In this study, a Bayesian method was developed for calling genotypes from an F₂ population of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] to construct a high-density genetic map. Low-depth genome shotgun sequencing allowed the assembly of scaffolds/contigs comprising approximately 50% of the estimated genome, of which 922 were anchored for identifying syntenic regions between species. RAD-Seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 80 accessions identified 3226 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), based on which two sub-gene pools were suggested for association with fruit shape. The two sub-gene pools were moderately differentiated, as reflected by the Hudson's F(ST) value of 0.14, and they represent regions on LG7 with strikingly elevated F(ST) values. Seven-fold reduction in heterozygosity and two times increase in LD (r²) were observed in the same region for the round-fruited sub-gene pool. Outlier test suggested the locus LX3405 on LG7 to be a candidate site under selection. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the cucumber genome region syntenic to the high FST island on LG7 harbors an ortholog of the tomato fruit shape gene OVATE. Our results point to a bright future of applying RAD-Seq to population genomic studies for non-model species even under low-to-medium sequencing efforts. The genomic resources provide valuable information for cucurbit genome research.

  6. Yield of varieties of Cucurbita pepo preimmunized with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Bonilha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown in a plastic greenhouse did not exhibit typical leaf symptoms or significant alterations in quantitative and qualitative fruit yield. However, when infected with PRSV-W-1, or PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, the plants exhibited severe leaf mosaic symptoms and reduced fruit quality, although there were no changes in the number and mean fruit weight harvested from these plants. When these plants were infected with PRSV-W-1 and studied simultaneously in the field and plastic greenhouse, intensification of symptoms in the fruits and leaves was more pronounced under the greenhouse conditions. Quantitative yield did not change. Environmental factors seem to influence symptoms induced by PRSV-W-1.O Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W e o Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV são os vírus predominantes em culturas de cucurbitáceas no Brasil, onde geralmente causam danos significativos na produção. As doenças causadas por ambos os vírus são de difícil controle. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin em condições de estufa plástica e de campo. Plantas infectadas com a estirpe ZYMV-M sob condições de estufa plástica não exibiram sintomas foliares típicos da doença e alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos produzidos. No entanto, quando infectadas com a estirpe PRSV-W-1, ou PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, as plantas

  7. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  8. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  9. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  10. The Yellow and Red Supergiants of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Drout, Maria R; Meynet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Yellow and red supergiants are evolved massive stars whose numbers and locations on the HR diagram can provide a stringent test for models of massive star evolution. Previous studies have found large discrepancies between the relative number of yellow supergiants observed as a function of mass and those predicted by evolutionary models, while a disagreement between the predicted and observed locations of red supergiants on the HR diagram was only recently resolved. Here we extend these studies by examining the yellow and red supergiant populations of M33. Unfortunately, identifying these stars is difficult as this portion of the color-magnitude diagram is heavily contaminated by foreground dwarfs. We identify the red supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and a two-color surface gravity discriminant and, after re-characterizing the rotation curve of M33 with our newly selected red supergiants, we identify the yellow supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and the strength of the...

  11. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase...

  12. Development of yellow birch nursery stock not affected by transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1959-01-01

    In nursery seedbeds, severe root competition soon develops among seedlings of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). This is due to the characteristic root system of the species - wide-spreading lateral growth with little downward penetration (fig. 1).

  13. Distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Yellow Sea sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Hyeon Ho; LIM Dhongil; PARK Soung-Yun; HEO Seung; KIM So-Young

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the distribution, abundance, and species composition of dinoflagellate cysts in the Yellow Sea, surface sediment samples were collected at 37 sites, including the Korean dump site. Twenty-one di-noflagellate cyst taxa were identified, with the assemblages dominated mainly by Spiniferites bulloideus, Operculodinium centrocarpum, and cyst of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense type. A high frequency of O. centrocarpum in the Yellow Sea was observed for the first time, and it is likely that this can be attributed to the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and the Changjiang (Yangtze) River runoff. Total cyst concentrations ranged from 23 to 48 442 cysts/g dry weight, and high cyst concentrations were recorded adjacent to the dumping site. This result suggests that anthropogenic activities such as ocean dumping s-timulate the growth of dinoflagellates in the Yellow Sea, which in turn leads to high levels of dinoflagellate cyst production.

  14. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow-flag iris is an escaped ornamental rhizomatous perennial herb that forms dense vegetative mats in riparian and wetland areas. These mats can displace most...

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of yellow pitahaya treated with 1-MCP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Sofia Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Adolfo Ayala-Aponte; Liliana Serna

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of 1-MCP on the viscoelastic properties of minimally processed yellow pitahaya during refrigeration storage, by using a stress relaxation test...

  16. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  17. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stunting, underweight, and overweight among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years in two major governorates in the West Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awartani Faisal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about height and weight status of Palestinian adolescents. The objective of this paper was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight/obesity among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years and associated sociodemographic factors in 2 major governorates in the West Bank. Methods A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 comprising 1942 students in 65 schools in Ramallah and Hebron governorates. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from students and parents. Weights and heights were measured. Overweight and obesity were assessed using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reference and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Stunting and underweight were assessed using the 2000 CDC reference. Results Overweight/obesity was more prevalent in Ramallah than in Hebron and affected more girls than boys. Using the 2000 CDC reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Ramallah among boys was 9.6% and 8.2%, respectively versus 15.6% and 6.0% among girls (P Conclusion Under- and overnutrition co-exist among Palestinian adolescents, with differences between sexes. Region, residence, STL, and onset of puberty were associated factors.

  18. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  1. Purification of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisoni, E; Milne, R G; Vecchiati, M

    1995-07-01

    Attempts were made to find a good purification procedure for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a dangerous and continuously spreading whitefly-transmitted germinivirus, up to now only partially purified. Electron microscopy, serology and spectrophotometry were used to evaluate different procedures. The scheme finally adopted was the following: collect leaves and stems from Nicotiana benthamiana graft-infected 45-60 days previously (5-10 g/plant); homogenize with 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 6 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA, 10 mM Na2SO3, 0.1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Driselase (3-4 ml of buffer for each g of material); incubate overnight on ice with gentle agitation; filter; emulsify with 15% cold chloroform; centrifuge at low speed; ultracentrifuge supernatant; resuspend pellets in 0.5 M phosphate buffer pH 7 containing 2.5 mM NaEDTA; centrifuge at low speed; repeat resuspension of the pellets and low-speed centrifugation; ultracentrifuge the pooled supernatant on a Cs2SO4 gradient (e.g. for 5 h at 41,000 rpm); collect the virus band and dialyse or ultracentrifuge the virus. The virus yield was 5-10 mg per kg of tissue.

  2. The pulsating yellow supergiant V810 Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Burnet, M; Meynet, G

    1998-01-01

    The F8Ia supergiant V810 Centauri is part of a long-term high-precision photometric monitoring program on long period variables started twenty years ago. Time series analysis of this unique set of 500 data points, spanning almost fifteen years in the homogeneous Geneva photometric system, is presented. Cluster membership, physical parameters and evolutionary status of the star are reinvestigated. Radial velocity data do not support the cluster membership to Stock 14}. Ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry is combined with optical and infrared photometry to evaluate the physical parameters of the yellow supergiant (Teff = 5970 K, M_bol = -8.5, R = 420 R_sun) and of its B0III companion. From theoretical stellar evolutionary tracks, an initial mass of 25 M_sun is estimated for V810 Cen, which is actually at the end of its first redward evolution. V810 Cen is a multi-periodic small amplitude variable star, whose amplitudes are variable with time. The period of the main mode, 156 d, is in agreement with the Pe...

  3. Global Warming May Trigger Water Crisis in Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The temperature of the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the second longest river in China,is clearly related to the worldwide warming trend, according to a study conducted by CAS researchers and their colleagues from Administration of Hydrology and Water Resources of the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River. They warn that, due to the possible temperature hike and drastic decline in local precipitation, the runoff in the reaches may face a trend of continued decrease over the next decade.

  4. [Studies on rejected food yellow no. 5 (sunset yellow FCF) aluminum lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, S; Umino, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2001-01-01

    One out of two sunset yellow FCF aluminum lakes (Y-5Als) did not comply with the specifications in JSFA-VII in the official inspection of tar colors in fiscal year 2000. A sub-spot was detected in the paper chromatography test. This rejected sample was analyzed by HPLC for the subsidiary color, raw materials and intermEdiates in Y-5. The sub-spot was identified as sulfanilic acid azo R salt color, and its content was estimated at 4.5% as the content of Y-5 in Y-5Al being 100.0%.

  5. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a resistant vs. susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar in response to infection by tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzi Chen

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV threatens tomato production worldwide by causing leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting and flower abscission. The current understanding of the host plant defense response to this virus is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to TYLCV infection in the TYLCV-resistant tomato breeding line CLN2777A (R and TYLCV-susceptible tomato breeding line TMXA48-4-0 (S. The mixed inoculated samples from 3, 5 and 7 day post inoculation (dpi were compared to non-inoculated samples at 0 dpi. Of the total of 34831 mapped transcripts, 209 and 809 genes were differentially expressed in the R and S tomato line, respectively. The proportion of up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the R tomato line (58.37% was higher than that in the S line (9.17%. Gene ontology (GO analyses revealed that similar GO terms existed in both DEGs of R and S lines; however, some sets of defense related genes and their expression levels were not similar between the two tomato lines. Genes encoding for WRKY transcriptional factors, R genes, protein kinases and receptor (-like kinases which were identified as down-regulated DEGs in the S line were up-regulated or not differentially expressed in the R line. The up-regulated DEGs in the R tomato line revealed the defense response of tomato to TYLCV infection was characterized by the induction and regulation of a series of genes involved in cell wall reorganization, transcriptional regulation, defense response, ubiquitination, metabolite synthesis and so on. The present study provides insights into various reactions underlining the successful establishment of resistance to TYLCV in the R tomato line, and helps in the identification of important defense-related genes in tomato for TYLCV disease management.

  6. Comparative Analyses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 Protein-Interacting Host Proteins in Healthy and Infected Tomato Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namgyu Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response. In this study, through yeast-two hybrid screenings, we identified TYLCV C4-interacting host proteins from both healthy and symptom-exhibiting tomato tissues, to determine the role of TYLCV C4 proteins in the infection processes. Comparative analyses of 28 proteins from healthy tissues and 36 from infected tissues showing interactions with TYLCV C4 indicated that TYLCV C4 mainly interacts with host proteins involved in translation, ubiquitination, and plant defense, and most interacting proteins differed between the two tissues but belong to similar molecular functional categories. Four proteins—two ribosomal proteins, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and 14-3-3 family protein—were detected in both tissues. Furthermore, the identified proteins in symptom-exhibiting tissues showed greater involvement in plant defenses. Some are key regulators, such as receptor-like kinases and pathogenesis-related proteins, of plant defenses. Thus, TYLCV C4 may contribute to the suppression of host defense during TYLCV infection and be involved in ubiquitination for viral infection.

  7. Community structure changes of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junlong; XU Fengshan; LIU Ruiyu

    2012-01-01

    The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms.In this study,data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in community structure.The agglomerative classification (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods were applied.Five communities were recognized by cluster analysis:1.The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass community dominated by cold water species,which changed slightly in species composition since the 1950s; 2.The mixed community with the coexistence of cold water species and warm water species,as had been reported previously; 3.The polychaete-dominated eurythermal community in which the composition changed considerably as some dominant species disappeared or decreased; 4.The Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuarine community,with some typical estuarine species; 5.The community affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.The greatest change occurred in the coastal area,which indicated that the change may be caused by human activities.Macrobenthos in the central region remained almost unchanged,particularly the cold water species shielded by the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass.The depth,temperature and median grain size of sediments were important factors affecting the distributions of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  8. [Trends in yellow fever mortality in Colombia, 1998-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Ángela María; Cardona, Doris; Garzón, María Osley

    2013-09-01

    Yellow fever is a neglected tropical disease, thus, knowing the trends in mortality from this disease in Colombia is an important source of information for decision making and identifying public health interventions. To analyze trends in yellow fever mortality in Colombia during the 1998-2009 period and the differences in the morbidity and mortality information sources for the country, which affect indicators such as the lethality one. This is a descriptive study of deaths by yellow fever according to the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística and the incidence of the disease according to the Instituto Nacional de Salud . We used secondary sources of information in the calculation of proportions of socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased and epidemiological measures of lethality, incidence and mortality from yellow fever by department of residence of the deceased. Yellow fever deaths occur primarily in men of working age residing in scattered rural areas, who were members of the regimen vinculado, and who were living in the eastern, southeastern, northern and central zones in the country. We observed inconsistencies in the reports that affect the comparative analysis. The inhabitants of the departments located in national territories and Norte de Santander have an increased risk of illness and death from yellow fever, but this information could be underestimated, according to the source of information used for its calculation.

  9. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  10. Relocation of the Yellow River estuary in 1855 AD recorded in the sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jia, Nan; Cheng, Wenhan; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Liguang

    2013-12-01

    Relocation of the Yellow River estuary has significant impacts on not only terrestrial environment and human activities, but also sedimentary and ecological environments in coastal seas. The responses of regional geochemical characteristics to the relocation event, however, have not been well studied. In the present study, we performed detailed geochemical elemental analyses of a sediment core from the northern Yellow Sea and studied their geochemical responses to the 1855 AD relocation of the Yellow River estuary. The results show that TOC/TN, Co/Al2O3, Cr/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Se/Al2O3 ratios all decreased abruptly after 1855 AD, and similar decreases are observed in the sediments of the mud area southwest off the Cheju Island. These abrupt changes are very likely caused by the changes in source materials due to the relocation of the Yellow River estuary from the southern Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea, which the corresponding decreasing trends caused by the changes in main source materials from those transported by the Liaohe River, the Haihe River and the Luanhe River to those by the Yellow River. Because the events have precise ages recorded in historical archives, these obvious changes in elemental geochemistry of sediments can be used to calibrate age models of related coastal sea sediments.

  11. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  12. COEXISTENCE YELLOW NAIL SYNDROME WITH SYSTEMIC SYMPTOMS - PRESENTATION OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nail changes can accompany many systemic diseases and very often indicate the ongoing systemic process of illness. The yellow nail syndrome (YNS is very rare clinical entity characterized by marked thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of the nails. Congenitally hypoplastic lymphostasis plays a major role in the clinical manifestation of that disease. Syndrome includes pleural effusions, lymphedema and yellow dystrophic nails. The pathogenesis stays still unknown.Aim: Presentation the coexistence of YNS with the systemic symptoms by analyzing cases of 3 patients.Material and methods: The analysis involved 3 patients with YNS (2 women and 1 man aged from 43 to 48 years.Results: We confirmed 3 cases of YNS, with the characteristic nails changes (yellow-greenish discoloration, absence of lunula, etc.. None of the patients had a family history of YNS. All suffered from chronic diseases: the first patient suffered from lymphedema and diabetes mellitus, second - from rheumatoid arthritis and the third complained of a chronic caught and sinusitis. All YNS`s symptoms occurred in the patients` forties. We observed fingers and toes involvement on 7-8 nails in each patient.Conclusions: The YNS offen associated with systemic disease, most commonly lymphedema and bronchiectasis. However, the literature describes some connections with carcinoma and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, each patient with YNS should be examined for cancer detection and stay under periodic medical control.

  13. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photosynthesis and Yellow Vine Syndrome of American Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. M. Hou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. contains rich antioxidants and has significant health benefits in fighting a variety of human diseases. In the past ten years, cranberry growers have reported yellow vine syndrome, which is associated with reduced photosynthetic performance, in the cranberry bogs. It has been found that the yellow vine syndrome of cranberry is associated with nutritional imbalance; it might be an issue for cranberry quality and food security as well as the crop production. This review evaluates the present state of knowledge of yellow vine syndrome, together with recent advances that are resulting from an improved mechanistic understanding and a possible solution that will be of considerable value to cranberry growers. This review also includes results from the author’s own laboratory. Water stress, nutritional imbalance, and photoinhibition are the likely reasons for producing yellow vine of cranberry. Future endeavors should be placed on the combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical techniques at the molecular level and plant physiology at the field and greenhouse level. This may provide specific information in order to understand the molecular details of yellow vine of cranberry as well as a tool for guiding future breeding efforts and management practices.

  15. Sediment transportation and bed morphology reshaping in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta supports the ecological function as a typical estuarine foreshore wetland. The wetland area is changing greatly every year because of sediment deposition and erosion, which influences the wetland function tremendously. Application of environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) to the Yellow River Delta is on the basis of the mobile bed dynamic model and wetting-drying process. Careful calibration is carried out for the numerical model which is set up for the Yellow River Delta, the sediment transport process of the model is compatible to the Yellow River situation. The simulated bed elevation by considering the sediment deposition in the Mouth is particularly focused on, the numerical results are in agreement with the measured bed morphology within 1992 2000. Simulation in this paper indicates that most of the sediment deposited just out of the Mouth which makes the mouth move forward into the sea 2.5 km per year. This paper presents good results in simulation of varying sediment deposition and provides further methods to predict the future morphology and area of the Yellow River Delta.

  16. Yellow and Red Supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Neugent, Kathryn F; Skiff, Brian; Meynet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Due to their transitionary nature, yellow supergiants provide a critical challenge for evolutionary modeling. Previous studies within M31 and the SMC show that the Geneva evolutionary models do a poor job at predicting the lifetimes of these short-lived stars. Here we extend this study to the LMC while also investigating the galaxy's red supergiant content. This task is complicated by contamination by Galactic foreground stars that color and magnitude criteria alone cannot weed out. Therefore, we use proper motions and the LMC's large systemic radial velocity (\\sim278 km/s) to separate out these foreground dwarfs. After observing nearly 2,000 stars, we identified 317 probable yellow supergiants, 6 possible yellow supergiants and 505 probable red supergiants. Foreground contamination of our yellow supergiant sample was \\sim80%, while that of the the red supergiant sample was only 3%. By placing the yellow supergiants on the H-R diagram and comparing them against the evolutionary tracks, we find that new Geneva...

  17. Overweight is more prevalent than stunting and is associated with socioeconomic status, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern in school children from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Baylin, Ana; Arsenault, Joanne E; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight in school-aged children from Bogotá, Colombia and to examine its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and indicators of physical activity. We measured height and weight in 3075 children between 5 and 12 y of age who attended public primary schools in 2006 and we obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. The survey was representative of children from low and middle socioeconomic backgrounds. The prevalences of child overweight (including obesity) and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria were 11.1 and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 9.8%. In multivariate analysis, child overweight was positively associated with indicators of higher socioeconomic status (SES), including low maternal parity and ownership of household assets. The prevalence of overweight was 3.6 times greater in children whose mothers were obese compared with children whose mothers had an adequate BMI (adjusted prevalence ratio = 3.61; 95% CI = 2.64, 4.93). Child overweight was positively associated with adherence to a "snacking" dietary pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and to frequent intake of hamburgers or hot dogs (adjusted prevalence ratio for at least once per week vs. never = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.62), independent of total energy intake and other potential confounders. Time spent viewing television or playing outside the household were not significantly related to the prevalence of child overweight. In conclusion, child overweight in Bogotá is more common than stunting and is associated with higher SES, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern.

  18. REGULATION OF FLOW AND SEDIMENT LOAD IN THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Jixiang LIU; Zhanwei WAN

    2007-01-01

    Small runoff, large sediment load, and incompatible relationship of flow and sediment load are very important characteristics of the Yellow River. They are also the crux of the most prominent problems of the Yellow River. To solve these problems, the regimes of flow and sediment load have to be improved by increasing water, reducing sediment load, and by using reservoirs to regulate flow and sediment load. The results of experiments for regulating the flow and sediment load in the last three years by the Xiaolangdi Reservoir have indicated that this measure is a realistic and effective way to mitigate the prominent problems in flood control of the Lower Yellow River at present and in the near future. However, the regulation system is still imperfect. It is advisable to speed up the pace of research and construction of the system for regulating flow and sediment load.

  19. Evaluation of the Yellow IRIS. An automated method for urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C E; Carlson, D A; Daigneault, R W; Statland, B E

    1986-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Yellow IRIS automated urinalysis instrument (International Remote Imaging Systems, Chatsworth, CA 91311) in terms of its analytic performance as well as its ease of use. The Yellow IRIS is a system using automated intelligence microscopy (AIM), coupled with a dipstick reader and specific gravity module. The instrument can handle up to 30 specimens per hour in the authors' setting as compared with 10 specimens per hour using a full manual urinalysis coupled with microscopic examination. The authors conclude that the Yellow IRIS performed better than the manual method in terms of precision, linearity, and throughput. In addition, the diagnostic yield using this system in terms of abnormal results was higher than would have been picked up by manual analysis alone.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.